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Encyclopedia > Chicago Spire
Chicago Spire

Rendering of the Chicago Spire as it will be seen from Lake Michigan.
Image File history File links Gnome_globe_current_event. ... Old Executive Office Building, Washington D.C. Bank of China Tower, Hong Kong, China In architecture, construction, engineering and real estate development the word building may refer to one of the following: Any man-made structure used or intended for supporting or sheltering any use or continuous occupancy, or An... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2820x1181, 2330 KB) // This work is copyrighted and unlicensed. ...

Information
Location 400 N Lake Shore Drive
Chicago, Illinois
Status Under construction[1][2]
Groundbreaking June 25, 2007[1]
Estimated completion 2011 (est.)[3]
Opening 2011 (est.)[3]
Use Residential[4]
Height
Roof 2,000 feet (609.6 m)[4][5]
Technical details
Floor count 150 [7]
Floor area 3,000,000 square feet
(278,709 sq. m)[6]
Companies
Architect Santiago Calatrava[8]
Perkins and Will[8]
Structural
Engineer
Thornton Tomasetti[8]
Contractor Case Foundation[9]
Developer Shelbourne Development[9]

The Chicago Spire is a supertall skyscraper under construction in Chicago, Illinois. The skyscraper will stand taller than Chicago's Sears Tower and New York's upcoming Freedom Tower, as well as Toronto's CN Tower, thereby becoming North America's tallest free-standing structure and the world's tallest all-residential building.[8][4][5] The building was designed by Spanish architect Santiago Calatrava and is being developed by Garrett Kelleher of Shelbourne Development Group, Inc.[4][5][10] The Chicago Spire is scheduled to be completed in 2011 with 150 floors.[4][5][7][9][3] For other uses, see Chicago (disambiguation). ... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Springfield Largest city Chicago Largest metro area Chicago Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 25th  - Total 57,918 sq mi (140,998 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 390 miles (629 km)  - % water 4. ... is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... A residential area is a type of land use where the predominant use is residential. ... Santiago Calatrava Valls (born July 28, 1951) is an internationally recognized and award-winning Spanish architect and structural engineer whose principal office is in Zurich, Switzerland. ... Thornton Tomasetti (formerly The Thornton-Tomasetti Group, Thornton Tomasetti Engineers, LZA Technology) is a 500+ person structural engineering consulting firm headquartered in New York City. ... Shelbourne Development is a real estate development company based out of Dublin, Ireland. ... For other uses, see Skyscraper (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Chicago (disambiguation). ... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Springfield Largest city Chicago Largest metro area Chicago Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 25th  - Total 57,918 sq mi (140,998 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 390 miles (629 km)  - % water 4. ... The Sears Tower is a skyscraper in Chicago, Illinois. ... This article is about the state. ... For the building in Miami, Florida of the same name, see Freedom Tower (Miami). ... This article is about the CN Tower in Toronto. ... North American redirects here. ... Building design is the design of architectural exterior/interior spaces, engineered elements and shelter design. ... Santiago Calatrava Valls (born July 28, 1951) is an internationally recognized and award-winning Spanish architect and structural engineer whose principal office is in Zurich, Switzerland. ... For other uses, see Construction (disambiguation). ... Garrett Kelleher. ... Shelbourne Development is a real estate development company based out of Dublin, Ireland. ...


Originally announced in July of 2005 by Christopher T. Carley of the Fordham Company, the project was supported by many Chicagoans and city officials.[11][12][13] After several months of development, Carley failed to acquire necessary financing and the project was taken over by Garrett Kelleher of the Shelbourne Development Group. Since that time, three major revisions were made to the design.[14] Christopher T. Carley is the chairman of the Fordham Company, the Chicago development firm best known for the proposed Fordham Spire project, a 2,000 foot condominium and hotel tower designed by Santiago Calatrava. ... The Fordham Company is a real estate development company founded in 1988 and based out of Chicago, Illinois. ...

Contents

History

Fordham Spire

Originally proposed as "Fordham Spire" in July of 2005, the design called for 115 stories.[15] Chicago developer Christopher T. Carley of the Fordham Company was spearheading the project. The building was planned to include a hotel and condominiums and also featured a tall broadcast antenna mast. On March 16, 2006, the initial design of the building passed unanimously during that day's meeting of the Chicago Plan Commission and on March 23, 2006, the same happened at the city's Zoning Committee meeting.[16] On March 29, 2006, The Chicago City Council also approved that design.[17] As part of the approval process, the council passed a measure that raised the height limit on structures at the site to accommodate the 2,000-foot (610 m) tower. For other uses, see Hotel (disambiguation). ... Masts of the Rugby VLF transmitter in England Radio masts and towers are, typically, tall structures designed to support antennas (also known as aerials in the UK) for telecommunications and broadcasting, including television. ... is the 75th day of the year (76th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 82nd day of the year (83rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 88th day of the year (89th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


There was widespread support for the original design of the building among both the residents of the immediate neighborhood and the city of Chicago as a whole, partly because the building would block less sunlight and obscure less of the skyline than would the uses for which the land was originally zoned. Chicago Mayor Daley said he approved of the design, stating that it was environmentally friendly. Chicago's 42nd Ward Alderman Burton F. Natarus, who was the local ward alderman when the building was announced, said: "This is a very unique opportunity for the city of Chicago. This building belongs to Chicago and should be in Chicago."[12] Prism splitting light High Resolution Solar Spectrum Sunlight in the broad sense is the total spectrum of the electromagnetic radiation given off by the Sun. ... For other uses, see Skyline (disambiguation). ... Richard M. Daley is the current mayor of Chicago. ... Richard Michael Daley (born April 24, 1942) is a United States politician, member of the national and local Democratic Party and current mayor of Chicago, Illinois. ... Environmentally friendly, also referred to as nature friendly, is a term used to refer to goods and services considered to inflict minimal harm on the environment. ...


