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Encyclopedia > Chicken
For the article on the human consumption of chicken, see Chicken (food).
Wikipedia:How to read a taxobox
How to read a taxobox
A Rhode Island Red
A Rhode Island Red
Conservation status
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Galliformes
Family: Phasianidae
Genus: Gallus
Species: G. gallus
Subspecies: G. g. domesticus
Trinomial name
Gallus gallus domesticus


Chicken can mean: Chicken (bird) Chicken, Alaska Chicken (game) Chicken (language) Chicken (short film) Chicken (zodiac) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... For other uses, see Chicken (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (916x814, 134 KB) This picture of a Rhone Island Red chicken was taken by me and edited (cropped) by me. ... The conservation status of a species is an indicator of the likelihood of that species continuing to survive either in the present day or the future. ... Scientific classification or biological classification is a method by which biologists group and categorize species of organisms. ... Digimon, the only known animals. ... Typical Classes See below Chordates (phylum Chordata) are a group of animals that includes the vertebrates, together with several closely related invertebrates. ... “Aves” redirects here. ... Families Megapodidae Numididae Odontophoridae Phasianidae Meleagrididae Tetraonidae Cracidae Mesitornithidae The Galliformes is an order of birds containing the turkeys, grouse, quails and pheasants. ... The Phasianidae is a family of birds which consists of the pheasants and their allies. ... Species Gallus gallus Gallus lafayetii Gallus sonneratii Gallus varius The Junglefowl are a group of four species of bird in the pheasant family which occur in India, Sri Lanka and south east Asia. ... Binomial name Gallus gallus Linnaeus, 1758 Red Junglefowl range The Red Junglefowl, Gallus gallus is a tropical member of the Pheasant family and the direct ancestor of the domestic chicken. ... Trinomial nomenclature is a taxonomic naming system that extends the standard system of binomial nomenclature by adding a third taxon. ...

General biology and habitat

Chicken eggs vary in color depending on the hen, typically ranging from bright white to shades of brown and even blue, green, and recently reported purple (found in South Asia) (Araucana varieties).
Chicken eggs vary in color depending on the hen, typically ranging from bright white to shades of brown and even blue, green, and recently reported purple (found in South Asia) (Araucana varieties).
Rooster crowing during daylight hours
Rooster crowing during daylight hours

Male chickens are known as roosters (in the U.S., Canada and Australia), cocks, or bollocks if they are young. Castrated roosters are called capons. Female chickens are known as hens, or 'chooks' in Australian English. Young females are known as pullets. Roosters can usually be differentiated from hens by their striking plumage, marked by long flowing tails and bright pointed feathers on their necks. Free range chicken eggs File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Free range chicken eggs File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... An egg is an ovum produced by a female animal for reproduction, often prepared as food. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1600x1067, 180 KB) Rooster Crowing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Rooster Chicken ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1600x1067, 180 KB) Rooster Crowing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Rooster Chicken ... A rooster or cock is a male chicken, the female being a hen. ... A capon, soon to be roasted for a Christmas dinner. ... A pullet is a young chicken, more specifically a hen at least 20-weeks-old which has begun to lay eggs but has not yet moulted. ...

However, in some breeds, such as the Sebright, the cock only has slightly pointed neck feathers, and the identification must be made by looking at the comb. Chickens have a fleshy crest on their heads called a comb or cockscomb, and a fleshy piece of hanging skin under their beak called a wattle. These organs help to cool the bird by redirecting blood flow to the skin. Both the male and female have distinctive wattles and combs. In males, the combs are often more prominent, though this is not the case in all varieties. Species L. (silver cockscomb) L. (crested cockscomb) Vahl (West Indian cockscomb) S. Wats. ... A wattle is a fleshy growth or caruncle hanging from various parts of the head in several groups of birds, including: From the neck or throat Galliformes: Domestic chickens, turkeys, and others Some Vultures Some lapwings The Australian Wattlebirds (Anthochaera ) The New Zealand Wattlebirds (Callaeidae), which include the Kokako, Tieke...

Domestic chickens are typically fed commercially prepared feed that includes a protein source as well as grains. Chickens often scratch at the soil to get at adult insects and larvae or seed. Incidents of cannibalism can occur when a curious bird pecks at a preexisting wound or during fighting (even among female birds). This is exacerbated in close quarters. In commercial egg and meat production this is controlled by trimming the beak (removal of ⅔ of the top half and occasionally ⅓ of the lower half of the beak). A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... This article is about cereals in general. ... This article is about consuming ones own species. ...

Domestic chickens are not capable of long distance flight, although they are generally capable of flying for short distances such as over fences. Chickens will sometimes fly to explore their surroundings, but usually only to flee perceived danger. Because of flight risk, chickens raised in open-air pens generally have one of their wings clipped by the breeder — the tips of the longest feathers on one of the wings are cut, resulting in unbalanced flight which the bird cannot sustain for more than a few meters (more on wing clipping).

Chickens are gregarious birds and live together as a flock. They have a communal approach to the incubation of eggs and raising of young. Individual chickens in a flock will dominate others, establishing a "pecking order," with dominant individuals having priority for access to food and nesting locations. Removing hens or roosters from a flock causes a temporary disruption to this social order until a new pecking order is established. A herd of Wildebeest A gaggle of Canada geese For other uses, see Herd (disambiguation). ... The word incubate in the context of birds refers to the development of the chick (embryo) within the egg and the constant temperature required for the development of it over a specific period. ... A hierarchy (in Greek hieros = sacred, arkho = rule) is a system of ranking and organizing things. ...

Chickens will try to lay in nests that already contain eggs, and have been known to move eggs from neighbouring nests into their own. Some farmers use fake eggs made from plastic or stone to encourage hens to lay in a particular location. The result of this behavior is that a flock will use only a few preferred locations, rather than having a different nest for every bird.

Hens can also be extremely stubborn about always laying in the same location. It is not unknown for two (or more) hens to try to share the same nest at the same time. If the nest is small, or one of the hens is particularly determined, this may result in chickens trying to lay on top of each other.

Contrary to popular belief, roosters do not crow only at dawn, but may crow at any time of the day or night. Their crowing - a loud and sometimes shrill call - is a territorial signal to other roosters. However, crowing may also result from sudden disturbances within their surroundings.

Recent studies [1] have shown that chickens (and possibly other bird species) still retain the genetic blueprints to produce teeth in the jaws, although these are dormant in living animals. These are a holdover from primitive birds such as Archaeopteryx, which were descended from theropod dinosaurs. Binomial name Archaeopteryx lithographica Meyer, 1861 Synonyms see text Archaeopteryx (from Ancient Greek αρχαιος archaios meaning ancient and πτερυξ pteryx meaning feather or wing;[1] pronounced ), from the late Jurassic Period (Kimmeridgian stage, 155-150 million years ago) of what is now Germany, is the earliest and most primitive known avian. ... Subdivisions ?Eoraptor Herrerasauria Coelophysoidea Ceratosauria Cryolophosaurus Spinosauridae Carnosauria Coelurosauria Theropods (beast foot) are a group of bipedal saurischian dinosaurs. ... Orders & Suborders Saurischia Sauropodomorpha Theropoda Ornithischia Thyreophora Ornithopoda Marginocephalia Dinosaurs were vertebrate animals that dominated the terrestrial ecosystem for over 160 million years, first appearing approximately 230 million years ago. ...


When a rooster finds food he may call the other chickens to eat it first. He does this by clucking in a high pitch as well as picking up and dropping the food. This behavior can also be observed in mother hens, calling their chicks. In some cases the rooster will drag the wing opposite the hen on the ground, while circling her. This is part of chicken courting ritual. When a hen is used to coming to his "call" the rooster may mount the hen and proceed with the fertilization.

Artificial incubation

Chicken egg incubation can successfully occur artificially as well. Nearly all chicken eggs will hatch after 21 days of good conditions - 99.5 °F (37.5°C) and around 55% relative humidity (increase to 70% in the last three days of incubation to help soften egg shell). Many commercial incubators are industrial-sized with shelves holding tens of thousands of eggs at a time, with rotation of the eggs a fully automated process. Fahrenheit is a temperature scale named after the German physicist Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit (1686–1736), who proposed it in 1724. ... Celsius is, or relates to, the Celsius temperature scale (previously known as the centigrade scale). ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...

Home incubators are usually small boxes (styrofoam incubators are popular) and hold a few to 50 eggs. Eggs must be turned three to five times each day, rotating at least 90 degrees. If eggs aren't turned, the embryo inside will stick to the shell and likely will be hatched with physical defects. This process is natural; hens will stand up three to five times a day and shift the eggs around with their beak. Styrofoam is a trademark name for extruded polystyrene thermal insulation material, manufactured by Dow Chemical Company. ... It has been suggested that embryology be merged into this article or section. ... The beak—otherwise known as the bill or rostrum—is an external anatomical structure which serves as the mouth in some animals. ...

