FACTOID # 8: Bookworms: Vermont has the highest number of high school teachers per capita and third highest number of librarians per capita.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Chewing gum
Chewing gum
Chewing gum

Chewing gum is a type of confectionery designed for fun and chewing. It is traditionally made of chicle, a natural latex product, or rubber. Image File history File links Emblem-important. ... Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 600 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1300 × 1300 pixels, file size: 1 MB, MIME type: image/jpeg)  This image was created by Körnerbrötchen  Please contact me if you use one of my images outside of Wikimedia. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 600 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1300 × 1300 pixels, file size: 1 MB, MIME type: image/jpeg)  This image was created by Körnerbrötchen  Please contact me if you use one of my images outside of Wikimedia. ... It has been suggested that Candy be merged into this article or section. ... Binomial name Manilkara chicle (Pittier) Gilly Chicle is the gum from Manilkara chicle, a species of sapodilla tree. ... This article is about the typesetting system. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ...

Contents

Composition

Chewing gum has traditionally been made from chicle, but for reasons of economy and quality many modern chewing gums use rubber instead of chicle. Chicle is nonetheless still the base of choice for some regional markets, such as in Japan. Chewing gum is a combination of a water-insoluble phase, known as gum base, and a water-soluble phase of sweeteners, flavoring and sometimes food coloring.[citation needed] Gum base is the non-nutritive, non-digestible, water-insoluble masticatory delivery system used to carry sweeteners, flavors and any other desired substances in chewing gum and bubble gum. ... A sweetener is a food additive which adds the basic taste of sweetness to a food. ... Flavouring (or flavoring) is a product which is added to food in order to change or augment its taste. ... Food coloring spreading on a thin water film. ...


The approximate manufacturing methods are fairly constant between brands. The gum base is melted at a temperature of about 115 °C (240 °F), until it has the viscosity of thick maple syrup, then filtered through a fine mesh screen. Then it is further refined by separating dissolved particles in a centrifuge, and further filtered. Clear base, still hot and melted, is then put into mixing vats. Other ingredients that may be added include: powdered sugar (the amount and grain size of which determines the brittleness of the resulting gum), corn syrup and/or glucose (which serve as humectants and coat the sugar particles to stabilize their suspension and keep the gum flexible), various softeners, food colorings, flavorings, preservatives and other additives. Gum base is the non-nutritive, non-digestible, water-insoluble masticatory delivery system used to carry sweeteners, flavors and any other desired substances in chewing gum and bubble gum. ... For other uses, see Viscosity (disambiguation). ... Bottled maple syrup produced in Quebec. ... This article is about the scientific device. ... Confectioners sugar Powdered sugar (in Britain, Australia, Canada, and most of the Commonwealth icing sugar) is a very finely ground form of sugar that is synonymous with confectioners sugar. ... “Brittle” redirects here. ... Tate & Lyle brand Corn Syrup being moved by tank car Corn syrup is a syrup, made using corn (maize) starch as a [feedstock], and composed mainly of [glucose]. A series of two [enzyme|enzymatic] reactions are used to convert the corn starch to corn syrup. ... Glucose (Glc), a monosaccharide (or simple sugar), is an important carbohydrate in biology. ... A humectant is a hygroscopic substance that is used as a food additive. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Mixture. ... Food coloring spreading on a thin water film. ... Flavouring (or flavoring) is a product which is added to food in order to change or augment its taste. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Food additives are substances added to food to preserve it, or to improve its flavour and appearance. ...


The homogenized mixture is then poured onto cooling belts and cooled with cold air. Extrusion, optional rolling and cutting, and other mechanical shaping operations follow. The chunks of gum are then put aside to set for 24 to 48 hours. Extruded aluminium; slots allow bars to be joined with special connectors. ...


Coated chewing gums then undergo other operations. The chunks are wrapped with optional undercoating for better binding with outer layers then are immersed into liquid sugar. The pellets are then colored and coated with a suitable glazing agent, usually a wax. The coating/glazing/color on gum is most often derived from animal-based sources such as resinous glaze derived from an insect or beeswax. Vegans, vegetarians, and those who do not wish to consume animal-based products or people with allergies should be aware of the limited variety of non-animal derived gums available. Always contact the manufacturer of the gum to clarify the ingredients including the coating/glazing/color sources. This article is about sugar as food and as an important and widely-traded commodity. ... Glazing agents, or polishing agents, are food additives providing shiny appeareance or protective coating to foods. ... Hens kept in cramped conditions — the avoidance of animal suffering is the primary motivation of people who become vegans A vegan is a person who avoids the ingestion or use of animal products. ... For animals adapted to eat primarily plants, sometimes referred to as vegetarian animals, see Herbivore. ...