Opposition from some neighborhood residents originated from concerns with increased congestion. Donald Trump immediately voiced opposition to the building, stating that the structure would be a target for terrorists and did not seem to even be a project.[18] His current project, however, the Trump International Hotel and Tower, is also a skyscraper that is currently under construction just a few blocks west of the Chicago Spire site and would be in direct competition with the Chicago Spire as the tallest residential structure. Donald John Trump (born June 14, 1946 in Queens, New York, New York) is an American business executive, entrepreneur, television and radio personality and author. ... For other buildings of the same name see Trump International Hotel and Tower The Trump International Hotel and Tower is a skyscraper condo-hotel under construction at 401 N. Wabash Avenue in downtown Chicago, Illinois named for famed real estate developer Donald Trump. ...


Financial problems

After several months of development, Carley failed to obtain sufficient financing for the construction of the building.[19] Irish developer Garrett Kelleher, executive chairman of Shelbourne Development Group, Inc., stepped in and acquired the land, at 400 North Lake Shore Drive. It was announced that he would fund the development with the assistance of financing from Anglo Irish Bank.[19] With Kelleher taking over the project, much of the uncertainty of its development was greatly diminished because he was putting up 100 percent of the equity, something Carley had been unable to do.[20] He also had financial backing to acquire the land, something Carley lacked. Kelleher stated he would consider using Carley's services on the development and that "Carley will be paid an unspecified sum for his involvement in the deal so far."[21] Kelleher later renamed the project "Chicago Spire" after shortly going by "400 North Lake Shore Drive", as it was no longer a Fordham project.[21] A Chairman is the presiding officer of a meeting, organization, committee, or other deliberative body. ... Anglo Irish Bank Corporation plc (ISEQ: ANGL), (LSE: ANGL), (Xetra: CKL), is a bank based in Ireland, listed on both the Irish Stock Exchange and the London Stock Exchange, and headquartered in Dublin. ...


New designs

In the final quarter of 2006, Shelbourne Development issued two separate press releases regarding the construction and design of the spire. In a November 2006 press release, it stated that construction of the Chicago Spire would begin in June 2007.[8] In early December 2006, Shelbourne Development issued another press release stating that the design of the building had been revised. This included the removal of the hotel and antenna mast, making the building all condominiums. The design change altered the twist to be consolidated towards the base of the building, which was also wider than the original plan. Additionally, the spire no longer tapered at the top, resulting in increased floor space and more total floors. Finally, the revision removed the separate parking structure from the original plan, instead incorporating underground parking into the spire itself.[4] This first major redesign of the Chicago Spire was criticized by architectural critics and city officials.[22] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1567x2320, 2069 KB) Garrett Kelleher in Chicago at Daley Bicentennial Plaza 15 January 2007 (16 January 2007 UTC) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Chicago Spire Talk... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1567x2320, 2069 KB) Garrett Kelleher in Chicago at Daley Bicentennial Plaza 15 January 2007 (16 January 2007 UTC) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Chicago Spire Talk... Garrett Kelleher. ... For information on Wikipedia press releases, see Wikipedia:Press releases. ... “Parking garage” redirects here. ... Look up Underground in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Parking (disambiguation). ...


In late December 2006, the Chicago Tribune reported that the developer was soliciting opinions on a further revision from community leaders.[23] Several weeks following that report the Chicago Tribune held an exclusive interview with Santiago Calatrava, the architect, and Garrett Kelleher, the lead developer. During the interview, Calatrava drew out design ideas restoring the rotating design of the building and showcasing his vision for the Chicago Spire's lobby.[24] On March 26, 2007, further revisions were shown during a public presentation by Shelbourne Development showcasing the most current design.[25] // The Chicago Tribune is a major daily newspaper based in Chicago, Illinois and owned by the Tribune Company. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Architect (disambiguation). ... A real estate developer (American English) or property developer (British English) makes improvements of some kind to real property, thereby increasing its value. ... March 26 is the 85th day of the year (86th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ...


Approval

Following the March 26, 2007, public presentation by Shelbourne Development, residents showed favorable reaction to the newest design of the Chicago Spire.[26][27] The Chicago Plan Commission approved the final plans of the Chicago Spire on April 19, 2007.[26][14][28] Chicago's zoning committee also approved the tower, on April 26, 2007. On May 9, 2007, the Chicago City Council approved the final design of the Chicago Spire.[14][10] March 26 is the 85th day of the year (86th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 109th day of the year (110th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 116th day of the year (117th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 129th day of the year (130th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Chicago City Hall, adjacent to the Richard J. Daley Center, houses the chambers of the Chicago City Council. ...


