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Encyclopedia > Chicha
Chicha served with pipeño

Chicha is a Spanish word for any variety of fermented beverage. It can be made of maize, manioc root (also called yuca or cassava), or fruits, and other things. During the Inca Empire women were taught the techniques of brewing chicha in Acllahuasis (feminine schools). It is traditionally prepared from a specific kind of yellow maize (jora) and is usually referred to as chicha de jora. It has a pale straw color, a slightly milky appearance, and a slightly sour aftertaste, reminiscent of hard apple cider. It is drunk either young and sweet or mature and strong. It contains a slight amount of alcohol, 1-3%. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Binomial name Manihot esculenta Crantz Cassava or manioc (Manihot esculenta; also yuca in Spanish, and mandioca, aipim, or macaxera in Portuguese) is a woody perennial shrub of the spurge family, that is extensively cultivated as an annual crop for its edible starchy tuberous root. ... Capital Cusco 1197-1533 Vilcabamba 1533-1572 Language(s) Quechua, Aymara, Jaqi family, Mochic and scores of smaller languages. ... Amauta Inca education during the time of the Inca Empire was divided into two principal spheres: education for the upper classes and education for the general population. ... This article is about the maize plant. ...


While chicha is most commonly associated with maize, the word is used in the Andes for almost any homemade fermented drink, and many different grains or fruits are used to make "chicha" in different regions.


In Peru, chicha also means an informal and transient arrangement, or a street vendor. In Chile, chicha refers to a type of homemade sweet wine made by families for special occasions. In other Latin American countries like Panama, chicha can simply mean "fruit drink."


The common Spanish expression Ni chicha ni limonada (neither chicha nor lemonade) is roughly equivalent to the English "neither fish nor fowl." (Thus, it is used when something is not easily placed into a category.) This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...

Contents

Etymology

According to the Real Academia Española and other authors, the word chicha comes from the kuna word chichab, which means maize. However, according to Luis Goatherd it comes from the Nahuatl word chichiatl, which means "fermented water"; the verb chicha meaning "to sour a drink" and the postfix -atl meaning water. The Real Academia Española (Spanish for Royal Spanish Academy, RAE) is the institution responsible for regulating the Spanish language. ... Dulegaya (Kuna Language) The Kuna Language belongs to the Chibchan linguistic family. ... This article is about the maize plant. ... Nahuatl ( [1] is a term applied to a group of related languages and dialects of the Aztecan [2] branch of the Uto-Aztecan language family, indigenous to central Mexico. ... A suffix is an affix that follows the morphemes to which it can attach. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ...


Preparation

Chicha de jora is prepared by germinating maize, extracting the malt sugars, boiling the wort, and fermenting it in large vessels, traditionally huge earthenware vats, for several days. Not to be confused with Gemination in phonetics. ... Malted barley Malting is a process applied to cereal grains, in which the grains are made to germinate and then are quickly dried before the plant develops. ... Wort (IPA ) is the liquid extracted from the mashing process during the brewing of beer or whisky. ...

chicha morada; unfermented chicha made from black maize and boiled with pineapple and spices.
chicha morada; unfermented chicha made from black maize and boiled with pineapple and spices.

In some cultures, in lieu of germination of the maize for release of the starches in the maize, the maize is ground, moistened in the chicha maker's mouth and formed into small balls which are then flattened and laid out to dry. Naturally occurring diastase enzymes in the maker's saliva catalyses the breakdown of starch in the maize into maltose. (This process of chewing grains or other starches was used in the production of alcoholic beverages in pre-modern cultures around the world including for example sake in Japan.) Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 173 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Foto de maíz morado siendo hervido para obtener chicha morada. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 173 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Foto de maíz morado siendo hervido para obtener chicha morada. ... Diastase (from the Greek word for separate) is a group of enzymes which catalyses the breakdown of starch into glucose. ... Neuraminidase ribbon diagram An enzyme (in Greek en = in and zyme = blend) is a protein, or protein complex, that catalyzes a chemical reaction and also controls the 3D orientation of the catalyzed substrates. ... In chemistry and biology, catalysis is the acceleration (increase in rate) of a chemical reaction by means of a substance, called a catalyst, that is itself not consumed by the overall reaction. ... Starch (CAS# 9005-25-8) is a complex carbohydrate which is insoluble in water; it is used by plants as a way to store excess glucose. ... Maltose, or malt sugar, is a disaccharide formed from two units of glucose joined with an α(1→4) linkage. ... Sake barrels at Itsukushima Shrine. ...


