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Encyclopedia > Chestnut
Chestnut

American Chestnut
Castanea dentata
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Fagales
Family: Fagaceae
Genus: Castanea
Species

Castanea alnifolia - Bush Chinkapin*
Castanea crenata - Japanese Chestnut
Castanea dentata - American Chestnut
Castanea henryi - Henry's Chestnut
Castanea mollissima - Chinese Chestnut
Castanea ozarkensis - Ozark Chinkapin
Castanea pumila - Allegheny Chinkapin
Castanea sativa - Sweet Chestnut
Castanea seguinii - Seguin's Chestnut
* treated as a synonym of C. pumila by many authors Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... For other uses, see Scientific classification (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Plant (disambiguation). ... Classes Magnoliopsida - Dicots Liliopsida - Monocots The flowering plants or angiosperms are the most widespread group of land plants. ... Orders See text. ... Families included in the Kew list: Fagaceae - Beech family   (including Nothofagaceae) Betulaceae - Birch family Corylaceae - Hazel family Ticodendraceae not included in the Kew list: Casuarinaceae - She-oak family Juglandaceae - Walnut family Rhoipteleaceae Myricaceae The Fagales are an order of flowering plants, including some of the best known trees. ... Genera Castanea - Chestnuts Castanopsis Chrysolepis - Golden chinkapin Colombobalanus Cyclobalanopsis Fagus - Beeches Formanodendron Lithocarpus - Stone oaks Quercus - Oaks Trigonobalanus The family Fagaceae, or beech family, is characterized by alternate leaves with pinnate venation, flowers in the form of catkins, and fruit in the form of nuts, one to seven in a... Binomial name Siebold & Zucc. ... Binomial name (Marsh. ... Binomial name Blume The Chinese Chestnut (Castanea mollissima), a member of the family Fagaceae, is a species of chestnut originally native to China, where it occurs in the provinces of Anhui, Fujian, Gansu, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hebei, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Liaoning, Nei Mongol, Qinghai, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi, Sichuan... Binomial name Castanea pumila Mill. ... Binomial name Mill. ...

Chestnut is a common name for several species of trees in the genus Castanea (Cas-tá-ne-a) , in the Beech family Fagaceae. Chestnuts are native to warm temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere. The name also refers to the edible nuts produced by these trees. Most are large trees to 20-40 m tall, but some species are smaller, often shrubby. All are flowering broadleafs with catkins. This article is under construction. ... For other uses, see Beech (disambiguation). ... Genera Castanea - Chestnuts Castanopsis Chrysolepis - Golden chinkapin Colombobalanus Cyclobalanopsis Fagus - Beeches Formanodendron Lithocarpus - Stone oaks Quercus - Oaks Trigonobalanus The family Fagaceae, or beech family, is characterized by alternate leaves with pinnate venation, flowers in the form of catkins, and fruit in the form of nuts, one to seven in a... Northern hemisphere highlighted in yellow. ... For other uses, see Nut (disambiguation). ... A broom shrub in flower A shrub or bush is a horticultural rather than strictly botanical category of woody plant, distinguished from a tree by its multiple stems and lower height, usually less than 6 m tall. ... A male catkin on a willow Male catkins on a Common Hazel in January before opening Catkins, or aments, are slim, cylindrical flower clusters, wind-pollinated and without petals, that can be found in many plant families, including Betulaceae, Fagaceae, Moraceae, and Salicaceae. ...


The leaves of the American and European chestnut are simple, ovate or lanceolate, 10-30 cm long and 4-10 cm broad, with sharply pointed, widely-spaced teeth, with shallow rounded sinuses between. The flowers are catkins, produced in mid summer; they have a heavy, unpleasant odour (Bean 1970). The fruit is a spiny cupule 5-11 cm diameter, containing one to seven nuts. Chestnut trees thrive on acidic soils, such as soils derived from granite or schist, and do not grow well on alkaline soils such as limestone. When wanting to grow chestnut trees on such soils, the practice was to graft them onto oak rootstocks. Look up foliage in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Lanceolate refers to a narrow oval shape that is pointed at both ends. ... For other uses, see Flower (disambiguation). ... A male catkin on a willow a male flowering catkin on a willow Catkins, or aments, are slim, cylindrical flower clusters, wind-pollinated (anemophilous) and without petals, that can be found in many plant families, including Betulaceae, Fagaceae, Moraceae, and Salicaceae. ... For other uses, see Fruit (disambiguation). ... A Sweet Chestnut Castanea sativa cupule, split open to reveal the nuts. ... For other uses, see Nut (disambiguation). ... Close-up of granite from Yosemite National Park, valley of the Merced River Quarrying granite for the Mormon Temple, Utah Territory. ... Schist The schists form a group of medium-grade metamorphic rocks, chiefly notable for the preponderance of lamellar minerals such as micas, chlorite, talc, hornblende, graphite, and others. ... For other uses, see Limestone (disambiguation). ... Species See List of Quercus species The term oak can be used as part of the common name of any of several hundred species of trees and shrubs in the genus Quercus (from Latin oak tree), and some related genera, notably Cyclobalanopsis and Lithocarpus. ...