Location

A factory at the Chicago Spire site in 1963.
Chicago Spire site and DuSable Park prior to construction in 2007.

The skyscraper is being constructed along Chicago's lake front west of Navy Pier, located northeast of Chicago's Loop, in the Streeterville neighborhood of the Near North Side community area. The construction site is at the junction of Lake Michigan and the Chicago River. The site is bordered by the Ogden Slip of the Chicago River to the north, North Lake Shore Drive to the east, the Chicago River to the south, and existing residential property to the west. The site was originally zoned for two 35- to 50-story buildings.[11] Originally, it was to be sold by a joint venture of LR Development Company of Chicago and JER Partners of Virginia for $64 million to Christopher Carley of the Fordham Company.[29] After numerous short-term extensions, and later Carley's failure to obtain financing, Kelleher of Shelbourne Development purchased the land instead and pledged to finance the rest of the project.[19] Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 534 pixelsFull resolution‎ (936 × 625 pixels, file size: 101 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) // This work is copyrighted and unlicensed. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 534 pixelsFull resolution‎ (936 × 625 pixels, file size: 101 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) // This work is copyrighted and unlicensed. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2304 × 1728 pixel, file size: 516 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) I took this photo. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2304 × 1728 pixel, file size: 516 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) I took this photo. ... DuSable Park is a park (3. ... The Navy Pier seen from the John Hancock Center Navy Pier is a 3,000 foot long pier on the Chicago shoreline of Lake Michigan. ... The Loop is what locals call the downtown neighborhood of Chicago. ... Streeterville is a neighborhood in Chicago north of the Chicago River. ... The Near North Side is the part of Chicago, Illinois just north of the downtown central business district (the Loop). ... The city Chicago, Illinois, is divided into seventy-seven community areas. ... Lake Michigan is one of the five Great Lakes of North America, and the only one located entirely within the United States. ... The Chicago River is 156 miles (251 km) long[1], and flows through downtown Chicago. ... The double-decker Lake Shore Drive Bridge across the Chicago River; Wacker Drive is visible in the background Lake Shore Drive at the Chicago River in 1941 Looking northeast across Lakeshore East at the triple-decker Wacker Drive. ... A joint venture (often abbreviated JV) is an entity formed between two or more parties to undertake economic activity together. ...


DuSable Park

Main article: DuSable Park, Chicago

When the project was first announced, the Fordham Company pledged almost $500,000 to assist in the development of the city's proposed DuSable Park, which would adjoin the property of the Chicago Spire.[12] DuSable Park would sit on 3.24 acres (1.3 ha) and has a $11.4 million budget for its renovation.[30] On March 26, 2007, Shelbourne pledged to pay $6 million toward the development of the park, making up the deficit left over from the city's own initial pledge of $6 million and far exceeding the Fordham Co's initial offer.[31] In May of 2007 Shelbourne's pledge jumped to $9.6 million.[32] DuSable Park is a park (3. ... DuSable Park is a park (3. ... March 26 is the 85th day of the year (86th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ...


Soil tests performed in December of 2000 on the property of the proposed park, adjacent to the building site, showed contamination of radioactive thorium.[33] Thorium was used by the Lindsay Light Company which operated a location nearby. After the closing of the location in the 1930s, contaminated soil was dumped on the location of the proposed park. In March 2003, the Chicago Park District stated that the thorium clean-up on that land was incomplete.[34] Hazards of contamination can be avoided by laying a minimum of 6 inches (15 cm) of concrete over any affected soil, a process which would be more feasible for the site of the Chicago Spire than compared with the development of the adjacent park.[33] Radioactive decay is the process in which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy by emitting radiation in the form of particles or electromagnetic waves. ... General Name, Symbol, Number thorium, Th, 90 Chemical series Actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 232. ...


Architecture

Design

An early design of the building.

As with many of his designs, Calatrava has been inspired by themes and designs in nature for the tall, twisting skyscraper.[35] For the design of the building, he likened the structure to an imaginary smoke spiral coming from a campfire near the Chicago River lit by Native Americans indigenous to the area, [36] and also related the building's newly designed pinnacle to the "graceful" and "rotating forms" of a snail shell.[24] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1200x900, 173 KB) Summary Computer rendering of 400 North Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, Illinois and surrounding buildings. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1200x900, 173 KB) Summary Computer rendering of 400 North Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, Illinois and surrounding buildings. ... This article is about the physical universe. ... The Chicago River is 156 miles (251 km) long[1], and flows through downtown Chicago. ... This article is about the people indigenous to the United States. ...


