FACTOID # 25: If you're tired of sitting in traffic on your way to work, move to North Dakota.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Chest pain
Name of Symptom/Sign:
Chest pain
Classifications and external resources
ICD-10 R07
ICD-9 786.5

In medicine, chest pain is a symptom of a number of conditions and is generally considered a medical emergency, unless the patient is a known angina pectoris sufferer and the symptoms are familiar (appearing at exertion and resolving at rest, known as "stable angina"). When the chest pain is not attributed to heart disease, it is termed non-cardiac chest pain. The term symptom (from the Greek meaning chance, mishap or casualty, itself derived from συμπιπτω meaning to fall upon or to happen to) has two similar meanings in the context of physical and mental health: Strictly, a symptom is a sensation or change in health function experienced by a patient. ... In medicine, a sign is a feature of disease as detected by the doctor during physical examination of a patient. ... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. ... The following codes are used with International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. ... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. ... The following is a list of codes for International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. ... medicines, see medication and pharmacology. ... The term symptom (from the Greek meaning chance, mishap or casualty, itself derived from συμπιπτω meaning to fall upon or to happen to) has two similar meanings in the context of physical and mental health: Strictly, a symptom is a sensation or change in health function experienced by a patient. ... A medical emergency is an injury or illness that poses an immediate threat to a persons health or life which requires help from a doctor or hospital. ...

Contents

Causes

Cardiopulmonary

Important cardiovascular and pulmonary causes of chest pain: Cardiovascular disease refers to the class of diseases that involve the heart and/or blood vessels (arteries and veins). ... In medicine, pulmonology (aka pneumology) is the specialty that deals with diseases of the lungs and the respiratory tract. ...

There are different forms of heart disease: Coronary heart disease Ischaemic heart disease Cardiovascular disease The study of heart disease is Cardiology This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Acute myocardial infarction (AMI or MI), commonly known as a heart attack, is a disease state that occurs when the blood supply to a part of the heart is interrupted. ... Aortic dissection is a tear in the wall of the aorta (the largest artery of the body). ... Cardiac arrhythmia is a group of conditions in which the electrical activity of the heart is irregular or is faster or slower than normal. ... Atrial fibrillation (AF or afib) is an abnormal heart rhythm (cardiac arrhythmia) which involves the two small, upper heart chambers (the atria). ... Pneumonia is an illness of the lungs and respiratory system in which the alveoli (microscopic air-filled sacs of the lung responsible for absorbing oxygen from the atmosphere) become inflamed and flooded with fluid. ... A hemothorax is a condition that results from blood accumulating in the pleural cavity. ... Left-sided pneumothorax (on the right side of the image) on CT scan of the chest with chest tube in place. ... A tension pneumothorax is a life threatening condition that results from a progressive deterioration and worsening of a simple pneumothorax, associated with the formation of a one-way valve at the point of rupture. ...

Other causes

Other causes of chest pain include:

High abdominal pain may also mimick chest pain. Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD; or GORD when spelling œsophageal, the BrE form) is defined as chronic symptoms or mucosal damage produced by the abnormal reflux of gastric contents into the esophagus[1]. This is commonly due to transient or permanent changes in the barrier between the esophagus and the stomach. ... Hiatus hernia or hiatal hernia is the protrusion (or herniation) of the upper part of the stomach into the thorax through a tear or weakness in the diaphragm. ... Achalasia, also known as esophageal achalasia, achalasia cardiae, cardiospasm, dyssynergia esophagus, and esophageal aperistalsis, is an esophageal motility disorder. ... Time space graph of normal peristalsis. ... The esophagus (also spelled oesophagus/œsophagus, Greek ), or gullet is an organ in vertebrates which consists of a muscular tube through which food passes from the pharynx to the stomach. ... A benign inflammation of the ligaments connecting to the sternum or ribs, Tietzes Syndrome is most common among patients who have had thoracic surgery. ... The term spinal nerve generally refers to the mixed spinal nerve, which is formed from the dorsal and ventral roots that come out of the spinal cord. ... Fibromyalgia (FM or FMS) is a chronic syndrome (constellation of signs and symptoms) characterized by diffuse or specific muscle, joint, or bone pain, fatigue, and a wide range of other symptoms. ... The thoracic cavity is the chamber of the human body (and other animal bodies) that is enclosed by the ribcage and the diaphragm. ... A pregnant womans breasts. ... Herpes zoster, colloquially known as shingles, is the reactivation of varicella zoster virus (VZV, primary infection of which leads to chicken pox), one of the Herpesviridae group, leading to a crop of painful blisters over the area of a dermatome. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Clinical depression (also called major depressive disorder, or sometimes unipolar when compared with bipolar disorder, which is sometimes called manic depression) is a state of intense sadness, melancholia or despair that has advanced to the point of being disruptive to an individuals social functioning and/or activities of daily... Somatization disorder (or Briquets disorder) is a type of mental illness in which a patient manifests a psychiatric condition as a physical complaint. ... Hypochondria (or hypochondriasis, sometimes referred to as health anxiety, health phobia) refers to an excessive preoccupation or worry about having a serious illness. ... In psychiatry, hyperventilation syndrome (HVS) is an episodic disorder that often presents with chest pain and a tingling sensation of the fingertips (paresthesia) and around the mouth, as well as deep and labored breathing (causing hyperventilation), although chronic but subtle hyperventilation can cause these symptoms too. ... Da Costas Syndrome is a type of anxiety disorder first observed in soldiers in the American Civil War. ... Bornholm disease or pleurodynia is a disease caused by the Coxsackie virus. ... Groups I: dsDNA viruses II: ssDNA viruses III: dsRNA viruses IV: (+)ssRNA viruses V: (-)ssRNA viruses VI: ssRNA-RT viruses VII: dsDNA-RT viruses A virus (from the Latin noun virus, meaning toxin or poison) is a microscopic particle (ranging in size from 20 - 300 nm) that can infect the... Precordial Catch Syndrome (PCS), also known as Texidor’s twinge, is a common cause of chest pain complaints in children and adolescents. ... Abdominal pain can be one of the symptoms associated with transient disorders or serious disease. ...


