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Encyclopedia > Chicago, Illinois
Chicago, Illinois
Official flag of Chicago, Illinois
Official seal of Chicago, Illinois
Flag Seal
Nickname: "The Windy City"
Motto: "Urbs In Horto" (Latin: "City in a Garden"), "I Will"
Location
Location in Chicagoland and northern Illinois
Location in Chicagoland and northern Illinois
Coordinates 41°54′00″N, 87°39′00″W
Government
Country
State
Counties
United States
Illinois
Cook, DuPage
Mayor Richard M. Daley (D)
Geographical characteristics
Area  
  City 606.2 km²  (234.0 sq mi)
    Land   588.3 km²  (227.1 sq mi)
    Water   17.9 km² (6.9 sq mi)
  Urban 5,498.1 km² (2,122.8 sq mi)
  Metro 28,163 km² (10,874 sq mi)
Elevation 179 m  (587 ft)
Demographics
Population  
  City (2005) 2,842,518
    Density   4,867/km² (12,604/sq mi)
  Urban 8,711,000
  Metro 9,391,515
Time zone
  Summer (DST)
CST (UTC-6)
CDT (UTC-5)
Founded 1795
Incorporated 1837
Website: http://egov.cityofchicago.org/
"Chicago" redirects here. For other uses, see Chicago (disambiguation).

Chicago is the largest city in the U.S. state of Illinois, as well as the third-most populous city in the United States with 2.8 million people.[1] Known as the "Second City," the "Windy City," the "City of Big Shoulders," and "Chi-town" (along with other nicknames and colloquial nicknames that reflect the city's character), Chicago is located along the southwestern shore of Lake Michigan. When combined with its suburbs and nine surrounding counties in Illinois, Wisconsin, and Indiana, the greater metropolitan area known as Chicagoland encompasses a population of 9.3 million,[2] making it the third-largest in the United States. Image File history File links Skyline_of_Chicago_2005. ... Image File history File links Municipal_Flag_of_Chicago. ... Image File history File links File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Municipal Flag of the City of Chicago The municipal flag of Chicago consists of two blue horizontal stripes on a field of white, each stripe one-sixth the height of the full flag, and placed slightly less than one-sixth of the way from the top or bottom, respectively. ... // A nickname is a short, clever, cute, derogatory, or otherwise substitute name for a person or things real name (for example, Bob, Rob, Robby, Robbie, Robi, Bobby, Rab, Bert, Bertie, Butch, Bobbers, Bobert, Bobadito, Robban, (in Sweden), is short for Robert). ... Chicago Nicknames Hog butcher for the world, Tool maker, stacker of wheat, Player with railroads and the nations freight handler; Stormy, husky, brawling, City of the big shoulders. ... A motto is a phrase or a short list of words meant formally to describe the general motivation or intention of an entity, social group, or organization. ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... Municipal Flag of Chicago for Chicago, Illinois page. ... Chicagoland. ... This is an alphabetical list of the sovereign states of the world, including both de jure and de facto independent states. ... The political units and divisions of the United States include: the fifty states, which units are typically divided into counties and townships, and incorporate cities, villages, towns, and other types of municipalities, and other autonomous or subordinate public authorities and institutions; and the federal state, which unit is the United... Listed are the 102 counties of the state of Illinois. ... Official language(s) English Capital Springfield Largest city Chicago Area  Ranked 25th  - Total 57,918 sq mi (149,998 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 390 miles (629 km)  - % water 4. ... Cook County is a county located in the U.S. state of Illinois. ... DuPage County is a county located in the U.S. state of Illinois. ... A mayor (from the Latin māior, meaning larger,greater) is in modern times the title of the highest ranking municipal officer, who discharges certain judicial and administrative functions, in many systems an elected politician, who serves as chief executive and/or ceremonial official of many types of municipalities. ... Richard M. Daley is the current mayor of Chicago. ... The Democratic Party is one of two major political parties in the United States, the other being the Republican Party. ... Area is a physical quantity expressing the size of a part of a surface. ... To help compare different orders of magnitude and geographical regions, we list here areas between 100 km² and 1000 km². See also areas of other orders of magnitude. ... A square mile is an Imperial unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (5,280 feet, 1,760 yards, 1,609. ... Basic Definition In geography, the elevation of a geographic location is its height above mean sea level (or some other fixed point). ... metre or meter, see meter (disambiguation) The metre (in the U.S., chiefly meter) is a measure of length, approximately equal to 3. ... A foot (plural: feet) is any of several old units of distance or length, measuring around a quarter to a third of a meter. ... World map of the population density in 2006 Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. ... An urban area is a term used to define an area where there is an increased density of human-created structures in comparison to the areas surrounding it. ... A metropolitan area is a large population center consisting of a large city and its adjacent zone of influence, or of several neighboring cities or towns and adjoining areas, with one or more large cities serving as its hub or hubs. ... A time zone is a region of the Earth that has adopted the same standard time, usually referred to as the local time. ... Map of the world color-coded with areas in blue observing daylight saving time. ...  CST or UTC-6 The Central Standard Time Zone (CST) is a geographic region in the Americas that keeps time by subtracting six hours from UTC (UTC-6). ... Central Standard Time ... Central Daylight Time or CDT is the Central Time Zone (or CST) during Daylight Savings Time. ... -12 | -11 | -10 | -9:30 | -9 | -8 | -7 | -6 | -5 | -4 | -3:30 | -3 | -2:30 | -2 | -1 | UTC | +0:20 | +0:30 | +1 | +2 | +3 | +4 | +4:30 | +4:51 | +5 | +5:30 | +5:40 | +5:45 | +6 | +6:30 | +7 | +7:20 | +7:30 | +8 | +8:30 | +8... Chicago may mean: Chicago, Illinois, a city in USA Chicago (band), a rock band The University of Chicago Three stations on the Chicago Transit Authoritys L system: Chicago (CTA Brown Line station) Chicago (CTA Red Line station) Chicago (CTA Blue Line station) Chicago house, a genre of electronic dance... Image File history File links En-Chicago. ... A state of the United States (a U.S. state) is any one of the fifty states (four of which officially favor the term commonwealth) which, along with the District of Columbia, form the United States of America. ... Official language(s) English Capital Springfield Largest city Chicago Area  Ranked 25th  - Total 57,918 sq mi (149,998 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 390 miles (629 km)  - % water 4. ... This is a list of the 100 largest incorporated cities in the United States (including Puerto Rico), based on the United States Census Bureaus 2005 population estimates. ... The second city of a country is the city that is (or was) the second-most important, usually after the capital or first city, according to some criteria. ... The City of Chicago has been known by many nicknames but the most widely recognized is The Windy City. ... Chi-Town is one of the many nicknames for the city of Chicago. ... Chicago Nicknames Hog butcher for the world, Tool maker, stacker of wheat, Player with railroads and the nations freight handler; Stormy, husky, brawling, City of the big shoulders. ... Chicago Nicknames Hog butcher for the world, Tool maker, stacker of wheat, Player with railroads and the nations freight handler; Stormy, husky, brawling, City of the big shoulders. ... Sunset on Lake Michigan Lake Michigan is one of the five Great Lakes of North America. ... Illustration of the backyards of a surburban neighbourhood Suburbs are inhabited districts located either on the outer rim of a city or outside the official limits of a city (the term varies from country to country), or the outer elements of a conurbation. ... Official language(s) None Capital Madison Largest city Milwaukee Area  Ranked 23rd  - Total 65,498 sq. ... Official language(s) English Capital Indianapolis Largest city Indianapolis Area  Ranked 38th  - Total 36,418 sq mi (94,321 km²)  - Width 140 miles (225 km)  - Length 270 miles (435 km)  - % water 1. ... A metropolitan area is a large population center consisting of a large city and its adjacent zone of influence, or of several neighboring cities or towns and adjoining areas, with one or more large cities serving as its hub or hubs. ... Chicagoland. ... The following is a list (by population) of all Metropolitan Statistical Areas as defined by the United States Census Bureau. ...


Growing from its 1833 founding as a frontier town of the Old Northwest into one of the world's premier cities, Chicago is ranked as one of 10 "Alpha" (most influential) world cities.[3] Chicago today is the financial, economic, and cultural capital of the Midwest. The city is recognized as a major transportation, business, and architectural center of the United States. The city's skyscrapers, local cuisine, political traditions, and sports teams are some of its most recognized symbols. // United States In the United States, the frontier was the term applied to the zone of unsettled land outside the region of existing settlements of Americans. ... This article is about the historic region of the United States; you may be looking for: North-Western Territory, British North American territory Northwest Territories, present-day Canadian territory Pacific Northwest, unofficial region in the United States The Northwest Territory, also known as the Old Northwest and the Territory North... A global city and world city, or world-class city, is a city that has a direct and tangible effect on global affairs through socioeconomic, cultural, and/or political means. ... The Midwest is a common name for a region of the United States of America. ...


A resident of Chicago is referred to as a Chicagoan. Typically, residents of Chicago will identify themselves with one of the many neighborhoods of Chicago. African Americans form a plurality in the city (just under two-fifths), about one-third are Caucasian, around a quarter Hispanic and one-twentieth Asian, with small amounts of other groups filling in the remainder. Chicago also has several dozen distinct neighborhoods to match its ethnic diversity; the city is divided into 77 community areas, identified in the 1920s by the University of Chicago. The neighborhoods of Chicago lay within Chicagos seventy-seven community areas. ... An African American (also Afro-American, Black American, or simply black), is a member of an ethnic group in the United States whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Africa. ... A plurality (or relative majority) is the largest share of something, which may or may not be a majority. ... Typical Caucasian skull The term Caucasian race, Caucasian or Caucasoid is used to refer to people whose ancestry can be traced back to Europe, North Africa, the Middle East, the Indian subcontinent and parts of Central Asia. ... The Hispanic world Hispanic (Spanish: Hispano) is a term denoting a derivation from Spain, her people and culture. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Asian people. ... The city Chicago, Illinois, is divided into seventy-seven community areas. ... The University of Chicago is a private university located principally in the Hyde Park neighborhood of Chicago, Illinois. ...

Contents


Origin of name

The indigenous Potawatomi tribe called the marshes on which Chicago was later built "Checagou," which translates to "wild onion" or "garlic" (also referred to as "skunk cabbage").[4] European explorers assigned the name to the Chicago River, followed by settlers' delegating it as the name of the city. Before Chicago's founding, the name of the river was spelled several ways, such as "Chetagu" or "Shikago." The City of Chicago has been known by many nicknames but the most widely recognized is The Windy City. ... Rain dance, Kansas, c. ... This article is about marsh, a type of wetland. ... Downtown buildings line the Chicago River The Chicago River is 156 miles (251 km) long, and flows through downtown Chicago, Illinois. ...


The origin of Chicago's nickname as "The Windy City" is debated (see List of nicknames for Chicago). The most common explanation had been that the phrase was created by New York newspapers in the 1880s during a national debate over which city would host the 1893 World's Fair. However, "Windy City" was used before this by the Cincinnati Enquirer at least as early as 1876. Ironically, the Chicago citizenry turned the intended slur into a compliment of the city's new life and vitality following a quick recovery from the Great Chicago Fire. As a result, the name remains in common usage. Chicago Nicknames Hog butcher for the world, Tool maker, stacker of wheat, Player with railroads and the nations freight handler; Stormy, husky, brawling, City of the big shoulders. ... A Worlds Fair is any of various large expositions held since the mid-19th century. ... The Cincinnati Enquirer is a daily morning newspaper published at Cincinnati, Ohio. ... Artists rendering of the fire, by John R Chapin, originally printed in Harpers Weekly The Great Chicago Fire was a conflagration that burned from Oct. ...


