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Encyclopedia > Chester A. Arthur
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Chester Alan Arthur


In office
September 19, 1881 – March 4, 1885
Vice President(s) None
Preceded by James A. Garfield
Succeeded by Grover Cleveland

In office
March 4, 1881 – September 19, 1881
President James Garfield
Preceded by William A. Wheeler
Succeeded by Thomas A. Hendricks

Born October 5, 1829
Fairfield, Vermont
Died November 18, 1886 (aged 57)
New York, New York
Nationality American
Political party Republican
Spouse Ellen Lewis Herndon Arthur, niece of Matthew Fontaine Maury
Occupation Lawyer, Civil servant
Religion Episcopal
Signature

Chester Alan Arthur (October 5, 1829November 18, 1886) was an American politician who served as the 21st President of the United States. Arthur was a member of the Republican Party and worked as a lawyer before becoming the 20th vice president under James Garfield. While Garfield was mortally wounded by Charles Guiteau on July 2, 1881, he did not die until September 19, at which time Arthur was sworn in as president, serving until March 4, 1885. Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (938x1187, 103 KB) Chester Alan Arthur Source: http://www. ... This article is about the office in the United States. ... September 19 is the 262nd day of the year (263rd in leap years). ... Year 1881 (MDCCCLXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... March 4 is the 63rd day of the year (64th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1885 (MDCCCLXXXV) is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... James Abram Garfield (November 19, 1831 – September 19, 1881) was the 20th President of the United States (1881) and the second U.S. President to be assassinated (Abraham Lincoln was the first). ... Stephen Grover Cleveland (March 18, 1837 – June 24, 1908) was the 22nd and 24th President of the United States, and the only President to serve two non-consecutive terms (1885–1889 and 1893–1897). ... Seal of the office of the Vice-President of the United States The Vice President of the United States is the first in the presidential line of succession, becoming the new President of the United States upon the death, resignation, or removal of the President. ... March 4 is the 63rd day of the year (64th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1881 (MDCCCLXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... September 19 is the 262nd day of the year (263rd in leap years). ... Year 1881 (MDCCCLXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... James Abram Garfield (November 19, 1831 – September 19, 1881) was the 20th President of the United States (1881) and the second U.S. President to be assassinated (Abraham Lincoln was the first). ... William Almon Wheeler (June 30, 1819 – June 4, 1887) was a Representative from New York and the nineteenth Vice President of the United States. ... Thomas Andrews Hendricks (September 7, 1819 – November 25, 1885) was a Representative and a Senator from Indiana and the twenty-first Vice President of the United States. ... October 5 is the 278th day of the year (279th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Johann Wolfgang von Goethe 1829 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Fairfield, Vermont Fairfield is a town located in Franklin County, Vermont. ... November 18 is the 322nd day of the year (323rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1886 (MDCCCLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Nickname: Location in the state of New York Coordinates: Country United States State New York Boroughs The Bronx Brooklyn Manhattan Queens Staten Island Settled 1625 Government  - Mayor Michael Bloomberg (R) Area  - City  468. ... NY redirects here. ... The Republican Party is one of two major contemporary political parties in the United States of America, along with the Democratic Party. ... Ellen Lewis Arthur (nee Herndon) (1837 - 1880) was the wife of the 21st U.S. President Chester A. Arthur. ... Matthew Fontaine Maury Matthew Fontaine Maury (January 14, 1806 – February 1, 1873), USN - American astronomer, astrophysicist, historian, oceanographer, meteorologist, cartographer, author, geologist, educator. ... English barrister 16th century painting of a civil law notary, by Flemish painter Quentin Massys. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... The arms of the Episcopal Church are based on the St Georges Cross, a symbol of England (mother of world Anglicanism), with a saltire reminiscent of the Cross of St Andrew in the canton in reference to the historical origins of the American episcopate in the Scottish Episcopal Church. ... Image File history File links Chester_A._Arthur_signature. ... October 5 is the 278th day of the year (279th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Johann Wolfgang von Goethe 1829 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... November 18 is the 322nd day of the year (323rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1886 (MDCCCLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Federal courts Supreme Court Chief Justice Associate Justices Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Counties/Parishes/Boroughs, Cities, and Towns Other countries Politics Portal      Politics of the United States takes place in a framework of a presidential... This article is about the office in the United States. ... The Republican Party is one of two major contemporary political parties in the United States of America, along with the Democratic Party. ... The United States Constitution, the supreme law of the land The United States Reports, the official reporter of the Supreme Court of the United States The law of the United States was originally largely derived from the common law of the system of English law, which was in force at... Seal of the office of the Vice-President of the United States The Vice President of the United States is the first in the presidential line of succession, becoming the new President of the United States upon the death, resignation, or removal of the President. ... James Abram Garfield (November 19, 1831 – September 19, 1881) was the 20th President of the United States (1881) and the second U.S. President to be assassinated (Abraham Lincoln was the first). ... Charles Julius Guiteau (September 8, 1841 _ June 30, 1882) was an American lawyer with a history of mental illness who assassinated President James Garfield on July 2, 1881 (although he did not die until 19 September). ... July 2 is the 183rd day of the year (184th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1881 (MDCCCLXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... March 4 is the 63rd day of the year (64th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1885 (MDCCCLXXXV) is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