Analysis

As in all medicine, a careful medical history and physical examination is essential in separating dangerous and trivial causes of disease, and the management of chest pain is often done on specialised units (termed medical assessment units) to concentrate the investigations. A rapid diagnosis can be life-saving and often has to be made without the help of X-rays or blood tests (e.g. aortic dissection). Occasionally, invisible medical signs will direct the diagnosis towards particular causes, such as Levine's sign in cardiac ischemia. Generally, however, additional tests are required to establish the diagnosis. In the NATO phonetic alphabet, X-ray represents the letter X. An X-ray picture (radiograph) taken by Röntgen An X-ray is a form of electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength approximately in the range of 5 pm to 10 nanometers (corresponding to frequencies in the range 30 PHz... Blood tests are laboratory tests done on blood to gain an appreciation of disease states and the function of organs. ... Aortic dissection is a tear in the wall of the aorta (the largest artery of the body). ... Levines Sign is a clenched fist held over the chest to describe chest pain. ...


An emergency medicine doctor will also focus on recent health changes, family history (premature atherosclerosis, cholesterol disorders), tobacco smoking, diabetes and other risk factors. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Cholesterol is a sterol (a combination steroid and alcohol) and a lipid found in the cell membranes of all body tissues, and transported in the blood plasma of all animals. ... The cigarette is the most common method of smoking tobacco. ... This article is about the disease that features high blood sugar. ...


Features of the pain suggest of cardiac ischaemia are describing the pain as heaviness; radiation of the pain to neck, jaw or left arm; sweating; nausea; palpitations; the pain coming upon exertion; dizziness; shortness of breath and a "sense of impending doom."


On the basis of the above, a number of tests may be ordered:

In the NATO phonetic alphabet, X-ray represents the letter X. An X-ray picture (radiograph) taken by Röntgen An X-ray is a form of electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength approximately in the range of 5 pm to 10 nanometers (corresponding to frequencies in the range 30 PHz... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... “QRS” redirects here. ... A ventilation/perfusion scan, also called a V/Q scan, is a medical test to measure the circulation of air and blood within a patients lungs. ... Blood tests are laboratory tests done on blood to gain an appreciation of disease states and the function of organs. ... Schematics of shorthand for complete blood count commonly used by physicians. ... An electrolyte is a substance containing free ions which behaves as an electrically conductive medium. ... In medicine (nephrology) renal function is an indication of the state of the kidney and its role in physiology. ... Chemical structure of creatinine. ... Liver function tests (LFTs or LFs), which include liver enzymes, are groups of clinical biochemistry laboratory blood assays designed to give information about the state of a patients liver. ... Creatine Kinase Creatine kinase (CK), also known as phosphocreatine kinase or creatine phosphokinase (CPK) is an enzyme (EC 2. ... Troponin Troponin is a complex of three proteins that is integral to muscle contraction in skeletal and cardiac muscle, but not smooth muscle. ... Myocardium is the muscular tissue of the heart. ... D-dimer is a blood test performed in the medical laboratory to diagnose thrombosis. ...

Interpretation

In finding the cause, the history given by the patient is often the most important tool. In angina pectoris, for example, blood tests and other analyses are not sensitive enough (Chun & McGee 2004). The physician's typical approach is to rule-out the most dangerous causes of chest pain first (e.g., heart attack, blood clot in the lung, aneurysm). By sequential elimination or confirmation from the most serious to the least serious causes, a diagnosis of the origin of the pain is eventually made. Often, no definite cause will be found, and the focus in these cases is on excluding severe diseases and reassuring the patient. If acute coronary syndrome ("unstable angina") is suspected, many patients are admitted briefly for observation, sequential ECGs, and determination of cardiac enzyme levels over time (creatine kinase|CK-MB,troponin or myoglobin). On occasion, later out-patient testing may be necessary to follow-up and make better determinations on causes and therapies. There are different forms of heart disease: Coronary heart disease Ischaemic heart disease Cardiovascular disease The study of heart disease is Cardiology This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


References

  • Chun A, McGee S (2004). "Bedside diagnosis of coronary artery disease: a systematic review.". Am J Med 117 (5): 334-43. PMID 15336583. 
  • Ringstrom E, Freedman J (2006). "Approach to undifferentiated chest pain in the emergency department: a review of recent medical literature and published practice guidelines.". Mt Sinai J Med 73 (2): 499-505. PMID 16568192.  Full text (PDF)
  • Butler K, Swencki S (2006). "Chest pain: a clinical assessment.". Radiol Clin North Am 44 (2): 165-79, vii. PMID 16500201. 
  • Haro L, Decker W, Boie E, Wright R (2006). "Initial approach to the patient who has chest pain.". Cardiol Clin 24 (1): 1-17, v. PMID 16326253. 
  • Fox M, Forgacs I (2006). "Unexplained (non-cardiac) chest pain.". Clin Med 6 (5): 445-9. PMID 17080889. 

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Chest Pain in Kids, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center (1258 words)
Chest pain may also be a manifestation of stress or anxiety.
Chest pain may be a symptom of a serious underlying disease.
In children, chest pain from an aortic aneurysm is extremely rare, and it occurs almost exclusively in the setting of other uncommon diseases, particularly Marfan syndrome.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m