History

Chicago, looking north from State and Washington Streets in the 19th Century
Chicago, looking north from State and Washington Streets in the 19th Century
Main article: History of Chicago

During the mid-1700s, the Chicago area was inhabited primarily by Potawatomis, who took the place of the Miami and Sauk and Fox people. The first non-native settler in Chicago was Haitian. Jean-Baptiste Pointe du Sable, who arrived in the 1770s, married a Potawatomi woman and founded the area's first trading post. In 1803, the United States Army built Fort Dearborn, which was destroyed in 1812 in the Fort Dearborn Massacre. The Ottawa, Ojibwa, and Potawatomi later ceded the land to the United States in the Treaty with the Ottawa, etc. of 1816. On August 12, 1833, the Town of Chicago was organized with a population of 350, and within seven years it grew to a population of over 4,000. The City of Chicago was incorporated on March 4, 1837. Download high resolution version (1497x1025, 439 KB)Chicago, Looking North from State and Washington Streets. ... Download high resolution version (1497x1025, 439 KB)Chicago, Looking North from State and Washington Streets. ... This article is about the history of Chicago. ... Rain dance, Kansas, c. ... The Miami are a Native American tribe originally found in Indiana and Ohio. ... Massika, on left a Sac and Wakusasse, a Fox, painted in 1833, showing traditional Eastern Woodlands hairstyle of shaved side hair and added deerhair roach The Sac and Fox Nation is the modern political entity encompassing the historical Sac and Fox nations of Native Americans. ... Jean-Baptiste Pointe du Sable (c. ... Fort Dearborn was a United States fort built on the Chicago River in 1803 under John Whistler on the site of present-day Chicago. ... Combatants Potawatomi United Kingdom United States Commanders Chief Blackbird Nathan Heald Strength 500+ 69 military + civilians Casualties 15 39 military + 27 civilians The Fort Dearborn massacre occurred on August 15, 1812 near Fort Dearborn in the United States during the War of 1812. ... The Ottawa (also Odawa, Odaawa, Outaouais, or Trader) are a Native American and First Nations people. ... The Ojibwa, Aanishanabe or Chippewa (also Ojibwe, Ojibway, Chippeway, Anishinaabe, or Anishinabek) are the largest group of Native Americans/First Nations north of Mexico, including Métis. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Treaty with the Ottawa, etc. ... August 12 is the 224th day of the year (225th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1833 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... March 4 is the 63rd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (64th in leap years). ... | Queen Victoria, Queen of the United Kingdom (1837 - 1901) 1837 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ...


Starting in 1848, the city became an important transportation link between the eastern and western United States with the opening of the Galena & Chicago Union Railroad, Chicago's first railway, and the Illinois and Michigan Canal, which allowed shipping from the Great Lakes through Chicago to the Mississippi River. With a flourishing economy that brought many new residents from rural communities and immigrants from Europe, Chicago grew from a city of 299,000 to nearly 1.7 million between 1870 and 1900. The city's manufacturing and retail sectors dominated the Midwest and greatly influenced the American economy, with the Union Stock Yards' dominating the packing trade. Galena & Chicago Union Railroad Categories: Stub | Defunct railroad companies of the United States | Defunct companies | Illinois railroads ... The location and course of the Illinois and Michigan Canal. ... The Mississippi River, derived from the old Ojibwe word misi-ziibi meaning great river (gichi-ziibi big river at its headwaters), is the second-longest river in the United States; the longest is the Missouri River, which flows into the Mississippi. ... World map showing Europe Political map Europe is one of the seven continents of Earth which, in this case, is more a cultural and political distinction than a physiographic one, leading to various perspectives about Europes borders. ... ÊÊÊÊThe Union Stock Yard & Transit Co. ...

State Street in 1907
State Street in 1907

After the Great Chicago Fire of 1871, Chicago experienced rapid rebuilding and growth.[5] During Chicago's rebuilding period, the first skyscraper was constructed in 1885 using steel-skeleton construction. By 1893, Chicago hosted the World's Columbian Exposition on former marshland at the present location of Jackson Park. The World's Columbian Exposition drew 27.5 million visitors, and is considered among the most influential world's fairs in history.[6] Nevertheless, the city was the site of labor conflicts and unrest, which included the Haymarket Riot on May 4, 1886. Social problems among Chicago's lower classes led to the founding of Hull House in 1889, of which Jane Addams was a co-founder. This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Artists rendering of the fire, by John R Chapin, originally printed in Harpers Weekly The Great Chicago Fire was a conflagration that burned from Oct. ... Taipei 101, the worlds tallest building since its completion in 2004, is located in Taipei, Republic of China (Taiwan). ... Steel frame usual refers to a building technique in which a skeleton of frame of steel is constructed to support the building which is attached to the frame. ... One-third scale replica of Daniel Chester Frenchs Republic, which stood in the great basin at the exposition, Chicago, 2004 The Worlds Columbian Exposition (also called The Chicago Worlds Fair), a Worlds fair, was held in the U.S. city of Chicago in 1893 to celebrate... Jackson Park or Jackson Park Highlands is a 500 acre (2 km²) park on Chicagos South Side located in the South Shore community area, bordering Lake Michigan and the neighborhoods of Hyde Park and Woodlawn. ... The Haymarket Riot on May 4, 1886, in Chicago, Illinois is the origin of international May Day observances and in popular literature inspired the caricature of a bomb-throwing anarchist. ... May 4 is the 124th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (125th in leap years). ... 1886 (MDCCCLXXXVI) is a common year starting on Friday (click on link to calendar) // Events January 18 - Modern field hockey is born with the formation of The Hockey Association in England. ... Hull House community workshop poster, 1938 Hull House, co-founded in Chicago, Illinois, in 1889 by Jane Addams and Ellen Gates Starr who were soon joined by other volunteers called residents, was one of the first settlement houses in the U.S. and eventually grew into one of the largest... Jane Addams Jane Addams (September 6, 1860 – May 21, 1935) was an American social worker, sociologist, philosopher and reformer. ...


Lake Michigan - the primary source of fresh water for the city - was already highly polluted from population growth and the rapidly growing industries in and around Chicago. The city responded by embarking on several large public works projects, including a large excavation project which built tunnels below Lake Michigan to newly built water cribs which were two miles (3 km) off the lakeshore. However, the cribs failed to bring enough clean water since spring rains would wash the polluted water from the Chicago River into them. Beginning in 1855, Chicago constructed the first comprehensive sewer system in the U.S. In 1900, the problem of sewage was solved by reversing the direction of the River's flow with the construction of the Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal leading to the Illinois River. Sunset on Lake Michigan Lake Michigan is one of the five Great Lakes of North America. ... The notion of internal improvements or public works is a concept in economics and politics. ... Wilson Ave. ... Downtown buildings line the Chicago River The Chicago River is 156 miles (251 km) long, and flows through downtown Chicago, Illinois. ... The Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal is the only shipping link between the Great Lakes (specifically Lake Michigan by the Chicago River) with the Mississippi River system, by way of the Illinois and Des Plaines rivers. ... This article is about the river in the U.S. state of Illinois. ...

The Chicago River at night.
The Chicago River at night.

The 1920s brought international notoriety to Chicago as gangsters, such as Al Capone, battled each other and the law during the Prohibition era. Nevertheless, the 1920s also saw a large increase in Chicago industry as well as the first arrivals of the Great Migration that would lead thousands of mostly Southern blacks to Chicago and other Northern cities. On December 2, 1942, the world's first controlled nuclear reaction was conducted at the University of Chicago as part of the top secret Manhattan Project. Image File history File linksMetadata Chicago_river. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Chicago_river. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... This article is about the prohibition of alcoholic beverages; separate articles on the prohibition of drugs in general and writs of prohibition are also available. ... The Great Migration was the movement of millions of African Americans out of the rural Southern United States from 1914 to 1950. ... December 2 is the 336th day (337th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... In nuclear physics, a nuclear reaction is a process in which two nuclei or nuclear particles collide, to produce different products than the initial products. ... The University of Chicago is a private university located principally in the Hyde Park neighborhood of Chicago, Illinois. ... The Manhattan Project resulted in the development of the first nuclear weapons, and the first-ever nuclear detonation at the Trinity test of July 16, 1945. ...


Mayor Richard J. Daley was elected in 1955, in the era of so-called machine politics. Starting in the 1950s, many upper and middle-class citizens left the inner-city of Chicago for the suburbs and left many impoverished neighborhoods in their wake. Nevertheless, the city hosted the 1968 Democratic National Convention and saw the construction of the Sears Tower (which became the world's tallest building), McCormick Place, and O'Hare Airport. In 1979 Jane Byrne, the city's first female mayor, was elected, and in 1983 Harold Washington became the first African American to be elected to the office of mayor. Richard M. Daley, son of Richard J. Daley, became mayor in 1989. New projects during the younger Daley's administration have made Chicago larger, environmentally friendlier, and more accessible.[7] Since the early 1990s, Chicago has seen a turnaround with increased ethnic diversity and many formerly abandoned neighborhoods starting to show new life. As a part of its environmentally friendly image, Chicago has declared Peregrine Falcon, a protected species that started to build its nests in Chicago skyscrapers, the official bird of the city in 1999.[8] Richard J. Daley was Chicagos longest-serving mayor and held office from 1955 to his death in 1976 Richard Joseph Daley (May 15, 1902 – December 20, 1976) was the longest-serving mayor of Chicago. ... A political machine is an unofficial system of political organization based on patronage, the spoils system, behind-the-scenes control, and longstanding political ties within the structure of a representative democracy. ... Housing subdivision near Union, Kentucky, a suburb of Cincinnati, Ohio. ... The 1968 National Convention of the U.S. Democratic Party was held in Chicago, Illinois from August 26 to August 29, 1968, for the purposes of choosing the Democratic nominee for the 1968 U.S. presidential election. ... The Sears Tower is a skyscraper in Chicago, Illinois. ... For many millennia the record holder for worlds tallest structure was clearly defined (see table below. ... McCormick Place is an enormous exposition complex located in Chicago, Illinois. ... OHare International Airport is an airport located in Chicago, Illinois, 17 miles (27 km) northwest of the Chicago Loop. ... Jane Margaret Byrne (born May 24, 1934) was the first female Mayor of Chicago, Illinois. ... Harold Lee Washington (April 15, 1922 – November 25, 1987) was a lawyer, legislator and the first African American Mayor of Chicago, Illinois serving from 1983 until his death in 1987. ... An African American (also Afro-American, Black American, or simply black), is a member of an ethnic group in the United States whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Africa. ... Richard M. Daley is the current mayor of Chicago. ... Binomial name Falco peregrinus Tunstall, 1771 The Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus), sometimes formerly known in North America as Duck Hawk, is a medium-sized falcon about the size of a large crow: 38-53 cm (15 to 21 inches) long. ...


Geography and climate

Main article: Geography of Chicago
Landsat image of the Chicagoland area
Landsat image of the Chicagoland area

Located in northeastern Illinois at the southwestern tip of Lake Michigan, Chicago's official geographic coordinates are 41°53′0″N, 87°39′0″W. It sits on the continental divide at the site of the Chicago Portage, connecting the Mississippi River and the Great Lakes watersheds. The city lies beside Lake Michigan and two rivers: the Chicago River in downtown and the Calumet River in the industrial far South Side, entirely or partially flow through Chicago. The Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal connects the Chicago River with the Des Plaines River, which runs to the west of the city. Chicago is located in northern Illinois at the south western tip of Lake Michigan. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (750x750, 111 KB)Despite being named after the Algonquian word for garlic, Chicago is one of America’s most thriving and spectacular cities. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (750x750, 111 KB)Despite being named after the Algonquian word for garlic, Chicago is one of America’s most thriving and spectacular cities. ... The Landsat program is the longest running enterprise for acquisition of imagery of Earth from space. ... Sunset on Lake Michigan Lake Michigan is one of the five Great Lakes of North America. ... A continental divide is a line of elevated terrain which forms a border between two watersheds such that water falling on one side of the line eventually travels to one ocean or body of water, and water on the other side travels to another, generally on the opposite side of... The Chicago Portage connects the watersheds (BrE: drainage basin) and the navigable waterways of the Mississippi River and the Great Lakes. ... The Mississippi River, derived from the old Ojibwe word misi-ziibi meaning great river (gichi-ziibi big river at its headwaters), is the second-longest river in the United States; the longest is the Missouri River, which flows into the Mississippi. ... The Great Lakes from space The Great Lakes are a group of five large lakes on or near the United States-Canadian border. ... Watershed has more than one meaning: Look up watershed in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Calumet River refers to a system of heavily industrialized rivers in the region around South Chicago and Gary, Indiana. ... The Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal is the only shipping link between the Great Lakes (specifically Lake Michigan by the Chicago River) with the Mississippi River system, by way of the Illinois and Des Plaines rivers. ... This article needs to be wikified. ...


When Chicago was founded in the 1830s, most of the early building began around the mouth of the Chicago River. According to the U.S. Census Bureau, Chicago has a total area of 234.0 square miles (606.1 km²), of which 227.1 square miles (588.3 km²) is land and 6.9 square miles (17.8 km²) is water. The total area is 2.94% water. Downtown buildings line the Chicago River The Chicago River is 156 miles (251 km) long, and flows through downtown Chicago, Illinois. ... The United States Census Bureau (officially Bureau of the Census) is a part of the United States Department of Commerce. ... A square mile is an Imperial unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (5,280 feet, 1,760 yards, 1,609. ... Square kilometre (US spelling: Square kilometer), symbol km², is an SI unit of surface area. ...