Before entering politics, Arthur had been Collector of Customs for the Port of New York. He was appointed by Ulysses S. Grant but was fired by Rutherford B. Hayes under suspicion of bribery and corruption. A political protégé of Roscoe Conkling, his achievements in office as President included civil service reform and the passage of the Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act. The passage of this legislation earned Arthur the moniker "The Father of Civil Service." The Port Authority of New York and New Jersey is a bi-state agency (operated pursuant to an interstate compact) that runs most of the regional transportation infrastructure including the bridges, tunnels, airports and seaports within the New York-New Jersey Port District. ... Ulysses S. Grant[2] (born Hiram Ulysses Grant, April 27, 1822 – July 23, 1885) was an American general and the 18th President of the United States (1869–1877). ... Rutherford Birchard Hayes (October 4, 1822 – January 17, 1893) was an American politician, lawyer, military leader and the 19th President of the United States (1877–1881). ... Bribery is a crime implying a sum or gift given alters the behaviour of the person in ways not consistent with the duties of that person. ... Roscoe Conkling (October 30, 1829–April 18, 1888) was a United States politician from New York. ... The Byzantine civil service in action. ... The Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act (ch. ...

Contents

Early life and education

Arthur was supposedly born in the town of Fairfield in Franklin County, Vermont (even though no birth record has ever been found in the US) on October 5, 1829, although he sometimes claimed to be born in 1830 (even his grave inscription says the latter). His parents were William Arthur and Malvina Stone. His father was an Irish immigrant who had initially migrated to Dunham, Québec, Canada where he and his wife bought a farm, located about 80 miles north of the Vermont, US border. Arthur never publicly admitted to either country of his birth and there remains much speculation that he was born a British/Canadian subject and not an American. During his lifetime, political rivals circulated the rumor that he was born across the International Boundary in Canada, which if true would have barred him from serving as the President of the United States for failure to meet the eligibility requirements outlined in Article II Clause 5 of the U.S. Constitution, providing that the President must be a natural born US citizen. Arthur never provided any credible proof of his origins and never admitted to anything. Fairfield, Vermont Fairfield is a town located in Franklin County, Vermont. ... Franklin County is a county located in the state of Vermont. ... October 5 is the 278th day of the year (279th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Johann Wolfgang von Goethe 1829 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Canada and the United States of America share the longest common border among any two countries that is not militarized or actively patrolled. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Article Two of the United States Constitution Article Two of the United States Constitution creates the executive branch of the government, comprising the President and other executive officers. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Constitution of the United States of America Page one of the original copy of the Constitution. ...


Arthur spent some of his childhood years living in Perry, New York. One of Arthur's boyhood friends remembers Arthur's political abilities emerging at an early age: Perry, New York is the name of two locations in Wyoming County, New York. ...

When Chester was a boy, you might see him in the village street after a shower, watching the boys building a mud dam across the rivulet in the roadway. Pretty soon, he would be ordering this one to bring stones, another sticks, and others sod and mud to finish the dam; and they would all do his bidding without question. But he took good care not to get any of the dirt on his hands." (New York Evening Post, April 2, 1900) April 2 is the 92nd day of the year (93rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 273 days remaining. ... Year 1900 (MCM) was an exceptional common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar, but a leap year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar. ...

Chester Arthur's Presidency was predicted by James Russel Webster originally of Perry, New York and then later of Waterloo, New York. A detailed account of this is written here in a self written memorial for James Russel Webster [1]. An excerpt from Webster's memorial; Perry, New York is the name of two locations in Wyoming County, New York. ... Waterloo refers to a town and a village in Seneca County, New York: Waterloo (town) Waterloo (village) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...