Chickens as food

Roast Chicken
Roast Chicken
Main article: Chicken (food)

The meat of the chicken, also called "chicken," is a type of poultry. Because of its relatively low cost among meats, chicken is one of the most used meats in the world. Nearly all parts of the bird can be used for food, and the meat is cooked in many different ways around the world. Popular chicken dishes include fried chicken, chicken soup, marinated chicken wings, tandoori chicken, butter chicken, and chicken rice. Chicken is also a staple of fast food restaurants such as KFC (most products), McDonald's (chicken sandwiches, chicken nuggets) and Burger King. Chicken has a fairly neutral flavour and texture, and is used as a reference point for describing other foods; many are said to 'taste like chicken' if they are indistinctive. Image File history File links Roast_chicken. ... Image File history File links Roast_chicken. ... For other uses, see Chicken (disambiguation). ... Mortal Kombat character, see Meat (Mortal Kombat). ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... KFCs Fried chicken with French fries. ... A bowl of homemade chicken soup. ... A plate of home-made buffalo wings Buffalo wings, wings, or chicken wings are chicken wing sections (called flats and drums) which are often served deep fried and coated in sauce. ... Tandoori chicken is a popular dish in Punjabi cuisine. ... Butter chicken simmering on a stove Butter chicken or murgh makhani is an Indian dish popular in countries all over the world that have a tradition of Indian restaurants. ... Hainanese chicken rice (Simplified Chinese: 海南鸡饭; Traditional Chinese: 海南雞飯; pinyin: Hǎinán jīfàn) is a rice dish most commonly associated with Singaporean cuisine, although it is also commonly sold in neighbouring Malaysia and found in Hainan itself. ... Fast food is food prepared and served quickly at a fast-food restaurant or shop at low cost. ... KFC, or Kentucky Fried Chicken, is a fast food restaurant chain based in Louisville, Kentucky, United States. ... McDonalds Corporation (NYSE: MCD) is the worlds largest chain of fast-food restaurants, primarily selling hamburgers, chicken, french fries, milkshakes and soft drinks. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Burger King, Seoul, South Korea Burger King is a large international chain of fast food restaurants, predominantly selling burgers, french fries, soft drinks, desserts, and various sandwiches. ... Tastes like chicken is a comical, all-purpose phrase to describe the taste of unique food. ...

Chickens as pets

A day old chick
A day old chick

Chickens can make loving and gentle companion animals, but can sometimes become aggressive. Some have advised against keeping certain breeds around young children, as the chickens can become territorial and violent. In Asia, chickens with striking plumage have long been kept for ornamental purposes, including feather-footed varieties such as the Cochin from Vietnam and Silkie from China and the extremely long-tailed Phoenix from Japan. Asian ornamental varieties were imported into the United States and Great Britain in the late 1800s. Distinctive American varieties of chickens have been developed from these Asian breeds. Poultry fanciers began keeping these ornamental birds for exhibition, a practice that continues today. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1067, 176 KB) One day old chick File links The following pages link to this file: Chicken Wikipedia:Featured picture candidates Wikipedia:Featured picture candidates/Chick Category: ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1067, 176 KB) One day old chick File links The following pages link to this file: Chicken Wikipedia:Featured picture candidates Wikipedia:Featured picture candidates/Chick Category: ... World map showing the location of Asia. ... Cochin Hen and Rooster. ... A silkie rooster, photograph by Barry Kollfer, http://feathersite. ... Phoenix Chickens an ancient breed from Japan, were kept in the imperial gardens. ...

While some cities in the United States still allow chickens as pets, the practice is quickly disappearing. Individuals in rural communities commonly keep chickens for both ornamental and practical value. Some communities ban only roosters, allowing the quieter hens. Many zoos use chickens instead of insecticides to control insect populations. Giraffes in Sydneys Taronga Zoo A zoological garden, zoological park, or zoo is a facility in which animals are confined within enclosures and displayed to the public, and in which they may also be bred. ... An insecticide is a pesticide used against insects in all developmental forms. ... Orders See taxonomy Insects (Class Insecta) are a major group of arthropods and the most diverse group of animals on the Earth, with over a million described species — more than all other animal groups combined [1]. Insects may be found in nearly all environments on the planet, although only a...

Keeping a few chickens as backyard pets is surprisingly easy to do. The major challenge is protecting the birds from predators such as dogs, raccoons and foxes. The birds will need a secure place to sleep at night. This can be as simple or as elaborate as you like. For a few birds allowed to roam free during the day, a large doghouse-type structure with a locking door will serve just fine. Some kind of bedding such as straw or wood shavings should be provided on the floor. Nest boxes will make egg collection easier. If the birds are left in the structure during the day, a larger, more elaborate structure would be necessary. Trinomial name Canis lupus familiaris The dog Canis lupus is a type of canine, a mammal in the order Carnivora. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Fox is a general term applied to any one of roughly 27 species of small to medium-sized omnivorous canids in the tribe vulpini with sharp features and a brush-like tail. ... Sleep is the state of natural rest observed in most mammals, birds, fish, as well as invertebrates such as the fruitfly Drosophila. ... First dog Dash, outside of his doghouse during U.S. President Harrisons tenure. ...

Chickens naturally return to the same spot to roost every night. On most occasions they will put themselves to bed and your only job would be to make sure the door is shut and locked before nightfall. It is best to count the birds each night as sometimes a bird will not find his or her way back into the coop. A bird left out at night is likely to be killed by a predator.

Most chickens cannot fly well and are easily contained with 3-4' fencing. Birds which are allowed to roam the yard during the day are quite effective at controlling insects of all types. Areas of bare dirt will benefit from the weed control and soil cultivation provided by the birds in their never-ending search for food. The birds, however, will pick at plants and grass and may cause some damage to ground-cover with their scratching. Also chickens will eat most any kind of food scraps. This article does not cite its references or sources. ...

The eggs themselves can be quite different from the store purchased variety. Fresh yolks are quite "perky" and stand tall above the white. The yolk color is frequently a deeper color than the pale yellow of commercially raised eggs and can at times be almost a dark orange. The egg yolk is the yellow inside an egg. ... Rubber duckies. ... Look up orange in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Growing chickens can be tamed by feeding them a special treat (such as mealworms) by hand, and by being with them for at least ten minutes daily when they are young. Even older birds can be tamed considerably by hand-feeding leftover table scraps. It can be fun to help the birds forage by turning rocks over and watching them grab worms and bugs that typically can be found in these dark, moist areas. The chickens quickly associate you with a source of food and will become your constant companion when you are both in the yard. Binomial name Tenebrio molitor Linnaeus, 1758 Mealworms are the larval form of the mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor, a species of darkling beetle. ... Earthworm A worm is an elongated soft-bodied invertebrate animal. ...

A former recurring skit on the weekly comedy show Saturday Night Live featured a chicken pet store with the Chinese owner (as played by Dana Carvey) not wishing to sell to customers on the basis that "Chickens make lousy house pets." For information about The Sketch Show TV programme, see The Sketch Show. ... Saturday Night Live (SNL) is a weekly late night 90-minute American comedy-variety show based in New York City which has been broadcast by NBC on Saturday nights since October 11, 1975. ... A pet store or pet shop is a store at which one can purchase supplies for pets. ... Dana Thomas Carvey (born June 2, 1955, in Missoula, Montana) is an American actor and comedian best known for his work on Saturday Night Live and the spin-off movie Waynes World. ...

Chickens in agriculture

battery chickens
battery chickens
Free range chickens
Free range chickens
A free range egg (left) next to a battery egg (right).
A free range egg (left) next to a battery egg (right).

In the United States, chickens were once raised primarily on family farms. Prior to about 1910, chicken was served primarily on special occasions or on Saturday, as the birds were typically more valued for their eggs than meat. As cities developed and markets sprung up across the nation, live chickens from local farms could often be seen for sale in crates outside the market to be butchered and cleaned onsite by the butcher. Some people still keep "free range" chickens for personal use, and may even sell the eggs and meat, but very few are raised on a large scale commercial basis this way. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2304x1728, 1555 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Chicken Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2304x1728, 1555 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Chicken Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create... Modern dairy farm Industrial agriculture, also known as factory farming, refers to the industrialized production of livestock, poultry, fish, and crops. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Chickens_drinking. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Chickens_drinking. ... Free range is a method of farming husbandry where the animals are permitted to roam freely instead of being contained in small sheds. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2560x1920, 846 KB) Two eggs, the one on the left is free range, the one on the right is a standard supermarket egg. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2560x1920, 846 KB) Two eggs, the one on the left is free range, the one on the right is a standard supermarket egg. ... For other uses, see Farm (disambiguation). ... 1910 (MCMX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Sunday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ... The god Saturn, after whom Saturday is named. ... Butcher shop in Valencia A butcher is someone who prepares various meats and other related goods for sale. ...

With the advent of vertical integration and selective breeding of efficient meat-type birds, poultry production changed dramatically. Large farms and packing plants emerged that could grow birds by the thousands. Chickens could be sent to slaughterhouses for butchering and processing into pre-packaged commercial products to be frozen or shipped fresh to markets or wholesalers. Meat-type chickens currently grow to market weight in six to seven weeks whereas only fifty years ago it took three times as long.[1] This is due exclusively to genetic selection and nutritional modifications (and not the use of growth hormones, which are illegal for use in poultry in the US and many other countries). Once a meat consumed only occasionally, the common availability and lower cost has made chicken a common and significant meat product within developed nations. Growing concerns over the cholesterol content of red meat in the 1980s and 1990s further resulted in increased consumption of chicken. It has been suggested that Vertical expansion be merged into this article or section. ... Cholesterol is a sterol (a combination steroid and alcohol) and a lipid found in the cell membranes of all body tissues, and transported in the blood plasma of all animals. ... Red meat or mammal meat refers to all meat that is derived from mammals, and is unrelated to the actual color of the meat. ...