Neither the horse chestnut (family Sapindaceae; also called "buckeye") nor the water chestnut (family Cyperaceae) is closely related to the chestnut, though both are so named for producing similar nuts. The name Castanea comes from an old Latin name for the sweet chestnut. Binomial name Aesculus hippocastanum L. The Common Horse-chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum) is a large deciduous tree, native to a small area in the mountains of the Balkans in southeast Europe, mainly in Albania, but also locally in northeastern Bulgaria (Preslavska Mountains), northern Greece and Macedonia. ... genera See text Sapindaceae, also known as the soapberry family, is a family of plants in the order Sapindales. ... Binomial name Eleocharis dulcis (Burm. ... Genera See text The Family Cyperaceae, or the Sedge family, is a taxon of monocot flowering plants that superficially resemble grasses or rushes. ... Binomial name Mill. ...


Interestingly Leo D. Stoller, an American "entrepreneur" has copyrighted the word Chestnut. Based in Chicago, Stollerclaims rights to a large inventory of trademarks. He engages in the assertive enforcement of those trademark rights in the United States, threatening infringement action against people and companies who attempt to infringe these marks. These include STEALTH, SENTRA, DARK STAR and CHESTNUT.

Contents

Chinkapin

The closely related golden chinkapin (Castanopsis chrysophylla) is a small broadleaf evergreen tree native to middle-elevation mountain areas of Northern California and the Pacific Northwest. The tree grows in small, clonal clusters. Nuts are similar to chestnuts but much smaller and almost always rotten. The wood is also similar to chestnut but, like the nuts, has an extreme tendency to rot. Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Largest metro area Greater Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... The Pacific Northwest from space The Pacific Northwest, abbreviated PNW, or PacNW is a region in the northwest of North America. ... The aviation term ROT stands for rate one turn. ... For other uses, see Wood (disambiguation). ...


Diseases

Before European colonization, the landscape of eastern North America was dominated by magnificent old growth forests, in which 1 of every 4 trees was a chestnut. Early in the 20th century, a fungal disease, chestnut blight, Cryphonectria parasitica was introduced in the New York area by the importation of a blight resistant Asian chestnut. This resulted in the subsequent destruction of 3.5 billion American Chestnut trees over the next 40 years, and what had been the most important tree throughout the east coast was reduced to insignificance. Subkingdom/Phyla Chytridiomycota Blastocladiomycota Neocallimastigomycota Glomeromycota Zygomycota Dikarya (inc. ... Binomial name Cryphonectria parasitica (Murrill) Barr The chestnut blight is a fungal disease caused by the sac fungus (Ascomycota), Cryphonectria parasitica (formerly Endothia parasitica). ... Binomial name (Marsh. ...


The American chinkapins are also very susceptible to chestnut blight. The European and west Asian Sweet Chestnut is susceptible, but less so than the American, and the east Asian species are resistant. These resistant species, particularly Japanese Chestnut and Chinese Chestnut but also Seguin's Chestnut and Henry's Chestnut, have been used in breeding programs in the US to create hybrids with the American Chestnut that are also disease resistant. For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Mill. ... Binomial name Siebold & Zucc. ... Binomial name Blume The Chinese Chestnut (Castanea mollissima), a member of the family Fagaceae, is a species of chestnut originally native to China, where it occurs in the provinces of Anhui, Fujian, Gansu, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hebei, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Liaoning, Nei Mongol, Qinghai, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi, Sichuan... // This article is about a biological term. ...


