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Encyclopedia > Chickasaw
Chickasaw

Holmes Colbert, a developer of the Chickasaw constitution in Oklahoma, 1850s
Total population

38,000 [1] Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Colbert. ...

Regions with significant populations
United States (Oklahoma, Mississippi, Louisiana)
Language(s)
English, Chickasaw
Religion(s)
Protestantism, other
Related ethnic groups
Native American, Five Civilized Tribes, Choctaw

The Chickasaw are Native American people of the United States, who originally resided along the Tennessee River west of Huntsville, Alabama covering Mississippi and Tennessee. Sometime prior to the first European contact, the Chickasaw moved east and settled east of the Mississippi River. All historical records indicate the Chickasaw lived in northeast Mississippi from the first European contact until they were forced to remove to Oklahoma, where most now live. They are related to the Choctaws, who speak a language very similar to the Chickasaw language, both forming the Western Group of the Muskogean languages. "Chickasaw" is the English spelling of Chikasha (IPA: [tʃikaʃːa]), that means "rebel" or "comes from Chicsa". The Chickasaw are divided in two groups: the "Impsaktea" and the "Intcutwalipa". The Chickasaws were one of the "Five Civilized Tribes" forcibly removed to the Indian Territory during the era of Indian Removal. The Chickasaw Nation is the thirteenth largest federally-recognized tribe in the United States. For other uses, see Oklahoma (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... The Chickasaw language (Chikashshanompa, IPA ) is a Native American language of Muskogean family. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Protestantism encompasses the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated with the doctrines of the Reformation. ... This article is about the people indigenous to the United States. ... The Five Civilized Tribes is the term applied to five Native American nations, the Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek, and Seminole, considered civilized by white Anais because they had adopted many of the colonists customs (including the ownership of plantations and black slaves) and had generally good relations with their neighbors. ... For other uses, see Choctaw (disambiguation). ... The Chickasaw are a Native American nation now mostly living in Mississippi, Louisiana, and Oklahoma. ... This article is about the people indigenous to the United States. ... A riverboat passing under the Henley Street Bridge on the Tennessee River. ... Huntsville, Alabama (top center), near the Tennessee border, is north of Birmingham and northeast of Decatur, across the Tennessee River flowing northwest. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. state of Tennessee. ... For the river in Canada, see Mississippi River (Ontario). ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... For other uses, see Oklahoma (disambiguation). ... The Choctaws are a Native American group who, in times past, lived in the land occupied by the southeast United States, using the trail that is now known as the Natchez Trace as a trade route to the north. ... The Chickasaw language (Chikashshanompa, IPA ) is a Native American language of Muskogean family. ... Pre-contact distribution of Muskogean languages Muskogean (also Muskhogean, Muskogee) is a language family of the Southeastern United States. ... The Five Civilized Tribes is the term applied to five Native American nations, the Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek, and Seminole, considered civilized by white Anais because they had adopted many of the colonists customs (including the ownership of plantations and black slaves) and had generally good relations with their neighbors. ... Indian Territory in 1836 Indian Country redirects here. ... Indian Removal was a nineteenth century policy of the government of the United States that sought to relocate American Indian (or Native American) tribes living east of the Mississippi River to lands west of the river. ...

Contents

History

Nearly 12,000 years ago, Native Americans or Paleo-indians appeared in the what today is referred to as the South.[2] Paleoindians in the Southeast were fairly generalized hunter-gatherers who pursued a wide range of animals including the megafauna that soon became extinct following the end of the Pleistocene age. Paleo-Indians is an English term used to refer to the ancient peoples of America who were present at the end of the last Ice Age. ... Historic Southern United States. ... In anthropology, the hunter-gatherer way of life is that led by certain societies of the Neolithic Era based on the exploitation of wild plants and animals. ... It has been suggested that Charismatic megafauna be merged into this article or section. ... The Pleistocene epoch (IPA: ) on the geologic timescale is the period from 1,808,000 to 11,550 years BP. The Pleistocene epoch had been intended to cover the worlds recent period of repeated glaciations. ...