Another breed of chicken, the Leghorn chicken, was further developed to be an efficient egg layer. Egg production and consumption changed with the development of automation and refrigeration. Large farms were devoted solely to egg production and packaging. Today, eggs are produced on large egg ranches on which environmental parameters are well controlled. Chickens are exposed to artificial light cycles to stimulate egg production year-round. In addition, it is a common practice to induce molt through careful manipulation of light and the amount of food they receive in order to further increase egg size and production. Leghorn Chicken The leghorn is a breed of chicken, named after the Italian city of Leghorn. ... Packaging is the enclosing of a physical object, typically a product that will be offered for sale. ... In birds, moulting or molting is the routine shedding of old feathers. ...

On average, a chicken lays one egg a day; however, this varies with the breed and time of year. For example, a Barred Plymouth Rock may lay one egg a day during the spring, summer and fall. But the same chicken may not lay at all during the winter. However, a chicken bred specifically for egg-laying may occasionally lay two eggs a day, and if housed correctly may lay all through the winter. Usually, egg laying hens are butchered after their first egg laying period that usually lasts from 12 to 14 months. The period begins when the hen is about 20 weeks old (depending on breed and season). Since roosters are not needed in the egg industry, all the males (roughly fifty percent of all chickens) are killed after their birth when producing birds for the egg industry. Barred Plymouth Rock rooster. ...

Issues with mass production

Humane Treatment

Many animal welfare advocates object to killing chickens for food or to the "factory farm conditions" under which they are raised. They contend that commercial chicken production usually involves raising the birds in large, crowded rearing sheds that prevent the chickens from engaging in many of their natural behaviors. Fast food giant KFC has been the target of PETA recently due to its methods of keeping its 750 million plus chickens each year. Beef cattle on a feedlot in the Texas Panhandle Factory farming is a term used to describe a set of controversial practices in large-scale, intensive agriculture. ...

Chickens generally live five to eleven years depending on the breed [2]; chickens raised for meat are slaughtered prior to sexual maturity (six weeks), and thus many of the aggressive behaviors seen in adult chickens (fighting, cannibalism) are seldom seen in for-meat chickens. Both male and female chicks have the ends of their beaks cut off, to reduce the risk of them injuring each other in close quarters. Because beaks are sensitive, trimming them without anaesthesia is considered inhumane by some. It is also argued that the procedure causes life-long discomfort. This article is about consuming ones own species. ... Debeaking, also known as beak trimming, is a process by which parts of the beak of a chicken are removed. ...

When advocating more humane treatment of chickens, it is sometimes asserted that they are intelligent. On The Tonight Show with Jay Leno a trained chicken was shown playing "Mary Had a Little Lamb" on a toy piano and bowled 3 strikes.[citation needed] Animal welfare groups such as PETA regard such cases as evidence that the birds are intelligent.[3] Dr. Chris Evans of Macquarie University claims that their range of 20 calls, problem solving skills and the ability to recognise each other by facial features demonstate the intelligence of chickens, saying "As a trick at conferences, I sometimes list these attributes, without mentioning chickens, and people think I’m talking about monkeys." [4] May 26, 2006 opening monologue of The Tonight Show with Jay Leno The Tonight Show with Jay Leno is the full name of NBCs The Tonight Show hosted by Jay Leno, debuting on May 25, 1992. ... William Wallace Denslows illustrations for Mary had a little lamb, from a 1901 edition of Mother Goose Mary and lamb at school, according to Denslow Mary Had a Little Lamb is a nursery rhyme of 19th century American origin. ... A short grand piano, with the top up. ... Bowling ball and two pins Ten-pin bowling lane Automatic Scorer by Brunswick Specialized computers replaced hand scoring beginning 1970s. ... People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals logo People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA) is the largest animal rights organization in the world. ... Macquarie University is an Australian university located in Sydney. ...

Another animal welfare issue is the use of selective breeding to create heavy, large-breasted birds, which can lead to crippling leg disorders and heart failure for some of the birds. Concerns have been raised that companies growing single varieties of bird for eggs or meat are increasing their susceptiblity to disease. For this reason, many scientists are promoting the conservation of heritage breeds to retain genetic diversity in the species. Animal welfare is the viewpoint that animals, especially those under human care, should not suffer unnecessarily, including where the animals are used for food, work, companionship, or research. ... Selective breeding in domesticated animals is the process of developing a cultivated breed over time. ...

In 2004, 8.9 billion chickens were slaughtered in the United States.[5]

Human Concerns


Because raising chickens in close quarters fosters the spread of disease, factory farms use antibiotics as a matter of course; many contend that this puts humans at risk as bacterial strains develop stronger and stronger resistances.[6] Staphylococcus aureus - Antibiotics test plate. ...

A proposed bill in the American congress would make the use of antibiotics in animal feed legal only for therapeutic (rather than preventative) use, but it has not been passed yet. [7] Though this will certainly solve one problem, it does not address the fact that bacteria continue to develop resistances; hence, there is the risk of slaughtered chickens harboring these bacteria and passing them on to the humans that consume them.

In October 2000, the FDA discovered that two antibiotics were no longer effective in treating diseases found in factory-farmed chickens; one antibiotic was willingly and swiftly pulled from the market, but the other, Baytril was not. Bayer, the company which produced it, contested the claim and as a result, Baytril remained in use until July of 2005.[8] October 2000 : January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - September - October - November - December Events October 1 - 2 - Nine Israeli-Arabs are killed by Israeli security forces after a riot/violent demonstration of solidarity with Palestinians under military rule in the West Bank and Gaza. ... The United States Food and Drug Administration is the government agency responsible for regulating food, dietary supplements, drugs, cosmetics, medical devices, biologics and blood products in the United States. ... Nalidixic acid Ciprofloxacin Levofloxacin Trovafloxacin The quinolones are a family of broad-spectrum antibiotics. ... Bayer AG (German pronunciation BYE-er, in US usually pronounced BAY-er) (NYSE: BAY, TYO: 4863 ) is a German chemical and pharmaceutical company founded in 1863. ... July is the seventh month of the year in the Gregorian Calendar and one of seven Gregorian months with the length of 31 days. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Chickens feed can also include Roxarsone, an antimicrobial drug that also promotes growth. The drug has generated controversy because it contains the poisonous element arsenic, which can cause cancer, dementia, and neurological problems in humans. Though the arsenic in Roxarsone is not of the type which can cause cancer, a Consumer Reports study in 2004 discovered enough arsenic in some samples of factory-farmed chicken to "cause neurological problems in a child who ate 2 ounces of cooked liver per week or in an adult who ate 5.5 ounces per week." [9] An antimicrobial is a substance that kills or slows the growth of microbes like bacteria (antibacterial activity), fungi (antifungal activity), viruses (antiviral activity), or parasites (antiparasitic activity). ... General Name, Symbol, Number arsenic, As, 33 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 15, 4, p Appearance metallic gray Atomic mass 74. ... Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these cells to spread, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion, or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis (where cancer cells are transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic system). ... For other uses, see Dementia (disambiguation). ... Neurology is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the central and peripheral nervous systems. ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The liver is an organ in some animals, including vertebrates (and therefore humans). ...

Growth Hormones

The use of growth hormones in chickens (they now grow to maturity twice as quickly as they would naturally) is also a concern as the people who eat chicken consume the hormones as well. Some believe that the increasingly earlier onset of puberty is the result of the liberal use of such hormones, which are also found in other meats, as well as dairy. Growth hormone (GH or somatotropin) is a 191-amino acid, single chain polypeptide hormone which is synthesised, stored and secreted by the somatotroph cells within the lateral wings of the anterior pituitary gland, which stimulates growth and cell reproduction in humans and other animals. ... Puberty refers to the process of physical changes by which a childs body becomes an adult body capable of reproduction. ... Dairy farm near Oxford, New York A dairy is a facility for the extraction and processing of animal milk (mostly from cows, sometimes from buffalo, sheep or goats) and other farm animals, for human consumption. ...


According to Consumer Reports, "1.1 million or more Americans [are]sickened each year by undercooked, tainted chicken." A USDA study discovered E.Coli in 99% of supermarket chicken, the result of chickens being raised in their own feces. Though E. Coli can usually be killed by proper cooking times, there is still some risk associated with it, and its near-ubiquity in commercially-farmed chicken is troubling to some. Consumer Reports, an American magazine published monthly by Consumers Union, publishes reviews and comparisons of consumer products and services based on reporting and results from its in-house testing laboratory. ... The United States Department of Agriculture (also called the Agriculture Department, or USDA) is a United States Federal Executive Department (or Cabinet Department). ... Binomial name Escherichia coli T. Escherich, 1885 E. coli at 10,000x magnification Escherichia coli (usually abbreviated to E. coli) is one of the main species of bacteria that live in the lower intestines of warm-blooded animals (including birds and mammals) and are necessary for the proper digestion of...