Chicha Morada on the other hand is not fermented. It is usually made of black maize which is boiled with pineapple, cinnamon, and clove. This gives a strong purple-colored liquid which is then mixed with sugar and lemon. This beverage is usually taken as a refreshment.


A good description of the preparation of a Bolivian way to make chicha can be found in Cutler, Hugh and Martin Cardenas, “Chicha a Native South American Beer”, Harvard University Botanical Museum Leaflets, V.13, N.3, December 29, 1947


Use

Chicha de jora has been prepared and consumed in communities throughout in the Andes for millennia. The Inca used chicha for ritual purposes and consumed it in vast quantities during religious festivals. Mills in which it was probably made were found at Machu Picchu. In recent years, however, the traditionally prepared chicha is becoming increasingly rare. Only in a small number of towns and villages in southern Peru, Bolivia, Ecuador, and Colombia (specially in the Colombian andean region -on and around Bogotá-) it is still prepared. For other meanings of Inca, see Inca (disambiguation). ... Machu Picchu (Quechua: Machu Pikchu Old Peak) is a pre-Columbian Inca city located at 2,430 m (7,970 ft) altitude[1] on a mountain ridge above the Urubamba Valley in Peru, about 70 km (44 mi) northwest of Cusco. ... For other uses, see Bogotá (disambiguation). ...


In Peru, mature chicha is used in cooking as a kind of cooking wine, in, for example, seco de cabrito (stewed goat). Cooking wine refers to inexpensive wine that has been treated with salt as a preservative. ... Species See Species and subspecies The goat is a mammal in the genus Capra, which consists of nine species: the Ibex, the West Caucasian Tur, the East Caucasian Tur, the Markhor, and the Wild Goat. ...


Chicha Morada is said to reduce blood pressure. It is also under investigation that Chicha de Jora acts as an anti-inflammatory on the prostate.


Chicha tastes great mixed with Coca Sek, a Colombian beverage made from coca leaf. Coca Sek is a carbonated beverage that the Páez people of south-western Colombia began selling in December, 2005. ...


Varieties

There are various regional varieties of chicha:

  • In Lima and other large coastal cities, chicha morada is prepared from maiz morado (purple corn). It is usually sweet and consumed cold like a softdrink. It is even industrially prepared and sold in bottles and cans.
  • In and around Cuzco, strawberries are added to chicha in season to make frutillada.
  • In Puno, chicha can be found made from quinoa. It is very pale in color, almost white.
  • In Ayacucho, chicha de siete semillas is a thick, rich-tasting chicha made from maize, wheat, barley, and garbanzo beans.
  • In the town of Huanta, chicha de molle is prepared from the small, reddish seeds of the molle tree. It is very rare and perhaps the most delicately flavored chicha.
  • In Venezuela chicha or chicha de arroz is made of boiled rice, milk, sugar and chopped ice. It is usually served as a sweet, refreshing beverage with ground cinnamon and/or condensed milk toppings. In most large cities, chicha can be offered by street vendors, commonly referred to as Chicheros. The Venezuelan Andean regions prepare an alternative version, with added fermented pineapple, which has a more liquory taste. This variety is commonly referred to as Chicha Andina and is a typical Christmas time beverage.
  • In Chile chicha is made from grapes or apples and drunk during the 18th of September celebrations (Independence Day).
  • In Bolivia chicha is most often made from maize but amaranth chicha is also traditional and popular.
  • In many parts of Colombia chicha is prepared with maize, yuca, quinoa, pineapple, rice, potatoes, etc., depending on the zone. Some recipes even include cannabis or coca leaf, or other traditional entheogens. It is drunk in large quantities in celebrations but also as a refreshing and nutritious beverage. Chicha is prepared in many ways, and is considered an art, and a person who makes good chicha is respected, but it is usually kept between family and friends because of cases of prohibition, the difficulty of storing and transporting it, as well as prejudice against indigenous traditions (though the tradition has spread to many non-indigenous communities). While primarily consumed in rural areas, some bars and restaurants in Bogotá and other Andean cities serve chicha, and the drink is especially popular in countercultural circles as a sort of DIY alternative to mass-produced beers.

