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Encyclopedia > Cheyenne
Cheyenne
Total population

6,591

Regions with significant populations
United States (Oklahoma, Montana)
Language(s)
Cheyenne, English
Religion(s)
Christianity, other
Related ethnic groups
Arapaho and other Algonquian peoples

The Cheyenne are a Native American nation of the Great Plains. The Cheyenne nation is composed of three united tribes, the Masikota [no definite translation], the Só'taa'e (more commonly as Sutai) [no definite translation] and the Tsé-tsêhéstâhese (singular: Tsêhéstáno; more commonly as the Tsitsistas), which translates to "Like Hearted People". The name Cheyenne itself derives from Dakota Sioux Šahíyena, meaning "little Šahíya". Though the identity of the Šahíya are not known, many Great Plains tribes assume it means Cree or some other people that spoke an Algonquian language related to the Cree and the Cheyenne.[1][2] However, the common folk etymology for "Cheyenne" is "bit like the [people of an] alien speech" (literally, "little red-talker").[3] For other uses, see Oklahoma (disambiguation). ... Official language(s) English Capital Helena Largest city Billings Area  Ranked 4th  - Total 147,165 sq mi (381,156 km²)  - Width 255 miles (410 km)  - Length 630 miles (1,015 km)  - % water 1  - Latitude 44° 21′ N to 49° N  - Longitude 104° 2′ W to 116° 3′ W Population  Ranked... The Cheyenne language (TsÄ—hesenÄ—stsestotse or, in easier spelling, Tsisinstsistots) is a Native American language spoken in present-day Montana and Oklahoma, USA. It is part of the Algonquian language family. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... Scabby Bull, Arapaho 1806 Arapaho camp, ca. ... The Algonquian (also Algonkian) languages are a subfamily of Native American languages that includes most of the languages in the Algic language family (others are Wiyot and Yurok of northwestern California). ... Cheyenne may refer to Cheyenne, a Native American people Cheyenne Mountain, a Colorado mountain and military complex Cheyenne, Wyoming, the capital of Wyoming Cheyenne, a Western television series Cheyenne, a Western arcade shooting game Cheyenne, Oklahoma, a small town in Oklahoma Cheyenne River There is also: Cheyenne County, Colorado Cheyenne... This article is about the people indigenous to the United States. ... For other uses, see Great Plains (disambiguation). ... Lakota or Lakhota (as it is also commonly spelled) is the largest of the five major dialects of the Sioux language. ... For other uses, see Cree (disambiguation). ... The Algonquian languages are a subfamily of Native American languages that includes most of the languages in the Algic language family (others are Wiyot and Yurok of northwestern California). ... Folk etymology is a term used in two distinct ways: A commonly held misunderstanding of the origin of a particular word, a false etymology. ...


During the pre-reservation era, they were allied with the Arapaho and Lakota (Sioux). They are one of the best known of the Plains tribes. The Cheyenne nation comprised ten bands, spread all over the Great Plains, from southern Colorado to the Black Hills in South Dakota. In the mid-1800s, the bands began to split, with bands choosing to remain near the Black Hills, while the other bands chose to remain near the Platte Rivers of central Colorado. Scabby Bull, Arapaho 1806 Arapaho camp, ca. ... Eddie Plenty Holes, a Sioux Indian photographed about 1899. ... Official language(s) English Capital Denver Largest city Denver Largest metro area Denver-Aurora Metro Area Area  Ranked 8th  - Total 104,185 sq mi (269,837 km²)  - Width 280 miles (451 km)  - Length 380 miles (612 km)  - % water 0. ... This article is about the place in South Dakota. ... Official language(s) English Capital Pierre Largest city Sioux Falls Area  Ranked 17th  - Total 77,116[1] sq mi (199,905 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 380 miles (610 km)  - % water 1. ...


Currently the Northern Cheyenne, known in Cheyenne either as Notameohmésêhese meaning "Northern Eaters" or simply as Ohmésêhese meaning "Eaters", live in southeast Montana on the Northern Cheyenne Indian Reservation. The Southern Cheyenne, known in Cheyenne as Heévâhetane meaning "Roped People," along with the Southern Arapaho, live in central Oklahoma. Their combined population is approximately 20,000. northern cheyenne indian reservation ... The Cheyenne are a Native American nation of the Great Plains. ...