The city has been built on relatively flat land; the average elevation of land is 579 feet (176 m) above sea level. The lowest points are along the lake shore at 577 feet (176 m), while the highest point at 735 feet (224 m) is in the landfill on the city's far south side (41°39′18″N, 87°34′44″W). A foot (plural: feet) is any of several old units of distance or length, measuring around a quarter to a third of a meter. ... The metre, or meter (symbol: m) is the SI base unit of length. ... Landfill is a waste disposal site for the deposit of the waste onto or into land including: internal waste disposal sites (i. ...


Since the first recorded earthquake in 1804,[9] Chicago has occasionally experienced earthquakes. More recently, an earthquake with an epicenter in Ottawa, Illinois, registering about 4.3 on the Richter scale shook some buildings in Chicago on June 28, 2004. This earthquake sparked worries that the New Madrid fault might become active again. An earthquake of 6 or higher in the Missouri Fault might cause moderate to high damage in Chicago. An earthquake is a phenomenon that results from and is powered by the sudden release of stored energy that radiates seismic waves. ... Ottawa is known for several major reasons. ... The Richter magnitude test scale (or more correctly local magnitude ML scale) assigns a single number to quantify the size of an earthquake. ... The 2004 Chicago Earthquake was a 4. ... Seismic map New Madrid Seismic Zone. ...


Cityscape

Downtown Chicago along the Chicago River looking north
Downtown Chicago along the Chicago River looking north

The city’s urban context is organized within a grid pattern. The pattern is modified by the shoreline, the three branches of the Chicago River, the system of active/inactive rail lines, several diagonal streets (including Clybourn Street, Milwaukee, Lincoln, Elston, Archer, and Ogden Avenues), the expressways (which are generally sunken below ground level), and hundreds of bridges and viaducts. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1098x739, 867 KB) Summary Downtown Chicago, Illinois at night. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1098x739, 867 KB) Summary Downtown Chicago, Illinois at night. ... A simple grid plan road map (Windermere, Florida). ... Downtown buildings line the Chicago River The Chicago River is 156 miles (251 km) long, and flows through downtown Chicago, Illinois. ...


Since the first steel-framed high-rise building was constructed in the city in 1885, Chicago has been known for the skyscraper.[10] Today, many high-rise buildings are located in the downtown area, notably in the Loop and along the lakefront and the Chicago River. The three tallest buildings are the Sears Tower (also the tallest building in North America), the Aon Center, and the John Hancock Center. The rest of the city consists of low-rise buildings and single-family homes. There are clusters of industrialized areas, including the lakefront near the Indiana border, the area south of Midway Airport, and the banks of the Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal. Taipei 101, the worlds tallest building since its completion in 2004, is located in Taipei, Republic of China (Taiwan). ... The Loop is what locals call the historical center of downtown Chicago. ... The Sears Tower is a skyscraper in Chicago, Illinois. ... World map showing North America A satellite composite image of North America. ... The Aon Center in downtown Chicago, Illinois Aon Center The Aon Center (200 East Randolph Street) in Chicago, Illinois was designed by architect Edward Durell Stone and completed in 1972. ... Several buildings bear this name. ... Official language(s) English Capital Indianapolis Largest city Indianapolis Area  Ranked 38th  - Total 36,418 sq mi (94,321 km²)  - Width 140 miles (225 km)  - Length 270 miles (435 km)  - % water 1. ... This an article about the airport in Chicago. ... The Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal is the only shipping link between the Great Lakes (specifically Lake Michigan by the Chicago River) with the Mississippi River system, by way of the Illinois and Des Plaines rivers. ...


Along Lake Shore Drive, parks line the lakefront. The most notable of these parks are Grant Park, which borders the east end of the Loop, Lincoln Park on the north side, and Jackson Park in the Hyde Park neighborhood on the south side. Interspersed within this system of parks are beaches, a zoo and several bird sanctuaries, McCormick Place Convention Center, Navy Pier, Soldier Field, the Museum Campus, and a water treatment plant. Lake Shore Drive (LSD) is a mostly freeway-standard expressway running parallel with and next to Lake Michigan through Chicago, Illinois, USA. Except for the northernmost part, it is designated as part of U.S. Highway 41. ... The Taste of Chicago is held in Grant Park annually around Independence Day. ... Jackson Park or Jackson Park Highlands is a 500 acre (2 km²) park on Chicagos South Side located in the South Shore community area, bordering Lake Michigan and the neighborhoods of Hyde Park and Woodlawn. ... Hyde Park is a neighborhood on the south side of Chicago, located seven miles south of the Loop; it is home to the Museum of Science and Industry, The DuSable Museum of African American History and the University of Chicago. ... McCormick Place is an enormous exposition complex located in Chicago, Illinois. ... The Navy Pier seen from the John Hancock Center Navy Pier is a 3,000 foot long pier on the Chicago shoreline of Lake Michigan. ... Soldier Field is located on famous Lake Shore Drive in Chicago, and is currently home to the NFLs Chicago Bears and Major League Soccers Chicago Fire. ... Museum Campus Chicago is a 10 acre (40,000 m²) lakefront park in Chicago that surrounds the Adler Planetarium, the Shedd Aquarium and the Field Museum of Natural History. ... Water treatment in a general sense reffers to the treatement of water to make it more acceptable for what will be done with it (either usage or discharge into the environment). ...


Pushed along by the national real estate boom in recent years, Chicago has seen an unprecedented surge in skyscraper construction, most notably in the area directly south (South Loop) and north (River North) of the Loop. This has been accompanied by a rapid gentrification of many parts of the city, as once-dormant areas become "hip" neighborhoods replete with an increased level of commercial services. An example is the west-side neighborhood Wicker Park. The Loop is what locals call the historical center of downtown Chicago. ... The Near North Side is the part of Chicago, Illinois just north of the downtown central business district (the Loop). ... Gentrification is a process in which low-cost, deteriorated neighborhoods experience urban restoration and an increase in property values, along with an influx of wealthier residents. ... West Town is a community area located on the west side of Chicago, Illinois. ...

Chicago architecture has influenced and reflected the history of American architecture. ... Buckingham Fountain, donated to Chicago in 1927 by Kate Buckingham Anish Kapoors Cloud Gate (commonly known as The Bean) at Chicagos Millennium Park. ... Chicago downtown Chicago has the tallest building in the United States, the Sears Tower, and many slightly shorter buildings, almost all in the Loop or along North Michigan Avenue. ...

Climate

Chicago, like much of the Midwest, has a climate that is prone to extreme, often volatile, weather conditions. The city experiences four distinct seasons. In July, the warmest month, high temperatures average 84 °F (29 °C) and low temperatures 63 °F (17 °C). In January, the coldest month, high temperatures average 29 °F (−2 °C) with low temperatures averaging 13 °F (−11 °C).[11] According to the National Weather Service, Chicago's highest official temperature reading of 105 °F (40 °C) was recorded on July 24, 1934. The lowest temperature of −27 °F (−32 °C) degrees was recorded on January 20, 1985. A small part of downtown Chicago in the winter Chicago has a climate typical of the U.S. Midwest. ... The Midwest is a common name for a region of the United States of America. ... A season is one of the major divisions of the year, generally based on yearly periodic changes in weather. ... Fahrenheit is a temperature scale named after the German physicist Gabriel Fahrenheit (1686–1736), who proposed it in 1724. ... A degree Celsius (°C) is a unit of temperature named after the Swedish astronomer Anders Celsius (1701-1744), who first proposed a similar system in 1742. ... The National Weather Service (NWS) is one of the six scientific agencies that make up the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) of the United States government. ... July 24 is the 205th day (206th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 160 days remaining. ... 1934 (MCMXXXIV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... January 20 is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ...


Chicago's yearly precipitation averages about 38 inches (965 mm). Summer is the rainiest season, with short-lived rainfall and thunderstorms more common than prolonged rainy periods.[12] Winter is the driest season, with most of the precipitation falling as snow. Chicago's highest one day precipitation total was 6.49 inches (164 mm) which fell on August 14, 1987. Mid-19th century tool for converting between different standards of the inch An inch is an Imperial and U.S. customary unit of length. ... A millimetre (American spelling: millimeter, symbol mm) is an SI unit of length that is equal to one thousandth of a metre. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... August 14 is the 226th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (227th in leap years), with 139 days remaining. ... 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Demographics

Historical population[13]

As of the 2000 census, there were 2,896,016 people, 1,061,928 households, and 632,909 families residing within Chicago. This encompasses about one-fifth of the entire population of the state of Illinois and 1% of the population of the United States. The population density was 12,750.3 people per square mile (4,923.0/km²). There were 1,152,868 housing units at an average density of 5,075.8 per square mile (1,959.8/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 36.39% Black or African American, 31.32% White, 26.02% Hispanic or Latino, 4.33% Asian and Pacific Islander, 1.64% from two or more races, 0.15% Native American, and 0.15% from other races.[14] The city itself makes up 23.3% percent of the total population of Illinois, down from a high of 44.3% in 1930. People living in the Chicago area are called Chicagoans. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1030x530, 106 KB) Summary Historical population graph of Chicago, Illinois, based on data from Population of the 100 Largest Cities and Other Urban Places in the United States: 1790 to 1990 from the U.S. Bureau of the Census. ... 1870 US Census for New York City A census is the process of obtaining information about every member of a population (not necessarily a human population). ... Official language(s) English Capital Springfield Largest city Chicago Area  Ranked 25th  - Total 57,918 sq mi (149,998 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 390 miles (629 km)  - % water 4. ... A square mile is an Imperial unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (5,280 feet, 1,760 yards, 1,609. ... The United States Census Bureau uses the federal governments definitions of race when performing a census. ... The United States Census Bureau uses the federal governments definitions of race when performing a census. ... The United States Census Bureau uses the federal governments definitions of race when performing a census. ... Hispanic, as used in the United States, is one of several terms used to categorize US citizens, permanent residents and temporary immigrants, whose background hail either from the Spanish-speaking countries of Latin America or relating to a Spanish-speaking culture. ... The United States Census Bureau uses the federal governments definitions of race when performing a census. ... An Asian American is a person of Asian ancestry or origin who was born in or is an immigrant to the United States. ... The United States Census Bureau uses the federal governments definitions of race when performing a census. ... The United States Census Bureau uses the federal governments definitions of race when performing a census. ... The United States Census Bureau uses the federal governments definitions of race when performing a census. ...


Of the 1,061,928 households, 28.9% have children under the age of 18 living with them, 35.1% were married couples living together, 18.9% had a female householder with no husband present, and 40.4% were non-families. Of all households, 32.6% are made up of individuals and 8.7% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.67 and the average family size was 3.50. A marriage is a relationship between or among individuals, usually recognized by civil authority and/or bound by the religious beliefs of the participants. ...


Of the city population, 26.2% are under the age of 18, 11.2% are from 18 to 24, 33.4% are from 25 to 44, 18.9% are from 45 to 64, and 10.3% are 65 years of age or older. The median age is 32 years. For every 100 females there were 94.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.1 males. In probability theory and statistics, a median is a number dividing the higher half of a sample, a population, or a probability distribution from the lower half. ...


The median income for a household in the city was $38,625, and the median income for a family was $42,724. Males had a median income of $35,907 versus $30,536 for females. The per capita income for the city was $20,175. Below the poverty line are 19.6% of the population and 16.6% of the families. Of the total population, 28.1% of those under the age of 18 and 15.5% of those 65 and older are living below the poverty line. The per capita income for a group of people may be defined as their total personal income, divided by the total population. ... Map of countries showing percentage of population who have an income below the national poverty line The poverty line is the level of income below which one cannot afford to purchase all the resources one requires to live. ... Map of countries showing percentage of population who have an income below the national poverty line The poverty line is the level of income below which one cannot afford to purchase all the resources one requires to live. ...


Chicago has a large Irish-American population on its South Side. Many of the city's politicians have come from this population, including current mayor Richard M. Daley. Other European ethnic groups are the Germans, Italians and Polish. Chicago has the largest population of Swedish-Americans of any city in the U.S. with approximately 123,000. After the Great Chicago Fire, many Swedish carpenters helped to rebuild the city, which led to the saying the Swedes built Chicago.[15] The neighborhoods of Chicago lay within Chicagos seventy-seven community areas. ... Richard M. Daley is the current mayor of Chicago. ... This article is about the continent. ... Swedish-Americans are the Americans with Swedish heritage, most often related to the large groups of immigrants from Sweden in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. ... Artists rendering of the fire, by John R Chapin, originally printed in Harpers Weekly The Great Chicago Fire was a conflagration that burned from Oct. ...