Chicago's buildings are known for innovative designs[citation needed]. The Chicago Spire aims to complement this pattern, and standing at 2,000 feet (610 m), will further transform the already changing Chicago skyline.[37][4][5] Plans for the tower include 1,193 condominiums with each of the building's 150 stories rotating exactly 2.44 degrees from the one below for a total 360 degree rotation.[38] In February of 2008, prices for the condominiums were announced as ranging from "$750,000 to $40 million" USD. [39] For supplemental structural support, each floor would be surrounded by cantilevered corners and four concave sides.[40] Similar to the Sears Tower and John Hancock Center skydecks, the Chicago Spire will house a community room at the top floor offering residents a view of four states.[41][42][43] The soaring four story lobby of the skyscraper will have translucent glass walls and be framed by arching, steel reinforced concrete vaults.[24][44] The building has been labeled as a giant "drill bit" by the public and others in the media have likened it to a "tall twisting tree" and a "blade of grass".[45][22] This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... This article is about the form of housing. ... A schematic image of two cantilevers. ... Several buildings bear this name, all built by John Hancock Insurance and named after John Hancock. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      A U.S. state is any one of the fifty subnational entities of... A lobby is a room in a building which is used for entry from the outside. ... The Lierne vault of the Liebfrauenkirche, Mühlacker 1482. ...


The curved design, similar to that of Calatrava's Turning Torso in Malmö, Sweden, may provide two major benefits to the structure of the building. First, curved designs have a tendency of adding to the strength of a structure.[46] A similar principle has been applied in the past when building curved stadium roofs. In addition to structural support, the curved face of the exterior will minimize wind forces. In rectangular buildings, a fluid wind flow puts pressure on the windward face of the building, while as air moves around it, a suction is applied to the leeward face. This often causes a sway in tall buildings which can be counteracted, at least partially, by stiffening the structure or by using a dynamic wind damper.[46] Although the curved design of the Chicago Spire will not completely negate wind forces, a tapering concrete core and twelve shear walls emanating from it are installed to counteract these forces instead.[40] HSB Turning Torso is a skyscraper in Malmö, Sweden on the Swedish side of the Oresund strait. ... Motto: FrÃ¥n arbetarstad till kunskapsstad (eng: From industrial city to knowledge city) Location of Malmö in northern Europe Coordinates: , Country  Sweden Municipality Malmö Municipality County SkÃ¥ne County Province Scania (SkÃ¥ne) Charter 13th century Government  - Mayor Illmar Reepalu Area  - City 335. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Shear Wall in Structural Engineering refers to structural wall that can be either load bearing or non-load bearing. Shear Walls are a type of structural system that provides lateral resistance to a building or structure. ...


Additionally, the Chicago Spire will incorporate world-class sustainable engineering practices to meet Gold standard of Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design certification. Sustainable features include recycled rainwater, river water used for cooling, ornithologically-sensitive glass to protect migratory birds, intelligent building and management systems, waste storage and recycling management, and monitored outdoor air delivery.[38] 7 World Trade Center, considered New York Citys first green office tower by gaining gold status in the U.S. Green Building Councils LEED program. ...


Height

Caisson being installed.

The Spire will surpass Chicago's own Sears Tower, currently at 1,450 feet (442 m) tall, and New York's upcoming Freedom Tower, planned to be 1,776 feet (541 m) tall, to become North America's tallest tower.[4][5] The current design also will surpass the height of the CN Tower in Toronto to become North America's tallest free-standing structure. The Chicago Spire would also surpass the Q1 in Queensland, the Eureka Tower in Melbourne, and the Princess Tower in Dubai, United Arab Emirates, to become the world's tallest all-residential building.[8] Other world records, though, will by that year likely rest with the Burj Dubai, currently under construction in Dubai, United Arab Emirates. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 400 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (2,000 × 3,000 pixels, file size: 746 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 400 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (2,000 × 3,000 pixels, file size: 746 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... The Sears Tower is a skyscraper in Chicago, Illinois. ... For the building in Miami, Florida of the same name, see Freedom Tower (Miami). ... This article is about the CN Tower in Toronto. ... An architectural structure is a free-standing or guy anchored manmade outdoor construction for permanent use. ... Q1 (meaning Queensland Number One) is a skyscraper located in Surfers Paradise, the tourism hub in Gold Coast, Australia. ... Slogan or Nickname: Sunshine State, Smart State Motto(s): Audax at Fidelis (Bold but Faithful) Other Australian states and territories Capital Brisbane Government Constitutional monarchy Governor Quentin Bryce Premier Anna Bligh (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 28  - Senate seats 12 Gross State Product (2004-05)  - Product ($m)  $158,506 (3rd... The Eureka Tower is a residential building in the Southbank precinct of Melbourne, Australia. ... This article is about the Australian city; the name may also refer to City of Melbourne or Melbourne city centre. ... The Princess Tower is a residential skyscraper that is currently under construction in Dubai. ... Coordinates: , Emirate Government  - Emir Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum Area [1]  - Metro 4,114 km² (1,588. ... Burj Dubai (Arabic: Dubai Tower) is a supertall skyscraper currently under construction in Dubai, United Arab Emirates. ... Coordinates: , Emirate Government  - Emir Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum Area [1]  - Metro 4,114 km² (1,588. ...


Construction

Following the city approval, it was announced that construction of the Chicago Spire was to begin in summer 2007 with caisson scheduled to begin as early as June 2007.[47][48] DuSable Park was designated as a staging area for the construction of the tower.[49] On January 14, 2008, the sales center for the Chicago Spire opened.[50] In geotechnical engineering, a caisson is a retaining, watertight structure used, for example, to work on the foundations of a bridge pier, for the construction of a concrete dam, or for the repair of ships. ... USMC convoys staging prior to going north into Iraq in March of 2004 A staging area is a temporary location where military units, aircraft and warships plus their matériel are assembled ahead of an attack or invasion. ...