Castanea species are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species; see list of Lepidoptera which feed on Castanea. A larval insect A larva (Latin; plural larvae) is a juvenile form of animal with indirect development, undergoing metamorphosis (for example, insects or amphibians). ... The order Lepidoptera is the second most speciose order in the class Insecta and includes the butterflies, moths and skippers. ... Chestnuts (Castanea spp) are used as food plants by the larvae of a number of Lepidoptera species including: Monophagous species which feed exclusively on Castanea Coleophora leucochrysella Polyphagous species which feed on Castanea among other plants Brown-tail (Euproctis chrysorrhoea) Bucculatrix leaf-miners: Coleophora currucipennella Common Emerald (Hemithea aestivaria) Endoclita...


Uses

Chestnut output in 2005
A kestaneci or chestnut vendor in Istanbul
A kestaneci or chestnut vendor in Istanbul
Roasted chestnuts in Hong Kong
Roasted chestnuts in Hong Kong

The nuts are an important food crop in southern Europe, southwestern and eastern Asia, and also in eastern North America before the chestnut blight. In southern Europe in the Middle Ages, whole forest-dwelling communities which had scarce access to wheat flour relied on chestnuts as their main source of carbohydrates. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 351 pixelsFull resolution (1425 × 625 pixel, file size: 57 KB, MIME type: image/png)This bubble map shows the global distribution of chestnut output in 2005 as a percentage of the top producer (China - 825,000 tonnes). ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 351 pixelsFull resolution (1425 × 625 pixel, file size: 57 KB, MIME type: image/png)This bubble map shows the global distribution of chestnut output in 2005 as a percentage of the top producer (China - 825,000 tonnes). ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (695x794, 353 KB) Summary A vendor in Istanbul sells roasted chestnuts Ginny Smith - November 1999 Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (695x794, 353 KB) Summary A vendor in Istanbul sells roasted chestnuts Ginny Smith - November 1999 Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Istanbul (Turkish: , Greek: , historically Byzantium and later Constantinople; see other names) is Turkeys most populous city, and its cultural and financial center. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... For other uses, see Nut (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Cryphonectria parasitica (Murrill) Barr The chestnut blight is a fungal disease caused by the sac fungus (Ascomycota), Cryphonectria parasitica (formerly Endothia parasitica). ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... Species T. aestivum T. boeoticum T. dicoccoides T. dicoccon T. durum T. monococcum T. spelta T. sphaerococcum T. timopheevii References:   ITIS 42236 2002-09-22 Wheat Wheat For the indie rock group, see Wheat (band). ...


The nuts can be eaten candied, boiled or roasted; the former are often sold under the French name marrons glacés. One easy method for roasting is to cut a slit in the top of each nut and heat in a shallow container, tossing occasionally, at 400 °F for 10-15 minutes. The nuts must be slit as they tend to explode when roasted. They may also be pan-roasted or boiled.


Another important use of chestnuts is to be ground into flour, which can then be used to prepare bread, cakes and pasta. For other uses, see Flour (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Bread (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Cake (disambiguation). ... Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ...


Chestnut-based recipes and preparations are making a comeback in Italian cuisine, as part of the trend toward rediscovery of traditional dishes. Italian cuisine as a national cuisine known today has evolved from centuries of social and political change. ...


To preserve chestnuts to eat through the winter, they must be made perfectly dry after they come out of their green husk; then put into a box or a barrel mixed with, and covered over by, fine and dry sand, three parts of sand to one part of chestnuts. Any maggots in any of the chestnuts will emerge and work up through the sand to get to the air without damaging other chestnuts. Chestnuts to be grown in the spring need to be kept in moist sand and chilled over the winter. Look up maggot in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Chestnuts should not be confused with Horse-chestnuts, which are used in the United Kingdom to play a game called conkers. Conkers, or Horse-chestnuts, are poisonous and are obtained from the tree of the same name. Binomial name Aesculus hippocastanum L. The Common Horse-chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum) is a large deciduous tree, native to a small area in the mountains of the Balkans in southeast Europe, mainly in Albania, but also locally in northeastern Bulgaria (Preslavska Mountains), northern Greece and Macedonia. ... This page is about the fruit of the Horse-chestnut tree; Conker is also the name of a character from the Rareware video game universe (see Conkers Bad Fur Day). ...

Other products

The wood is similar to oak wood in being decorative and very durable. Due to disease, American Chestnut wood has almost disappeared from the market. It is difficult to obtain large size timber from the Sweet Chestnut, due to the high degree of splitting and warping when it dries. The wood of the Sweet Chestnut is most used in small items where durability is important, such as fencing and wooden outdoor cladding ('shingles') for buildings. In Italy, it is also used to make barrels used for aging balsamic vinegar. For other uses, see Wood (disambiguation). ... Species See List of Quercus species The term oak can be used as part of the common name of any of several hundred species of trees and shrubs in the genus Quercus (from Latin oak tree), and some related genera, notably Cyclobalanopsis and Lithocarpus. ... This articles section called Manufacture does not cite its references or sources. ...