The origin of the Chickasaws is uncertain. Noted historian Horatio Cushman indicates that the Chickasaw, along with the Choctaw, may have had Mexican origins.[3] When Europeans first encountered them, the Chickasaws were living in villages in what is now Mississippi, with a smaller number in the area of Savannah Town, South Carolina. The Chickasaws may have been immigrants to the area and perhaps were not descendants of Indians of the pre-historic Mississippian culture.[citation needed] Their oral history supports this, indicating they moved along with the Choctaws from west of the Mississippi in pre-history. Central Savannah River in 1775 showing Augusta, Fort Moore / Savannah Town, New Savannah, and bounds of New Windsor Township Savannah Town, South Carolina was first observed in the 1670s as a Westo village, located on the Savannah River below the fall line in present day Aiken County. ... The Mississippian culture was a mound-building Native American culture that flourished in what is now the Midwestern, Eastern, and Southeastern United States from approximately 800 to 1500 A.D., varying regionally. ...

These people (the choctaw) are the only nation from whom I could learn any idea of a traditional account of a first origin; and that is their coming out of a hole in the ground, which they shew between their nation and the Chickasaws; they tell us also that their neighbours were surprised at seeing a people rise at once out of the earth.

Bernard Romans- Natural History of East and West Florida Bernard Romans (1720 - 1784) was a navigator, surveyor, cartographer, naturalist, engineer, soldier, promoter and writer. ...

The first European contact with the Chickasaws was in 1540, when Spanish explorer Hernando De Soto encountered them and stayed in one of their towns, most likely near present-day Tupelo, Mississippi.[citation needed] After various disagreements, the Chickasaws attacked the De Soto expedition in a nighttime raid, nearly destroying the expedition, soon after which the Spanish moved on.[citation needed] For the Peruvian economist, see Hernando de Soto (economist). ... Tupelo (IPA: [tu:pəlo]) is the largest city and county seat within Lee County, Mississippi. ...


The Chickasaws began to trade with the British after the colony of Carolina was founded in 1670.[citation needed] With British-supplied guns, the Chickasaws raided their enemies the Choctaws, capturing Choctaws and selling them into slavery, a practice that stopped once the Choctaws acquired guns from the French. The Chickasaws were often at war with the French and the Choctaws in the eighteenth century, such as in the Battle of Ackia on May 26, 1736, until France gave up her claims to the region after the Seven Years' War. The Carolina Colony grants Haystack of 1663 and 1665 The Province of Carolina from 1663 to 1729, was a North American British colony. ... The Battle of Ackia (uh-KEE-uh) took place on May 26, 1736, near present-day Tupelo, Mississippi. ... is the 146th day of the year (147th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 26 - Stanislaus I of Poland abdicates his throne. ... For the 1563–1570 war, see Northern Seven Years War. ...


In 1793-94 Chickasaw fought as allies of the United States under General Anthony Wayne against the Indians of the old Northwest Territory, who were defeated in the Battle of Fallen Timbers, August 20, 1794.[citation needed] is the 232nd day of the year (233rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1794 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ...

Neither the Choctaws nor Chicksaws ever engaged in war against the American people, but always stood as their faithful allies.

—Horatio Cushman- History of the Choctaw, Chickasaw, and Natchez Indians, 1899

Removal

Chickasaw youth, c. 1868.
Chickasaw youth, c. 1868.

Unlike other tribes who exchanged land grants, the Chickasaw received financial compensation from the United States for their lands east of the Mississippi River.[4] In 1836 the Chickasaws had reached an agreement that purchased land from the previously removed Choctaws after a bitter five year debate. They paid the Choctaws $530,000 for the western most part Choctaw land. The first group of Chickasaws moved in 1837.