Underground phase

Crane parts and construction equipment arrived at the site on June 25, 2007.[51] The following day Shelbourne Development officially announced the first construction contract.[9] In preparation for construction, 34 concrete and steel caissons will be drilled 120 feet (37 m) into bedrock underlying the Earth's surface.[9] A cofferdam with a 104 foot (31 m) diameter and 78 foot (24 m) depth will be installed to create a work environment and will later act as a foundation for the building's core.[9] The underground portion of the construction is expected to be completed in the first quarter of 2008.[9] A modern crawler type derrick crane with outriggers. ... is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... This article is about the construction material. ... For other uses, see Steel (disambiguation). ... Bedrock is the native consolidated rock underlying the Earths surface. ... This article is about Earth as a planet. ... dam stands for dekametre. ... A foundation is a structure that transmits loads from a building or road to the underlying ground. ...


Images

See also

This is a list of famous or notable buildings with articles about them. ... Taipei 101, the worlds tallest building since its completion in 2004, is located in Taipei, Republic of China (Taiwan). ... Downtown Chicago from the northwest Chicago has the tallest building in the United States, the Sears Tower, and many slightly shorter buildings, almost all in the Loop or along the Magnificent Mile. ... This list of tallest buildings in the United States ranks skyscrapers in the United States based on official height. ... Shelbourne Development is a real estate development company based out of Dublin, Ireland. ... For many millennia the record holder for worlds tallest structure was clearly defined (see table below. ...

References

Further reading

  • Keegan, E. (2005). Calatrava designing massive tower in Chicago. Architectural Record, 193, 29.
  • McKeoug, T. (2006). Artist at work: Santiago Calatrava. Azure, 22, 56-61.
  • Nobel, P. (2005). Onward and upward? Four years after 9/11 - at perhaps the peak of the real estate bubble - very tall has never been hotter. Metropolis, 25, 66-72.
  • Pridmore, J., & Larson, G.A. (2005) Chicago Architecture and Design : Revised and expanded. Harry N. Abrams, Inc.: New York.

Notes

  1. ^ a b New City Skyline. (2007, August 1). The Chicago Spire is officially under construction. Retrieved August 03, 2007, from http://www.newcityskyline.com/TheChicagoSpireisofficiallyunderconstruction.html
  2. ^ Chicago Spire. SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved on 2007-08-03.
  3. ^ a b c Shelbourne Development. (2007, September 27). The Chicago Spire Officially Launched. Retrieved September 28, 2007, from http://www.shelbournedevelopment.com/press_release.php?id=82
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h Shelbourne Development Group, Inc. (2007-12-07). "Shelbourne Development Files New Design of The Chicago Spire with the City of Chicago". Press release.
  5. ^ a b c d e f Baeb, E., & Gallun, A (2006, December 06). Calatrava tower to drop spire. Crain's Chicago Business. Retrieved December 11, 2006, from http://chicagobusiness.com/cgi-bin/news.pl?rssFeed=news&id=23109
  6. ^ Repeat. (2006). Calatrava's Latest Twist from Spire to Licorice Stick Retrieved December 11, 2006, from http://lynnbecker.com/repeat/calatravachicago/calatravachicago.htm
  7. ^ a b Maxwell, T. (2007, January 15). Tallest tower will be built, developer pledges. Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 2007-01-18 from http://www.chicagotribune.com/news/custom/newsroom/chi-070115spire,1,1024654.story
  8. ^ a b c d e f Business Wire (2006, November 15). Shelbourne Development Group, Inc. Announces Global Team to Build 400 North Lake Shore Drive. Press release.
  9. ^ a b c d e f g Shelbourne Development. (2007, June 26). Shelbourne Development Awards Contract to Build Foundation of The Chicago Spire. Press release.
  10. ^ a b Spielman, F. (2007, May 10). City Council Spired up. Chicago Tribune. Retrieved May 11, 2007, from http://www.suntimes.com/news/metro/379493,CST-NWS-council10.article
  11. ^ a b Chicago Architecture.info. (2006) Chicago Spire : 420 East North Water Street, Chicago, Illinois 60611, United States Retrieved December 11, 2006, from http://www.chicagoarchitecture.info/ShowBuilding/357.php
  12. ^ a b c Bush, H. (2006, March 22). The coronation of Calatrava. Chicago Journal. Retrieved December 11, 2006, form http://www.chicagojournal.com/main.asp?SectionID=1&SubSectionID=60&ArticleID=1507&TM=83215.53
  13. ^ Associated Press. (2005, July 27). Tallest U.S. skyscraper proposed for Chicago. MSNBC. Retrieved 2007-01-29 from http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/8715644/
  14. ^ a b c Diesenhouse, S. (2007, April 20). Financial questions tower over Spire's political win. Chicago Tribune. Retrieved April 21, 2007, from http://www.chicagotribune.com/business/chi-070419spire,0,7866.story?coll=chi-business-hed
  15. ^ Corfman, T., & Kamin, B. (2005, July 26). Tallest tower to twist rivals: Trump blasts iffy edifice that would put his in shadow. Chicago Tribune, pp. 1, news.
  16. ^ McHugh, M. (2006, March 16). Planning commission approves Fordham Spire. Crain's Chicago Business. Retrieved December, 11, 2006, from http://chicagobusiness.com/cgi-bin/news.pl?id=19877
  17. ^ Yue, L. (2006, March 29). City Council OKs Fordham Spire. Crain's Chicago Business. Retrieved December 11, 2006, from http://www.chicagobusiness.com/cgi-bin/news.pl?id=20016
  18. ^ Slevin, P. (2005, July 25). Chicago Developer Wants to Erect Tower With a Twist. The Washington Post. pp. A.03
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  • NewcitySkyline. (2007, September 27). Calatrava leads tour of Chicago Spire Sales Center. Retrieved October 08, 2007, from http://www.newcityskyline.com/CSSalesCenter.html

