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Encyclopedia > Chess
Chess

From left, a white king, black rook and queen, white pawn, black knight, and white bishop
Players 2
Setup time under one minute
Playing time casual games without time control last usually 10–60 minutes
Random chance None
Skills required Tactics, Strategy
Chess Portal

Chess is a recreational and competitive game for two players. Sometimes called Western Chess or International Chess to distinguish it from its predecessors and other chess variants, the current form of the game emerged in Southern Europe during the second half of the 15th century after evolving from similar, much older games of Indian origin. Chess or CHESS may also mean one of the following: // Chess, a board game chess variants including: Xiangqi, or Chinese chess Shogi, sometimes called Japanese chess Makruk, or Thai chess Chaturanga, or Indian chess Janggi, or Korean chess Sittuyin, or Burmese chess 3D Chess Chess (application), a chess computer game... Download high resolution version (846x772, 42 KB)This is a file from the Wikimedia Commons, a repository of free content hosted by the Wikimedia Foundation. ... Staunton chess pieces, left to right: pawn, rook, knight, bishop, queen, and king. ... A rook (♖ ♜,borrowed from Persian رخ rokh, Sanskrit roth, chariot) is a piece in the strategy board game of chess. ... Queen. ... This article uses algebraic notation to describe chess moves. ... The knight moves in an L shape. ... A bishop (♗♝) is a piece in the board game of chess. ... In chess, a tactic refers to a short sequence of moves which limits the opponents options and which results in tangible gain. ... This article seems not to be written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia entry. ... Image File history File links Portal. ... For other uses, see Game (disambiguation). ... A chess variant is a game derived from, related to or similar to chess in at least one respect. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ...


Today, chess is one of the world's most popular games, played by millions of people worldwide in clubs, online, by correspondence, in tournaments and informally. Aspects of art and science are found in chess composition and theory. Chess is also advocated as a way of enhancing mental prowess. Chess clubs are clubs with the intent of getting together and playing chess with others. ... Correspondence chess is chess played by various forms of long-distance correspondence, usually through a correspondence chess server, through email or by the postal system; less common methods which have been employed include fax and homing pigeon. ... A tournament is a competition involving a relatively large number of competitors, all participating in a single sport or game. ... This article is about the philosophical concept of Art. ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... Excelsior by Sam Loyd. ... Teaching and playing the game of chess has often been advocated as a form of mental training. ...


The game is played on a square chequered chessboard with 64 squares. At the start, each player ("white" and "black") controls sixteen pieces: one king, one queen, two rooks, two knights, two bishops, and eight pawns. The object of the game is to checkmate the opponent's king, whereby the king is under immediate attack (in "check") and there is no way to remove it from attack on the next move. Theoreticians have developed extensive chess strategies and tactics since the game's inception. Chessboard Chessboard with Staunton chess pieces A chessboard is often painted or engraved on a chess table. ... Original Staunton chess pieces, left to right: pawn, rook, knight, bishop, queen, and king. ... Staunton chess pieces, left to right: pawn, rook, knight, bishop, queen, and king. ... Queen. ... A rook (♖ ♜,borrowed from Persian رخ rokh, Sanskrit roth, chariot) is a piece in the strategy board game of chess. ... The knight moves in an L shape. ... A bishop (♗♝) is a piece in the board game of chess. ... This article uses algebraic notation to describe chess moves. ... For other uses, see Checkmate (disambiguation). ... In games such as chess, shogi, and xiangqi, a check is an immediate threat to capture the king (or general in xiangqi). ... This article seems not to be written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia entry. ... In chess, a tactic refers to a short sequence of moves which limits the opponents options and which results in tangible gain. ...