The city has the largest ethnically Polish population outside of Poland, making it one of the most important Polonia centers.[16] Chicago is also the second-largest Serbian[17] and Lithuanian city,[18] and the third largest Greek city in the world.[19] Chicago has a large Romanian-American community with more than 100,000,[20] as well as a large Assyrian population with about 80,000. The city is home to the seat of the head of the Assyrian Church of the East, Mar Dinkha IV, and the ELCA headquarters.[21] To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Serbs (Serbian: Срби, Srbi) are a south Slavic people who live mainly in Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and, to a lesser extent, in Croatia. ... A Romanian-American is a citizen of the United States who has significant Romanian heritage. ... It has been suggested that Assyrian people be merged into this article or section. ... The Holy Apostolic and Catholic Assyrian Church of the East under His Holiness Mar Dinkha IV, is a Christian church that traces its origins to the See of Babylon, said to be founded by Saint Thomas the Apostle. ... Mar Dinkha IV Mar Khanania Dinkha IV, was born on September 15, 1935, in the province of Darbandoki, Assyria. ... The Evangelical Lutheran Church in America or ELCA is a mainline Protestant denomination headquarted in Chicago, Illinois. ...


The Chicago Metropolitan area is also becoming a major center for Indian-Americans and South Asians. Chicago has the third-largest South Asian population in the United States, after New York City and San Francisco. The Devon Avenue corridor on Chicago's north side is one of the largest South Asian neighborhoods in North America. For an article on American Indians see Native Americans in the United States or Indigenous peoples of the Americas. ... Map of South Asia South Asia is a subregion of Asia comprising the modern states of Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka, . It covers about 4,480,000 km², or 10 percent of the continent, and is also known as the Indian subcontinent. ... Flag Seal Nickname: Big Apple Location Location in the state of New York Government Counties (Boroughs) Bronx (The Bronx) New York (Manhattan) Queens (Queens) Kings (Brooklyn) Richmond (Staten Island) Mayor Michael Bloomberg (R) Geographical characteristics Area     City 1,214. ... Flag Seal Nickname: The City by the Bay; The City That Knows How; Golden Mountain (historic Chinese name) Location Location of the City and County of San Francisco, California Coordinates , Government City-County San Francisco Mayor Gavin Newsom Geographical characteristics Area     City 600. ... World map showing North America A satellite composite image of North America. ...


Economy

Main article: Economy of Chicago
Trading floor at the Chicago Board of Trade
Trading floor at the Chicago Board of Trade

Chicago has the third largest gross metropolitan product in the nation - approximately $390 billion.[22] The city has also been rated as having the most balanced economy in the United States due to its high level of diversification.[23] Chicago has been a center for commerce in the United States for most of its since its early days as a city incorporated in 1833. ... Chicago Board of Trade pit. ... Chicago Board of Trade pit. ... A metropolitan areas gross domestic product, or GMP, is one of several measures of the size of its economy. ... This article is about general United States currency. ...


Chicago is a major financial center with the second largest central business district in the U.S. The city is the headquarters of the Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago (the Seventh District of the Federal Reserve). The city is also home to four major financial and futures exchanges, including the Chicago Stock Exchange, the Chicago Board of Trade (CBOT), the Chicago Board Options Exchange (CBOE), and the Chicago Mercantile Exchange (Merc). Chicago and the surrounding areas also house many major brokerage firms and insurance companies, such as Allstate Corporation. In addition, despite Chicago commonly being percieved as a rust-belt city, a study indicated that Chicago has the largest high-technology and information-technology industry employment in the United States.[24] The Loop is what locals call the historical center of downtown Chicago. ... Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago, located at the corner of LaSalle and Jackson streets. ... The Chicago Stock Exchange, located in Chicago, Illinois, is the third most active stock exchange in the United States by volume. ... The Chicago Board of Trade (CBOT) NYSE: BOT, established in 1848, is the worlds oldest futures and options exchange. ... The Chicago Board Options Exchange (CBOE) is the worlds largest options exchange with an annual trade of over 15 billion shares of stock options in some 1200 companies. ... President George W. Bush at the CME (March 6, 2001). ... The Allstate Corporation NYSE: ALL is the largest publicly held personal lines insurer in the United States. ...


Manufacturing (which includes chemicals, metal, machinery, and consumer electronics), printing and publishing, and food processing also play major roles in the city's economy. Nevertheless, much of the manufacturing occurs outside the city limits, especially since World War II.[25] Several medical products and services companies are headquartered in the Chicago area, including Baxter International, Abbott Laboratories, and the Healthcare Financial Services division of General Electric. Moreover, the construction of the Illinois and Michigan Canal, which helped move goods from the Great Lakes south on the Mississippi River, and the railroads in the 1800s made the city a major transportation center in the United States. In the 1840s, Chicago became a major grain port, and in the 1850s and 1860s Chicago's pork and beef industry expanded. As the major meat companies grew in Chicago many, such as Armour, created global enterprises. Though the meatpacking industry currently plays a lesser role in the city's economy,[25] Chicago continues to be a major tranportation and distribution center. Combatants Allies: Soviet Union United States United Kingdom France and others Axis Powers: Germany Japan Italy and others Casualties Military dead: 17 million Civilian dead: 33 million Total dead: 50 million Military dead: 8 million Civilian dead: 4 million Total dead: 12 million World War II, also known as the... Baxter, Incorporated (NYSE: BAX), is a global Medical Instruments & Supplies company, with headquarters in Deerfield, IL. // History A detailed history of Baxter can be found at on the Baxter Company Website Management Robert L. Parkinson Jr. ... Abbott Laboratories NYSE: ABT is a pharmaceuticals and health care company. ... GE redirects here. ... The location and course of the Illinois and Michigan Canal. ... The Great Lakes from space The Great Lakes are a group of five large lakes on or near the United States-Canadian border. ... The Mississippi River, derived from the old Ojibwe word misi-ziibi meaning great river (gichi-ziibi big river at its headwaters), is the second-longest river in the United States; the longest is the Missouri River, which flows into the Mississippi. ... This is the top-level page of WikiProject trains Rail tracks Rail transport refers to the land transport of passengers and goods along railways or railroads. ... Oats, barley, and some products made from them Cereal crops are mostly grasses cultivated for their edible grains or seeds (actually a fruit called a caryopsis). ... Armour & Co. ...


The city is also a major convention destination; Chicago is third in the U.S. behind Las Vegas and Orlando as far as the number of conventions hosted annually.[26] In addition, Chicago is home to eleven Fortune 500 companies, while the metropolitan area hosts an additional 21 Fortune 500 companies.[27] Chicago also hosts 12 Fortune Global 500 companies and 17 Financial Times 500 companies. The city and its surrounding metropolitan area are also home to the second largest labor pool in the United States with approximately 4.25 million workers.[28] Flag Seal Nickname: The Entertainment Capital of the World Location Location of Las Vegas in Nevada Coordinates , Government County Clark Mayor Oscar B. Goodman Geographical characteristics Area     City 113. ... Flag Seal Nickname: The city Beautiful Location Location in Orange County and the state of Florida. ... The Fortune 500 is a ranking of the top 500 United States corporations as measured by gross revenue. ...

Chicago Flag The following companies have headquarters within the Chicago city limits: Accenture Website Aon Corporation (Ranked #199 on the Fortune 500) Website Boeing (Ranked #21 on the Fortune 500) Chicago Board of Trade Chicago Mercantile Exchange Chicago Stock Exchange Click Commerce CNA Encyclopædia Britannica Equity Office Properties (Ranked...

Law and government

A Critical Mass gathering on the Daley Plaza, with the Chicago City Hall in the background
A Critical Mass gathering on the Daley Plaza, with the Chicago City Hall in the background

Chicago is the county seat of Cook County. The government of the City of Chicago is divided into executive and legislative branches. The mayor of Chicago is the chief executive, elected by general election for a term of four years. The mayor appoints commissioners and other officials who oversee the various departments. In addition to the mayor, Chicago's two other citywide elected officials are the clerk and the treasurer. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1024x768, 506 KB) Summary Critical Mass riders meet in Chicagos Daley Plaza. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1024x768, 506 KB) Summary Critical Mass riders meet in Chicagos Daley Plaza. ... San Francisco Critical Mass, 29th April, 2005. ... Chicago City Hall, shortly before construction was completed in 1911. ... Chicago City Hall The government of the City of Chicago is divided into executive and legislative branches. ... A county seat is a term for an administrative center for a county, primarily used in the United States. ... Cook County is a county located in the U.S. state of Illinois. ... A legislature is a governmental deliberative body with the power to adopt laws. ... Mayors of Chicago, Illinois, Current or Previous The mayoral term in Chicago was two years from 1837 through 1907, at which time it was lengthened to four years. ... A chief executive officer (CEO), or chief executive, is the highest-ranking corporate officer or executive officer of a corporation, or agency. ...


The City Council is the legislative branch and is made up of 50 alderman, one elected from each ward in the city. The council enacts local ordinances and approves the city budget. Government priorities and activities are established in a budget ordinance usually adopted each November. The council takes official action through the passage of ordinances and resolutions. Chicago City Hall, adjacent to the Richard J. Daley Center, houses the chambers of the Chicago City Council. ... A ward is an electoral district used in local politics, most notably in England, Scotland, and Wales, as well as Australia, Canada, the Republic of Ireland, New Zealand, South Africa and many cities in the United States and the federal district of Washington, DC. Wards are usually named after neighbourhoods...


During much of the last half of the 19th century, Chicago's politics were dominated by a growing Democratic Party organization dominated by ethnic ward-healers. During the 1880s and 1890s, Chicago had a powerful radical tradition with large and highly organized socialist, anarchist and labor organizations.[29] For much of the 20th century, Chicago has been among the largest and most reliable Democratic strongholds in the United States, with Chicago's Democratic vote totals' leading the state of Illinois to be "solid blue" in presidential elections since 1992. The citizens of Chicago have not elected a Republican mayor since 1927, when William Thompson was voted into office. The Democratic Party is one of two major political parties in the United States, the other being the Republican Party. ... Map of results by state of the 2000 U.S. presidential election, representing states as either red or blue. ... This article is about the modern United States Republican Party. ... William Hale Thompson campaigns for Mayor in 1917. ...


Former Chicago Mayor Richard J. Daley's mastery of machine politics preserved the Chicago Democratic Machine long after the demise of similar machines in other large American cities.[30] During much of that time the city administration found opposition mainly from a liberal "independent" faction of the Democratic Party. The independents finally won control of city government in 1983 with the election of Harold Washington. Since Washington's death, Chicago has since been under the leadership of Richard M. Daley, the son of Richard J. Daley. However, the extent of machine politics that dominated his father's reign is not evident, signaling that Harold Washington's election did perhaps in fact signal the fall of the machine.[citation needed] Richard J. Daley was Chicagos longest-serving mayor and held office from 1955 to his death in 1976 Richard Joseph Daley (May 15, 1902 – December 20, 1976) was the longest-serving mayor of Chicago. ... A political machine is an unofficial system of political organization based on patronage, the spoils system, behind-the-scenes control, and longstanding political ties within the structure of a representative democracy. ... The Chicago Democratic Machine was a political machine led by former Chicago Mayor Richard J. Daley. ... Harold Lee Washington (April 15, 1922 – November 25, 1987) was a lawyer, legislator and the first African American Mayor of Chicago, Illinois serving from 1983 until his death in 1987. ... Richard M. Daley is the current mayor of Chicago. ...

This is a List of Chicago city departments Office of the Mayor Chicago Office of Tourism Administrative Hearings Aging Animal Care and Control Aviation Budget & Management Buildings Business & Information Services Cable Communications Chicago Film Office Consumer Services Department Cultural Affairs Department Department of Construction and Permits Environment Ethics (Board of... Chicago has twenty four sister cities, as designated by Sister Cities International, Inc. ...

Crime

A Chicago police officer
A Chicago police officer

Like most major American cities, Chicago has experienced a decline in overall crime since the 1990s.[citation needed] However, in addition to its gangland problems, Chicago historically saw a major rise in violent crime starting in the late 1960s. Murders in the city peaked first in 1974, with 970 murders when the city's population was over three million (resulting in a murder rate of around 29 per 100,000), and again in 1992, with 943 murders when the city had fewer than three million people, resulting in a murder rate of 34 per 100,000. It peaked again in 1993 with 931 murders. Following 1992, the murder count slowly decreased to 705 by 1999; by this time, it had the most murders of any big city in the U.S.[31] After adopting crime-fighting techniques recommended by the New York Police Department and the Los Angeles Police Department in 2004,[32] Chicago recorded 448 homicides, the lowest total since 1965. Nevertheless, this murder rate of 15.65 per 100,000 population is still above the U.S. average. ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (2000x3008, 703 KB) A chicago police officer on a segway. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (2000x3008, 703 KB) A chicago police officer on a segway. ... The New York City Police Department (NYPD) , the largest police department in the United States, has primary responsibility for law enforcement and investigation within the five boroughs of New York City. ... Parker Center-LAPDs Headquarters LAPD redirects here. ...