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Coordinates: 41°53′23.32″N, 87°36′52.91″W This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Skyscraper (disambiguation). ... The Aon Center (200 East Randolph Street) is a modern skyscraper in Chicago designed by architect Edward Durell Stone and completed in 1973 as the Standard Oil Building. ... View from above The AT&T Corporate Center is the 4th tallest skyscraper in Chicago and 8th tallest in the United States at 1,007 ft (307 m) with 60 floors. ... The Baiyoke Tower II is the tallest building in Thailand. ... This article is about the Bank of America Plaza in Atlanta. ... BOC Tower at night The Bank of China Tower (short: BOC Tower; 中銀大廈) is a huge skyscraper in Central, Hong Kong. ... The Burj Al Arab (Arabic: برج العرب, Tower of the Arabs) is a luxury hotel in Dubai, United Arab Emirates managed by the Jumeirah Group and built by Said Khalil. ... A screen showing financial news at The Center, an office complex in Central. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... The Chrysler Building is an Art Deco skyscraper in New York City, located on the east side of Manhattan at the intersection of 42nd Street and Lexington Avenue. ... CITIC Plaza is an 80-story high-rise building or skyscraper built in Guangzhou, Peoples Republic of China. ... The Emirates Office Tower, also referred to as Emirates Tower One is a 54-floor office building along Sheikh Zayed Road in the city of Dubai in the United Arab Emirates. ... Hotel during the day The Emirates Towers Hotel, also referred to as Emirates Tower Two is a 56 floor five-star business hotel in the city of Dubai, United Arab Emirates. ... The Empire State Building is a 102-story Art Deco skyscraper in New York City, New York at the intersection of Fifth Avenue and West 34th Street. ... The Eureka Tower is a residential building in the Southbank precinct of Melbourne, Australia. ... First Canadian Place is a skyscraper in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. ... International Finance Centre (abbr. ... The 75-story, 305 m (1000 ft) tall JPMorgan Chase Tower of Houston, Texas, formerly the Texas Commerce Tower, is the tallest building in Texas and one of the tallest structures in the world. ... The Jin Mao Building or Jin Mao Tower (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; literally Golden Prosperity Building) is an 88-story landmark skyscraper in the Lujiazui area of the Pudong district of Shanghai, Peoples Republic of China. ... Several buildings bear this name, all built by John Hancock Insurance and named after John Hancock. ... Kingdom Centre (Arabic: ) in Riyadh is the tallest skyscraper in Saudi Arabia. ... Menara Telekom Menara Telekom is the headquartes of Telekom Malaysia in Kuala Lumpur. ... A rendering of the New York Times Building The New York Times Building is a skyscraper currently under construction on the west side of Midtown. ... Nina Tower (Chinese: 如心廣場) is a twin tower of 80-storey and 42-storey highrise building under construction in Tsuen Wan, New Territories, Hong Kong. ... The Petronas Twin Towers (also known as the Petronas Towers or Twin Towers), in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia are the worlds tallest twin buildings. ... Q1 (meaning Queensland Number One) is a skyscraper located in Surfers Paradise, the tourism hub in Gold Coast, Australia. ... The Rose Tower is a 333 metre, 72 story tower currently under construction on Sheikh Zayed Road, Dubai, UAE. This skyscraper, whose construction began in 2004, was to be 380 m high, but its projected height was reduced in further design modification. ... The Sears Tower is a skyscraper in Chicago, Illinois. ... Shimao International Plaza is a 333 m 60 storey office tower in Shanghai, China and completed in 2005. ... Shun Hing Square Shun Hing Square (信兴广场) is a tall high-rise building or skyscraper in Shenzhen, China. ... Taipei 101 (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: TáibÄ›i YÄ«língyÄ«; Wade-Giles: Tai-pei I-ling-i) is a 101-floor landmark skyscraper located in Taipei, the capital of Taiwan. ... Tuntex Sky Tower at night Lantern Festival at Tuntex Sky Tower, Kaohsiung, Taiwan Tuntex Sky Tower, or the T & C Tower , 85 SKYTOWER (the Tuntex & Chien-Tai Tower), is a 85-floor skyscraper located in Kaohsiung City, Taiwan. ... Two Prudential Plaza is a skyscraper built in Chicago in 1990. ... This article is about the U.S. Bank Tower in Los Angeles. ... The Wells Fargo Bank Plaza, formerly the Allied Bank Plaza and First Interstate Bank Plaza, is located in Downtown Houston, Texas. ... 