Cheyenne lodges with buffalo meat drying, 1870

Contents

Cheyenne lodges with buffalo meat drying, 1870 Source: lewisandclarkjournals However, according to buffalosoldier. ... Cheyenne lodges with buffalo meat drying, 1870 Source: lewisandclarkjournals However, according to buffalosoldier. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) Subspecies B. b. ...

Language

The Cheyenne of Montana and Oklahoma speak the Cheyenne language, known as tsêhésenêstsestôtse in the Cheyenne language, with only a handful of vocabulary items different between the two locations; their alphabet only contains fourteen letters which can be combined to form words and phrases. The Cheyenne language is part of the larger Algonquian language group. The Cheyenne language (TsÄ—hesenÄ—stsestotse or, in easier spelling, Tsisinstsistots) is a Native American language spoken in present-day Montana and Oklahoma, USA. It is part of the Algonquian language family. ... The Algonquian languages are a subfamily of Native American languages that includes most of the languages in the Algic language family (others are Wiyot and Yurok of northwestern California). ...


Early history and culture

Cheyenne maiden photographed by Edward S. Curtis in 1930.
Cheyenne maiden photographed by Edward S. Curtis in 1930.

Nothing is absolutely known about the Cheyenne people prior to the 16th century. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (759x1024, 125 KB) Cheyenne maiden Edward S. Curtis, 1930 Northwestern University Library, Edward S. Curtiss The North American Indian: the Photographic Images, 2001. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (759x1024, 125 KB) Cheyenne maiden Edward S. Curtis, 1930 Northwestern University Library, Edward S. Curtiss The North American Indian: the Photographic Images, 2001. ... For other persons named Edward Curtis, see Edward Curtis (disambiguation). ...


The earliest known official record of the Cheyenne comes from the mid-1600s, when a group of Cheyenne visited Fort Crevecoeur, near present-day Chicago. During the 1600 and 1700s, the Cheyenne moved from the Great Lakes region to present day Minnesota and North Dakota and established villages. The most prominent of these ancient villages is Biesterfeldt Village, in eastern North Dakota along the Sheyenne River. The Cheyenne also came into contact with the neighboring Mandan, Hidatsa and Arikara nations and adopted many of their cultural characteristics. In 1804, the Lewis and Clark visited a Cheyenne village in North Dakota. Pressure from migrating Lakota and Ojibwa nations was forcing the Cheyenne west. By the mid 1800s, the Cheyenne had largely abandoned their sedentary, agricultural and pottery traditions and fully adopted the classic nomadic Plains culture. Tipis replaced earth lodges, and the diet switched from fish and agricultural produce to mainly bison and wild fruits and vegetables. During this time, the Cheyenne also moved into Wyoming, Colorado and South Dakota. The Great Lakes from space The Laurentian Great Lakes are a group of five large lakes in North America on or near the Canada-United States border. ... Capital Saint Paul Largest city Minneapolis Area  Ranked 12th  - Total 87,014 sq mi (225,365 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 400 miles (645 km)  - % water 8. ... Official language(s) English Capital Bismarck Largest city Fargo Area  Ranked 19th  - Total 70,762 sq mi (183,272 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 340 miles (545 km)  - % water 2. ... The Sheyenne River is one of the major tributaries of the Red River of the North, beginning about 29 north of McClusky, North Dakota and meanders eastward before turning south near McVille, North Dakota. ... This article is about the Native American tribe. ... Pehriska-Ruhpa of the Dog Band of the Hidatsa. ... It has been suggested that Arikara language be merged into this article or section. ... 1804 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... “Lewis and Clark” redirects here. ... Eddie Plenty Holes, a Sioux Indian photographed about 1899. ... This article is about the native North American people. ... Official language(s) English Capital Cheyenne Largest city Cheyenne Area  Ranked 10th  - Total 97,818 sq mi (253,348 km²)  - Width 280 miles (450 km)  - Length 360 miles (580 km)  - % water 0. ... Official language(s) English Capital Denver Largest city Denver Largest metro area Denver-Aurora Metro Area Area  Ranked 8th  - Total 104,185 sq mi (269,837 km²)  - Width 280 miles (451 km)  - Length 380 miles (612 km)  - % water 0. ... Official language(s) English Capital Pierre Largest city Sioux Falls Area  Ranked 17th  - Total 77,116[1] sq mi (199,905 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 380 miles (610 km)  - % water 1. ...