The tradition of organized competitive chess started in the 16th century. The first official World Chess Champion, Wilhelm Steinitz, claimed his title in 1886; Viswanathan Anand is the current World Champion. There are also biennial world team events called Chess Olympiads. Since the 20th century, two international organizations, the World Chess Federation and the International Correspondence Chess Federation have organized and overseen the top chess competitions and international titles. The 1984 World Chess Championship was between Anatoly Karpov (left) and Garry Kasparov (right). ... Wilhelm (later William) Steinitz (May 17, 1836, Prague–August 12, 1900, New York) was a Jewish-Austrian-American chess player and the first official world chess champion. ... This article uses algebraic notation to describe chess moves. ... The Chess Olympiad is a chess event which has been officially organised by FIDE since 1927 and takes place in even years. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... International Correspondence Chess Federation ICCF is the International Correspondence Chess Federation. ...


One of the goals of early computer scientists was to create a chess-playing machine, and today's chess is deeply influenced by the abilities of current chess programs. In 1997, a match between Garry Kasparov, then World Champion, and IBM's Deep Blue chess program proved for the first time that computers are able to beat even the strongest human players. The popularity of online chess coincided with the growth of the Internet. 1990s Pressure-sensory Chess Computer with LCD screen The idea of creating a chess-playing machine dates back to the eighteenth century. ... Deep Blue versus Garry Kasparov is a pair of famous six-game chess matches played between the IBM supercomputer Deep Blue and the Grandmaster Garry Kasparov. ... Garry Kimovich Kasparov (IPA: ; Russian: ) (born April 13, 1963, in Baku, Azerbaijan SSR; now Azerbaijan) is a Russian chess grandmaster, former World Chess Champion, writer and political activist. ... For other uses, see IBM (disambiguation) and Big Blue. ... Kasparov vs. ...

Pieces at the start of a game and a chess clock.
Pieces at the start of a game and a chess clock.

Contents

Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... This is a file from the Wikimedia Commons, a repository of free content hosted by the Wikimedia Foundation. ... This is a file from the Wikimedia Commons, a repository of free content hosted by the Wikimedia Foundation. ... A typical chess clock. ...

Rules

Chess pieces
Image:Chess kdt45.svg King Image:Chess klt45.svg
Image:Chess qdt45.svg Queen Image:Chess qlt45.svg
Image:Chess rdt45.svg Rook Image:Chess rlt45.svg
Image:Chess bdt45.svg Bishop Image:Chess blt45.svg
Image:Chess ndt45.svg Knight Image:Chess nlt45.svg
Image:Chess pdt45.svg Pawn Image:Chess plt45.svg
Main article: Rules of chess
For a simple demonstration of the gameplay, see sample chess game.

Chess is played on a square board of eight rows (called ranks and numbered from 1 to 8) and eight columns (called files and labeled from a to h) of squares. The colors of the sixty-four squares alternate and are referred to as light squares and dark squares. The pieces are divided into two matching sets, by convention called White and Black. Each player, referred to by the color of his pieces, begins the game with sixteen pieces: one king, one queen, two rooks, two bishops, two knights and eight pawns. The chessboard is placed with a light square at each player's right on the nearest rank, and the pieces are set out on the two ranks closest to each player, as shown in the diagram. Each queen stands on a square of its own color. Original Staunton chess pieces, left to right: pawn, rook, knight, bishop, queen, and king. ... Image File history File links Chess_kdt45. ... Staunton chess pieces, left to right: pawn, rook, knight, bishop, queen, and king. ... Image File history File links Chess_klt45. ... Image File history File links Chess_qdt45. ... Queen. ... Image File history File links Chess_qlt45. ... Image File history File links Chess_rdt45. ... A rook (♖ ♜,borrowed from Persian رخ rokh, Sanskrit roth, chariot) is a piece in the strategy board game of chess. ... Image File history File links Chess_rlt45. ... Image File history File links Chess_bdt45. ... A bishop (♗♝) is a piece in the board game of chess. ... Image File history File links Chess_blt45. ... Image File history File links Chess_ndt45. ... The knight moves in an L shape. ... Image File history File links Chess_nlt45. ... Image File history File links Chess_pdt45. ... This article uses algebraic notation to describe chess moves. ... Image File history File links Chess_plt45. ... Typical chess set and clock While the exact origins of chess are unclear, the modern rules of chess first took form in Italy during the 16th century. ... Chessboard Chessboard with Staunton chess pieces A chessboard is often painted or engraved on a chess table. ... This page explains commonly used terms in chess in alphabetical order. ... This page explains commonly used terms in chess in alphabetical order. ... Original Staunton chess pieces, left to right: pawn, rook, knight, bishop, queen, and king. ... Staunton chess pieces, left to right: pawn, rook, knight, bishop, queen, and king. ... Queen. ... A rook (♖ ♜,borrowed from Persian رخ rokh, Sanskrit roth, chariot) is a piece in the strategy board game of chess. ... A bishop (♗♝) is a piece in the board game of chess. ... The knight moves in an L shape. ... This article uses algebraic notation to describe chess moves. ... Queen. ...