Chicago has been among the first U.S. cities to build an integrated emergency response center to coordinate the city's response to terrorist attacks, gang violence, and natural disasters. Built in 1995, the center is integrated with over 2000 cameras, a direct link to the National Counterterrorism Center, and communications with all levels of city government. Recently installed anti-crime cameras have been introduced and are capable of pinpointing gunshot sounds, calculating where the shots were fired, and pointing and zooming the cameras in the direction of the shots within a two block radius. Early results show these new cameras to be highly effective in reducing crime.[33] Placed in residential areas, these cameras cause some Chicagoans to feel uneasy about being so closely watched. They have prompted some calls of discrimination since these cameras are prevalent in Black and Latino communities. Official NCTC seal The National Counterterrorism Center (NCTC) is a United States government agency that was created by Executive Order 13354 and the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004. ...


The FBI often does not accept crime statistics submitted by the Chicago Police Department, which tallies data differently than other cities. The police record all criminal sexual assaults as opposed to only rape as with other police departments. Aggravated battery is counted along with the standard category of aggravated assault. As a result, Chicago is often omitted from studies like Morgan Quitno's annual "Safest/Most Dangerous City" survey.[34] The Chicago Police Department, also known as the CPD, is the principal law enforcement agency of Chicago, Illinois, under the jurisdiction of the mayor of Chicago. ... Morgan Quitno Press is an independent research and publishing company based out of Lawrence, Kansas. ...

// Events - Timeline Pre-1910s 1882 - Chicago Police Chief William McGarigle, in the pay of Chicago crime lord Michael Cassius McDonald, is indicted for graft later fleeing to Canada. ...

Education

Public education

The Chicago Public Schools (CPS) is the school district that controls over 600 public elementary and high schools in Chicago. The school district, with more 400,000 students enrolled,[35] is led by CEO Arne Duncan. The CPS also includes several selective-admission magnet schools, such as Whitney Young Magnet High School, William Jones College Prep, Walter Payton College Prep, Lane Tech College Prep, and Northside College Preparatory High School. Chicago Public Schools, commonly abbreviated as CPS by local residents and politicians, is a school district that controls over 600 public elementary and high schools in Chicago, Illinois. ... School districts are a form of special-purpose district in the United States (amongst some other places) which serves to operate the local public primary and secondary schools. ... Chief Executive Officer (CEO) is the job of having the ultimate executive responsibility or authority within an organization or corporation. ... Arne Duncan is the current Chief Executive Officer of the Chicago Public Schools. ... School riht outside of the chacago area. ... Walter Payton College Preparatory is a selective enrollment high school in Chicago, Illinois. ... Northside College Preparatory High School (commonly referred to as Northside College Prep, Northside Prep, or simply Northside; sometimes abbreviated as NCPHS or NCP) is part of the Chicago Public Schools. ...


Like many urban U.S. school districts, CPS suffered many problems throughout the latter half of the 20th century, including overcrowding, underfunding, mismanagement and a high dropout rate. In 1987, then U.S. Secretary of Education William Bennett named the Chicago Public Schools as the "worst in the nation."[36] Several school reform initiatives have since been undertaken to improve the system's performance. Reforms have included a system of Local School Councils, Charter Schools, and efforts to end social promotion. The most notable and public of these reforms has been a concerted effort at aggressively closing down underperforming schools while at the same time renovating and improving successful ones or building new ones [citation needed]. William Bennett on NBCs Meet the Press William John Bennett (born July 31, 1943) served as United States Secretary of Education from 1985 to 1988. ... Education reform is a plan, program, or movement which attempts to bring about a systematic change in educational theory or practice across a community or society. ... In the United States, a charter school is a public school that is created via a legal charter. ... Social promotion is the practice of promoting a student to the next grade despite their poor grades in order to keep them with social peers. ...


Higher education

View of the University of Chicago from the Midway Plaisance, a long stretch of parkland that bisects the campus.
View of the University of Chicago from the Midway Plaisance, a long stretch of parkland that bisects the campus.

Chicago is home to many institutions of higher education within its city limits and nearby environs. While some of these institutions are primarily located outside of central Chicago, many have downtown branches. The city is home to the University of Chicago in Hyde Park on the near South Side and Northwestern University in nearby northside suburb Evanston. Both maintain campuses near the Magnificent Mile in downtown Chicago. The Illinois Institute of Technology in Bronzeville has notable engineering and architecture programs. Dominican University, located just outside Chicago in River Forest, teaches many of its library courses at the Chicago Public Library's Harold Washington Building in the Loop. The city is also home to several Catholic universities including Loyola University and DePaul University, Chicago's largest private institution. Image File history File links Harper_Library. ... Image File history File links Harper_Library. ... The University of Chicago is a private university located principally in the Hyde Park neighborhood of Chicago, Illinois. ... Midway Plaisance is a linear park located near Lake Michigan in Chicago, Illinois approximately 5 miles from the downtown Loop area. ... Gated entrance to the University of Chicagos main quadrangle Chicago holds a distinguished place in the history of American education. ... The University of Chicago is a private university located principally in the Hyde Park neighborhood of Chicago, Illinois. ... Hyde Park is a neighborhood on the south side of Chicago, located seven miles south of the Loop; it is home to the Museum of Science and Industry, The DuSable Museum of African American History and the University of Chicago. ... Northwestern University is a private, coeducational, non-sectarian university, located in Evanston, Illinois and Chicago, Illinois. ... Incorporated City in 1872. ... Michigan Avenues double-decker bridge over the Chicago River. ... State Street Village, S.R. Crown Hall, Armour Main Building Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT) is a private Ph. ... Douglas is a neighborhood located on the south side of Chicago, Illinois. ... The Dominican University is a public university located in River Forest, Illinois. ... The Chicago Public Library consists of 80 branches (as of March 2006) throughout the city of Chicago, Illinois, USA. History Harold Washington Library in downtown Chicago. ... Loyola University Chicago is a private co-educational religious-affiliated university established in Chicago, Illinois in 1870 as Saint Ignatius College. ... DePaul University should not be confused with DePauw University. ...


The Chicago region has 12 accredited theological schools representing Catholic and most mainline Protestant denominations. The United Church of Christ-related Chicago Theological Seminary is the city's oldest institution of higher education. These accredited seminaries in the region are joined in a consortium known as the Association of Chicago Theological Schools (ACTS).[37] The Moody Bible Institute is near downtown Chicago. Chicago Theological Seminary is an ecumenical seminary of the United Church of Christ. ... Moody Bible Institute is a prominent Christian institution for higher education. ...


The University of Illinois at Chicago is the city's largest university, consisting of the nation's largest medical school. Chicago State University and Northeastern Illinois University are other state universities in Chicago. The city also has a large community college system known as the City Colleges of Chicago. Additionally, there are several smaller colleges noted for their fine arts education programs - Roosevelt University, Columbia College Chicago, and The School of the Art Institute of Chicago. The University of Illinois at Chicago (UIC) is a public, state-supported research university. ... Chicago State University (CSU) is a state university in Chicago, Illinois. ... Northeastern Illinois University (NEIU) is a public state university located in the North Park community area of Chicago, Illinois. ... In Canada and the United States, a community college, sometimes called a county college, a junior college or a city college, is an educational institution providing post-secondary education and lower-level tertiary education, granting certificates, diplomas, and Associates degrees. ... The City Colleges of Chicago was formed on September 11th, 1911. ... Fine art is a term used to refer to fields traditionally considered to be artistic. ... Roosevelt University downtown campus (Auditorium Building) Roosevelt University   Roosevelt University is a four-year, private institute of higher education with full service campuses in Chicagos Loop and northwest suburban Schaumburg. ... Columbia College Chicago, is the nations largest arts and communications college. ... On the western edge of Grant Park in Chicago, Illinois, is the Art Institute of Chicago, one of the premier art museums and schools in the United States, known especially for the extensive collection of impressionist and American art in its museum. ...


Culture

Main article: Culture of Chicago
A Chicago jazz club
A Chicago jazz club

Chicago has a major theater scene, and is the birthplace of modern improvisational comedy.[38] The city is home to two renowned comedy troupes: The Second City and I.O. Renowned Chicago theater companies include the Steppenwolf Theatre Company (on the city's north side), the Goodman Theatre, and the Victory Gardens Theatre. Other theatres, from nearly 100 storefront performance spaces such as the Strawdog Theatre Company in the Lakeview area to landmark downtown houses such as the Chicago Theatre, present a variety of plays and musicals. The city is home to the Lyric Opera of Chicago, the Chicago Symphony Orchestra, the Joffrey Ballet, and several modern and jazz dance troupes. The culture of Chicago, Illinois, is known for various forms of performing arts, such as improvisational comedy, and music, such as Chicago blues and soul. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (768x1024, 482 KB) Summary Source: http://www. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (768x1024, 482 KB) Summary Source: http://www. ... For other usages see Theatre (disambiguation) Theater (American English) or Theatre (British English and widespread usage among theatre professionals in the US) is that branch of the performing arts concerned with acting out stories in front of an audience using combinations of speech, gesture, music, dance, sound and spectacle — indeed... Improvisational comedy (also called improv or impro) is comedy that is performed with a little to no predetermination of subject matter and structure. ... The Second City is a long-running improvisational comedy troupe based in the Old Town neighborhood of Chicago, with offshoot troupes in other cities, most notably Toronto. ... The I.O., or I.O. Chicago, (formerly known as ImprovOlympic) is a theater in the Lakeview neighborhood of Chicago, Illinois dedicated to improvisational comedy. ... Steppenwolf Theatre Company is a Chicago theatre company in Chicago, Illinois. ... The Goodman Theatre The Goodman Theatre is a theater in Chicagos Loop, and part of Chicago theatre. ... Lakeview (properly and historically spelled as Lake View) is a neighborhood on the North Side of Chicago, Illinois, USA. It is located along the shore of Lake Michigan and runs approximately from Diversey Parkway on the south to Irving Park Road on the north and from Lake Michigan on the... Not to be confused with the Chicago Theatre, aka Chicago Theater, built in 1921, a theater at 175 North State Street Chicago theatre refers not only to theatre performed in Chicago, Illinois but also to the movement in that town that saw a number of small, meagerly-funded companies grow... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Musical theatre (sometimes, but not often, spelled theater) is a form of theatre combining music, songs, dance, and spoken dialogue. ... The Lyric Opera of Chicago is one of the leading opera companies in the United States. ... The Chicago Symphony Orchestra, based in Chicago, Illinois, is one of the leading orchestras in the world. ... In 1956, Ballet teacher Robert Joffrey and choreographer Gerald Arpino formed a six-dancer ensemble that toured the country performing original ballets during a time when most touring companies performed mere reduced versions of ballet classics. ...


Chicago is known for its Chicago blues, Chicago soul, Jazz, and Gospel. The city is the birthplace of the House style of music, and is the site of an influential Hip-Hop scene. The city is also home to various alternative bands from the 1990s and a handful of punk rock bands. There is also a flourishing independent rock scene, with multiple festivals featuring various acts each year (Lollapalooza, the Intonation Music Festival and Pitchfork Music Festival being the most prominent). The Chicago blues is a form of blues music that developed in Chicago by adding electricity, drums, piano, bass guitar and sometimes saxophone to the basic string/harmonica Delta blues. ... Chicago soul is a form of soul music that arose during the 1960s in Chicago. ... Jazz is an original American musical art form originating around the start of the 20th century in New Orleans. ... Gospel music may refer either to the religious music that first came out of African-American churches in the 1930s or, more loosely, to both black gospel music and to the religious music composed and sung by white southern Christian artists. ... Chicago house is a style of house music. ... The Hip-Hop scene in Chicago, USA is very influential, featuring a diverse array of artists too numerous name. ... The term alternative rock or alternative music1 was coined in the early 1980s to describe bands which didnt fit into the mainstream genres of the time. ... Punk rock is an anti-establishment music movement beginning around 1976 (although precursors can be found several years earlier), exemplified and popularised by The Ramones, the Sex Pistols, The Clash and The Damned. ... Lollapalooza is an American music festival featuring alternative rock, rap, and punk rock bands, dance and comedy performances, and craft booths. ... The Intonation Music Festival was a music festival held on July 16 - July 17, 2005 at the Union Park in Chicago, Illinois. ... Pitchfork logo Pitchfork Media, usually known simply as Pitchfork, is a U.S.-based daily Internet publication devoted to music criticism and commentary, music news, and artist interviews. ...