The traditional Cheyenne government system is a politically unified North American indigenous nation. Most other nations were divided into politically autonomous bands, whereas the Cheyenne bands were politically unified. The central traditional government system of the Cheyenne was the "Council of Forty-Four." The name denotes the number of seated chiefs on the council. Each of the ten bands had 4 seated chief delegates; the remaining 4 chiefs were the principal advisors of the other delegates. This system also regulated the many societies that developed for planning warfare, enforcing rules, and conducting ceremonies. This governing system was developed by the time the Cheyenne reached the Great Plains. The Council of Forty-Four was one of the two central institutions of traditional Cheyenne Indian tribal governance, the other being the military societies such as the Dog Soldiers. ...


There is a controversy among anthropologists about Cheyenne society organization. When the Cheyenne were fully adapted to the classic Plains culture, they had a bi-lateral band kinship system. However, some anthropologists note that the Cheyenne had a matrilineal band system. Studies into whether the Cheyenne ever developed a matrilineal clan system are inconclusive. Clan map of Scotland Scottish clans give a sense of Scottish Highland identity and shared descent both to people in Scotland and to their relations throughout the world, with a formal structure of Clan Chiefs officially registered with the court of the Lord Lyon, King of Arms which controls the...


19th century and Indian Wars

In 1851, the first Cheyenne 'territory' was established in northern Colorado. The Fort Laramie Treaty of 1851 granted this territory. Today this former territory includes the cities of Fort Collins, Denver and Colorado Springs. The Fort Laramie Treaty of 1851 was signed on September 17 between United States treaty commissioners and representatives of the Sioux, Cheyenne, Arapaho, Crow, Shoshone, Assiniboine, Mandan, Hidatsa, and Arikara nations. ... The City of Fort Collins, a home rule municipality situated on the Cache la Poudre River along the Colorado Front Range, is the county seat and most populous city in Larimer County, Colorado. ... Nickname: Location of Denver in Colorado Location of Colorado in the United States Coordinates: , Country State Founded [1] November 22, 1858 Incorporated November 7, 1861 Government  - Type Strong Mayor/Weak Council  - Mayor John Hickenlooper (D) Area [1]  - City & County  154. ... The City of Colorado Springs is the second most populous city (after Denver) in the state of Colorado and the 48th most populous city in the United States. ...


Starting in the late 1850s and accelerating in 1859 with the Colorado Gold Rush, European settlers moved into the lands reserved for the Cheyenne and other Plains Indians.. The influx eventually led to open warfare in the 1864 Colorado War, primarily between the Kiowa with the Cheyenne largely uninvolved, but caught in the middle of the conflict. Miners at Pikes Peak The Colorado Gold Rush was the boom in the prospecting and mining of gold in present-day Colorado in the United States that began in 1859 (when the land was still in the Kansas Territory) and lasted throughout the early 1860s. ... The Colorado War (1863–1865) was an armed conflict between the United States and a loose alliance among the Kiowa, Comanche, Arapaho, and Cheyenne tribes of Native Americans (the last two were particularly closely allied). ... This article is about the tribe. ...

Dull Knife (Cheyenne: Vóóhéhéve or Lakota: Tamílapéšni), Chief of Northern Cheyennes at Battle of Little Bighorn
Dull Knife (Cheyenne: Vóóhéhéve or Lakota: Tamílapéšni), Chief of Northern Cheyennes at Battle of Little Bighorn

In November, 1864, a Cheyenne encampment under Chief Black Kettle, flying a flag of truce and indicating its allegiance to the authority of the national government, was attacked by the Colorado Militia. The battle, known as the Sand Creek Massacre resulted in the death of between 150 and 200 Cheyenne, mostly unarmed noncombatants. Image File history File links Dull Knife (Tah-me-la-pash-me), Chief of Northern Cheyennes at Battle of Little Bighorn; full-length, seated. ... Image File history File links Dull Knife (Tah-me-la-pash-me), Chief of Northern Cheyennes at Battle of Little Bighorn; full-length, seated. ... Morning Star, a. ... The Cheyenne language (TsÄ—hesenÄ—stsestotse or, in easier spelling, Tsisinstsistots) is a Native American language spoken in present-day Montana and Oklahoma, USA. It is part of the Algonquian language family. ... Lakota (also Lakhota, Teton, Teton Sioux) is the largest of the three languages of the Sioux, of the Siouan family. ... The Battle of the Little Bighorn, also called Custers Last Stand, was an engagement between a Lakota-Cheyenne combined force and the 7th Cavalry of the United States Army that took place on June 25, 1876 near the Little Bighorn River in the eastern Montana Territory. ... Chief Black Kettle Chief Black Kettle (died November, 26 1868) was a Cheyenne Native American. ... Combatants United States of America Cheyenne, Arapaho Commanders John M. Chivington Black Kettle Strength 800 soldiers 500, mostly elderly, women and children Casualties 15 killed, 50 wounded 150-184 killed The Sand Creek massacre (also known as the Chivington massacre or the Battle of Sand Creek) was an incident in...