The player who is chosen to be White makes the first move. The players then alternate moving one of their own pieces (with the exception of castling, when a rook and the king are moved simultaneously). Each type of piece has its own unique method of movement. Pieces are moved to either an unoccupied square, or one occupied by an opponent's piece. Except for captures en passant, an opponent's piece is captured and removed from play by moving a piece to the square that the enemy piece occupies. When a piece can be captured on the next move, it is said to be "threatened" or "under attack". Initial position of kings and rooks Black has castled kingside (O-O), and White has castled queenside (O-O-O) Castling is a special move in the game of chess involving the king and either of the original rooks of the same color. ... ġĠ ġ Εý ŚÝ ¼Ћ This article is about the chess move en passant. For other uses, see En passant (disambiguation). ...


When a player's king is under immediate threat of capture, it is said to be in check. A player is not permitted to make any move that would place the player's own king in check. If a player's king is in check, the player's next move must take it out of check. If this is impossible, the player has been checkmated and loses the game. In games such as chess, shogi, and xiangqi, a check is an immediate threat to capture the king (or general in xiangqi). ... For other uses, see Checkmate (disambiguation). ...


Chess games do not have to end in checkmate – either player may resign if the situation looks hopeless. Games also may end in a draw (tie). A draw can occur in several situations, including draw by agreement, stalemate, threefold repetition of a position, the fifty move rule, or a draw by impossibility of checkmate (usually because of insufficient material to checkmate). A resignation is the formal act of giving up ones office or position. ... In chess, a draw is one of the possible outcomes of a game, the others being a win for white and a win for black. ... A chess game can be drawn by both players agreeing to it, called a draw by (mutual) agreement. ... Stalemate is a situation in chess where the player whose turn it is to move has no legal moves but is not in check. ... In chess, the threefold repetition rule states that a player can claim a draw if the same position occurs three times, or will occur after their next move, with the same player to move, and with each player having the same set of legal moves each time, including the right... The fifty move rule in chess states that a player can claim a draw if no capture has been made and no pawn has been moved in the last fifty consecutive moves. ...


Chess can be played with a time control. This involves assigning each player a set amount of time to make moves. If a player's time runs out before the game is completed, he loses on time. The timing ranges from up to seven hours for long games to shorter rapid chess games usually lasting 30 minutes or one hour. Even shorter is blitz chess, with a time control of three to fifteen minutes per player and bullet chess, in which the allotment is under three minutes. A time control is imposed on the tournament play of almost all two-player board games to ensure that neither player delays the game or gains an unfair advantage by thinking for an unduly long time. ... Blitz chess (also known as speed chess or blitzkrieg chess) is a game of chess where each side is given very little time to make all of their moves. ... Blitz chess (also known as speed chess or blitzkrieg chess) is a game of chess where each side is given very little time to make all of their moves. ... Bullet chess, or alternately lightning chess, is a game of chess where each side has less than 3 minutes to complete all of their moves. ...


The international rules of chess are described in more detail in the FIDE Handbook, section Laws of Chess.[1] The Fédération Internationale des Échecs or World Chess Federation is an international organization that connects the various national chess federations around the world. ...


History

Predecessors

Main article: Origins of chess
Iranian chess set, glazed fritware, 12th century. New York Metropolitan Museum of Art.
Iranian chess set, glazed fritware, 12th century. New York Metropolitan Museum of Art.