Chester Alan Arthur (c. 1859)

"He first attended the Baptist church in Perry, the pastor there being "Elder Arthur," father of Chester A. Arthur. The latter was then a little boy, and Mr. Webster, once calling at his house, put upon his head of the lad, remarked, "this little boy may yet be President of the United States." Years after, calling at the White House, he related the circumstances to President Arthur, who replied that he well remembered the incident although the name of the man who thus predicted his future had long since passed from his memory; then standing up he added. "You may place your hand upon my head again." Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Year 1859 (MDCCCLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


Arthur attended public schools and later attended Union College in Schenectady, New York. There he became a member of Psi Upsilon, North America's fifth oldest college fraternity, and graduated in 1848. The architectural centerpiece of the Union campus, the Nott Memorial, is named after the colleges president from 1804-1866, Eliphalet Nott. ... Union Colleges Nott Memorial, one of the most recognized buildings in Schenectady Schenectady (IPA ) is a city in Schenectady County, New York, United States, of which it is the county seat. ... Psi Upsilon (ΨΥ, Psi U) is the fifth oldest college fraternity, founded at Union College in 1833. ... The terms fraternity and sorority (from the Latin words and , meaning brother and sister respectively) may be used to describe many social and charitable organizations, for example the Lions Club, Epsilon Sigma Alpha, Rotary International, Optimist International, or the Shriners. ...


Pre-political career

Arthur became principal of North Pownal Academy in North Pownal, Vermont in 1851. He studied law and was admitted to the bar in 1854. Arthur commenced practice in New York City, where he supported equal rights for blacks who objected to the racial segregation of city transportation. He also took an active part in the reorganization of the state militia. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 460 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (626 × 815 pixel, file size: 94 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) http://hdl. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 460 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (626 × 815 pixel, file size: 94 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) http://hdl. ... Ellen Lewis Arthur (nee Herndon) (1837 - 1880) was the wife of the 21st U.S. President Chester A. Arthur. ... Pownal, Vermont Pownal is a town located in Bennington County, Vermont. ... A bar association is a body of lawyers who, in some jurisdictions, are responsible for the regulation of the legal profession. ... Nickname: Location in the state of New York Coordinates: Country United States State New York Boroughs The Bronx Brooklyn Manhattan Queens Staten Island Settled 1625 Government  - Mayor Michael Bloomberg (R) Area  - City  468. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The Rex Theatre for Colored People Racial segregation is characterized by separation of different races in daily life when both are doing equal tasks, such as eating in a restaurant, drinking from a water fountain, using a rest room, attending school, going to the movies, or in the rental or... The New York City Subway is one of the busiest in the world. ... Lexington Minuteman representing militia minuteman John Parker. ...


Arthur married Ellen "Nell" Lewis Herndon[2] on October 25, 1859. She was the only child of Elizabeth Hansbrough and Captain William Lewis Herndon USN. She was a favorite niece of Commander Matthew Fontaine Maury, USN of the United States Naval Observatory where her father had worked. Ellen Lewis Arthur (nee Herndon) (1837 - 1880) was the wife of the 21st U.S. President Chester A. Arthur. ... October 25 is the 298th day of the year (299th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1859 (MDCCCLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... William Lewis Herndon (15 October 1813 – 7 September 1857) was one of the United States Navys outstanding explorers and seamen. ... The United States Navy, also known as the USN or the U.S. Navy, is a branch of the United States armed forces responsible for conducting naval operations. ... Matthew Fontaine Maury Matthew Fontaine Maury (January 14, 1806 – February 1, 1873), USN - American astronomer, astrophysicist, historian, oceanographer, meteorologist, cartographer, author, geologist, educator. ... Aerial view of USNO. The United States Naval Observatory (USNO) is one of the oldest scientific agencies in the United States. ...


In 1860, Chester Arthur and "Nell" had a son, William Lewis Herndon Arthur, who was named after Ellen's father. This son died at age two of a brain disease. Another son, Chester Alan Arthur II, was born in 1864, and a girl, named Ellen Hansbrough Herndon after her mother, in 1871. Ellen "Nell" Arthur died of pneumonia on January 12, 1880, at the early age of 42, only twenty months before Arthur became President. While in the White House, Arthur would not give anyone the place that would have been his wife's. He asked his sister Mary, the wife of writer John E. McElroy, to assume certain social duties and help care for his daughter. President Arthur also had a memorial to his beloved "Nell"—a stained glass window was installed in St. John's Episcopal Church within view of his office and had the church light it at night so he could look at it. The memorial remains to this day. Pneumonia is an illness of the lungs and respiratory system in which the alveoli (microscopic air-filled sacs of the lung responsible for absorbing oxygen from the atmosphere) become inflamed and flooded with fluid. ... January 12 is the 12th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1880 (MDCCCLXXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar). ... John McElroy (1846-1920) was a journalist and author. ... St. ...