Chicago has several signature foods which reflect the city's ethnic and working-class roots. These include the deep-dish pizza and the Chicago hot dog, which is almost always made of Vienna Beef and loaded with mustard, chopped onion, sliced tomato, pickle relish, celery salt, sport peppers, and a dill pickle spear. However, putting ketchup on a Chicago hot dog is often taken as an insult. Chicago is also known for Italian Beef sandwiches and the Maxwell Street Polish (always served topped with grilled onions and mustard). The city has many upscale dining establishments as well as many ethnic restaurant districts. These include "Greektown" on South Halsted, "Little Italy" on Taylor Street, just west of Halsted, "Chinatown" on the near South Side, and South Asian on Devon Avenue. The working class is a social class often contrasted with middle class and upper class in terms of the nature of work undertaken (manual labor or skilled), the level of remuneration (typically low hourly rates although there are exceptions) and access to resources (limited access to capital, education and land). ... Chicago-style pizza is a very specific variety of pizza. ... A Chicago style hot dog meal at the Bunny Hutch in Lincolnwood, IL A Chicago-style hot dog – named after the U.S. city of Chicago, Illinois – is a 1/8 lb. ... Vienna Beef is a manufacturer of the classic Chicago hot dog, as well as Polish sausage and Italian beef, delicacies of independent Chicago-style hot dog and beef stands. ... Italian Beef, as served by Portillos in Chicago, Illinois. ... The prices A sign of the establishment The grill A Maxwell Street Polish consists of a Polish sausage topped with grilled onions and mustard on a bun. ...

Not to be confused with the Chicago Theatre, aka Chicago Theater, built in 1921, a theater at 175 North State Street Chicago theatre refers not only to theatre performed in Chicago, Illinois but also to the movement in that town that saw a number of small, meagerly-funded companies grow... Allstate Arena in Rosemont, IL Apollo Theater Aragon Ballroom The Beat Kitchen Bottom Lounge Briar Street Theater Charter One Pavilion Chicago Center for Performing Arts Chicago Cultural Center Chicago Theatre Double Door The Empty Bottle The Green Mill HotHouse House of Blues Logan Square Auditorium The Metro The Note The...

Sites of interest

The Navy Pier
The Navy Pier

In 1998, the city officially opened the Museum Campus, a 10-acre (4-hectare) lakefront park surrounding three of the city's main museums: the Adler Planetarium, the Field Museum of Natural History, and the Shedd Aquarium. The Museum Campus was constructed on the southern section of Grant Park. Grant Park is also home to Chicago's other major downtown museum, the Art Institute of Chicago, which is partnered with The School of the Art Institute of Chicago. To the west of Grant Park is Millennium Park. Navy Pier, a 3000-foot (900 m) pier housing restaurants, shops, museums, exhibition halls, auditoriums, and a 150-foot-tall (45 m) Ferris wheel, is located north of Grant Park on the lakefront. The Museum of Science and Industry in Chicago, located in the Hyde Park neighborhood, is housed in the only in-place surviving building from the World's Columbian Exposition of 1893. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1800x1200, 1750 KB) Summary A view of Navy Pier from the shoreline in Chicago. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1800x1200, 1750 KB) Summary A view of Navy Pier from the shoreline in Chicago. ... Museum Campus Chicago is a 10 acre (40,000 m²) lakefront park in Chicago that surrounds the Adler Planetarium, the Shedd Aquarium and the Field Museum of Natural History. ... An acre is an English unit of area, which is also frequently used in the United States and some Commonwealth countries. ... A hectare (symbol ha) is a unit of area, equal to 10,000 square meters, commonly used for measuring land area. ... Adler Planetarium The Adler Planetarium and Astronomy Museum in downtown Chicago, Illinois was the first planetarium in the United States and is the oldest in existence today. ... Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago The Field Museum of Natural History, in Chicago, Illinois, USA, sits on Lake Shore Drive next to Lake Michigan, part of a scenic complex known as Museum Campus Chicago. ... John G. Shedd Aquarium in Chicago in the United States is the largest indoor aquarium in the world. ... The Taste of Chicago is held in Grant Park annually around Independence Day. ... The Art Institute of Chicago is one of the premier art educational facilities in the United States. ... Millennium Park is a prominent new civic center of the City of Chicago in Illinois and an important landmark of the citys lakefront. ... The Navy Pier seen from the John Hancock Center Navy Pier is a 3,000 foot long pier on the Chicago shoreline of Lake Michigan. ... A foot (plural: feet) is any of several old units of distance or length, measuring around a quarter to a third of a meter. ... The Riesenrad Ferris wheel of the Prater amusement park in Vienna, Austria. ... The Museum of Science and Industry is housed in the only surviving building from the 1893 World Columbian Exposition and is a National Historic Landmark. ... Hyde Park is a neighborhood on the south side of Chicago, located seven miles south of the Loop; it is home to the Museum of Science and Industry, The DuSable Museum of African American History and the University of Chicago. ... One-third scale replica of Daniel Chester Frenchs Republic, which stood in the great basin at the exposition, Chicago, 2004 The Worlds Columbian Exposition (also called The Chicago Worlds Fair), a Worlds fair, was held in the U.S. city of Chicago in 1893 to celebrate...


The Chicago Cultural Center, built in 1897 as Chicago's first permanent public library, now houses the city's Visitor Information Center, galleries, and exhibit halls. The ceiling of Preston Bradley Hall includes a 38-foot (11 m) Tiffany glass dome. The Oriental Institute, part of the University of Chicago, has an extensive collection of ancient Egyptian and Near Eastern archaeological artifacts, while the Freedom Museum is dedicated to exploring and explaining the First Amendment to the United States Constitution. Other museums and galleries in Chicago are the Chicago History Museum, DuSable Museum of African-American History, Mexican Fine Arts Center Museum, Museum of Contemporary Art, and the Peggy Notebaert Nature Museum. Dome Ceiling at the Chicago Cultural Center Located in Chicago, the landmark building known as the Chicago Cultural Center serves as the citys official reception venue where the Mayor has welcomed Presidents and royalty, diplomats and community leaders. ... Librarians and patrons in a typical larger urban public library A public library is a library which is accessible by the public and is often operated by civil servants and funded from public sources. ... Louis Comfort Tiffany (1848-1933) circa 1908 Louis Comfort Tiffany (February 18, 1848 - January 17, 1933) was an American artist and designer who is best known for his work in stained glass and is the American artist most associated with the Art Nouveau movement. ... The Oriental Institute (OI) is the University of Chicagos archeology museum and research center for ancient Near Eastern studies. ... The University of Chicago is a private university located principally in the Hyde Park neighborhood of Chicago, Illinois. ... Khafres Pyramid (4th dynasty) and Great Sphinx of Giza (c. ... The Near East is a term commonly used by archaeologists and historians, less commonly by journalists and commentators, to refer to the region encompassing the Levant (modern Israel, Palestine, Jordan, Syria and Lebanon), Asia Minor (modern Turkey), Mesopotamia (Iraq and eastern Syria), and the Iranian Plateau (Iran, Afghanistan and western... The Media Wall The McCormick Tribune Freedom Museum was opened on April 11th, 2006 in Chicago by the McCormick Tribune Foundation. ... The First Amendment to the United States Constitution is a part of the United States Bill of Rights. ... The Chicago History Museum (formerly known as the Chicago Historical Society) is a privately funded, independent institution devoted to collecting, interpreting, and presenting the rich multicultural history of Chicago. ... The DuSable Museum of African American History is the first and oldest museum dedicated to the history of African-Americans. ... The Mexican Fine Arts Center Museum (MFACM) is a museum located in the neighborhood of Pilsen in Chicago, Illinois, decided to Mexican, Latino and Chicano Art and Culture. ... The Museum of Contemporary Art is a contemporary art museum in downtown Chicago. ... The Notebaert Museum as seen from the southwest. ...


Media

Harpo Studios, home of talk show host Oprah Winfrey
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Harpo Studios, home of talk show host Oprah Winfrey
Main article: Media in Chicago

Chicago is the third-largest market in the U.S. (after New York City and Los Angeles).[39] All of the major American television networks have subsidiaries in Chicago. WGN-TV, which is owned by the Tribune Company, is carried (with some programming differences) as "Superstation WGN" on cable nation-wide. The city is also the home of the Oprah Winfrey Show, while Chicago Public Radio produces programs such as PRI's This American Life and NPR's Wait Wait... Don't Tell Me!. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (972x729, 142 KB) Description: American television talk show host, Oprah Winfreys] production studios, Harpo Studios main sign. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (972x729, 142 KB) Description: American television talk show host, Oprah Winfreys] production studios, Harpo Studios main sign. ... Oprah Gail Winfrey (born January 29, 1954) is best known as the multiple-Emmy Award winning host of The Oprah Winfrey Show, the highest rated talk show in television history[[28]]. She is also an influential book critic, an Academy Award-nominated actress, and a magazine publisher. ... Harpo Studios, home of talk show host Oprah Winfrey Chicago, Illinois, commands the third-largest media market in the United States. ... Flag Seal Nickname: Big Apple Location Location in the state of New York Government Counties (Boroughs) Bronx (The Bronx) New York (Manhattan) Queens (Queens) Kings (Brooklyn) Richmond (Staten Island) Mayor Michael Bloomberg (R) Geographical characteristics Area     City 1,214. ... Flag Seal Nickname: City of Angels Location Location within Los Angeles County in the state of California Coordinates , Government State County California Los Angeles County Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa (D) Geographical characteristics Area     City 1,290. ... In the United States, for most of the history of broadcasting, there were only four major national broadcasting networks. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The Tribune Company is a large multimedia corporation based in Chicago, Illinois. ... Superstation in United States television can have several meanings. ... Coaxial cable is often used to transmit cable television into the house. ... Oprah Gail Winfrey (born January 29, 1954) is best known as the multiple-Emmy Award winning host of The Oprah Winfrey Show, the highest rated talk show in television history[[28]]. She is also an influential book critic, an Academy Award-nominated actress, and a magazine publisher. ... Chicago Public Radio is a noncommercial public radio station in Chicago, Illinois. ... PRI logo Public Radio International, or PRI, is a not-for-profit corporation based in the United States founded in 1983 to develop non-commercial audio programming for public radio and other audio venues. ... This American Life (TAL) is a weekly hour-long radio program produced by WBEZ in Chicago and distributed by Public Radio International. ... NPR logo NPR redirects here. ... Wait Wait. ...


There are two major daily newspapers published in Chicago: the Chicago Tribune and the Chicago Sun-Times, with the former having the larger circulation. There are also several regional and special-interest newspapers such as the Daily Southtown, the Chicago Defender, the Newcity News, the Daily Herald, StreetWise, and the Chicago Reader. The Chicago Tribune, formerly self-styled as the Worlds Greatest Newspaper, remains one of the principal daily newspapers of the midwestern United States. ... New Chicago Sun-Times home located at 350 N. Orleans St. ... The Daily Southtown is a Chicago, Illinois newspaper that targets itself to the South Side neighborhoods of the city and a wide region of the south suburbs; its slogan is People Up North just dont get it (a pun). ... The Chicago Defender announces President Harry S. Trumans order in 1948 desegregating the United States Armed Forces. ... The Daily Herald was a London newspaper. ... Streetwise has a number of different meanings: Wisdom in a particular subject. ... The Chicago Reader is an alternative newsweekly in Chicago, Illinois. ...