The invention of Chess has been attributed to the Indians both by the Persian people and by the Arabs who later conquered Persia.[2] Abu al-Hasan 'Alī al-Mas'ūdī, an Arab historian, provided scholarly details of the game as it was played in India and elsewhere.[2] He details the use of chess as a tool for warfare strategy, mathematical calculations, gambling and even its vague association with astronomy.[2] Mas'ūdī notes that Ivory in India was chiefly used for the production of chess and backgammon pieces used by the Indians, and asserts that the game was introduced from India along with the book Kelileh va Demneh during the reign of emperor Nushirwan.[2] Krishna and Radha are shown playing chaturanga on an 8x8 Ashtāpada. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Shatranj. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Shatranj. ... Ä°znik pottery, an example of fritware Fritware is a type of pottery where frit is added to clay in order to reduce its fusion temperature. ... There is also the Museum of Modern Art (MoMA), located in Manhattan. ... This article is about the Persian people, an ethnic group found mainly in Iran. ... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... Abu al-Hasan Ali ibn al-Husayn íbn Ali al-Masudi (transl: ) (born c. ... The historiography of early Islam is the study of how various historians have treated the events of the first two centuries of Islamic history. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Backgammon is a board game for two players in which pieces are moved according to the roll of dice. ...


The Persian poet Firdausi also points to India regarding the invention of Chess, which he credits to King Gav, an Indian king, who re-enacts the past battles on the chessboard.[2] فردوسی Ferdowsi Ferdowsi Ferdowsi Tousi (فردوسی طوسی in Persian) (more commonly transliterated Firdausi) (935–1020) is considered to be one of the greatest Persian poets to have ever lived. ...


It is also thought that the game originated in India because the Persian word for chess, shatranj, is derived from the Sanskrit chaturanga, which translates as "four divisions of the military", infantry, cavalry, elephants and chariots, represented respectively by pawn, knight, bishop and rook. Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... Chaturanga. ...


As a strategy board game played in China, chess is believed to have been derived from the Indian Chaturanga.[3] The object of the Chinese variation is similar to Chaturanga, i.e. to capture the opponent's king, sometimes known as general.[3]

Knights Templar playing chess, Libro de los juegos, 1283.
Knights Templar playing chess, Libro de los juegos, 1283.

The first reference to chess in literature appears in Persia and dates around the 5th century AD[4] Karnamag-i Artaxshir-i Papakan. The earliest unambiguous reference in India appears to date from about 625 AD. The earliest documented chess pieces also date to the 7th century. By about 800 the game reached China and was known, with modifications, as Xiangqi. Shatranj was taken up by the Muslim world after the Islamic conquest of Persia, with the pieces largely retaining their Persian names. In Spanish "shatranj" was rendered as ajedrez, in Portuguese as xadrez, in Turkish as satranc and in Greek as zatrikion, but in the rest of Europe it was replaced by versions of the Persian shāh ("king"). Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 473 pixelsFull resolution (1576 × 932 pixel, file size: 569 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Faithful reproductions of two-dimensional original works cannot attract copyright in the U.S. according to the rule in Bridgeman Art Library v. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 473 pixelsFull resolution (1576 × 932 pixel, file size: 569 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Faithful reproductions of two-dimensional original works cannot attract copyright in the U.S. according to the rule in Bridgeman Art Library v. ... For other uses, see Knights Templar (disambiguation). ... The Libro de los Juegos, (Book of games), or Libro de ajedrez, dados y tablas, (Book of chess, dice and tables) was commissioned by Alfonso X, king of León and Castile, during the 13th century between 1251 and 1283 AD. It consists of 98 pages, with 150 color illustrations. ... One of the most common ways for chess historians to trace when the board game chess entered a country is to look at the literature of that country. ... For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... The Kārnāmag-Ä« ArdaxÅ¡Ä«r-Ä« Pābagān or Book of the Deeds of Ardashir, Son of Babag, is a mythological Middle Persian tale written sometime during the Sassanid period (226-651). ... Chinese chess redirects here. ... Nations with a Muslim majority appear in green, while nations that are approximately 50% Muslim appear yellow. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Islamic conquest of Afghanistan. ...