The bark was also a useful source of natural tannins, used for tanning leather before the introduction of synthetic tannins. For other meanings of bark, see Bark (disambiguation). ... A bottle of tannic acid. ... Modern leather-working tools Leather is a material created through the tanning of hides and skins of animals, primarily cattlehide. ...


In popular culture

  • The most famous depiction of chestnuts is probably their mention in the Mel Tormé and Bob Wells' classic, The Christmas Song which begins with the phrase "Chestnuts roasting on an open fire." Written in 1944, the song is most identified with Nat King Cole, although Tormé recorded his own version in 1965.
  • A reference to the chestnut tree was made in the movie Howards End directed by James Ivory and based on the novel by E.M.Forster, where Mrs. Ruth Wilcox (played by Vanessa Redgrave) converses with Ms. Margaret Schlegel (played by Emma Thompson) about her (Ms. Wilcox's)childhood home in "Howards End", where superstitious farmers would place pig teeth in the bark of the chest nut trees and then they would chew on the bark to ease the discomfort and pain derived from tooth aches.
  • In the Polish film, Ashes and Diamonds, two characters reminisce about the chestnut trees that once lined a famous Warsaw boulevard now destroyed by the Nazis after the Warsaw Uprising.
  • One of the most beloved American poems is "The Village Blacksmith," by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow. Its opening lines are 'Under a spreading chestnut-tree the village smithy stands.' The appearance of the ill-fated breed of tree is much remarked upon by those involved with projects to return the American chestnut to the wild.

Melvin Howard Tormé (September 13, 1925 – June 5, 1999), nicknamed The Velvet Fog, is best known as one of the great male jazz singers. ... ... The Christmas Song (Chestnuts Roasting on an Open Fire) is the name of a classic Christmas song, written in 1944 by Mel Tormé and Bob Wells. ... Nathaniel Adams Coles, known professionally as Nat King Cole (March 17, 1919 – February 15, 1965) was a popular American singer, songwriter, and jazz pianist. ... Howards End is a novel by E. M. Forster, first published in 1910, which tells a story of class struggle in turn-of-the-century England. ... There are two famous individuals named James Ivory: James Ivory (mathematician) James Ivory (director) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Edward Morgan Forster (January 1, 1879 - June 7, 1970) was an English novelist. ... Vanessa Redgrave, CBE (born 30 January 1937) is an Academy Award winning English actress and member of the Redgrave family, one of the enduring theatrical dynasties. ... Emma Thompson (born 15 April 1959) is an Emmy-, BAFTA- and Academy Award-winning English actress, comedian, and screenwriter. ... Popiół i diament (English: Ashes and Diamonds) is a 1958 film directed by Polish film director, Andrzej Wajda, based on the novel by Polish writer Jerzy Andrzejewski. ... For other uses, see Warsaw (disambiguation) and Warszawa (disambiguation). ... National Socialism redirects here. ... For other uses, see Warsaw Uprising (disambiguation). ...

References

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Castanea

  Results from FactBites:
 
botanical.com - A Modern Herbal | Chestnut, Horse - Herb Profile and Information (1160 words)
The Horse Chestnut, Aesculus hippocastanum, which has also been known as Hippocastanum vulgare (Gaertn.), is an entirely different tree from the Sweet Chestnut, to which it is not even distantly related, and is of much more recent importation to English soil.
The fruit is a brown nut, with a very shining, polished skin, showing a dull, rough, pale-brown scar where it has been attached to the inside of the seed-vessel, a large green husk, protected with short spines, which splits into three valves when it falls to the ground and frees the nut.
It is concluded that Horse Chestnuts are not poisonous to any of the farm animals experimented with, within the limits of what they can be induced to eat, and that they form a highly nutritious food.
Chestnut - LoveToKnow 1911 (1257 words)
CHESTNUT (nux Castanea), the common name given to two sorts of trees and their fruit, (r) the so-called "horse-chestnut," and (2) the sweet or "Spanish" chestnut.
Chestnuts (the fruit of the tree) are extensively imported into Great Britain, and are eaten roasted or boiled, and mashed or otherwise as a vegetable.
The trees are very abundant in the south of Europe, and chestnuts bulk largely in the food resources of the poor in Spain, Italy, Switzerland and Germany.
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