Avian Flu

There is also a risk that the crowded conditions in many chicken farms will allow avian flu to spread quickly. A United Nations press release states: "Governments, local authorities and international agencies need to take a greatly increased role in combating the role of factory-farming, commerce in live poultry, and wildlife markets which provide ideal conditions for the virus to spread and mutate into a more dangerous form..."[10] For the current concern about the transmission of an avian flu to humans see Transmission and infection of H5N1. ... The foundation of the U.N. The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. ...

Efficiency Issues

Farming of chickens on an industrial scale relies on high protein feeds derived from the soybean. The soybean is also a complete protein source for humans. Giving the feed to chickens means the nutrients in the feed reach humans with a much lower efficiency than through direct consumption of soybean products. Binomial name Glycine max (L.) Merr. ... Efficiency is the capability of acting or producing effectively with a minimum amount or quantity of waste, expense, or unnecessary effort. ...

Chicken diseases

Baby chicks in a box
Baby chicks in a box

Chickens are susceptible to parasites, including lice, mites, ticks, fleas, and intestinal worms as well as many other diseases. (Despite the name, they are not affected by Chickenpox; it is a disease of humans, not chickens.) Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 680 KB) I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 680 KB) I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... A parasite is an organism that spends a significant portion of its life in or on the living tissue of a host organism and which causes harm to the host without immediately killing it. ... Suborders Anoplura (sucking lice) Rhyncophthirina Ischnocera (avian lice) Amblycera (chewing lice) Lice (singular: louse) (order Phthiraptera) are an order of over 3000 species of wingless parasitic insects. ... Families Tetranychidae - Spider mites Eriophyidae - Gall mites Sarcoptidae - Sarcoptic Mange mites The mites and ticks, order Acarina or Acari, belong to the Arachnida and are among the most diverse and successful of all the invertebrate groups, although some way behind the insects. ... Families Ixodidae - Hard ticks Argasidae - Soft ticks Nuttalliellidae Wikispecies has information related to: Ixodoidea Tick is the common name for the small arachnids that, along with mites, constitute the order Acarina. ... Families Tungidae â€“ sticktight and chigoe fleas (chiggers) Pulicidae â€“ common fleas Coptopsyllidae Vermipsyllidae â€“ carnivore fleas Rhopalopsyllidae â€“ marsupial fleas Hypsophthalmidae Stephanocircidae Pygiopsyllidae Hystrichopsyllidae â€“ rat and mouse fleas Leptopsyllidae â€“ mouse and rat fleas Ischnopsyllidae â€“ bat fleas Ceratophyllidae:-fleas mainly associated with rodents Amphipsyllidae Malacopsyllidae Dolichopsyllidae â€“ rodent fleas Ctenopsyllidae Flea is the common name... Classes Adenophorea    Subclass Enoplia    Subclass Chromadoria Secernentea    Subclass Rhabditia    Subclass Spiruria    Subclass Diplogasteria The roundworms or nematodes (Phylum Nematoda from Gr. ... Chickenpox, also spelled chicken pox, is the common name for Varicella simplex, classically one of the childhood infectious diseases caught and survived by most children. ...

Some of the common diseases that affect chickens are shown below:

Name Common Name Caused by
Aspergillosis fungi
Avian influenza bird flu virus
Blackhead disease virus
Botulism toxin
Cage Layer Fatigue small cage
Coccidiosis parasites
Colds virus
Crop Bound improper feeding
Egg bound oversized egg
Erysipelas bacteria
Fatty Liver Hemorrhagic Syndrome high-energy food
Fowl Cholera bacteria
Fowl pox virus
Fowl Typhoid bacteria
Gallid herpesvirus 1
or Infectious Laryngotracheitis
Gapeworms worms
Infectious Bronchitis virus
Infectious Bursal Disease Gumboro virus
Infectious Coryza bacteria
Lymphoid Leucosis
Marek's disease virus
Moniliasis Yeast Infection
or Thrush
Mycoplasmas bacteria-like organisms
Newcastle disease virus
Necrotic Enteritis bacteria
Omphalitis Mushy chick disease umbilical cord stump
Psittacosis bacteria
Pullorum Salmonella bacteria
Scaly leg parasites
Squamous cell carcinoma cancer
Tibial dyschondroplasia speed growing
Toxoplasmosis parasites
Ulcerative Enteritis bacteria

Avian influenza (also known as bird flu, avian flu, influenzavirus A flu, type A flu, or genus A flu) is a flu (influenza) due to a type of influenza virus that is hosted by birds, but may infect several species of mammals. ... Blackhead disease is an avian disease that affects chickens, turkeys and other poultry. ... Botulism (from Latin botulus, sausage) is a rare but serious paralytic illness caused by a nerve toxin, botulin, that is produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. ... Coccidiosis is a major poultry disease. ... // Acute viral nasopharyngitis, often known as the common cold, is a mild viral infectious disease of the upper respiratory system (nose and throat). ... In farming and animal husbandry, the term egg bound refers to a condition in laying hens where a hen is unable to pass an egg that has formed. ... Fatty Liver Hemorrhagic Syndrome is a disease that affects the liver of chickens and other birds. ... Fowl Pox is a viral disease that is spread by mosquito bites. ... Gallid herpesvirus 1 (GaHV-1) (also known as Avian herpesvirus 1)is a virus of the family Herpesviridae that causes avian infectious laryngotracheitis. ... Infectious Bursal Disease is a poultry disease. ... Lymphoid Leucosis is a disease that affects chickens and other birds. ... Mareks disease is a highly contagious viral neoplastic disease in chickens and sheep. ... Candidiasis, commonly called yeast infection or thrush, is a fungal infection of any of the Candida species, of which Candida albicans is probably the most common. ... Myocoplasmas, the smallest known free-living organisms are able to grow in very simple culture media. ... ANDY IS A DEAKIN!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! ANDY IS A DEAKIN!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! ANDY IS A DEAKIN!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! ANDY IS A DEAKIN!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! ANDY IS A DEAKIN!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! ANDY IS A DEAKIN!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! ANDY IS A DEAKIN!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! ANDY IS A DEAKIN!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! ANDY IS A DEAKIN!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! ANDY IS A DEAKIN!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! ANDY IS A DEAKIN!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! ANDY IS A DEAKIN!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! ANDY IS... Omphalitis is the medical term for infection of the umbilical cord stump in the neonatal newborn period. ... In medicine (pulmonology), psittacosis -- also known as parrot disease, parrot fever, and ornithosis -- is a zoonotic infectious disease caused by a bacterium called Mycoplasma psittaci and contracted from parrots, macaws, cockatiels, and parakeets. ... Species Salmonella bongori Salmonella enterica Salmonella arizonae Salmonella enteritidis Salmonella typhi Salmonella typhimurium Salmonella is a genus of rod-shaped Gram-negative enterobacteria that causes typhoid fever, paratyphoid fever and foodborne illness. ... Scaly leg is an disease of chickens and other birds. ... Biopsy of a highly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma of the mouth. ... Tibial dyschondroplasia is a disease of young poultry. ...

Chickens in religion

Chickens, Indonesia
Chickens, Indonesia

In Indonesia the chicken has great significance during the Hindu cremation ceremony. A chicken is a channel for evil spirits which may be present during the ceremony. A chicken is tethered by the leg and kept present at the ceremony for the duration to ensure that any evil spirits present during the ceremony go into the chicken and not the family members present. The chicken is then taken home and returns to its normal life. He or she is not treated in any special way or slaughtered after the ceremony. Feeding chicken, Indonesia Photograph, September 2003, Sumatra File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Feeding chicken, Indonesia Photograph, September 2003, Sumatra File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Hinduism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... The crematorium at Haycombe Cemetery, Bath, England. ... This article is about the paranormal. ... Diagram of an insect leg A leg is the part of an animals body that supports the rest of the animal above the ground and is used for locomotion. ...

In ancient Greece, the chicken was not normally used for sacrifices, perhaps because it was still considered an exotic animal. Because of its valour, cocks are found as attributes of Ares, Heracles and Athena. The alleged last words of Socrates as he died from hemlock poisoning, as recounted by Plato, were "Crito, I owe a cock to Asclepius; will you remember to pay the debt?", signifying that death was a cure for the illness of life. The Temple to Athena, the Parthenon Ancient Greece is a period in Greek history that lasted for around three thousand years. ... In Greek mythology, Ares (in Greek: - Aris (Battle Strife))[1] is the son of Zeus (king of the gods) and Hera. ... Hercules, a Roman bronze (Louvre Museum) For other uses, see Heracles (disambiguation). ... Helmeted Athena, of the Velletri type. ... Socrates (Greek: , invariably anglicized as , Sǒcratēs; circa 470–399 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher who is widely credited for laying the foundation for Western philosophy. ... Look up hemlock in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Plato (disambiguation). ... The Crito (IPA [kriːtɔːn]; in English usually [ˈkɹiːtɘʊː]) is a short but important dialogue by the ancient Greek philosopher, Plato. ... Asclepius (Greek also rendered Aesculapius in Latin and transliterated Asklepios) was the god of medicine and healing in ancient Greek mythology, according to which he was born a mortal but was given immortality as the constellation Ophiuchus after his death. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...