The game reached Western Europe and Russia by at least three routes, the earliest being in the 9th century. By the year 1000 it had spread throughout Europe.[5] Introduced into the Iberian Peninsula by the Moors in the 10th century, it was described in a famous 13th century manuscript covering shatranj, backgammon, and dice named the Libro de los juegos.[6] The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe, and includes modern day Spain, Portugal, Andorra and Gibraltar. ... For other uses, see moor. ... Two standard six-sided pipped dice with rounded corners. ... The Libro de los Juegos, (Book of games), or Libro de ajedrez, dados y tablas, (Book of chess, dice and tables) was commissioned by Alfonso X, king of León and Castile, during the 13th century between 1251 and 1283 AD. It consists of 98 pages, with 150 color illustrations. ...

Origins of the modern game (1450–1850)

The pieces in shatranj had limited movement; the elephant or aufin (the predecessor of the modern bishop) could only move by jumping two spaces diagonally, the counselor or fers (the predecessor of the modern queen) could move only one space diagonally, pawns could not advance two spaces on their first move, and there was no castling. Also, pawns could only promote to counselor, which was the weakest piece (after the pawn), due to its limited range.[7] Shatranj is an old form of chess, which has been popular in Persia and the Middle East for almost 1000 years[1]. The modern chess has gradually developed from this game. ...

Original Staunton chess pieces by Nathaniel Cook from 1849, left to right: pawn, rook, knight, bishop, queen, and king.
Original Staunton chess pieces by Nathaniel Cook from 1849, left to right: pawn, rook, knight, bishop, queen, and king.

Around 1200, rules started to be modified in southern Europe, and around 1475, several major changes rendered the game essentially as it is known today.[8] These modern rules for the basic moves had been adopted in Italy[9] (or in Spain according to other sources[10]): pawns gained the option of advancing two squares on their first move and the en passant capture therewith, while bishops and queens acquired their modern abilities. This made the queen the most powerful piece; consequently modern chess was referred to as "Queen's Chess" or "Mad Queen Chess".[11] These new rules quickly spread throughout western Europe, with the exception of the rules about stalemate, which varied from place to place and were finalized in the early 19th century.[12] Image File history File links JaquesCookStaunton. ... Image File history File links JaquesCookStaunton. ... Howard Staunton Howard Staunton (April 1810–June 22, 1874) was an English chess master and unofficial World Chess Champion. ... Nathaniel Cook was the designer of a set of chess figures, which is now the standard set. ... ġĠ ġ Εý ŚÝ ¼Ћ This article is about the chess move en passant. For other uses, see En passant (disambiguation). ...


This was also the time when chess started to develop a corpus of theory. The oldest preserved printed chess book, Repetición de Amores y Arte de Ajedrez (Repetition of Love and the Art of Playing Chess) by Spanish churchman Luis Ramirez de Lucena was published in Salamanca in 1497.[13] Lucena and later masters of the 16th and 17th century like Portuguese Pedro Damiano, Italians Giovanni Leonardo Di Bona, Giulio Cesare Polerio and Gioachino Greco or Spanish bishop Ruy López de Segura developed elements of openings, such as the Italian Game, King's Gambit and Ruy Lopez, and started to analyze simple endgames. One of the chess problems from his book Luis Ramirez de Lucena (c. ... Salamanca (population 160,000) is a city in western Spain, the capital of the province of Salamanca, which belongs to the autonomous community (region) of Castile-Leon (Castilla y León). ... Pedro Damiano was a Portuguese chess player who lived from 1480-1544. ... Giovanni Leonardo di Bona or Giovanni Leonardo da Cutri (both given names can be seen also in the reversed order Leonardo Giovanni), known as Il Puttino ( ) (1542 - 1587) was an early Italian chess master. ... Giulio Cesare Polerio (born 1548, Lanciano - died 1612, Rome) an Italian chess player. ... Gioacchino Greco (1600–c. ... Ruy López de Segura (born 1530 in Zafra near Badajoz, died 1580) was a Spanish priest and later bishop in Segura whose book Libro de la invención liberal y arte del juego del Axedrez was one of the first fundamental chess books in Europe, only after Pedro Damiano... You may be looking for: Chess opening Al-Fatiha, The Opening, first chapter of the Quran This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The Italian Game is a chess opening, or more accurately a family of chess openings, characterized by the moves 1. ... Moves 1. ... Moves 1. ... EndGame is the name of a 1997 story arc of the Sonic the Hedgehog comic book published by published by Archie Comics. ...