This article is about Lima, Peru. ... See other Peruvian regions President Carlos R. Cuaresma Capital Cusco Area 71,986. ... For other uses, see Strawberry (disambiguation). ... Nickname: Location in Peru Country Peru Region Puno Region Province Puno Province Elevation 3,860 m m (12,421 ft) Population  - City 100 168 Time zone UTC-5 (UTC) Website: PUNO PERU[2] [3]Puno is a city in southeastern [[[Peru]]], located at the edge of Lake Titicaca, the world... Binomial name Willd. ... Ayacucho is the capital city of Huamanga Province, Ayacucho Region, Peru. ... Species T. aestivum T. boeoticum T. dicoccoides T. dicoccon T. durum T. monococcum T. spelta T. sphaerococcum T. timopheevii References:   ITIS 42236 2002-09-22 Wheat Wheat For the indie rock group, see Wheat (band). ... Binomial name L. Barley (Hordeum vulgare) is an annual cereal grain, which serves as a major animal feed crop, with smaller amounts used for malting and in health food. ... Binomial name Cicer arietinum L. The chickpea, garbanzo bean or bengal gram (Cicer arietinum) is an edible pulse of the Leguminosae or Fabaceae family, subfamily Faboideae or Papilionoideae. ... Binomial name Schinus molle Raddi Peruvian Pepper (Schinus molle, also known as California pepper tree, molle, pepper tree, pepperina, Peruvian mastictree and Peruvian peppertree) is a tree or shrub that grows to between 5 and 18 m tall. ... September 18 is the 261st day of the year (262nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Amaranth (disambiguation). ... See also: DIY Network, a cable TV network. ... This article is about the drink; for the village in Devon England, see Beer, Devon. ...

See also

Alcoholic beverages. ... Pulque, or octli, is an alcoholic beverage made from the fermented juice of the maguey, and is a traditional native beverage of Mesoamerica. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Cauim is a traditional alcoholic beverage of the Native American populations of Brazil, since pre-Columbian times. ...

External links

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Chicha

Bold text Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Alcoholic beverages. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... “Grain alcohol” redirects here. ... An American-produced bottle of ginjō-shu sake. ... The relationship between alcohol consumption and health has been the subject of formal scientific research since at least 1926, when Dr. Raymond Pearl published his book, Alcohol and Longevity, in which he reported his finding that drinking alcohol in moderation was associated with greater longevity than either abstaining or drinking... Alcohol advertising is the promotion of alcoholic beverages by alcohol producers through a variety of media. ... The Jolly Drinker, by Frans Hals Drinking culture is the notable customs shared by groups of people around the world involved in drinking alcoholic beverages. ... A 16th century brewer A 21st century brewer This article concerns the production of alcoholic beverages. ... A distilled beverage is a consumable liquid containing ethyl alcohol (ethanol) purified by distillation from a fermented substance such as fruit, vegetables, or grain. ... Winemakers often use carboys like these to ferment smaller quantities of wine Winemaking, or vinification, is the process of wine production, from the selection of grapes to the bottling of finished wine. ... Bottles of cachaça, a Brazilian alcoholic beverage. ... For other uses, see Beer (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Wine (disambiguation). ... Cider in a pint glass Cider (or cyder) is an alcoholic beverage made primarily from the juices of specially grown varieties of apples. ... Rice wine refers to alcoholic beverages made from rice. ... History Basi is a Sugar Cane wine from the nation state of Guyana ([gaɪa. ... Shaoxing jiu, a famous huangjiu Huangjiu (黄酒; pinyin: huáng jiǔ, lit. ... In the West, Kumis has been touted for its health benefits, as in this 1877 book also naming it Milk Champagne. 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Sambuca is an Italian aniseed-flavored, usually colorless liqueur. ... Applejack is a strong alcoholic beverage produced from apples, originating from the American colonial period. ... A bottle of calvados Pays DAuge Calvados is an apple brandy from the French région of Lower Normandy. ... Scotch whisky is whisky made in Scotland. ... Irish Whiskeys For the novel of the same name, see Irish Whiskey (novel). ... Whisky production in Japan began around 1870, but the first commercial production was in 1923, when the countrys first distillery—Yamazaki—opened. ... Arrack refers to strong spirits distilled mainly in South and South East Asia from fermented fruits, grains, sugarcane, or the sap of coconuts or other palm trees. ... For other uses, see Brandy (disambiguation). ... Gin and tonic. ... 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  Results from FactBites:
 
Chicha - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (487 words)
Chicha is a fermented beverage brewed by the indigenous people of the Andean region, dating back to the Inca Empire when women were taught the techniques of brewing chicha in Acllahuasis (feminine schools).
Chicha de jora is prepared by germinating maize, extracting the malt sugars, boiling the wort, and fermenting it in large vessels, traditionally huge earthenware vats, for several days.
In Ayacucho, chicha de siete semillas is a thick, rich-tasting chicha made from maize, wheat, barley, and garbanzo beans.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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