During the American Civil War, Arthur served as acting quartermaster general of the state in 1861 and was widely praised for his service. He was later commissioned as inspector general, and appointed quartermaster general with the rank of brigadier general and served until 1862. After the war, he resumed the practice of law in New York City. With the help of Arthur's patron and political boss Roscoe Conkling, Arthur was appointed by President Ulysses Grant as Collector of the Port of New York from 1871 to 1878. This article is becoming very long. ... Quartermaster is a term usually referring to a military unit which specializes in supplying and provisioning troops, or to an individual who does the same. ... Inspector General is a fact finding officer whose responsibility is to investigate charges of corruption, fraud, waste and abuse and other complaints regarding government officials. ... A Brigadier General, or one-star general, is the lowest rank of general officer in the United States and some other countries, ranking just above Colonel and just below Major General. ... 1869 tobacco label featuring Boss Tweed A boss, in political science, is a person who wields de facto power over a particular political region or constituency. ... Roscoe Conkling (October 30, 1829–April 18, 1888) was a United States politician from New York. ... Ulysses Simpson Grant (April 27, 1822 – July 23, 1885) was an American Civil War General and the 18th (1869–1877) President of the United States. ...


This was an extremely lucrative and powerful position at the time, and several of Arthur's predecessors had run afoul of the law while serving as collector. Honorable in his personal life and his public career, Arthur sided with the Stalwarts in the Republican Party, which firmly believed in the spoils system even as it was coming under vehement attack from reformers. He insisted upon honest administration of the Customs House but nevertheless staffed it with more employees than it really needed, retaining some for their loyalty as party workers rather than for their skill as public servants. The Stalwarts were a faction of the United States Republican Party, towards the end of the nineteenth century. ... In the politics of the United States, a spoils system refers to an informal practice by which a political party, after winning an election, gives government jobs to its voters as a reward for working toward victory, and as an incentive to keep working for the party. ... Tolls collected at the Holland Tunnel and other crossings help fund the Port Authority. ...


The 1880 Election and Vice Presidency

In 1878, Grant's successor, Rutherford Hayes, attempted to reform the Customs House. He ousted Arthur, who resumed the practice of law in New York City. Conkling and his followers tried to win back power by the nomination of Grant for a third term at the 1880 Republican National Convention, but without success. Grant and James G. Blaine deadlocked, and after 36 ballots, the convention turned to dark horse James A. Garfield, a long time Congressman and General in the Civil War. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... This article is about the office in the United States. ... Rutherford Birchard Hayes (October 4, 1822 – January 17, 1893) was an American politician, lawyer, military leader and the 19th President of the United States (1877–1881). ... Tolls collected at the Holland Tunnel and other crossings help fund the Port Authority. ... Rutherford Birchard Hayes (October 4, 1822 - January 17, 1893) was the 19th (1877-1881) President of the United States. ... James G. Blaine James Gillespie Blaine (January 31, 1830 – January 27, 1893) was a U.S. Representative, U.S. Senator from Maine and a two-time United States Secretary of State. ... A dark horse candidate is one who is nominated unexpectedly, without previously having been discussed or considered as a likely choice. ... James Abram Garfield (November 19, 1831 – September 19, 1881) was the 20th President of the United States (1881) and the second U.S. President to be assassinated (Abraham Lincoln was the first). ...


Knowing the election would be close, Garfield's people began asking a number of Stalwarts if they would accept the second spot. Levi P. Morton, on Conkling's advice, refused, but Arthur accepted, telling his furious leader, "This is a higher honor than I have ever dreamt of attaining. I shall accept!" [3] Conkling and his Stalwart supporters reluctantly accepted the nomination of Arthur as vice president. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Arthur worked hard raising money for his and Garfield's election, but it was still a close contest, with the Garfield-Arthur ticket receiving a nationwide plurality of less than ten thousand votes.


After the election, Conkling began making demands of Garfield as to appointments, and the Vice President-elect supported his longtime patron against his new boss. According to Ira Rukow's recent biography of Garfield, the new President quickly grew to hate Arthur, and wouldn't even let him into the White House.

On the threshold of office, what have we to expect of him?
In an 1881 Puck cartoon, Vice President Arthur faces the presidential cabinet after President James A. Garfield was fatally wounded by assassin Charles J. Guiteau. On the wall hang three portraits of (left to right) Andrew Johnson, Millard Fillmore and John Tyler, three other presidents who succeeded to the presidency. A fourth frame hangs next to Johnson with no picture and a question mark underneath ment for Arthur's portrait.