François-André Danican Philidor, 18th century French chess Master
François-André Danican Philidor, 18th century French chess Master

In the 18th century the center of European chess life moved from the Southern European countries to France. The two most important French masters were François-André Danican Philidor, a musician by profession, who discovered the importance of pawns for chess strategy, and later Louis-Charles Mahé de La Bourdonnais who won a famous series of matches with the strongest British master of the time, Alexander McDonnell from Ireland, in 1834.[14] Centers of chess life in this period were coffee houses in big European cities like Café de la Régence in Paris[15] and Simpson's Divan in London.[16] Image File history File links André_Philidor. ... Image File history File links André_Philidor. ... portrait from L’analyze des échecs. ... portrait from L’analyze des échecs. ... Louis-Charles Mahé de La Bourdonnais (1795 - 1840) was a French chess master, the strongest player in the early 19th century. ... Alexander McDonnell (1798-1835) was an Irish chess master, who contested a series of six matches with the world’s leading player in the summer of 1834. ... A Street Cafe, Jerusalem, Henry Fenn (1838- ): steel engraving in Picturesque Palestine, ca 1875 A coffeehouse, coffee shop, or caf shares some of the characteristics of a bar, and some of the characteristics of a restaurant. ... Café de la Régence in 19th century Café de la Régence in Paris was an important European centre of chess in 18th and 19th centuries. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... Simpsons-in-the-Strand (full title Simpsons-in-the-Strand, Grand Divan Tavern) is a restaurant situated on The Strand in London that played an important role in the development of chess in the 19th century. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ...


As the 19th century progressed, chess organization developed quickly. Many chess clubs, chess books and chess journals appeared. There were correspondence matches between cities; for example the London Chess Club played against the Edinburgh Chess Club in 1824.[17] Chess problems became a regular part of 19th century newspapers; Bernhard Horwitz, Josef Kling and Samuel Loyd composed some of the most influential problems. In 1843, the first edition of Handbuch des Schachspiels (Handbook of Chess) was published; written by German chess masters Paul Rudolf von Bilguer and Tassilo von Heydebrand und der Lasa, it was the first comprehensive manual of chess theory. Chess clubs are clubs with the intent of getting together and playing chess with others. ... For other uses, see Edinburgh (disambiguation). ... Excelsior by Sam Loyd. ... Bernhard Horwitz (1808-1885) was a German English chess master. ... Josef Kling (March 19, 1811 – December 1, 1876) was a German chess master and chess composer. ... Samuel Loyd (January 31, 1841 - April 10, 1911) was an American puzzle author and recreational mathematician. ... Handbuch des Schachspiels (Handbook of Chess, often simply called the Handbuch) is a chess book, first published in 1843 by Tassilo von Heydebrand und der Lasa. ... Paul Rudolf von Bilguer (the middle name is sometimes spelled also Rudolph, September 21, 1815–September 16, 1840) was a German chess master and chess theoretician of the nineteenth century. ... Tassilo, Baron von Heydebrand und der Lasa (known in English as Baron von der Lasa) was an important German chessmaster and theoretician of the nineteenth century, a member of the Berlin Chess Club and a founder of the Berlin Chess School. ...