While gum was historically sweetened with cane sugar, xylitol, corn syrup or other natural sweeteners, a large number of brands now use artificial sweeteners such as aspartame, sucralose, or Acesulfame potassium. It is currently rather difficult to find a mint-flavored (breath freshening) gum that does not contain aspartame, an additive linked to adverse health effects. (See Aspartame controversy) Non-coated varieties of gum are often covered in sweetened marble dust to prevent the wrapper from sticking to the product. Xylitol, also called wood sugar or birch sugar, is a five-carbon sugar alcohol that is used as a sugar substitute. ... Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Aspartame (or APM) (pronounced or ) is the name for an artificial, non-saccharide sweetener, aspartyl-phenylalanine-1-methyl ester; i. ... Sucralose is an artificial sweetener. ... Chemical structure of Acesulfame potassium Acesulfame potassium is a calorie-free artificial sweetener, also known as Acesulfame K or Ace K, and marketed under the trade names Sunett and Sweet One. ... The artificial sweetener aspartame has been the subject of a vigorous public controversy regarding its safety and the circumstances around its approval. ...


Gum and society

Chewing gum on a sidewalk in Reykjavík

Chewing gum adheres firmly to concrete and other hard surfaces and requires great effort, and usually power washing or Sodablasting to remove. The adhesive effect can be so strong that it removes food particles and even fillings from teeth. It is not uncommon to see urban sidewalks and train platforms speckled with thousands of patches of dried, discarded gum. This is one reason the sale of chewing gum has been prohibited in Singapore since 1992.[1] Recently, however, some types of chewing gum (e.g., nicotine replacement gums) have been allowed under strictly monitored distribution. (See Chewing gum ban in Singapore) This article is about the construction material. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... The chewing gum ban in Singapore was enacted in 1992 and revised in 2004. ...


Chewing gum is never designed for swallowing. An old wives' tale claims that chewing gum, if swallowed, may take up to seven years to become fully digested, and that swallowing gum could also result in the substance becoming lodged in the esophagus. Chewing gum does resist complete digestion by the body, however, it is generally expelled like other foods, though relatively unchanged.[2] Several cases have been reported of formation of chewing gum bezoars in children who chronically swallow gum. Acute drooling or coughing in a person known to chronically swallow gum can indicate an esophageal or intestinal bezoar.[3] An old wives tale is a wisdom much like an urban legend, supposedly passed down by old wives to a younger generation. ... The esophagus or oesophagus (see American and British English spelling differences), sometimes known as the gullet, is an organ in vertebrates which consists of a muscular tube through which food passes from the pharynx to the stomach. ... For the industrial process, see anaerobic digestion. ... A bezoar or enterolith is a sort of calculus or concretion, a stone found in the intestines of mostly ruminant animals, but occurring among others including humans. ...


In many American, British, Canadian and Australian schools, chewing gum is prohibited and using it may lead to disciplinary action. It is discouraged because many students do not throw the used gum away but stick it underneath their desks, which results in time and resources being spent on cleaning up the used gum. In schools that do allow their students to chew gum, it is not a rare sight to witness children trading gum for tasks or money. Students in Rome, Italy. ...


Gum and the military

The U.S. armed forces have regularly supplied soldiers with chewing gum since World War I because it helped both to improve the soldiers' concentration and to relieve stress. In 1935, the was an estimated amount of 12,000 lbs chewed in one month. Recent studies show chewing gum can also improve one's mood.[citation needed] As of 2005, the U.S. military is sponsoring development of a chewing gum formulation with an antibacterial agent that could replace conventional oral hygiene methods in the battlefield. This product will not be used in the field for a while.[4] The armed forces of the United States of America consist of the United States Army United States Navy United States Air Force United States Marine Corps United States Coast Guard Note: The United States Coast Guard has both military and law enforcement functions. ... An antiseptic is a substance that kills or prevents the growth of bacteria on the external surfaces of the body. ... Oral hygiene is the practice of keeping the mouth clean in order to prevent cavities (dental caries), gingivitis, periodontitis, bad breath (halitosis), and other dental disorders. ...