After a nasty political battle between Garfield and Conkling which resulted in the latter's resigation, Arthur went back to New York City to wait out the time before Congress resumed in December. Then, on July 2, 1881, President Garfield was shot in the back by Charles J. Guiteau, who shouted: "I am a Stalwart of the Stalwarts... Arthur is president now!!" Arthur, who knew nothing of this in advance, was mortified. (Madmen and Geniuses, Barzman, 1974) Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Year 1881 (MDCCCLXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... Puck was a U.S. periodical published in New York from 1876 to 1918, originally in German and from 1877 in English as well. ... Seal of the office of the Vice-President of the United States The Vice President of the United States is the first in the presidential line of succession, becoming the new President of the United States upon the death, resignation, or removal of the President. ... James Abram Garfield (November 19, 1831 – September 19, 1881) was the 20th President of the United States (1881) and the second U.S. President to be assassinated (Abraham Lincoln was the first). ... This article is about the office in the United States. ... James Abram Garfield (November 19, 1831 – September 19, 1881) was the 20th President of the United States (1881) and the second U.S. President to be assassinated (Abraham Lincoln was the first). ... Charles Julius Guiteau (September 8, 1841 – June 30, 1882) was an American lawyer who assassinated President James A. Garfield on July 2, 1881. ... Andrew Johnson (December 29, 1808 – July 31, 1875) was the seventeenth President of the United States (1865–1869), succeeding to the presidency upon the assassination of Abraham Lincoln. ... Distinguish from Mallard Fillmore. ... John Tyler, Jr. ... July 2 is the 183rd day of the year (184th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1881 (MDCCCLXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... James Abram Garfield (November 19, 1831 – September 19, 1881) was the 20th President of the United States (1881) and the second U.S. President to be assassinated (Abraham Lincoln was the first). ... Charles Julius Guiteau (September 8, 1841 – June 30, 1882) was an American lawyer who assassinated President James A. Garfield on July 2, 1881. ... The Stalwarts were a faction of the United States Republican Party, towards the end of the nineteenth century. ...


The Eighty Day Crisis

Arthur was cautious; he knew that there were a great number of people who thought that he had something to do with the attempted murder of the President, and didn't want anything to do with succession until it was actually necessary; in fact, he went into seclusion, largely confining himself to his house in New York City and avoiding public appearances. Thus, for two months and 18 days, the country drifted, leaderless, hanging on every reported detail of Garfield's health without much attention to the business of government. On September 19, Garfield died and Arthur succeeded to the Presidency. Nickname: Location in the state of New York Coordinates: Country United States State New York Boroughs The Bronx Brooklyn Manhattan Queens Staten Island Settled 1625 Government  - Mayor Michael Bloomberg (R) Area  - City  468. ... September 19 is the 262nd day of the year (263rd in leap years). ...


Presidency 1881-1885

Assumption of office

Arthur being administered the oath of office as President by Judge John R. Brady at his home in New York City after President Garfield's death, September 20, 1881.

President Arthur took the oath of office twice. The first time was just past midnight at his Lexington Avenue residence on September 20th by New York Supreme Court justice John R. Brady; the second time was upon his return to Washington two days later. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 533 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (837 × 941 pixel, file size: 200 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) http://hdl. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 533 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (837 × 941 pixel, file size: 200 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) http://hdl. ... This article is about the office in the United States. ... Nickname: Location in the state of New York Coordinates: Country United States State New York Boroughs The Bronx Brooklyn Manhattan Queens Staten Island Settled 1625 Government  - Mayor Michael Bloomberg (R) Area  - City  468. ... James Abram Garfield (November 19, 1831 – September 19, 1881) was the 20th President of the United States (1881) and the second U.S. President to be assassinated (Abraham Lincoln was the first). ... September 20 is the 263rd day of the year (264th in leap years). ... Year 1881 (MDCCCLXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... The Supreme Court of the State of New York is the basic New York State trial court of general jurisidiction. ...


Policies

Arthur was aware of the factions and rivalries of the Republican Party, as well as the controversies of cronyism versus civil service reform. Entering the presidency under suspicion of conspiring to assassinate his predecessor, Arthur believed that the only way to garner the nation's approval — and to heal the breaches in American politics that had killed a President — was to be independent from both factions. Arthur determined to go his own way once in the White House. This article or section cites very few or no references or sources. ... The Byzantine civil service in action. ... For other uses, see White House (disambiguation). ...