Birth of a game (1850–1945)

The "Immortal Game", Anderssen-Kieseritzky, 1851

The first modern chess tournament was held in London in 1851 and was won, surprisingly, by German Adolf Anderssen, relatively unknown at the time. Anderssen was hailed as the leading chess master and his brilliant, energetic—but from today's viewpoint strategically shallow—attacking style became typical for the time.[18] Sparkling games like Anderssen's Immortal game or Morphy's Opera game—both short casual games with many sacrifices—were regarded as the highest possible summit of the chess art.[19] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... For other uses, see Immortal game (disambiguation). ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Adolf Anderssen Karl Ernst Adolf Anderssen (July 6, 1818 - March 13, 1879) was a famous German chess master, one of the most renowned of the classic masters of 19th century chess. ... For other uses, see Immortal game (disambiguation). ... Paul Charles Morphy (June 22, 1837 - July 10, 1884), The Pride and Sorrow of Chess, was an American chess player. ... The Opera Game was a famous chess game played in 1858 between the American chess master Paul Morphy and two strong amateurs, the German noble Karl, Duke of Brunswick and the French aristocrat Count Isouard, who consulted, playing together as partners against Morphy. ...


Deeper insight into the nature of chess battle came with two younger players. American Paul Morphy, an extraordinary chess prodigy, won against all important competitors, including Anderssen, during his short chess career between 1857 and 1863. Morphy's success stemmed from a combination of brilliant attacks and sound strategy; he intuitively knew how to prepare attacks.[20] This scheme was later reinvented and described by another strong master and theoretician, Prague-born Wilhelm Steinitz.[21] Paul Charles Morphy (June 22, 1837 - July 10, 1884), The Pride and Sorrow of Chess, was an American chess player. ... Chess prodigies are children who play chess so well that they are able to beat Masters and even Grandmasters, often at a very young age. ... For other uses, see Prague (disambiguation). ... Wilhelm (later William) Steinitz (May 17, 1836, Prague–August 12, 1900, New York) was a Jewish-Austrian-American chess player and the first official world chess champion. ...

Wilhelm Steinitz, the first World Chess Champion
Wilhelm Steinitz, the first World Chess Champion

Besides his theoretical successes, Steinitz founded another important tradition: his triumph over the leading German master Johannes Zukertort in 1886 is regarded as the first official World Chess Championship, and Steinitz the first champion. He lost his crown in 1894 to a much younger player, German mathematician Emanuel Lasker, who maintained this title for 27 years, the longest tenure of all World Champions.[22] Image File history File links Wilhelm_Steinitz2. ... Image File history File links Wilhelm_Steinitz2. ... Wilhelm (later William) Steinitz (May 17, 1836, Prague–August 12, 1900, New York) was a Jewish-Austrian-American chess player and the first official world chess champion. ... Zukertort, early 1880s Johannes Hermann Zukertort (7 September 1842 Lublin – 20 June 1888 London) was a leading Polish-Jewish chess master. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Emanuel Lasker (December 24, 1868 – January 11, 1941) was a German World Chess Champion, mathematician, and philosopher born at Berlinchen in Brandenburg (now Barlinek in Poland). ...


It took a prodigy from Cuba, José Raúl Capablanca (World champion 1921—1927), who loved simple positions and endgames, to end the German-speaking dominance in chess; he was undefeated in tournament play for eight years until 1924. His successor was Russian-French Alexander Alekhine, a strong attacking player, who died as the World champion in 1946, having briefly lost the title to Dutch player Max Euwe in 1935, before regaining it two years later.[23] José Raúl Capablanca y Graupera (November 19, 1888 – March 8, 1942) was a Cuban world-class chess player in the early to mid-twentieth century. ... Alexander Alexandrovich Alekhine (sometimes spelled Aljechin or Alechin) (IPA: ; other members of his family pronounce it ; Russian: ; French: Alexandre Alekhine) (October 31 or November 1, 1892 – March 24, 1946) was a Russian-born naturalized French chess grandmaster (officially naturalized in 1927 only three days before the World Champion title), and... Machgielis (Max) Euwe (last name is pronounced /ø:wÉ™/) (May 20, 1901 – November 26, 1981) was a Dutch chess Grandmaster and Mathematician. ...