The Greeks believed that even lions were afraid of cocks. Several of Aesop's Fables reference this belief. In the cult of Mithras, the cock was a symbol of the divine light and a guardian against evil.[citation needed] Binomial name Panthera leo (Linnaeus, 1758) Distribution of Lions in Africa Synonyms Felis leo (Linnaeus, 1758) The lion (Panthera leo) is a mammal of the family Felidae and one of four big cats in the genus Panthera. ... Aesop, as depicted in the Nuremberg Chronicle by Hartmann Schedel. ... Mithras and the Bull: fresco from the mithraeum at Marino, Italy, (3rd century AD) Mithras was the central god of Mithraism, a syncretic Hellenistic mystery religion of male initiates that developed in the Eastern Mediterranean in the 2nd and 1st centuries BC and was practiced in the Roman Empire from...

In the Bible, Jesus prophesied the betrayal by Peter: "And he said, I tell thee, Peter, the cock shall not crow this day, before that thou shalt thrice deny that thou knowest me." (Luke 22:43) Thus it happened (Luke 22:61), and Peter cried bitterly. This made the cock a symbol for both vigilance and betrayal. This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library of Congress. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... Look up Peter, peter in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Gospel of Luke is the third and longest of the four canonical Gospels of the New Testament, which tell the story of Jesus life, death, and resurrection. ...

Earlier, Jesus compares himself to a mother hen, when talking about Jerusalem: "How often would I have gathered thy children together, even as a hen gathereth her chickens under her wings, and ye would not!" (Matthew 23:37; also Luke 13:34). Hebrew יְרוּשָׁלַיִם (Yerushalayim) (Standard) Yerushalayim or Yerushalaim Arabic commonly القـُدْس (Al-Quds); officially in Israel أورشليم القدس (Urshalim-Al-Quds) Name Meaning Hebrew: (see below), Arabic: The Holiness Government City District Jerusalem Population 724,000 (2006) Jurisdiction 123,000 dunams (123 km²) Jerusalem (Hebrew:  , Yerushaláyim or Yerushalaim; Arabic:  , al-Quds, the Holiness)[2... The Gospel of Matthew (literally, according to Matthew; Greek, Κατά Μαθθαίον or Κατά Ματθαίον) is one of the four Gospel accounts of the New Testament. ...

In many Central European folk tales, the devil is believed to flee at the first crowing of a cock. Central Europe The Alpine Countries and the Visegrád Group (Political map, 2004) Central Europe is the region lying between the variously and vaguely defined areas of Eastern and Western Europe. ... Folklore is the ethnographic concept of the tales, legends, or superstitions current among a particular ethnic population, a part of the oral history of a particular culture. ... The Devil is a title given to the supernatural entity, who, in Christianity, Islam, and other religions, is a powerful, evil entity and the tempter of humankind. ...

In traditional Jewish practice, a chicken is swung around the head and then slaughtered on the afternoon before Yom Kippur, the Day of Atonement, in a ritual called kapparos. The sacrifice of the chicken is to receive atonement, for the bird takes on all the person's sins in kapparos. The meat is then donated to the poor. A woman brings a hen for the ceremony, while a man brings a rooster. Although not actually a sacrifice in the biblical sense, the death of the chicken reminds the penitent sinner that his or her life is in God's hands. Orthodox Judaism is the formulation of Judaism that adheres to a relatively strict interpretation and application of the laws and ethics first canonized in the Talmudic texts (The Oral Law) and as subsequently developed and applied by the later authorities known as the Gaonim, Rishonim, and Acharonim. ... Yom Kippur (IPA: ; Hebrew:יוֹם כִּפּוּר, IPA: ) is the Jewish holiday of the Day of Atonement. ... It has been suggested that Kapparah be merged into this article or section. ... Diverse women. ... Michelangelos David is widely considered to be one of the finest artistic portrayals of a man. ... This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ...

The Talmud speaks of learning "courtesy toward one's mate" from the rooster. This might refer to the fact that, when a rooster finds something good to eat, he calls his hens to eat first. The first page of the Vilna Edition of the Babylonian Talmud, Tractate Berachot, folio 2a The Talmud (Hebrew: תלמוד) is a record of rabbinic discussions pertaining to Jewish law, ethics, customs and history. ...

The chicken is one of the Zodiac symbols of the Chinese calendar. Also in Chinese religion, a cooked chicken as a religious offering is usually limited to ancestor veneration and worship of village deities. Vegetarian deities such as the Buddha are not one of the recipients of such offerings. Under some observations, an offering of chicken is presented with "serious" prayer (while roasted pork is offered during a joyous celebration). In Confucian Chinese Weddings, a chicken can be used as a substitute for one who is seriously ill or not available (e.g sudden death) to attend the ceremony. A red silk scarf is placed on the chicken's head and a close relative of the absent bride/groom holds the chicken so the ceremony may proceed. However, this practice is rare today. It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles. ... The Chinese calendar is a lunisolar calendar, akin to the Hebrew calendar & Hindu Calendar, incorporating elements of a lunar calendar with those of a solar calendar. ... Temple incense in Taichung, Taiwan with Fu Dog behind. ... For animals adapted to eat primarily plants, sometimes referred to as vegetarian animals, see Herbivore. ... Media:Example. ... Two halves of a pig being delivered Pork is the meat taken from pigs. ... Confucianism (儒家 Pinyin: rújiā The School of the Scholars), sometimes translated as the School of Literati, is an East Asian ethical, religious and philosophical system originally developed from the teachings of Confucius. ... Nubian wedding with some international modern touches, near Aswan, Egypt Preparing for the photographs, at a wedding in Thornbury Castle, England A traditional Japanese wedding ceremony A wedding is a ceremony which celebrates the beginning of a marriage. ... silk is a natural protein fiber, some forms of which can be woven into textiles. ...


Hen with newly hatched chicks
Hen with newly hatched chicks

The first pictures of chickens in Europe are found on Corinthian pottery of the 7th century BC. The poet Cratinus (mid-5th century BC, according to the later Greek author Athenaeus) calls the chicken "the Persian alarm". In Aristophanes's comedy The Birds (414 BC) a chicken is called "the Median bird", which points to an introduction from the East. Pictures of chickens are found on Greek red figure and black-figure pottery. Mother hen with chicks File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Mother hen with chicks File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Temple of Apollo at Corinth Corinth, or Korinth (Κόρινθος) is a Greek city, on the Isthmus of Corinth, the original isthmus, the narrow stretch of land that joins the Peloponnesus to the mainland of Greece. ... Unfired green ware pottery on a traditional drying rack at Conner Prairie living history museum. ... (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) The 7th century BC started on January 1, 700 BC and ended on December 31, 601 BC. // Overview Events Ashurbanipal, king of Assyria who created the the first systematically collected library at Nineveh A 16th century depiction of the Hanging Gardens of... Cratinus (c. ... (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) The 5th century BC started on January 1, 500 BC and ended on December 31, 401 BC. // The Parthenon of Athens seen from the hill of the Pnyx to the west. ... Athenaeus (ca. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles. ... Sketch of Aristophanes Aristophanes (Greek: , c. ... The Birds (Ornithes) is a comedy written by the Ancient Greek playwright Aristophanes in 414 BC, and performed that year for the Festival of Dionysus. ... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 460s BC 450s BC 440s BC 430s BC 420s BC - 410s BC - 400s BC 390s BC 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC Years: 419 BC 418 BC 417 BC 416 BC 415 BC - 414 BC - 413 BC 412 BC... Medea (Medea Proper), ca. ... Woman officiating at an altar, Attic red-figure kylix by Chairias, c. ... The black-figure pottery technique is a style of ancient Greek pottery painting in which the decoration appears as black silhouettes on a red background. ...

In ancient Greece, chickens were still rare and were a rather prestigious food for symposia. Delos seems to have been a centre of chicken breeding. Symposium originally referred to a drinking party (the Greek verb sympotein means to drink together) but has since come to refer to any academic conference, whether or not drinking takes place. ... The island of Delos, Carl Anton Joseph Rottmann, 1847 The island of Delos (Greek: Δήλος, Dhilos), isolated in the centre of the roughly circular ring of islands called the Cyclades, near Mykonos, had a position as a holy sanctuary for a millennium before Olympian Greek mythology made it the birthplace of...