The Chickasaws gathered at Memphis Tennessee on July 4, 1837 with all of their assets--belongings, livestock, and slaves. Three thousand and one Chickasaw crossed the Mississippi River, and then they followed routes previously established by Choctaws and Creeks.[4] Once in Indian Territory the Chickasaws merged with the Choctaw nation. After several decades of mistrust, they regained nationhood and established a Chickasaw nation.


The majority of the tribe was deported to Indian Territory (now headquartered in Ada, Oklahoma) in the 1830s. Remnants of the South Carolina Chickasaws, known as the Chaloklowa Chickasaws have reorganized tribal government, and gained official recognition from the state in the summer of 2005, having their tribal headquarters at Indiantown, South Carolina. Indian Removal was a nineteenth century policy of the government of the United States that sought to relocate American Indian (or Native American) tribes living east of the Mississippi River to lands west of the river. ... Indian Territory in 1836 Indian Country redirects here. ... Ada is a city and the county seat of Pontotoc County, Oklahoma, United States. ... The Chaloklowa Chickasaws are a remnant of the Chickasaw tribe of the eastern United States that avoided the forced 1838 Indian removal to what is now Oklahoma. ... Indiantown is an unincorporated community in rural Williamsburg County, South Carolina that is a historical site in the area. ...


During the American Civil War, the Chickasaw Nation allied with the South (Joseph McClure) and it was the last Confederate community to surrender in the U.S.[citation needed] Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... Motto Deo Vindice (Latin: Under God, Our Vindicator) Anthem (none official) God Save the South (unofficial) The Bonnie Blue Flag (unofficial) Dixie (unofficial)  States that seceded under CSA control  States and territories claimed by CSA without formal secession and/or control Capital Montgomery, Alabama (until May 29, 1861) Richmond, Virginia...


Government

Most government services are administrated from Ada.[citation needed]


Treaties

Treaty Year Signed with Where Purpose Ceded Land
Chickasaw Treaty of 1805[5] 1805 United States Chickasaw Nation Eliminate debt to U.S. merchants and traders (Not Available yet) acres
Treaty of Pontotoc[5] 1832 United States Chickasaw Nation Removal and Monetary gain form the sale of land 6,422,400 acres.[4]

Culture

Pashofa, cracked white hominy boiled with pork, is a main dish which is still eaten. Hogs are not native to the Americas but escaped and became feral from De Soto's expedition. Hominy or nixtamal is dried, treated maize (corn) kernels. ... For other uses, see Pork (disambiguation). ... Alien species redirects here. ...


Obion is a Chickasaw Indian name meaning "river of many forks".


The suffix "-mingo" (Chickasaw: minko' ) is used to identify a chieftain. For example, "Tishomingo" was the name of a famous Chickasaw chief. The town of Tishomingo, Mississippi and Tishomingo County, Mississippi were named after him, as was the town of Tishomingo, Oklahoma. South Carolina's Black Mingo Creek was named after the colonial Chickasaw chief, who controlled the lands around it as a sort of hunting preserve. Sometimes it is spelled "minko", but this most generally occurs in older literary references. Tishomingo is a town in Tishomingo County, Mississippi, United States. ... Tishomingo County is a county located in the state of Mississippi. ... Tishomingo is a city located in Johnston County, Oklahoma. ... Black Mingo Creek is a tributary to the Black River in coastal South Carolina. ...


Notable Chickasaws

Bill Anoatubby (born November 8, 1945), is the Governor of the Chickasaw Nation. ... The Chickasaws are a Native American people of the United States, originally from present-day Mississippi, now mostly living in Oklahoma. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Rep. ... Image:FMollyCulver. ... Hiawatha Thomson Estes (b. ... Bee Ho Gray was a Western performer who spent fifty years displaying his skills in Wild West Shows, vaudeville, circus, silent films and radio. ... Note: You may also be looking for U.S. politician John S. Herrington. ... For other uses, see Astronaut (disambiguation). ... Terrence Gene Bollea (born on August 11, 1953) is an American actor and semi-retired professional wrestler better known by his ring name Hulk Hogan. ... {{Infobox_Actor | name = Miko Hughes | image = replace this image1. ... Rodd Redwing (Roderic/Rodric Redwing), (August 24, 1904, New York, NY - May 30, 1972, Los Angeles, CA), was a Native American actor, noted for being the world’s greatest quick-draw artist with six-guns. ... Jerod Impichchaachaaha Tate Jerod Impichchaachaaha Tate (born Jerod Sheffer Tate; b. ... Fred Waite (September 28, 1853-September 24, 1895) was a Native American who turned into a cowboy and joined Billy the Kids gang. ...