Four years later, on November 27, 1868, the same Cheyenne band was attacked at the Battle of Washita River. The encampment under Chief Black Kettle was located within the defined reservation and thus complying with the government's orders, but some of its members were linked both pre and post battle to the ongoing raiding into Kansas by bands operating out of the Indian Territory. Over 100 Cheyenne were killed, mostly women and children. is the 331st day of the year (332nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1868 (MDCCCLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Combatants United States Cheyenne Commanders George A. Custer Black Kettle†, Little Rock † Strength 7th Cavalry Regiment ~250 warriors and civilians (150 warriors, 100 civilians) [2]. The children were moved by Black Kettle in an other village downstream prior to the battle. ... Indian Territory in 1836 Indian Country redirects here. ...


There are conflicting claims as to whether the band was "hostile" or "friendly." Chief Black Kettle, head of the band, is generally accepted as not being part of the war party within the Plains tribes, but he did not command absolute authority over the members of his band. Consequently, when younger members of the band participated in the raiding, the band was implicated.


The Northern Cheyenne also participated in the Battle of the Little Bighorn, which took place on June 25, 1876. The Cheyenne, along with the Lakota and a small band of Arapaho, annihilated Lt. George Armstrong Custer and much of his 7th Cavalry contingent of Army soldiers. It is estimated that population of the encampment of the Cheyenne, Lakota and Arapaho along the Little Bighorn River was approximately 10,000, which would make it one of the largest gathering of Native Americans in North America in pre-reservation times. News of the event had traveled across the United States, and reached Washington DC just as the United States was celebrating its Centennial. This caused much anger towards the Cheyenne and Lakota. Combatants Lakota, Northern Cheyenne, Arapaho United States Commanders Sitting Bull, Crazy Horse George A. Custer â€ , Marcus Reno, Frederick Benteen, James Calhoun â€  Strength 949 lodges (probably 950-1,200 warriors) 31 officers, 566 troopers, 15 armed civilians, ~35-40 scouts Casualties At least 54 killed, ~168 wounded (according to Sitting Bull... is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1876 Pick up Sticks(MDCCCLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Scabby Bull, Arapaho 1806 Arapaho camp, ca. ... Scabby Bull, Arapaho 1806 Arapaho camp, ca. ... The Little Bighorn River The Little Bighorn River is a tributary of the Bighorn River in the United States in the states of Wyoming and Montana. ...


Northern Cheyenne exodus

Little Coyote(Little Wolf) and Morning Star (Dull Knife), Chiefs of the Northern Cheyennes
Little Coyote(Little Wolf) and Morning Star (Dull Knife), Chiefs of the Northern Cheyennes

Following the Battle of the Little Bighorn attempts by the U.S. Army to capture the Cheyenne intensified. A group of 972 Cheyenne were escorted to Indian Territory in Oklahoma in 1877. The government intended to re-unite both the Northern and Southern Cheyenne into one nation. There the conditions were dire; the Northern Cheyenne were not used to the climate and soon many became ill with malaria. In addition, the food rations were insufficient and of poor quality. In 1878, the two principal Chiefs, Little Wolf and Morning Star (often referred to by his Lakota Sioux name Dull Knife) pressed for the release of the Cheyenne so they could travel back north. Image File history File links Little_Coyote_and_Morning_Star. ... Image File history File links Little_Coyote_and_Morning_Star. ... Little Coyote Little Wolf is a fairly common name among American Indians. ... Morning Star, a. ... Indian Territory in 1836 Indian Country redirects here. ... Malaria is a vector-borne infectious disease caused by protozoan parasites. ... Little Coyote Little Wolf is a fairly common name among American Indians. ... Chief Dull Knife was a great chief to the Cheyenne people during the 19th century. ...