He became a man of fashion in his manner of dress and in his associates; he was often seen with the elite of Washington, D.C., New York, and Newport. To the indignation of the Stalwarts, the onetime Collector of the Port of New York became, as President, a champion of civil service reform. Avoiding old political cronies and alienating his old mentor Conkling, public pressure, heightened by the assassination of Garfield, forced an unwieldy Congress to heed the President. Nickname: Motto: Justitia Omnibus (Justice for All) Location of Washington, D.C., in relation to the states Maryland and Virginia Coordinates: Country United States Federal District District of Columbia Government  - Mayor Adrian M. Fenty (D)  - City Council Chairperson: Vincent C. Gray (D) Ward 1: Jim Graham (D) Ward 2: Jack...


In 1883, Congress passed the Pendleton Act, which established a bipartisan Civil Service Commission which stopped big businesses from giving out rebates and pooling with other companies, forbade levying political assessments against officeholders, and provided for a "classified system" that made certain government positions obtainable only through competitive written examinations. The system protected employees against removal for political reasons. The Office of Personnel Management or OPM is the United States government agency which serves to manage the civil service of the United States by the recruitment of qualified personnel into and the administration of their careers as part of the United States Civil Service. ...


Acting independently of party dogma, Arthur also tried to lower tariff rates so the government would not be embarrassed by annual surpluses of revenue. Congress raised about as many rates as it trimmed, but Arthur signed the Tariff Act of 1883 anyway. Aggrieved Westerners and Southerners looked to the Democratic Party for redress, and the tariff began to emerge as a major political issue between the two parties. A tariff is a tax on foreign goods. ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ...


The Arthur Administration enacted the first general Federal immigration law. Arthur approved a measure in 1882 excluding paupers, criminals, and the mentally ill. Congress also suspended Chinese immigration for ten years with the Chinese Exclusion Act, later making the restriction permanent. Nationality law is the branch of a countrys legal system wherein legislation, custom and court precendent combine to define the ways in which that countrys nationality and citizenship are transmitted, acquired or lost. ... pau·per ( P ) Pronunciation Key (pôpr) n. ... The Chinese Exclusion Act was a United States federal law passed on May 6, 1882, following 1880 revisions to the Burlingame Treaty of 1868. ...


In 1884, the International Meridian Conference was held in Washington at President Arthur's behest. This established the Greenwich Meridian which is still in use today. The Prime Meridian, Greenwich The Prime Meridian is the meridian (line of longitude) passing through the Royal Greenwich Observatory, Greenwich, England; it is the meridian at which longitude is 0 degrees. ... Location of the Prime Meridian Prime Meridian in Greenwich The Prime Meridian, also known as the International Meridian or Greenwich Meridian, is the meridian (line of longitude) passing through the Royal Greenwich Observatory, Greenwich, England — it is the meridian at which longitude is 0 degrees. ...


President Arthur demonstrated that he was above not only factions within the Republican Party, but possibly the party itself. Perhaps, in part, he felt able to do this because of the well-kept secret he had known since a year after he succeeded to the Presidency, that he was suffering from Bright's Disease, a fatal kidney disease. The Republican Party is one of two major contemporary political parties in the United States of America, along with the Democratic Party. ... Brights disease is a historical classification of kidney diseases that would be described in modern medicine as acute or chronic nephritis. ...


Arthur sought a full term as President in 1884, but lost the Republican party's presidential nomination to former Speaker of the House and Secretary of State James G. Blaine of Maine. Blaine, however, lost the election to Democrat Grover Cleveland of New York. Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Chief Justice Associate Justices Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Counties, Cities, and Towns Other countries Politics Portal      The Speaker of the United States House of Representatives is the presiding officer of the... Seal of the United States Department of State. ... James G. Blaine James Gillespie Blaine (January 31, 1830 – January 27, 1893) was a U.S. Representative, U.S. Senator from Maine and a two-time United States Secretary of State. ... Official language(s) None (English de facto; French is also an administrative language) Capital Augusta Largest city Portland Area  Ranked 39th  - Total 33,414 sq mi (86,542 km²)  - Width 210 miles (338 km)  - Length 320 miles (515 km)  - % water 13. ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... Stephen Grover Cleveland (March 18, 1837 – June 24, 1908) was the 22nd and 24th President of the United States, and the only President to serve two non-consecutive terms (1885–1889 and 1893–1897). ... NY redirects here. ...


