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Encyclopedia > Chess tactic

In chess, a tactic refers to a short sequence of moves which limits the opponent's options and which results in tangible gain. Tactics are usually contrasted to strategy, in which advantages take longer to be realized, and the opponent is less constrained in responding. Chess is an abstract strategy board game for two players. ...


A single chess move considered in isolation is below the level of tactics. To take an enemy piece or deliver check may be useful, but unless it is part of a plan, a move is usually not classified as a tactic.


The fundamental building blocks of tactics are two-move sequences in which the first move poses a double threat. The opponent is unable to respond to both threats in one move, so the first player realizes an advantage on the second move. This class of tactic includes forks, skewers, discovered attacks, undermining, overloading, and interference. Pins also fall into this category to some extent, although it is common for a defending player to relieve neither of the two threats posed by a pin, in which case the attacking player commonly maintains the pin for a longer period of time. A pin is therefore sometimes more strategic than tactical. The white knight is forking the black king and rook. ... In chess, a skewer (or thrust) is an attack upon two pieces in a line and is similar to a pin. ... In chess, a discovered attack is an attack revealed when one piece moves out of the way of another. ... Undermining (also known as Removal of the Guard) is a chess tactic in which a defensive piece is captured, leaving one of the opponents pieces undefended or underdefended. ... Overloading is a chess tactic in which a defensive piece is given an additional assignment which it cant complete without abandoning its original assignment. ... Interference is a chess tactic which seldom arises, and is therefore often overlooked. ... Here there is an absolute pin on the black knight because moving it would illegally expose the black king to check from the white bishop. ...


Often tactics of several types are conjoined in a combination. A combination, while still constraining the opponent's responses, takes several moves to obtain advantage, and thus is considered deeper and more spectacular than the basic tactics listed above. In chess, a combination is a relatively long sequence of moves, often initiated by a sacrifice, which leaves the opponent few options and results in tangible gain. ...


The concept of zwischenzug is often listed as a tactic, but might properly be called a counter-tactic instead. During the execution of a tactic one focuses on only a few pieces as relevant, but a zwischenzug complicates the situation by making a more urgent threat with another piece. The effect of a zwischenzug is to change the status quo before a tactic can come to fruition. The near ubiquity of the zwischenzug makes long combinations all the more rare and impressive. In chess, zwischenzug (German for intermediate move) is a common tactic that occurs in almost every game. ...


Chess instructors usually steer beginners away from any detailed study of openings, focusing instead on tactics and endgames, which serve as the basis for later strategic understanding. One should not suppose, however, that one's understanding of tactics is ever completed. It is not the case that all master players know everything there is to know about tactics, and differ only in depth of strategic understanding. On the contrary, as Garry Kasparov famously asserted, a grandmaster (GM) can often tactically overwhelm a mere international master (IM). The first moves of a chess game are the opening moves, collectively referred to as the opening. ... In chess, the endgame (or end game or ending) refers to the stage of the game when there are few pieces left on the board. ... This article or section contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ... The title International Grandmaster is awarded to world-class chess masters by the world chess organization FIDE. Apart from World Champion, Grandmaster is the highest title a chess player can attain. ... The title International Master is awarded to outstanding chess players by the world chess organization FIDE. The title is open to both men and women. ...


Chess computers are considered superhuman at tactics and rather weak at strategy. The fact that computers can play on a par with the best humans suggests that chess is primarily a tactical game. On the other hand, it must be noted that computers don't think about tactics in human terms (fork, skewer, etc.); the nuances of human understanding of chess, both tactical and strategic, have not been imitated by computers, only matched in effective playing strength. 1990s Pressure-sensory Chess Computer with LCD screen The idea of creating a chess-playing machine dates back to the eighteenth century. ...


See also

Chess strategy and tactics has evolved through the centuries as the most successful players have added to the body of knowledge of the best way to play the game of chess. ...

External links

External references

Chess Tactics Server


  Results from FactBites:
 
Chess tactic - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (508 words)
In chess, a tactic refers to a short sequence of moves which limits the opponent's options and which results in tangible gain.
Chess instructors usually steer beginners away from any detailed study of openings, focusing instead on tactics and endgames, which serve as the basis for later strategic understanding.
Chess computers are considered superhuman at tactics and rather weak at strategy.
IBM Research | Deep Blue | Overview (2084 words)
The form of chess notation by using a combination of letters and numbers - a to h and 1 to 8 - which denote the 64 squares on a board.
Chess does not have referees or umpires, it has Arbiters for the enforcement of the rules, and Directors for the organisation of tournaments (a distinction recognized in America).
One of the most artistic aspects of chess is the composition, which is an artificial position composed by a problemist.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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