23 Marina is a residential skyscraper that is currently under construction in Dubai and is being made by the Hiranandani Group based in Mumbai, India. ... The Abraj Al Bait Towers is a building complex under construction in Mecca, Saudi Arabia. ... The Ahmed Abdul Rahim Al Attar Tower is a supertall skyscraper currently under construction in Dubai. ... The Al Hamra Tower is a skyscraper currently under construction in downtown Kuwait City, Kuwait. ... The Al Yaquob Tower is a supertall skyscraper currently under construction in Dubai. ... APIIC Tower (Andhra Pradesh Industrial Infrastructure Corporation Tower) is a 100 plus storeyed,450 m supertall skyscraper currently under construction in Hyderabad ,India. ... Almas Tower (Diamond Tower) is a 365 metre tall skyscraper under construction in Dubai, United Arab Emirates. ... The Arraya 2 is a skyscraper currently under construction in Kuwait City, Kuwait. ... The Burj al Alam (World Tower in English) is an under construction 108 story, 501m skyscraper in the Business Bay area of Dubai, UAE designed to resemble a crystal flower. ... Burj Dubai (Arabic: Dubai Tower) is a supertall skyscraper currently under construction in Dubai, United Arab Emirates. ... The Burj Dubai Lake Hotel & Serviced Apartments is a supertall skyscraper set to rise 306 meters alongside the Dubai Mall in Dubai. ... China World Trade Center Tower 3 is a 301. ... City Hall and City Duma model on MIPIM exhibition For the historic structure, see Moscow City Hall. ... DAMAC Heights, or formerly Ocean Heights 2, is an approved supertall skyscraper located in the Dubai Marina of Dubai. ... Dubai Towers - Doha is a 445 meter mixed-use skyscraper being constructed in Doha, Qatar. ... Elite Residence is a supertall skyscraper under construction in Dubai, United Arab Emirates in the Dubai Marina district. ... A render of the tower under construction. ... Faros del Panamá is a 95 floor building with a planned height of 346 metres under construction in Panama City, Panama. ... Federation Tower rendering The Federation Tower is a skyscraper complex currently under construction in Moscow, Russia and is designed to be both the tallest building in Europe as well as Europes first supertall building. ... For the building in Miami, Florida of the same name, see Freedom Tower (Miami). ... Gate of Kuwait is a skyscraper with 84 floors and a roof height of 320 metres at Kuwait City, Kuwait, whose construction started in 2005. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Guangzhou Twin Towers West Tower is a 432 metre tall skyscraper with 103 floors under construction at Zhujiang Avenue West in Tianhe District at Guangzhou, China. ... International Commerce Centre is a 118 story, 484 m skyscraper under construction in West Kowloon, Hong Kong; as part of the Union Square project built on top of the MTR Kowloon Station. ... JW Marriott International Finance Centre is a highrise building with 77 floors and with a roof height of 377. ... Keangnam Hanoi Lanmark Tower is a skyscraper under construction in Hanoi, Vietnam. ... Mag 218 Tower is a 66 floor residential skyscraper with 534 rooms under construction at Dubai, United Arab Emirates. ... Marina 101 is a 412 metre tall skyscraper with 101 floors under construction in Dubai, United Arab Emirates. ... Mercury City Tower is a skyscraper currently under contruction in Moscow, Russia. ... The Minsheng Bank Building (also known as Wuhan International Securities Building) is a 331. ... The Northeast Asia Trade Tower is a supertall skyscraper under construction in Incheon, South Korea. ... Ocean One is a 367 metre (1,204 feet) tall supertall skyscraper with 91 floors and 587 rooms under construction at Jomtien Beach in Pattaya, Thailand. ... Ocean Heights is a supertall skyscraper under construction in the Dubai Marina of greater Dubai. ... One Island East (Chinese: 港島東中心) , also called One Island East Centre, is a supertall skyscraper that is currently under construction in Taikoo Place in Island East, Hong Kong. ... Park Hyatt Tower is a supertall skyscraper under construction in Mumbai, Maharashtra and will be the tallest and greenest building in India once completed. ... Pearl River Tower is a skyscraper that is under construction at the junction of Jinsui Road/Zhujiang Avenue West, Tianhe District, Guangzhou, China. ... The Pentominium is a supertall skyscraper, currently approved for construction in the city of Dubai, United Arab Emirates. ... The Princess Tower is a residential skyscraper that is currently under construction in Dubai. ... Russia Tower Russia Tower - skyscraper in the territory of Moscow, whose building they plan to complete in 2012. ... The Shanghai World Financial Center (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) is a supertall skyscraper under construction in Shanghai, China. ... Shenzhen Nikko Tower is a 310 metre tall highrise building at Nanshan in Shenzhen, China, whose construction started in 2006. ... Sky Tower Dubai is a 379 metre tall skyscraper with 83 floors under construction in Abu Dhabi. ... Square Capital Tower is a futuristic highrise building with 63 floors, which is since 2005 under at Kuwait City in Kuwait. ... Tianjin International Trade Centre is a skyscraper with 80 floors and a floor area of 260,000 m², which is since 1998 under construction at 112 Munan Road in Tianjin, China. ... The Marina Torch is a tower currently under construction for the Dubai Marina, Dubai, United Arab Emirates. ... Torre Gran Costanera is a 300 metre tall highrise building, which is since 2006 under construction in Santiago, Chile. ... For other buildings of the same name see Trump International Hotel and Tower The Trump International Hotel and Tower is a skyscraper condo-hotel under construction at 401 N. Wabash Avenue in downtown Chicago, Illinois named for famed real estate developer Donald Trump. ... Waterview Tower is a mixed used development under construction in downtown Chicago, Illinois. ... This page may meet Wikipedia’s criteria for speedy deletion. ... For other uses, see World Trade Center (disambiguation). ... 