See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Category:Chickasaw

The Chickasaw language (Chikashshanompa, IPA ) is a Native American language of Muskogean family. ... Black Indians is a term generally used to describe people who have significant traces of both African and Native American ancestry and/or African Americans who have lived for a long time with Native Americans. ... It has been suggested that List of Native American tribes be merged into this article or section. ... This article is about the people indigenous to the United States. ...

References

  1. ^ [1]
  2. ^ Prentice, Guy (2003). Pushmataha, Choctaw Indian Chief (HTML). Southeast Chronicles. Retrieved on 2008-02-11.
  3. ^ Cushman, Horatio [1899]. "Choctaw, Chickasaw, and Natchez", History of the Choctaw, Chickasaw and Natchez Indians. University of Oklahoma Press, 18-19. ISBN 0806131276. 
  4. ^ a b c Jesse Burt & Bob Ferguson [1973]. "The Removal", Indians of the Southeast: Then and Now. Abingdon Press, Nashiville and New York, 170-173. ISBN 0687187931. 
  5. ^ a b Kappler, Charles (1904). INDIAN AFFAIRS: LAWS AND TREATIES Vol. II, Treaties (HTML). Government Printing Office. Retrieved on 2008-05-02.
  6. ^ Public Affairs Department, University of New Mexico. "UNM ASSISTANT PROFESSOR WINS AMERICAN BOOK AWARD", September 7, 2001. Accessed June 27, 2007.
  • Calloway, Colin G. The American Revolution in Indian Country. Cambridge University Press, 1995.see google.com

2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 42nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 122nd day of the year (123rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 250th day of the year (251st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... is the 178th day of the year (179th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ...

External links

*"Chickasaws: The Unconquerable People", a brief history by Greg O’Brien, Ph.D.

The Five Civilized Tribes is the term applied to five Native American nations, the Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek, and Seminole, considered civilized by white Anais because they had adopted many of the colonists customs (including the ownership of plantations and black slaves) and had generally good relations with their neighbors. ... This page contains special characters. ... For other uses, see Choctaw (disambiguation). ... The Creek are an American Indian people originally from the southeastern United States, also known by their original name Muscogee (or Muskogee), the name they use to identify themselves today. ... For other uses, see Seminole (disambiguation). ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Chickasaw (17971 words)
Socially, the Chickasaw had 7 to 15 totemic, matrilineal, exogamic clans meaning that clan membership was determined by the mother and you had to marry outside your clan.
The Chickasaw supplied the Spanish with corn but were still trying to find a way way to rid themselves of their "guests." To this end, they asked the Spanish to help them crush a revolt by a tributary tribe to the west, the Chakchiuma.
Meanwhile, the Chickasaw's old antagonist, Bienville was to command a second force of 600 French and 1,000 loyal Choctaw warriors which was to follow the Tombigbee River north from Mobile and strike the Chickasaw from the south.
"Wild Horse". Native American Art & History. Native people tribe. Chickasaw (1580 words)
There was a strict division of labor among the Chickasaw, with women responsible for the supervision of slaves and tending the fields of corn, beans, and squash, while men hunted deer, bear, and buffalo.
Like their neighbors, the Chickasaw removed all body hair and made extensive use of tattooing, but what was really distinctive was that they flattened the foreheads of infants to "enhance" their appearance as adults.
Socially, the Chickasaw had 7 to 15 totemic, matrilineal, exogamic clans meaning that clan membership was determined by the mother and you had to marry outside your clan.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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