An early domestication of chickens in Southeast Asia is probable, since the word for domestic chicken (*manuk) is part of the reconstructed Proto-Austronesian language (see Austronesian languages). Chickens, together with dogs and pigs, were the domestic animals of the Lapita culture, the first Neolithic culture of Oceania. Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... The Austronesian languages are a language family widely dispersed throughout the islands of Southeast Asia and the Pacific, with a few members spoken on continental Asia. ... Trinomial name Canis lupus familiaris The dog Canis lupus is a type of canine, a mammal in the order Carnivora. ... This article is about the pig genus. ... Lapita is the common name of an ancient Pacific Ocean culture which is believed by some to be the common ancestor of several cultures in Polynesia and surrounding areas. ... An array of Neolithic artifacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools. ... Look up Oceania in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Chickens were spread by Polynesian seafarers and reached Easter Island in the 12th century AD, where they were the only domestic animal, with the possible exception of the Polynesian Rat (Rattus exulans). They were housed in extremely solid chicken coops built from stone. Traveling as cargo on trading boats, they reached the Asian continent via the islands of Indonesia and from there spread west to Europe and western Asia. Carving from the ridgepole of a Māori house, ca 1840 Polynesia (from Greek: πολύς many, νῆσος island) is a large grouping of over 1,000 islands scattered over the central and southern Pacific Ocean. ... motto: ( Rapa Nui ) Also called Te Pito O Te Henua (Ombligo del mundo) (Navel of the world) Capital Hanga Roa Area  - City Proper  163,6 km² Population  - City (2005)  - Density (city proper) 3,791 Inhabitants 23,17 /km² Time zone Central Time zone, UTC- 6 Telephone Prefix 32 Postal code... (11th century - 12th century - 13th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. ... Binomial name Rattus exulans (Peale, 1848) The Polynesian Rat or Pacific Rat (Rattus exulans), known to the Maori as Kiore, is the third most widespread species of rat in the world behind the Brown Rat and Black Rat. ...

Chickens in ancient Rome

The Romans used chickens for oracles, both when flying ("ex avibus") and when feeding ("auspicium ex tripudiis"). The hen ("gallina") gave a favourable omen ("auspicium ratum"), when appearing from the left (Cic.,de Div. ii.26), like the crow and the owl. Area under Roman control  Roman Republic  Roman Empire  Western Empire  Eastern Empire Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a city-state founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ...

For the oracle "ex tripudiis" according to Cicero (Cic. de Div. ii.34), any bird could be used, but normally only chickens ("pulli") were consulted. The chickens were cared for by the pullarius, who opened their cage and fed them pulses or a special kind of soft cake when an augury was needed. If the chickens stayed in their cage, made noises ("occinerent"), beat their wings or flew away, the omen was bad; if they ate greedily, the omen was good. Cicero at about age 60, from an ancient marble bust Marcus Tullius Cicero (IPA:Classical Latin pronunciation: , usually pronounced in English; January 3, 106 BC – December 7, 43 BC) was a Roman statesman, lawyer, political theorist, philosopher, and is widely considered one of Romes greatest orators and prose stylists. ...

In 249 BC, the Roman general Publius Claudius Pulcher had his chickens thrown overboard when they refused to feed before the battle of Drepana, saying "If they won't eat, perhaps they will drink." He promptly lost the battle against the Carthaginians and 93 Roman ships were sunk. Back in Rome, he was tried for impiety and heavily fined. Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC 260s BC 250s BC - 240s BC - 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC Years: 254 BC 253 BC 252 BC 251 BC 250 BC - 249 BC - 248 BC 247 BC... Publius Claudius Pulcher (d 249 BC/246 BC) (of the Claudii family) was a Roman general. ... Combatants Carthage Roman Republic Commanders Ad Herbal Hamilcar Barca Publius Claudius Pulcher Strength About 120 ships About 120 ships Casualties None 93 ships captured or sunk The battle of Drepana or Drepanum (offshore modern Trapani, western coast of Sicily, 249 BC) was a naval battle between the fleets of Carthage... This article is about the ancient city-state of Carthage in North Africa. ...

In 161 BC a law was passed in Rome that forbade the consumption of fattened chickens. It was renewed a number of times, but does not seem to have been successful. Fattening chickens with bread soaked in milk was thought to give especially delicious results. The Roman gourmet Apicius offers 17 recipes for chicken, mainly boiled chicken with a sauce. All parts of the animal are used: the recipes include the stomach, liver, testicles and even the pygostyle (the fatty "tail" of the chicken where the tail feathers attach). Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC - 160s BC - 150s BC 140s BC 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC Years: 166 BC 165 BC 164 BC 163 BC 162 BC - 161 BC 160 BC 159 BC... Apicius was a name applied to three celebrated Roman epicures, the first of whom lived during the Republic; the second of whom, Marcus Gavius (or Gabius) Apicius—the most famous in his own time—lived under the early Empire; a third lived in the late 4th or early 5th century. ... An example recipe, printed from the Wikibooks Cookbook. ... It has been suggested that some sections of this article be split into a new article entitled Human stomach. ... The liver is an organ in some animals, including vertebrates (and therefore humans). ... The testicles, or testes (singular testis), are the male generative glands in animals. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into bird skeleton. ...

The Roman author Columella gives advice on chicken breeding in his eighth book of his treatise on agriculture. He identifies Tanagrian, Rhodic, Chalkidic and Median (commonly misidentified as Melian) breeds, which have an impressive appearance, a quarrelsome nature and were used for cockfighting by the Greeks. For farming, native (Roman) chickens are to be preferred, or a cross between native hens and Greek cocks. Dwarf chickens are nice to watch because of their size but have no other advantages. Lucius Junius Moderatus Columella (Gades in Hispania Baetica, 4 AD - ca. ... The Cock Fight by Jean-Léon Gérôme (1847) A cockfight is a contest, held in a cockpit between two fighting cocks (roosters) trained to severely injure and/or kill one another. ...

Per Columella, the ideal flock consists of 200 birds, which can be supervised by one person if someone is watching for stray animals. White chickens should be avoided as they are not very fertile and are easily caught by eagles or goshawks. One cock should be kept for five hens. In the case of Rhodian and Median cocks that are very heavy and therefore not much inclined to sex, only three hens are kept per cock. The hens of heavy fowls are not much inclined to brood; therefore their eggs are best hatched by normal hens. A hen can hatch no more than 15-23 eggs, depending on the time of year, and supervise no more than 30 hatchlings. Eggs that are long and pointed give more male, rounded eggs mainly female hatchlings.

Per Columella, Chicken coops should face southeast and lie adjacent to the kitchen, as smoke is beneficial for the animals. Coops should consist of three rooms and possess a hearth. Dry dust or ash should be provided for dust-baths.

According to Columella, chicken should be fed on barley groats, small chick-peas, millet and wheat bran, if they are cheap. Wheat itself should be avoided as it is harmful to the birds. Boiled ryegrass (Lollium sp.) and the leaves and seeds of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) can be used as well. Grape marc can be used, but only when the hens stop laying eggs, that is, about the middle of November; otherwise eggs are small and few. When feeding grape marc, it should be supplemented with some bran. Hens start to lay eggs after the winter solstice, in warm places around the first of January, in colder areas in the middle of February. Parboiled barley increases their fertility; this should be mixed with alfalfa leaves and seeds, or vetches or millet if alfalfa is not at hand. Free-ranging chickens should receive two cups of barley daily.

Columella advises farmers to slaughter hens that are older than three years, because they no longer produce sufficient eggs. Capons were produced by burning out their spurs with a hot iron. The wound was treated with potter's chalk.

For the use of poultry and eggs in the kitchens of ancient Rome see Roman eating and drinking. The eating and drinking habits of the Romans changed over the long (over 1000 years) duration of their ancient civilization. ...

Chickens in South America

An unusual variety of chicken that has its origins in South America is the araucana. Araucanas, some of which are tailless and some of which have tufts of feathers around their ears, lay blue-green eggs. As J. Gongora reports, some people have suggested that they predate the arrival of European chickens brought by the Spanish and are evidence of pre-Columbian trans-pacific contacts between Asia and South America. (J. Gongora, et al., "Mitochondrial DNA sequences reveal a putative East Asian ancestry for old Chilean chickens," Proceedings of the International Conference on Animal Genetics, ISAG 2006, Porto Seguro, BA, Brasil.) South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... The Araucana is a chicken breed of South American origin known for laying green or blue eggs. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... World map showing the location of Asia. ...

Chicken breeds

Unless tamed, chickens will naturally nest in trees.
Unless tamed, chickens will naturally nest in trees.

Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2211x1616, 773 KB) This is two of my chooks, they are sleeping in a tree. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2211x1616, 773 KB) This is two of my chooks, they are sleeping in a tree. ... Ameraucana is the name for a cross between Arucauna chickens and various others, the important thing being that the resulting hens lay green or blue eggs. ... The American Game Fowl is a breed of chicken primarily used for cockfighting in the United States. ... The Ancona is a breed of chicken originating in Italy. ... Andalusian chickens are classified as Mediterranean chickens, and like other breeds from this class, theyre closely feathered, active, and good layers of white eggs. ... The Araucana is a chicken breed of South American origin known for laying green or blue eggs. ... Asil or Aseel in India, means a breed of cockerel used for cock fighting, It has a distinctive upright stance, drooping tail, and powerful musculature. ... The Asturian Painted Hen is a large bird from the Asturian class of hens. ... The Australorp is an Australian chicken breed. ... The Barnevelder is a breed of chicken named after the Dutch town of Barneveld. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... Barred Plymouth Rock rooster. ... Harry the BSL Rooster at 1 year of age. ... The Blue Hen Chicken was adopted on April 14, 1939 as the state bird of Delaware. ... Brakel / Braekel / Campine The Braekel or Brakel is one of the older European chicken breeds. ... link titleBrahma is an Asiatic breed of chicken, originating in the Brahmaputra region in India where they were known as Gray Chittagongs. Their heritage is unclear, but theyre are assumed to be closely related to the Jungle Fowl (Gallus Gigantus) and the Cochin chicken. ... This interesting breed was imported from the island of Sicily over 100 years ago and is another member of the Mediterranean class. ... Caumont is the name or part of the name of several communes in France: Caumont, in the Aisne département Caumont, in the Ariège département Caumont, in the Eure département Caumont, in the Gers département Caumont, in the Gironde département Caumont, in the Pas-de... Japanese Bantams or also known in many parts of the world as Chabo are a breed of chicken found all over the world. ... Chantecler is a poultry company operating in Mauritius. ... Cochin Hen and Rooster. ... Dark Cornish Rooster Dark Cornish Hen The Cornish is a breed of chicken originating in the English county of Cornwall. ... Creve Coeur is either: Creve Coeur, Illinois, United States Creve Coeur, Missouri, United States This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Croad Langshan The Croad Langshan is an old, heavy, soft-feathered chicken breed which probably originated in China. ... Black Breasted Red Cubalaya Rooster The Cubalaya is a variety of chicken from the Oriental class. ... The Dominique chicken is considered Americas oldest breed of chicken, having been brought to New England from southern England during colonial times. ... The Dorking is a breed of chicken that is believed to have originated in Italy during the period of the Roman Empire. ... There are communes that have the name Faverolles in France: Faverolles, in the Aisne département Faverolles, in the Eure-et-Loir département Faverolles, in the Indre département Faverolles, in the Haute-Marne département Faverolles, in the Orne département Faverolles, in the Somme département Related... Gournay is the name or part of the name of six communes of France: Gournay in the Indre département Gournay-en-Bray in the Seine-Maritime département Gournay-le-Guérin in the Eure département Gournay-Loizé in the Deux-Sèvres département Gournay-sur-Aronde... Capital Arnhem Queens Commissioner Jan Kamminga Area  - Total  - % water 2nd 5137 km²  ?% Population  - Total (2004)  - Density 4th 1,966,929 379/km² Anthem Ons Gelderland For the historical duchy also called Gelderland, see Guelders Gelderland (English also Guelders) is a province of the Netherlands, located in the central eastern... The Hamburg or Hamburgh, in Britain, is a type of chicken developed in Britain and Holland prior to 1700. ... Houdan is a French commune with a population of about 3,000. ... Free range ISA Brown hens at CERES Community Environment Park. ... Jersey Giants are known for their tremendous weights. ... La Flèche is a very rare breed of chicken, which are mentioned from the 15th century onwards. ... The Langshan is a German breed of chicken. ... Leghorn Chicken The leghorn is a breed of chicken, named after the Italian city of Leghorn. ... The Malay Chicken is a very large breed of fowl that is originally from Asia. ... A Marans hen, with Dark Cuckoo plumage. ... New Hampshire Red Rooster This breed originated in the state of New Hampshire at the hands of poultry farmers who started with Rode Island Reds and by means of generation after generation of selective breeding intensified the characteristics of early maturity, rapid full feathering, and production of large brown eggs. ... The Old English Game Fowl is a breed of chicken. ... The Orpington is a large bird from the English class of chickens. ... Phoenix Chickens an ancient breed from Japan, were kept in the imperial gardens. ... Barred Plymouth Rock rooster. ... The Poltava is an old Ukrainian dual-purpose breed of chicken named after the Ukrainian city of Poltava. ... Red Sex Links or RSL are poultry whose sex can be easily determined upon hatching. ... Binomial name Gallus gallus The Rhode Island Red (Gallus gallus) is a very popular breed of chicken. ... The Rock chicken is a breed of chicken sometimes crossbread with the Cornish chicken to produce game hens. ... The Saipan Jungle Fowl is not a true jungle fowl. ... Scots Dumpy is a breed of chicken which originated from Scotland. ... Serama (also known as Ayam Serama or Malaysian Serama) is a breed of chicken originating from Malaysia. ... For the Japanese action manga, see: Shamo (manga) Shamo (軍鶏 or シャモ) is a breed of chicken of Japan which was originated in Thailand. ... A silkie rooster, photograph by Barry Kollfer, http://feathersite. ... A Light Sussex hen The Sussex chicken is a dual purpose breed that is a popular backyard chicken in many countries. ... There are communes and places that have the name Vorwerk in Lower Saxony, Germany: Vorwerk (Lower Saxony) , in the Rotenburg (district) district, Vorwerk (Uelzen), a locality of Altenmedingen, in the Uelzen district, A subdivision of Celle in the district of Celle, This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid... Welsumer is a chicken breed from The Netherlands. ... An 19th century American chicken breed of unknown origin. ... The Wyandotte chicken is a breed of chicken that began in America and spread all over the world. ... The Yurlov Crower is an old Russian breed of chicken primarily used for long crowing cock contests in Russia. ...

Famous chickens

A free roaming chicken family of rooster, hen and six chicks as seen on the streets of downtown Key West, Florida
A free roaming chicken family of rooster, hen and six chicks as seen on the streets of downtown Key West, Florida

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2048x1536, 1921 KB)Digital photo taken by Marc Averette. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2048x1536, 1921 KB)Digital photo taken by Marc Averette. ... A rooster or cock is a male chicken, the female being a hen. ... Look up hen in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A baby chicken Look up chick in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Nickname: The Conch Republic, Southernmost City In The Continental United States Coordinates: Country United States State Florida County Monroe Government Type Council-Manager  - Mayor Morgan McPherson Area    - City  7. ...

Real chickens

Mike and his head, together for the last time. ... The Hollywood Freeway chickens are a colony of feral chickens that live under the Vineland Avenue off-ramp of the Hollywood Freeway (U.S. Route 101) in Los Angeles, California. ...