868 Towers Offices and Hotel is a 86 floor tall 331 metre tall highrise building, whose construction is pending at Haikou, China. ... BDNI Center I is a 317 metre tall skyscraper with 62 floors, whose construction is pending at the district Pusat of Jakarta in Indonesia. ... Busan Lotte Tower is a mixed use tower in the southern South Korean city of Busan that is currently under construction. ... The Dalian International Trade Center is a 78 floor skyscraper currently under construction in Dalian, China with a planned floor area of 288,566 m². Its construction started in 2003 however is currently suspended. ... Infinity Tower is a skyscraper under construction by Palma Real Estate in Dubai, United Arab Emirates. ... Marina Gardens is a 75 store residential skyscraper at Area 392-Plot Marsa in Dubai. ... Najd Tower is a 340 metre tall futuristic skyscraper with 82 floors and 496 rooms at Dubai in United Arab Emirates, whose construction started in 2005. ... Plaza Rakyat is a project that was on hold since 1997 due to the economic crisis. ... The Ryugyong Hotel (or Ryu-Gyong Hotel or Yu-Kyung Hotel or the 105 Building) is a partially constructed concrete skyscraper that was once intended for use as a hotel in Sojang-dong, in the Potong-gang District of Pyongyang, North Korea. ... Artists conception of the completed towers. ... Tianlong Hotel is a hotel skyscraper with 73 floors in Nanan District, Chongqing, China. ... Xiamen Post & Telecommunications Building is a 66 floor tall office skyscraper under construction at Hubin Road South / Xiahe Road at Xian, China. ... Urban planning is concerned with the ordering and design of settlements, from the smallest towns to the worlds largest cities. ... For other uses, see Chicago (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Skyscraper (disambiguation). ... 108 North State Street will be a mixed use urban center located in the part of downtown Chicago, Illinois, known as the Loop. ... 155 North Wacker is a proposed 51 story skyscraper in Chicago, Illinois designed by Goettsch Partners and being developed by the John Buck Company. ... 300 North LaSalle will be a 60 story mixed use building located on the north bank of the Chicago River. ... The Aqua is a planned skyscraper for the Lakeshore East area of Chicago. ... The Blue Cross Blue Shield Tower (BCBS) is located on the north end of Grant Park along E. Randolph St. ... Elysian is a 60 story skyscraper in Chicago, Illinois currently under construction. ... The Joffrey Tower will be the name of the high rise commercial real estate development on the northeast corner of North State Street and East Randolph Street in the Loop neighborhood of Chicago that will be the new permanent home of the Joffrey Ballet. ... Legacy Tower is a 72 story skyscraper in Chicago, Illinois currently under construction. ... One Museum Park will be the tallest building in the Central Station development and the tallest in Chicago south of Van Buren Street. ... One Museum Park West is the companion structure to One Museum Park in the Near South Side community area (neighborhood) in Chicago, Illinois, USA. It is located at the north end of the Central Station development. ... For other buildings of the same name see Trump International Hotel and Tower The Trump International Hotel and Tower is a skyscraper condo-hotel under construction at 401 N. Wabash Avenue in downtown Chicago, Illinois named for famed real estate developer Donald Trump. ... Waterview Tower is a mixed used development under construction in downtown Chicago, Illinois. ... The Mandarin Oriental Tower in Chicago will be a 74-story 930 foot mixed use building targeted to be the ninth largest building in Chicago upon its completion in 2009, assuming the Trump Tower Chicago and Waterview Tower are completed first. ... 29 South LaSalle is a proposed 51 story skyscraper in Chicago, Illinois designed by Lucien Lagrange Architects. ... 375 East Wacker is a 76-story mixed-use skyscraper planned for the Lakeshore East area of Chicago. ... Canyon Ranch or Canyon Ranch Living is a proposed 64 story skyscraper in Chicago, Illinois designed by DeStefano and Partners, Ltd. ... Park Michigan is a proposed 80 story skyscraper in Chicago, Illinois designed by Pappageorge/Haymes, Ltd. ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... Template:Waldorf-Astoria Hotel and Residence Tower This article is about the announced Chicago skyscraper. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...


 
 

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