Publisher Alexander K. McClure wrote, "No man ever entered the Presidency so profoundly and widely distrusted, and no one ever retired… more generally respected." Author Mark Twain, deeply cynical about politicians, conceded, "It would be hard indeed to better President Arthur's administration." Samuel Langhorne Clemens (November 30, 1835 – April 21, 1910),[1] better known by the pen name Mark Twain, was an American humorist, satirist, writer, and lecturer. ...


Significant events during presidency

Standard Oil (Esso) was a predominant integrated oil producing, transporting, refining, and marketing company. ... The Chinese Exclusion Act was a United States federal law passed on May 6, 1882, following 1880 revisions to the Burlingame Treaty of 1868. ... The Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act (ch. ... Holding The Equal Protection clause applies only to state action, not segregation by privately owned businesses. ...

Administration and Cabinet

Chester A. Arthur

Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (738x1096, 92 KB) http://hdl. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (738x1096, 92 KB) http://hdl. ... This article is about the office in the United States. ... Seal of the office of the Vice-President of the United States The Vice President of the United States is the first in the presidential line of succession, becoming the new President of the United States upon the death, resignation, or removal of the President. ... Seal of the United States Department of State. ... James G. Blaine James Gillespie Blaine (January 31, 1830 – January 27, 1893) was a U.S. Representative, U.S. Senator from Maine and a two-time United States Secretary of State. ... Frederick Theodore Frelinghuysen (August 4, 1817–May 20, 1885) was a member of the United States Senate from New Jersey and a United States Secretary of State. ... The United States Secretary of the Treasury is the head of the United States Department of the Treasury, concerned with finance and monetary matters, and, until 2003, some issues of national security and defense. ... William Windom (May 10, 1827–January 29, 1891) was an American politician. ... Charles James Folger (April 16, 1818–September 4, American politician, jurist and U.S. Secretary of the Treasury. ... Walter Quintin Gresham (March 17, 1832–May 28, 1895) was an American statesman and jurist. ... Hugh McCulloch Hugh McCulloch (December 7, 1808 – May 24, 1895) was an American statesman who served two non-consecutive terms as U.S. Treasury Secretary, serving under three presidents. ... The Secretary of War was a member of the United States Presidents Cabinet, beginning with George Washingtons administration. ... Robert Todd Lincoln (August 1, 1843 – July 26, 1926) was the first son of Abraham Lincoln and Mary Ann Todd. ... The United States Attorney General is the head of the United States Department of Justice concerned with legal affairs and is the chief law enforcement officer of the United States government. ... Isaac Wayne MacVeagh (April 19, 1833–January 11, 1917) was an American politician and diplomat. ... Benjamin Harris Brewster (October 13, 1816–April 4, 1888) was an American attorney and Cabinet secretary. ... The Postmaster General is the executive head of the United States Postal Service. ... Thomas Lemuel James (1831 - 1916) was a U.S. administrator. ... Born in New York City in October of 1827, Timothy O. Howe was a prominent homosexual in his community. ... Walter Quintin Gresham (March 17, 1832–May 28, 1895) was an American statesman and jurist. ... Frank Hatton (April 28, 1846–April 30, 1894) was an American politician who served as United States Postmaster General in the Chester A. Arthur administration. ... Flag of the United States Secretary of the Navy. ... William Henry Hunt (12 June 1823 – February 1884) was the United States Secretary of the Navy under President James Garfield. ... William Eaton Chandler (28 December 1835–30 November 1917) was a lawyer who served as United States Secretary of the Navy and as a Senator from New Hampshire. ... The United States Secretary of the Interior is the head of the United States Department of the Interior, concerned with such matters as national parks and The Secretary is a member of the Presidents Cabinet. ... Samuel Jordan Kirkwood (December 20, 1813 - September 1, 1894), twice represented Iowa as a United States Senator; first, from 1866 to 1867 and again from 1877 to 1881. ... Henry Moore Teller (1830–1914) was a U.S. political figure. ...

Supreme Court appointments

Samuel Blatchford (March 9, 1820–July 7, 1893) was an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States from April 3, 1882 until his death. ... Horace Gray (March 24, 1828-September 15, 1902) was an American jurist. ...

States admitted to the Union

None


Social and personal life

Arthur is remembered as one of the most society-conscious presidents, earning the nickname "the Gentleman Boss" for his style of dress and courtly manner.