That same year a group of 353 Cheyenne left Indian Territory to travel back north. This group was led by Chiefs Little Wolf and Morning Star. The Army and other civilian volunteers were in hot pursuit of the Cheyenne as they traveled north. It is estimated that a total of 13,000 Army soldiers and volunteers were sent to pursue the Cheyenne over the whole course of their journey north. There were several skirmishes that occurred, and the two head chiefs were unable to keep some of their young warriors from attacking small white settlements along the way. Little Coyote Little Wolf is a fairly common name among American Indians. ...

Stump Horn and family (Northern Cheyenne); showing home and horsedrawn travois.
Stump Horn and family (Northern Cheyenne); showing home and horsedrawn travois.

After crossing into Nebraska, the group split into two. One half was led by Little Wolf, and the other by Morning Star. Little Wolf and his band made it back to Montana. Morning Star and his band were captured and escorted to Fort Robinson, Nebraska. There Morning Star and his band were sequestered. They were ordered to return to Oklahoma but they refused. Conditions at the fort grew tense through the end of 1878 and soon the Cheyenne were confined to barracks with no food, water or heat. Finally there was an attempt to escape late at night on January 9, 1879. Much of the group was gunned down as they ran away from the fort, and others were discovered near the fort during the following days and ordered to surrender but most of the escapees chose to fight because they would rather be killed than taken back into custody. It is estimated that only 50 survived the breakout, including Morning Star (Dull Knife). Several of the escapees later had to stand trial for the murders which had been committed in Kansas. The remains of those killed were repatriated in 1994. Image File history File links Cheyenne_using_travois. ... Image File history File links Cheyenne_using_travois. ... Little Coyote Little Wolf is a fairly common name among American Indians. ... Official language(s) English Capital Helena Largest city Billings Area  Ranked 4th  - Total 147,165 sq mi (381,156 km²)  - Width 255 miles (410 km)  - Length 630 miles (1,015 km)  - % water 1  - Latitude 44° 21′ N to 49° N  - Longitude 104° 2′ W to 116° 3′ W Population  Ranked... Fort Robinson is a former U. S. Army post and a present-day state park in the Pine Ridge region of northwest Nebraska. ... Official language(s) English Capital Lincoln Largest city Omaha Largest metro area Omaha Area  Ranked 16th  - Total 77,421 sq mi (200,520 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 430 miles (690 km)  - % water 0. ...


Northern Cheyenne return

Northern Cheyenne Indian Nation flag
Northern Cheyenne Indian Nation flag

The Cheyenne traveled to Fort Keogh (present day Miles City, Montana) and settled near the fort. Many of the Cheyenne worked with the army as scouts. The Cheyenne scouts were pivotal in helping the Army find Chief Joseph and his band of Nez Percé in northern Montana. Fort Keogh became the staging and gathering point for the Northern Cheyenne. Many families began to migrate south to the Tongue River watershed area and established homesteads. Seeing a need for a reservation, the United States government established, by executive order, a reservation in 1884. The Cheyenne would finally have a permanent home in the north. The reservation was expanded in 1890, the current western border is the Crow Indian Reservation, and the eastern border is the Togue River. The Cheyenne, along with the Lakota and Apache nations, were the last nations to be subdued and placed on reservations (the Seminole tribe of Florida was never subdued.). Image File history File links Flag_of_Northern_Cheyenne. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Northern_Cheyenne. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Miles City is a city in Custer County, Montana, United States. ... Chief Joseph (March 3, 1840–September 21, 1904) was the chief of the Wal-lam-wat-kain (Wallowa) band of Nez Perce Indians during General Oliver O. Howards attempt to forcibly remove his band and the other non-treaty Indians to a reservation in Idaho. ... Nez Percé warrior on horse, 1910 The Nez Percé or Nez Perce (pronounced as in French, or ) are a tribe of Native Americans who inhabited the Pacific Northwest region of the United States at the time of the Lewis and Clark Expedition. ... The Tongue River may refer to: The Tongue River, a tributary of the Red River of the North in North Dakota in the United States. ... The Crow, also called the Absaroka or Apsáalooke, are a tribe of Native Americans who historically lived in the Yellowstone river valley and now live on a reservation south of Billings, Montana. ... For other uses, see Seminole (disambiguation). ...