Sports

U.S. Cellular Field on Chicago's South Side. Home of the 2005 World Champion Chicago White Sox
U.S. Cellular Field on Chicago's South Side. Home of the 2005 World Champion Chicago White Sox

Chicago is the home to 16 professional sports teams, and is one of two U.S. cities that has two Major League Baseball teams. The Chicago Cubs of the National League play at Wrigley Field, which is located in the north side neighborhood of Lakeview, commonly referred to as "Wrigleyville." The Chicago White Sox of the American League won the World Series championship in 2005, their first since 1917. U.S. Cellular Field, once called New Comiskey Park and now known as "The Cell," is located on the city's south side. old comiskey park This file has been listed on Wikipedia:Possibly unfree images, because it is missing information on its source or copyright status. ... old comiskey park This file has been listed on Wikipedia:Possibly unfree images, because it is missing information on its source or copyright status. ... Chicago, Illinois, is the home to 16 professional sports teams. ... Major League Baseball (MLB) is the highest level of play in professional baseball in the world. ... Major league affiliations National League (1876-present) Central Division (1994-present) Current uniform Ballpark Wrigley Field (1916-present) Major league titles World Series titles (2) 1908 â€¢ 1907 NL Pennants (10) 1945 â€¢ 1938 â€¢ 1935 â€¢ 1932 1929 â€¢ 1918 â€¢ 1910 â€¢ 1908 1907 â€¢ 1906 Central Division titles (1) 2003 East Division titles (2) 1984... This article refers to the American baseball league. ... It has been suggested that Eamus catuli be merged into this article or section. ... Lakeview (also known as Lake View) is a neighborhood on the north side of Chicago, USA. It is located along the shores of Lake Michigan and runs approximately from Diversey Avenue on the south, to Irving Park Road on the north; from the lakeshore on the east to Ashland Ave. ... Major league affiliations American League (1901-present) Central Division (1994-present) Current uniform Ballpark U.S. Cellular Field (1991-present) Major league titles World Series titles (3) 2005 â€¢ 1917 â€¢ 1906 AL Pennants (6) 2005 â€¢ 1959 â€¢ 1919 â€¢ 1917 1906 â€¢ 1901 Central Division titles (2) [1] 2005 â€¢ 2000 West Division titles (2... For other events named World Series, see World Series (disambiguation). ... U.S. Cellular Field (Better known as Comiskey Park) is a Major League Baseball stadium in Chicago, Illinois. ... Comiskey Park (35th Street & Shields Avenue, Chicago, Illinois) was the ballpark in which the Chicago White Sox played from 1910 to 1990. ...


The Chicago Bulls of the National Basketball Association is one of the most recognized basketball teams. One of the team's most well-known players, Michael Jordan, led the Bulls to six NBA championships in eight seasons in the 1990s. The Chicago Bears of the National Football League play at Soldier Field. The Chicago Fire, members of Major League Soccer, won one league and three US Open Cups since 1997. After eight years at Soldier Field, they will begin play at the new Toyota Park in Bridgeview at 71st and Harlem Avenue in the summer of 2006. Other major league sports teams in Chicago include the Chicago Sky (Women's National Basketball Association) and the Chicago Blackhawks (National Hockey League). The Chicago Bulls are a professional basketball team based in Chicago, Illinois. ... NBA logo, depicting former star Jerry West Location of NBA teams, conferences and divisions The National Basketball Association (NBA) is the worlds premier mens professional basketball league and one of the major professional sports leagues of North America. ... Sara Giauro shoots a three-point shot, FIBA Europe Cup for Women Finals 2005. ... For other people named Michael Jordan, see Michael Jordan (disambiguation). ... City Chicago, Illinois Other nicknames Da Bears, The Monsters of the Midway Team colors Navy Blue, Orange and White Head Coach Lovie Smith Owner McCaskey Family General manager Jerry Angelo Fight song Bear Down, Chicago Bears Mascot Staley Da Bear Local radio Flagship stations: WBBM (780 AM) Announcers: Jeff Joniak... The National Football League (NFL) is the largest professional American football league, consisting of thirty-two teams from American cities and regions. ... Soldier Field is located on famous Lake Shore Drive in Chicago, and is currently home to the NFLs Chicago Bears and Major League Soccers Chicago Fire. ... Year Founded 1997 League Major League Soccer Stadium Toyota Park Coach Dave Sarachan, 2003— First Game Miami Fusion 0–2 Chicago Fire (Lockhart Stadium; March 21, 1998) Largest Win Kansas City Wizards 0–7 Chicago Fire (Arrowhead Stadium; July 4, 2001) Worst Defeat New England Revolution 5–1 Chicago Fire... Locations of Major League Soccer teams Major League Soccer (MLS) is the top soccer league in the United States in the American Soccer Pyramid. ... The Lamar Hunt U.S. Open Cup is an American soccer competition open to all United States Soccer Federation affiliated teams, from amateur adult club teams all the way to the professional teams of Major League Soccer. ... Toyota Park is the home stadium for the Chicago Fire of Major League Soccer, with the opening in the 2006 season. ... The Chicago Sky are a current Womens National Basketball Association (WNBA) team based in Chicago, Illinois. ... WNBA team locations The Womens National Basketball Association or WNBA is an organization governing a professional basketball league for women in the United States. ... The Chicago Blackhawks are a professional ice hockey team based in Chicago, Illinois. ... The modernized NHL shield logo debuted in 2005, replacing the orange and black shield, which had been used since the leagues inception. ...


The city has offered an official Olympic bid for the 2016 Summer Olympics, and is considered the strongest contender among the five candidate American cities.[40] Chicago also hosted the 1959 Pan American Games, and the Gay Games VII in 2006. Flag of Chicago. ... The host city of the 2016 Summer Olympics will be announced in Copenhagen in 2009. ... The 3rd Pan American Games opened on 27 August in sunny 90 degree heat before 40,000 people in Chicago, Illinois, USA at Soldier Field. ... Lake View East Chamber of Commerce advertises Gay Games VII throughout its neighborhood. ...

In the United States, the four prominent major professional sports leagues are the following: Major League Baseball (MLB) National Football League (NFL) National Basketball Association (NBA) National Hockey League (NHL) There are currently thirteen metropolitan areas that have at least one team in each major sports league. ...

Infrastructure

Health and medicine

Entrance to "Old" Cook County Hospital. This building is now closed and services have been moved to the new John H. Stroger, Jr. Hospital of Cook County.
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Entrance to "Old" Cook County Hospital. This building is now closed and services have been moved to the new John H. Stroger, Jr. Hospital of Cook County.

Chicago is home to the Illinois Medical District on the Near West Side. It includes Rush University Medical Center, the University of Illinois at Chicago medical center, and John H. Stroger, Jr. Hospital of Cook County, the largest trauma-center in the city. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x681, 404 KB) Summary Source: http://www. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x681, 404 KB) Summary Source: http://www. ... The Illinois Medical District (IMD) is a special-use zoning district on the West Side of Chicago. ... Rush Medical College (often referred to simply as Rush) is the medical school of Rush University, a private university in Chicago, Illinois. ... The largest medical school in the country with over 2,600 students and trainees, the college provides scientific and clinical training. ... The John H. Stroger, Jr. ...


The University of Illinois College of Medicine at UIC is the largest medical school in the United States (1300 students, including those at campuses in Peoria, Rockford and Urbana-Champaign).[41] Chicago is also home to other nationally recognized medical schools including Rush Medical College, the Pritzker School of Medicine of the University of Chicago, and the Feinberg School of Medicine of Northwestern University. In addition, the Chicago Medical School and Loyola University Chicago's Stritch School of Medicine are located in the suburbs of North Chicago and Maywood, respectively. The Midwestern University Chicago College of Osteopathic Medicine is in Downers Grove. The largest medical school in the country with over 2,600 students and trainees, the college provides scientific and clinical training. ... The University of Illinois at Chicago (UIC) is a public, state-supported research university. ... Peoria City Hall Peoria is the largest city on the Illinois River and the county seat of Peoria CountyGR6, Illinois, in the United States. ... Rockford is the county seat of Winnebago County, Illinois, USA. Traditionally referred to as The Forest City, Rockford is classified as a mid-sized city as it has 150,115 residents, while the metro area has 320,204 residents (2000 Census). ... The University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, also known as UIUC and the U of I (the officially preferred abbreviation), is the flagship campus in the University of Illinois system. ... Rush Medical College (often referred to simply as Rush) is the medical school of Rush University, a private university in Chicago, Illinois. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The University of Chicago is a private university located principally in the Hyde Park neighborhood of Chicago, Illinois. ... The Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine is located in Chicago, Illinois, at 330 East Chicago Avenue. ... Northwestern University is a private, coeducational, non-sectarian university, located in Evanston, Illinois and Chicago, Illinois. ... The seal of the Chicago Medical School. ... Loyola University Chicago is a private co-educational religious-affiliated university established in Chicago, Illinois in 1870 as Saint Ignatius College. ... North Chicago is a city located in Lake County, Illinois. ... Maywood is a village located in Cook County, Illinois. ... Midwestern University (MWU) is a non-profit, private, graduate school of medicine with two campuses: Midwestern University Chicago College of Osteopathic Medicine (MWU/CCOM) in Downers Grove, Illinois and Midwestern University Arizona College of Osteopathic Medicine(MWU/AzCOM) in Glendale, Arizona. ... See also: Osteopathy Osteopathic physicians on rounds in a US teaching hospital Osteopathic Medicine (also known as osteopathy) is a system of medicine in the USA with a distinct worldview that applies osteopathic philosophy, principles, and treatment to standard biomedical care. ... Incorporated Village in 1873. ...


The leading healthcare informatics organizations are located in Chicago, including the American Medical Informatics Association and the Health Information Management Systems Society. These organizations include as members many healthcare IT vendors and the CIO/VP Technology leaders of most American healthcare operations. The American College of Surgeons, American Dental Association, American Hospital Association, American Medical Association, and the American Osteopathic Association are based in the city. Information technology (IT)[1] is a broad subject concerned with technology and other aspects of managing and processing information, especially in large organizations. ... The Chief Information Officer or CIO is a job title for a manager responsible for information technology within an organization, such as a listed company or an educational institution. ... The American College of Surgeons, located in Chicago, Illinois is a scientific and educational association of surgeons that was founded in 1913 to improve the quality of care for the surgical patient by setting high standards for surgical education and practice. ... The American Dental Association or the ADA is an American advocacy group that promotes good tooth care. ... Founded in 1898, The American Hospital Association (AHA), located in Chicago, Illinois, is the national organization that represents and serves all types of hospitals, health care networks, and their patients and communities. ... The American Medical Association (AMA) is the largest association of medical doctors in the United States. ... American Osteopathic Association Founded in 1898 in Kirksville, MO, the American Osteopathic Association (AOA) is the representative organization for osteopathic physicians in the United States. ...


Transportation

CTA Blue Line to O'Hare at the UIC-Halsted stop
CTA Blue Line to O'Hare at the UIC-Halsted stop
Main articles: Streets and highways of Chicago, Mass transit in Chicago, Chicago airports

Chicago is considered to be the premier transportation hub in America. It is an important component in global distribution, as it is the third largest inter-modal port in the world after Hong Kong and Singapore.[42] Additionally, it is the only city in North America in which all six Class I railroads meet.[43] ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1704x2272, 1672 KB) CTA Blue Line train to OHare, taken at UIC-Halsted by me. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1704x2272, 1672 KB) CTA Blue Line train to OHare, taken at UIC-Halsted by me. ... Night view of the tollbooths as you enter Chicago from the Chicago Skyway // Street layout The streets of Chicago primarily follow the grid system which was established by the Chicago Board of Aldermen in 1908 and implemented on September, 1st 1909. ... This page is about Chicago mass transit. ... The Gershwin Tunnel at OHare Airport between concourses B and C in Terminal 1, operated by United Airlines. ... A Class I railroad in the United States, or a Class I railway (also Class I rail carrier) in Canada, is one of the largest freight railroads, as classified based on operating revenue. ...


The streets of Chicago primarily follow a grid system. The baselines for numbering streets and buildings are State Street (east-west numbering) and Madison (north-south numbering). Street numbers begin at "1" at the baselines and run numerically in directions indicated to the city limits, with N, S, E, and W indicating directions. Chicago is divided into one-mile sections which contain eight blocks to the mile, with each block's addresses occupying a 100-number range. Even-numbered addresses are on the north and west sides of streets; odd-numbered address are on the south and east sides.


Seven interstate highways run through Chicago. Segments that link to the city center are named after influential politicians, and traffic reports tend to use the names rather than interstate numbers. The Kennedy Expressway is I-90 from the Loop to O'Hare International Airport. The Dan Ryan Expressway is I-90/94 from south of the "Circle Interchange" to the I-57 Split, and from the I-57 Split south is the Bishop Ford Expressway. The rest of I-94 is called the Edens Expressway. I-90 becomes the Chicago Skyway when it breaks off from the Dan Ryan Expressway. Other named highway segments are the Stevenson Expressway (I-55) and Eisenhower Expressway (I-290). A typical rural stretch of Interstate highway, with two lanes in each direction separated by a large grassy median, and with cross-traffic limited to overpasses and underpasses. ... Interstate 90 (abbreviated I-90) is the longest interstate highway in the United States at over 3,000 miles (4,800 kilometers). ... Interstate 94 (abbreviated I-94) is a long interstate highway connecting the Great Lakes and Intermountain region of the United States. ... Interstate 57 (abbreviated I-57) is an interstate highway in the midwestern United States. ... Interstate 55 is an interstate highway in the central United States. ... Interstate 290 (abbreviated I-290) is the main Interstate highway due westward from the Chicago Loop. ...