Upon taking office, Arthur did not move into the White House immediately. He insisted upon its redecoration and had 24 wagonloads of furniture, some including pieces dating back to John Adams' term, carted away and sold at public auction. Former president Rutherford B. Hayes bought two wagonloads of furniture which today are at his home Spiegel Grove. Arthur then commissioned Louis Comfort Tiffany to replace them with new pieces. A famous designer now best-known for his stained glass, Tiffany was among the foremost designers of the day.[4] For other uses, see White House (disambiguation). ... John Adams (October 30, 1735 – July 4, 1826) served as Americas first Vice President (1789–1797) and as its second President (1797–1801). ... Rutherford Birchard Hayes (October 4, 1822 – January 17, 1893) was an American politician, lawyer, military leader and the 19th President of the United States (1877–1881). ... Spiegel is the German word for mirror. ... Louis Comfort Tiffany (1848-1933) circa 1908 Louis Comfort Tiffany (February 18, 1848 – January 17, 1933) was an American artist and designer who is best known for his work in stained glass and is the American artist most associated with the Art Nouveau and Aesthetic movements. ... Strictly speaking, stained glass is glass that has been painted with silver stain and then fired. ...


Arthur was a fisherman who belonged to the Restigouche Salmon Club and once reportedly caught an 80-pound bass off the coast of Rhode Island. A fisherman in central Chile A Long Island fisherman cleans his nets A fisherman (in recent years sometimes called a fisher to be non-gender specific), is a person who engages in the activity of fishing. ... Striped bass (Morone saxatilis) Largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) Bass (IPA /bæs/) is a name shared by many different species of popular game fish. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ...


Widely popular by the end of his presidency, four young women (ignorant of Arthur's pronouncement that he would never marry again) proposed to him on the day he left office. He was sometimes called "Elegant Arthur" for his commitment to fashionable attire and was said to have "looked like a president." He reportedly kept 80 pairs of pants in his wardrobe and changed pants several times a day. He was called "Chet" by family and friends, and by his middle name, with the stress on the second syllable ("Al-AN").


Post presidency

Arthur's grave at Albany Rural Cemetery.

Arthur served as President through March 4, 1885. Upon leaving office, he returned to New York City, where he died of a massive cerebral hemorrhage at 5:10 a.m. on Thursday, November 18, 1886, at the age of 57. Arthur suffered from Bright's disease, and his death was most likely related to a history of hypertension. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 538 KB) Summary Grave of Chester A. Arthur at Albany Rural Cemetery. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 538 KB) Summary Grave of Chester A. Arthur at Albany Rural Cemetery. ... Grave of President Chester A. Arthur The Albany Rural Cemetery was established October 7, 1844 in Menands, New York, just outside of the city of Albany, New York. ... March 4 is the 63rd day of the year (64th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1885 (MDCCCLXXXV) is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... A cerebral hemorrhage is a bleed into the substance of the cerebrum. ... November 18 is the 322nd day of the year (323rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1886 (MDCCCLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Brights disease is a historical classification of kidney diseases that would be described in modern medicine as acute or chronic nephritis. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


His post presidency was the second shortest, longer only than that of James Polk (excluding presidents who died in office). * alive as of February 14, 2006 ** Cleveland was a former president for 4 years after his first term plus another 11 years after his second term. ... James Knox Polk (November 2, 1795–June 15, 1849) was the eleventh President of the United States, serving from March 4, 1845 to March 4, 1849. ...


Chester was buried next to Ellen in the Arthur family plot in the Albany Rural Cemetery in Menands, New York, in a large sarcophagus on a large corner plot that contains the graves of many of his family members and ancestors. Grave of President Chester A. Arthur The Albany Rural Cemetery was established October 7, 1844 in Menands, New York, just outside of the city of Albany, New York. ... Menands is a village located in Albany County, New York, USA. As of the 2000 census, the village had a total population of 3,910. ...


Notes

  1. ^ http://www.rootsweb.com/~nyseneca/webster.htm
  2. ^ Ellen "Nell" Lewis Herndon's biography via Whitehouse.gov
  3. ^ Sol Barzaman: Madmen and Geniuses; Follet Books Chicago 1974
  4. ^ Mitchell, Sarah E. "Louis Comfort Tiffany's work on the White House." 2003.[1]

External links

Wikisource has original works written by or about:
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Chester A. Arthur
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Chester A. Arthur
Preceded by
William A. Wheeler
Republican Party vice presidential candidate
1880 (won)
Succeeded by
John A. Logan
Vice President of the United States
March 4, 1881September 19, 1881
Succeeded by
Thomas A. Hendricks
Preceded by
James A. Garfield
President of the United States
September 19, 1881March 4, 1885
Succeeded by
Grover Cleveland

 
 

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