Fictional chickens

Clemens Brentano, or Klemens Brentano (September 8, 1778 – July 28, 1842) was a German poet and novelist. ... Billina is a hen tossed overboard in a storm with Dorothy Gale in the novel Ozma of Oz, the third Oz book, and a sequel to L. Frank Baums The Wonderful Wizard of Oz. ... The Laughing Dragon of Oz, see Frank Joslyn Baum . ... The original 1907 book cover by John R. Neill. ... A Maverick, in the video game series Mega Man X and Mega Man Zero, is a Reploid who generally defies the will of the Maverick Hunters or of the human governments. ... Mega Man X8 (Rockman X8 in Japan) is the eighth and most recent game in the Mega Man X video game series, released in PlayStation 2 and PC. After fan complaints over Mega Man X7s foray into 3-D, Capcom went back to 2-D linear progression through stages... For the original NASA meaning, see capsule communicator. ... Gonzo (aka Gonzo the Great or the Great Gonzo) is a puppet character, one of Jim Hensons Muppets. ... Chanticleer is the name of a rooster in the fable Chanticleer and the Fox, one version of which is told in Chaucers Canterbury Tales. ... Geoffrey Chaucer (c. ... Canterbury Tales Woodcut 1484 The Canterbury Tales is a collection of stories written by Geoffrey Chaucer in the 14th century (two of them in prose, the rest in verse). ... Chanticleer is the name of a rooster in the fable Chanticleer and the Fox, one version of which is told in Chaucers Canterbury Tales. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Rock-a-Doodle is a 1991 animated re-telling of Edmond Rostands Chantecler. ... Cow and Chicken is an American animated television series, created by David Feiss, first broadcast on the Cartoon Network from 1997 to 1999. ... Chicken Boo was a sketch character on the Animaniacs television series. ... Steven Spielberg Presents Animaniacs was a popular American animated television series, distributed by Warner Bros. ... The Sky Is Falling, also known as Chicken Little, Chicken Licken or Henny Penny is an old, classical fable of unknown origin about a chicken who believes the sky is falling. ... Chicken Man was a radio series created in the 1960s by Dick Orkin when he was a production director at WCFL in Chicago, Illinois. ... Cucco is a fictional chicken-like species from the Legend of Zelda series. ... The official sword and shield logo of The Legend of Zelda introduced during the release of The Legend of Zelda: Ocarina of Time. ... Fission Chicken has problems with the TV. Art by J.P. Morgan. ... Foghorn Leghorn is a large, Southern-accented anthropomorphic adult rooster appearing in numerous Warner Brothers animated cartoons, especially Looney Tunes. ... Looney Tunes opening title Looney Tunes is a Warner Brothers animated cartoon series which ran in many movie theatres from 1930 to 1969. ... Nikolay Andreyevich Rimsky-Korsakov (Russian: Никола́й Андре́евич Ри́мский-Ко́рсаков), also Nikolai, Nicolai, and Rimsky-Korsakoff, (March 18, 1844 &#8211... Luigi Malerba ((Luigi Banardi)), *1927 in Berceto near Parma, Italian author of historical novels and screen-scripts. ... DreamWorks, LLC (also known as Dreamworks Pictures or DreamWorks SKG) is one of the major American film studios which develops, produces, and distributes films, video games, and television programming. ... This article is about the movie. ... See also: 1972 in literature, other events of 1973, 1974 in literature, list of years in literature. ... An illustration for the main theme of Jonathan Livingston Seagull. ... Golden Book version book cover The Little Red Hen is an old folk tale, most likely of Russian origin. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Little Jerry Seinfeld- A rooster that Kramer purchases in the hit TV show Seinfeld thinking that it was a chicken and could produce eggs for him because the ones at the restraunt were horrible. ... The Little Jerry is the 145th episode of the hit sitcom Seinfeld. ... This article is about the sitcom. ... Joseph Joey Francis Tribbiani, Jr. ... Chandler Muriel Bing (born April 8, 1968) is a fictional character on the popular US television sitcom Friends (1994–2004), played by Matthew Perry. ... The Chick and the Duck were a chick and a duck owned by Chandler Bing and Joey Tribbiani in the American television sitcom Friends that became a running gag over many years. ... Friends. ... // A parable is a brief, succinct story, in prose or verse, that illustrates a moral or religious lesson. ... Rabbi (or Rebbe) Nachman of Breslov (1772 - 1810) was the great-grandson of Rebbe Israel, the founder of Hasidic Judaism. ... The San Diego Chicken -- originally known as the KGB Chicken -- an advertising mascot played by Ted Giannoulas, was hatched in 1974 when employees of KGB Radio hired Giannoulas from off-the-street to wear the chicken outfit for a promotion to distribute easter eggs to children at the San Diego... Sweety the Chick is a mobile phone ringtone, wallpaper, and 3G video by Jamba! (known as Jamster! in some markets). ... The Subservient Chicken is a viral marketing promotion of Burger Kings line of chicken sandwiches and their Have it Your Way campaign. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Leongatha is a town in Victoria, Australia. ... Aqua Teen Hunger Force (also known as ATHF or simply Aqua Teen) is an American animated television series shown on Cartoon Network as part of its Adult Swim late-night programming block. ... U.S. Acres (known as Orsons Farm outside the United States) is a comic strip that ran from 1986 to 1989 created by Jim Davis, author of the popular comic strip Garfield. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Family Guy is an American animated television series about a nuclear family in the suburb of Quahog (IPA or ), Rhode Island. ... Robot Chicken is an American stop motion animated television series created by Stoop!d Monkey and Sony Pictures Digital and produced by ShadowMachine Films, currently airing in the US as a part of Cartoon Networks Adult Swim line-up, in Britain as part of the Bravos Adult Swim... The Adult Swim logo Adult Swim, usually rendered [adult swim] based on its logo, is the name for the adult-oriented television programming block on Cartoon Network in the United States, featuring absurdist and often ribald comedy in contrast to the tamer daytime Cartoon Network. ... Caucasian, male, aging, crooked teeth, messy hair, lab coat, spectacles/goggles, dramatic posing — one popular stereotype of a mad scientist. ... For the professional wrestler known as Roadkill, see Michael Depoli, for the movie marketed as Roadkill in the UK and Australia, see Joy Ride. ... A cyborg is a cybernetic organism (i. ... Wallace & Gromit is a good example of cartoons made with stop-motion animation. ... For information about The Sketch Show TV programme, see The Sketch Show. ... Walter R. Brooks (January 9, 1886 - August 17, 1958) was an American writer best remembered for his short stories and childrens books, particularly those about Freddy the Pig and other anthropomorphic animal inhabitants of the Bean farm in upstate New York. ... This article needs cleanup. ... Super Chicken was a cartoon produced by Jay Ward and Bill Scott, who earlier had created the Rocky and Bullwinkle cartoons. ... In the stories of Robin Hood, Alan-a-Dale (also spelled Alan-A-Dale, Allen-a-Dale, Allan-a-Dale and Allin-a-Dale) is a young minstrel who was a member of the Merry Men. ... Disney may refer to: The Walt Disney Company and its divisions, including Walt Disney Pictures. ... Robin Hood is an animated film produced by the Walt Disney Studios, first released in the United States on November 8, 1973. ... Categories: Literature stubs | 1976 books | American novels | Books starting with S ... Roots was a 1977 American television miniseries based on Alex Haleys work Roots: The Saga of an American Family, his critically acclaimed genealogical novel. ... The Foster Farms poultry company was founded in 1939 by Max and Verda Foster in Modesto, California. ... Jackass is an American television series, originally shown on MTV from 2000 to 2002, featuring people performing various dangerous, ridiculous, and self-injuring stunts and pranks. ... Jackass is an American television series, originally shown on MTV from 2000 to 2002, featuring people performing various dangerous, ridiculous, and self-injuring stunts and pranks. ... This article is about the character. ...

Mythical creatures with chicken-like anatomy

  • The hut of the Russian witch Baba Yaga moves on chicken feet
  • The demon Abraxas, often depicted on "Gnostic gems" has a cock's head, the upper body of a man, while his lower part is formed by a snake. He often holds a whip.
  • The Basilisk, a giant snake who kills with a single glance and poisons wells, was hatched by a toad from a hen's egg. The Basilisk will die if it hears a rooster crowing.
  • The cockatrice

It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Witchcraft. ... Yaga can refer to: Yajna (Hindu mythology) Baba Yaga (Russian mythology) Yaga (clothing company) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Engraving from an Abraxas stone. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Woodblock print of a basilisk from Ulisse Aldrovandi, Monstrorum historia, 1642 Cityseal of Zwolle from 1295 with Saint-Michael killing a basilisk In European bestiaries and legends, a basilisk (from the Greek βασιλίσκος basiliskos, a little king, in Latin Regulus) is a legendary reptile reputed to be king of serpents and... Cockatrice A cockatrice is a legendary creature, an ornament in the drama and poetry of the Elizabethans (Breiner). ...

Chicken as symbol

National symbols are symbols of states, nations and countries in the world. ... Apotheosis of the French heroes who fell for the nation during the War of Liberty by Anne-Louis Girodet-Trioson (1802) is an allegory that features the bard Ossian welcoming the generals Desaix, Kléber, Marceau, Hoche et Championnet in Heaven; new symbols of the nation born from the Revolution... Anthem: Rise O Voices of Rhodesia (from 1974) Capital Salisbury Language(s) English Government Republic President¹  - 1970-1975 Clifford Dupont  - 1976-1978 John Wrathall Officer Administering the Government¹  - 1965-1970 Clifford Dupont Prime minister  - 1965-1979 Ian Smith Historical era Cold War  - Independence (UDI) November 11, 1965  - Republic declared March... The Zimbabwe African National Union was a political party during the struggle for Rhodesias, ultimately Zimbabwes, independence, formed as a split from ZAPU. It won the 1980 elections under the leadership of Robert Mugabe, and eight years later merged again with Joshua Nkomos ZAPU to form Zanu... World literacy rates by country The traditional definition of Literacy is the ability to use language ie to read, write, listen and speak. ... Sir Robin the Not-quite-so-brave-as-Sir-Lancelot (also known as Sir Robin the Chicken-hearted) is a comic fictional character played by Eric Idle in the film Monty Python and the Holy Grail, and by David Hyde Pierce in the Broadway musical Spamalot. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Denizli is a city in southwestern Turkey. ... Tottenham Hotspur Football Club is an English professional football club, who play in the FA Premier League. ... The Sydney Roosters (also known as The Roosters) are a professional rugby league football club based in the Eastern Suburbs of Sydney, Australia. ... The North Adelaide Roosters are a South Australian National Football League club. ... Binomial name Gallus gallus The Rhode Island Red (Gallus gallus) is a very popular breed of chicken. ... Official language(s) English Capital Providence Largest city Providence Area  Ranked 50th  - Total 1,214* sq mi (3,144* km²)  - Width 37 miles (60 km)  - Length 48 miles (77 km)  - % water 32. ... Pathé or Pathé Frères is the name of various businesses founded and originally run by the Pathé Brothers of France. ... The University of South Carolina, Columbia (USC or Carolina) is a public, co-educational, research university located in Columbia, South Carolina, United States. ... A gamecock is a strong, colorful, and territorial type of chicken, or fowl, bred for maximum aggression. ...

See also

A chicken can be hypnotized, or put into a trance by holding its head down against the ground, and continuously drawing a line along the ground with a stick or a finger, starting at its beak and extending straight outward in front of the chicken. ... This is a list of chicken breeds. ... The chicken or the egg is a reference to the causality dilemma which arises from the expression which came first, the chicken or the egg?. Since the chicken emerges from an egg, and the egg is laid by a chicken, it is ambiguous which originally gave rise to the other. ... Why did the chicken cross the road? is one of the most famous jokes in the English language. ... A prop comic holding a rubber chicken in sweatpants (as in the simile looser than a rubber chicken in sweatpants). Please see this page: www. ... This page relates to hybrids of game-birds, including ducks, with each other and with domestic poultry. ...


  1. ^ Havenstein, G.B., P.R. Ferket, and M.A. Qureshi, 2003a. Growth, livability, and feed conversion of 1957 versus 2001 broilers when fed representative 1957 and 2001 broiler diets. Poult. Sci. 82:1500-1508

P. Smith, The Chicken Book (University of Georgia Press, 2000), passim. 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

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19th July 2010
I will recommend not to hold back until you get enough money to buy all you need! You can just get the business loans or just sba loan and feel free

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