The Chicago Transit Authority (CTA) handles public transportation in the City of Chicago and a few adjacent suburbs. The CTA operates public buses, a rapid transit system, and an elevated train known as the "Chicago L" or "El" to Chicagoans, as well as rapid transit service to Midway and O'Hare Airports. The Regional Transportation Authority (RTA) provides service in forty surrounding suburbs and partially into the city. Quincy el Station serving the Brown Line, Purple Line and Orange Line The Chicago Transit Authority (CTA), founded on October 1, 1947, provides bus and rail mass transit services to the citizens of Chicago and several of the citys inner suburbs. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... A westbound Chicago L train crosses the south fork of the Chicago River The Chicago L (short for Chicago Elevated) is an urban rapid transit metro serving Chicago and eight of its adjacent suburbs. ... The Regional Transportation Authority (RTA) is the financial and oversight body for the three transit agencies in northeastern Illinois: Chicago Transit Authority, Metra, Pace. ...


Metra operates commuter rail service in Chicago and its suburbs. The Metra Electric Line shares the railway with the South Shore Line's NICTD Northwest Indiana Commuter Rail Service, which accesses Gary/Chicago Airport. Pace operates a primarily-suburban bus service that also offers some routes into Chicago. Metra system schematic Metra (officially known as the Northeastern Illinois Regional Commuter Railroad Corporation) is Chicagolands commuter rail system, serving over 200 stations on eleven lines across the Regional Transportation Authoritys (RTAs) six-county service area. ... The Metra Electric Line (ME) is an electrified commuter rail line owned and operated by Metra, connecting Randolph Street Station in downtown Chicago, Illinois with its southern suburbs. ... The South Shore Line is an electrically powered interurban streetcar line operated by the Northern Indiana Commuter Transportation District (NICTD) between Randolph Street Terminal in downtown Chicago, Illinois and the South Bend Regional Airport in South Bend, Indiana. ... Runway layout at GYY Gary/Chicago International Airport (IATA: GYY, ICAO: KGYY) located 3 mi (4. ... Pace is the suburban bus operator in the Chicago area. ...


Chicago is served by Midway Airport on the south side and O'Hare International Airport, one of the world's busiest airports, on the far northwest. In 2005, O'Hare was the world's busiest airport by aircraft movements and the second busiest by total passenger traffic (due to government enforced flight caps).[44] Both O'Hare and Midway are owned and operated by the City of Chicago. The State of Illinois has debated opening a new airport near Peotone. Gary/Chicago International Airport, located in nearby Gary, Indiana, serves as the third Chicagoland airport. However, as of mid-2006, the airport does not support any scheduled passengers service. This an article about the airport in Chicago. ... ORD redirects here. ... Peotone is a village located in Will County, Illinois. ... Runway layout at GYY Gary/Chicago International Airport (IATA: GYY, ICAO: KGYY) located 3 mi (4. ... Flag Seal Nickname: City of the Century Location Location in the state of Indiana, USA Coordinates , Government County Lake Mayor Rudolph Clay Geographical characteristics Area     City 148. ...


Utilities

Electricity for all of northern Illinois is provided by Commonwealth Edison, also known as ComEd. Their service territory borders Iroquois County to the south, the Wisconsin border to the north, the Iowa border to the west and the Indiana border to the east. Commonwealth Edison (usually called Com Ed by Chicagoans) is an electric company in Illinois owned by Exelon Corporation. ... Iroquois County is a county located in the state of Illinois. ... Official language(s) None Capital Madison Largest city Milwaukee Area  Ranked 23rd  - Total 65,498 sq. ... Official language(s) English Capital Des Moines Largest city Des Moines Area  Ranked 26th  - Total 56,272 sq mi (145,743 km²)  - Width 199 miles (320 km)  - Length 310 miles (500 km)  - % water 0. ... Official language(s) English Capital Indianapolis Largest city Indianapolis Area  Ranked 38th  - Total 36,418 sq mi (94,321 km²)  - Width 140 miles (225 km)  - Length 270 miles (435 km)  - % water 1. ...


Most landline telephone service is provided by AT&T, with the city covered by area codes 312 (the Loop and central neighborhoods) and 773. There are several other smaller players such as RCN that service the city. Cable television services are provided through one of three providers over five service territories covering the city: Comcast, Wide Open West (WOW), and RCN. Comcast services are available city-wide while RCN and WOW only cover the North East and South side respectively. Service providers are regulated by the city's Office of Cable Communications, which is a division of the Department of Consumer Affairs. AT&T Inc. ... The North American Numbering Plan (NANP) is a system for three-digit area codes and seven-digit telephone numbers that direct telephone calls to particular regions on a public switched telephone network (PSTN), where they are further routed by the local network. ... Area code 312 encompasses the Chicago Loop and surrounding areas in Chicago, Illinois. ... The Loop is what locals call the historical center of downtown Chicago. ... 773 Forever t-shirts The telephone area code 773 was formed in the city of Chicago, Illinois, USA in 1996. ... RCN, NASDAQ: RCNI, is a cable television, telephone and Internet service provider serving the Northern Virginia to Boston corridor as well as areas of California. ... Coaxial cable is often used to transmit cable television into the house. ... Comcast Corporation, (NASDAQ: CMCSA) based in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, is the largest cable company and the largest broadband (second overall) Internet service provider in the United States. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...

Chicago skyline at sunset
Chicago skyline at sunset

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (5510x809, 358 KB) Summary detroits skyline from Uptown (north side). ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (5510x809, 358 KB) Summary detroits skyline from Uptown (north side). ...

See also

The neighborhoods of Chicago lay within Chicagos seventy-seven community areas. ... The following list includes notable people who were born or have lived in or near Chicago. ... This is a list of fiction set in Chicago // Novels Upton Sinclairs The Jungle ISBN 1884365302 Theodore Dreisers Sister Carrie ISBN 0451527607 James T. Farrells Studs Lonigan trilogy Melvin E. Giless George Street, Our Street ISBN 0965636402 Nella Larsens Quicksand ISBN 0141181273 Nella Larsens... Chicago: Growth of a Metropolis by Harold M. Mayer & Richard C. Wade ISBN 0226512746 Chicago: Then and Now by Elizabeth McNulty ISBN 1571452788 Chicago Churches and Synagogues by George Lane ISBN 0226495604 Chicago Days : 150 Defining Moments in the Life of a Great City by the Chicago Tribune ISBN 1890093041... This is a list of songs about Chicago. ...

Notes

  1. ^ http://www.census.gov/popest/cities/tables/SUB-EST2005-01.csv
  2. ^ http://www.census.gov/population/www/estimates/metropop/table01.csv
  3. ^ The World According to GaWC (2006). Globalization and World Cities Study Group and Network.
  4. ^ Alice Maggio (January 29, 2004). From Checagou to Chicago: A City by No Other Name. URL accessed on April 29, 2006.
  5. ^ Bruegmann, Robert (2004-2005). Built Environment of the Chicago Region. Encyclopedia of Chicago (online version).
  6. ^ Chicago History. Chicago Convention and Tourism Bureau.
  7. ^ Chicago: The Wind at Its Back (2005). SustainLane.
  8. ^ Peregrine Falcon: Official City Bird of Chicago. Falcon Living.
  9. ^ 200th Anniversary of the First Recorded Chicago Earthquake (9/14/2004). Illinois State Geological Survey.
  10. ^ Chicago (2004). Emporis.com.
  11. ^ Chicago, Illinois - Summary (2006). Weatherbase.
  12. ^ Chicago Seasonal Temperature and Precipitation Rankings (11/25/2005). National Weather Service Weather Forecast Office - Chicago, IL.
  13. ^ Population of the 100 Largest Cities and Other Urban Places in the United States: 1790 to 1990 (June 1998). U.S. Bureau of the Census (accessed April 20, 2006).
  14. ^ Chicago Demographics (2003). Chicago Neighborhood & City Guide
  15. ^ Chicago Stories - Swedes in Chicago (2006). WTTW.com. Accessed June 5, 2006.
  16. ^ America the diverse - Chicago's Polish neighborhoods (5/15/2005). USA Weekend Magazine.
  17. ^ Serbian Delegation (4/30/2004). WTCC Weekly News at www.wtcc.org.
  18. ^ Cities Guide Chicago - A hard-knock life (2006). Economist.com.
  19. ^ Chicago Stories - The Greeks in Chicago (2006). WTTW.com. Accessed June 5, 2006.
  20. ^ About Us. Romanian Museum in Chicago at www.romanianmuseum.com.
  21. ^ Contact Us. ELCA.org.
  22. ^ The Role of Metro Areas in the U.S. Economy (1/13/2006). p. 15. Accessed from The United States Conference of Mayors at www.usmayors.org/74thWinterMeeting/metroeconreport_January2006.pdf.
  23. ^ [www.worldbusinesschicago.com/ about/upload/20ChicagoSunTimes6-23-03.pdf Moody's: Chicago's Economy Most Balanced in US (1/23/2003)]. Accessed from 'World Business Chicago' at www.worldbusinesschicago.com/ about/upload/20ChicagoSunTimes6-23-03.pdf.
  24. ^ Gauging Metropolitan "High-Tech" and "I-Tech" Activity (2004). Accessed from 'SAGE Publications' at http://edq.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/18/1/10?ijkey=50c44cb29d68315499a2aa3771131b328064bf28&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha.
  25. ^ a b Hirsch, Susan E. (2004-2005). Economic Geography. Encyclopedia of Chicago (online edition).
  26. ^ Chicago falls to 3rd in U.S. convention industry (4/26/2006). Crain's Chicago Business.
  27. ^ Fortune 500 2006 - Illinois. CNNMoney.com.
  28. ^ Chicago Market Outlook 2006 - Market Commentary. CBRE - CB Richard Ellis, at www.cbre.com/NR/rdonlyres/9326419A-60CC-47BC-9960-448BD4B32C52/0/MarketOutlook06FINAL.pdf.
  29. ^ Schneirov, Richard (April 1, 1998). Labor and Urban Politics. University of Illinois Press. ISBN 0252066766, 173-174.
  30. ^ (January 1, 1998) Montejano, David Chicano Politics and Society in the Late Twentieth Century. University of Texas Press. ISBN 0292752156, 33-34.
  31. ^ Heinzmann, David (1/1/2003). Chicago falls out of 1st in murders. Chicago Tribune, found at qrc.depaul.edu/djabon/Articles/ChicagoCrime20030101.htm.
  32. ^ David Heinzmann and Rex W. Huppke (12/19/2004). City murder toll lowest in decades Chicago Tribune.
  33. ^ McKay , Jim (12/8/2005). Triggered Response. Government Technology at www.govtech.net/magazine/story.php?id=97507&issue=12:2005.
  34. ^ Locy, Toni (6/7/2005). Murder, violence rates fall, FBI says. USA Today.
  35. ^ CPS At A Glance (2005). Chicago Public Schools at www.cps.k12.il.us/AtAGlance.html.
  36. ^ Ouchi, William G. (September 8, 2003). Making Schools Work. Simon and Schuster. ISBN 0743246306, 3.
  37. ^ Association of Chicago Theological Schools
  38. ^ Sawyer, R Keith (September 30, 2002). Improvised Dialogue. Ablex/Greenwood. ISBN 1567506771, 14.
  39. ^ Nielsen Media - DMA Listing (September 24, 2005).
  40. ^ Kathy Bergen and Gary Washburn (5/11/2006). City out to prove Olympic mettle. Chicago Tribune.
  41. ^ About the College - A Brief History of the University of Illinois at Chicago College of Medicine (2005). UIC College of Medicine at www.uic.edu/depts/mcam/history.shtml.
  42. ^ Madigan, p.52.
  43. ^ Appendix C: Regional Freight Transportation Profiles. Assessing the Effects of Freight Movement on Air Quality at the National and Regional Level. U.S. Department of Transportation - Federal Highway Administration (April 2005).
  44. ^ Preliminary Traffic Results for 2005 Show Firm Rebound (3/14/2006). Airports Council International.

References

  • Chicago Timeline. Chicago Public Library at www.chipublib.org/004chicago/chihist.html.
  • USGS—Chicago - Elevation and topography.
  • Blackwell, Elizabeth Canning (November 2003). Frommer's 2004 Chicago. Frommer's. ISBN 0764539035.
  • (October 2004) James R. Grossman, Ann Durkin Keating, Janice L. Reiff. The Encyclopedia of Chicago. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0226310159.
  • (September 1, 2004) Charles Madigan. Global Chicago. University of Illinois Press. ISBN 0252029410.
  • Miller, Donald L. (April 1996). City of the Century: The Epic of Chicago and the Making of America. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0684801949.

External links

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