Recently the U.S. armed forces have been providing troops with caffeinated gum to keep soldiers alert for extended periods of time without experiencing fatigue or drowsiness. Each stick of gum has approximately 100 mg of caffeine in it, about the same amount in an average cup of coffee.[5] For other uses, see Caffeine (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Coffee (disambiguation). ...


Gum is included in Canadian Forces Individual Meal Packs as an aid to oral hygiene.[citation needed] The Canadian Forces (CF) (French: Forces canadiennes (FC)) are the unified armed forces of Canada, governed by the National Defence Act, which states: The Canadian Forces are the armed forces of Her Majesty raised by Canada and consist of one Service called the Canadian Armed Forces. ... The Individual Meal Pack or IMP is a field ration used by the Canadian armed forces. ...


Recaldent chewing gum was introduced into New Zealand Defence Force ration packs May 2007 by New Zealand Defense Dental Services to aid oral health care for service personnel in the field. Research has shown that Recaldent gum aids remineralization to fight early tooth decay.[citation needed] Chewing gum also aids in relief of stress // Recaldent or ACC-CPP is an ingredient that remineralises and strenghthens the teeth. ... The New Zealand Defence Force consists of three branches: the New Zealand Army; the Royal New Zealand Navy; and the Royal New Zealand Air Force. ... In biogeochemistry, remineralisation refers to the transformation of organic molecules to inorganic forms, typically mediated by biological activity. ...


See also

Bubblegum is a type of chewing gum that is especially designed for blowing bubbles. ... Functional gum is the name given to types of chewing gum which impart some practical function instead of, or in addition to, the usual enjoyment provided by a traditional chewing gum as a confectionery product. ... Gum base is the non-nutritive, non-digestible, water-insoluble masticatory delivery system used to carry sweeteners, flavors and any other desired substances in chewing gum and bubble gum. ... Two multi-national companies, Wrigley and Cadbury, together account for some 60% market share of the world-wide chewing gum market. ... Aidin - Dadash Baradar, Iran [1] Airwaves (2000) - Wrigley, USA [2] Ajyal - Ajyal, Syria [3] Akas - Akas Akbalik, Turkey [4] Bazooka - Topps, USA [5] Bible Gum - Bible Gum, USA [6] Big Red (1976) - Wrigley, USA [7] Big League Chew - Amurol Confections, USA [8] Black Jack Gum (1884) - Cadbury, USA Boomers - Joyco... Sugar free redirects here. ... // Is a non-destructive method for many applications in cleaning, paint stripping, automotive restoration, industrial equipment maintenance, rust removal, molecular steel pacification against rust, oil removal by saponification and translocation, masonry cleaning and restoration, soot remediation , boat hull cleaning, food processing facilities and equipment. ...

References

  1. ^ Singapore's chewing gum ban comes unstuck
  2. ^ The Seven Year Glitch at Snopes
  3. ^ Pediatrics. 1998 Aug;102(2):e22
  4. ^ BDJ | Reach for your gum
  5. ^ Caffeine gum now in Army supply channels
Snopes, also known as the Urban Legends Reference Pages, is a website dedicated to determining the truth about many urban legends, Internet rumors, email forwards, and other such stories of uncertain or questionable origin. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
chewing gum recycle (1538 words)
Chewing gum is a combination of a water-insoluble phase, known as gum base, and a water-soluble phase of sweeteners, flavoring and sometimes food coloring.
Chewing gum is the only expanding segment of the worldwide confectionary market; global chewing gum sales were expected to reach £10bn by the end of 2006.
Chewing gum is a growing problem in the local environment because it is not biodegradable and it is notoriously difficult to clean up.
Great Moments in Science - Chewing Gum (690 words)
Chewing gum came to modern America via the Mexican General, Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna, who was responsible for the massacre at the Alamo, in San Antonio, in Texas.
One of the nice side effects of chewing gum is that you increase the production of saliva, which is usually good for oral hygiene and your breath.
First is the gum base (the chewy bit which today is usually a mix of natural and synthetic gums).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m