Through determination and sacrifice, the Northern Cheyenne had earned their right to remain in the north near the Black Hills. The Cheyenne also had managed to retain their culture, religion and language intact. Today, the Northern Cheyenne Nation is one of the few American Indian nations to have control over the majority of its land base, currently at 98%. This article is about the place in South Dakota. ...


Over the past four hundred years, the Cheyenne have gone through four stages of culture. First they lived in the Eastern Woodlands and were a sedentary and agricultural people, planting corn, and beans. Next they lived in present day Minnesota and South Dakota and continued their farming tradition and also started hunting the bison of the Great Plains. During the third stage the Cheyenne abandoned their sedentary, farming lifestyle and became a full-fledged Plains horse culture tribe. The fourth stage is the reservation phase. The Eastern Woodlands was a cultural area of the indigenous peoples of North America. ... This article is about the maize plant. ... Green beans Bean is a common name for large plant seeds of several genera of Fabaceae (formerly Leguminosae) used for food or feed. ... Capital Saint Paul Largest city Minneapolis Area  Ranked 12th  - Total 87,014 sq mi (225,365 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 400 miles (645 km)  - % water 8. ... Official language(s) English Capital Pierre Largest city Sioux Falls Area  Ranked 17th  - Total 77,116[1] sq mi (199,905 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 380 miles (610 km)  - % water 1. ... Farming, ploughing rice paddy, in Indonesia Agriculture is the process of producing food, feed, fiber and other desired products by cultivation of certain plants and the raising of domesticated animals (livestock). ... Species †B. antiquus B. bison B. bonasus †B. latifrons †B. occidentalis †B. priscus Bison is a taxonomic group containing six species of large even-toed ungulates within the subfamily Bovinae. ... For other uses, see Great Plains (disambiguation). ... The term Horse culture is used to define a tribal group or community whose day to day life revolves around the herding and breeding of horses. ...

Cheyenne Indian encampment, 1909
Cheyenne Indian encampment, 1909

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (936x181, 20 KB) Description Cheyenne Indian encampment, 1909 Source www. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (936x181, 20 KB) Description Cheyenne Indian encampment, 1909 Source www. ...

Notable Cheyenne

  • Ben Nighthorse Campbell, Northern Cheyenne, Former Senator, State of Colorado, United States Congress
  • W. Richard West Jr., Southern Cheyenne, Founding Director, Smithsonian National Museum of the American Indian
  • Suzan Shown Harjo, Southern Cheyenne and Muscogee (Creek), Founding Trustee, Smithsonian National Museum of the American Indian; President, Morning Star Institute (A Native rights advocacy organizatn based in Washington DC).
  • Chris Eyre, Southern Cheyenne and Southern Arapaho, directed the film: "Smoke Signals."

Ben Nighthorse Campbell (born April 13, 1933) is an American politician. ... W. Richard West, Jr. ... Suzan Shown Harjo, is a Hodulgee Muscogee Creek/Cheyenne Indian and well-known Indian activist. ... Chris Eyre (b. ... Smoke Signals (1998) is an independent film directed by Chris Eyre. ...

See also

northern cheyenne indian reservation ...

References

  1. ^ What is the origin of the word "Cheyenne"?. Cheyenne Language Web Site (March 03, 2002). Retrieved on September 21, 2007.
  2. ^ Note: the Cheyenne word for Ojibwa is "Sáhea'eo'o," a word that sounds similar to the Dakota word "Šahíya."
  3. ^ Bright, William (2004). Native American Place Names of the United States. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, pg. 95

This article is about the native North American people. ...

Further reading

  • Brown, Dee, Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee.
  • Grinnell, George Bird. "The Fighting Cheyenne". ISBN 0-87928-075-1
  • Hoebel, E.A. "The Cheyennes".
  • Moore, John H. (1996). The Cheyenne, The peoples of America. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell Publishing. ISBN 1557864845 9781557864840. OCLC 34412067. 
  • Sandoz, Marie, Cheyenne Autumn. ISBN 0-8032-9212-0
  • Stands in Timber, John, Cheyenne Memories. ISBN 0-300-07300-3

Dee Brown (February 29, 1908---December 12, 2002) was an American novelist and historian. ... Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee (1970). ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ...

External links

Wikipedia
Cheyenne edition of Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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