Between the two world wars, chess was revolutionized by the new theoretical school of so-called hypermodernists like Aron Nimzowitsch and Richard Réti. They denied the simple principles of the established positional school of Steinitz and Tarrasch; hypermodernists advocated controlling the center of the board with distant pieces rather than with pawns, inviting opponents to occupy the center with pawns which become objects of attack. The Queens Indian Defence is a hypermodern opening Hypermodernism is a school of chess thought which advocates controlling the centre of the board with distant pieces rather than with pawns, thus inviting the opponent to occupy the centre with pawns which can then become objects of attack. ... Aron Nimzowitsch (also Nimzovich or Niemzowitsch) (November 7, 1886, Riga – March 16, 1935, Denmark) was a chess player of grandmaster strength and a very influential chess writer. ... Richard Réti (1889 – 1929) was a Czechoslovakian chess player, although he was born in what was then Hungary. ... Siegbert Tarrasch Siegbert Tarrasch (March 5, 1862 – February 17, 1934) was one of the strongest chess players of the late 19th century and early 20th century. ...


Since the end of 19th century, the number of annually held master tournaments and matches quickly grew. In 1914, the title of chess grandmaster was first formally conferred by Russian Tsar Nicholas II, who awarded it to five finalists of a tournament in Saint Petersburg (Lasker, Capablanca, Alekhine, Tarrasch and Marshall). This tradition was later continued by the Fédération Internationale des Échecs or World Chess Federation (FIDE), founded in 1924 in Paris. In 1927, a World Champion title for women was established; the first to hold it was Czech-English master Vera Menchik.[24] The title Grandmaster is awarded to world-class chess masters by the world chess organization FIDE. Apart from World Champion, Grandmaster is the highest title a chess player can attain. ... Nicholas II can refer to: Pope Nicholas II Tsar Nicholas II of Russia This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and... This article is about the early 20th century chess champion. ... The Fédération Internationale des Échecs or World Chess Federation is an international organization that connects the various national chess federations around the world. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... This article is about the English as an ethnic group and nation. ... Vera Menchik Vera Menchik (Czech: VÄ›ra Menčíková, February 16, 1906, Moscow – June 26, 1944, Kent, England) was a British-Czech female chess player and the first Womens World Champion in chess. ...

Post-war era (1945 and later)

World Champions José Raúl Capablanca (left) and Emanuel Lasker in 1925
World Champions José Raúl Capablanca (left) and Emanuel Lasker in 1925

After the death of Alekhine, a new World Champion was sought in a tournament of elite players ruled by FIDE, who have, since then, controlled the title. The winner of the 1948 tournament, Russian Mikhail Botvinnik, started an era of Soviet dominance in the chess world. Until the end of the Soviet Union, there was only one non-Soviet champion, American Bobby Fischer (champion 1972–1975).[25] Image File history File links Capablanca-Lasker_1925. ... Image File history File links Capablanca-Lasker_1925. ... José Raúl Capablanca y Graupera (November 19, 1888 – March 8, 1942) was a Cuban world-class chess player in the early to mid-twentieth century. ... Emanuel Lasker (December 24, 1868 – January 11, 1941) was a German World Chess Champion, mathematician, and philosopher born at Berlinchen in Brandenburg (now Barlinek in Poland). ... Mikhail Moiseyevich Botvinnik (IPA: ; Russian: ) (August 17 [O.S. August 4] 1911 - May 5, 1995) was a Russian International Grandmaster and long-time World Champion of chess. ... Soviet redirects here. ... Robert James Bobby Fischer (born March 9, 1943) is a United States-born chess Grandmaster who in 1972 became the only US-born chessplayer to become the official World Chess Champion. ...


In the previous informal system, the World Champion decided which challenger he would play for the title and the challenger was forced to seek sponsors for the match. FIDE set up a new system of qualifying tournaments and matches. The world's strongest players were seeded into "Interzonal tournaments", where they were joined by players who had qualified from "Zonal tournaments". The leading finishers in these Interzonals would go on the "Candidates" stage, which was initially a tournament, later a series of knock-out matches. The winner of the Candidates would then play the reigning champion for the title. A champion defeated in a match had a right to play a rematch a year later. This system worked on a three-year cycle. Interzonal chess tournaments were tournaments organized by FIDE, the World Chess Federation. ... The contents of this page have been moved to http://en. ...


Botvinnik participated in championship matches over a period of fifteen years. He won the world championship tournament in 1948 and retained the title in tied matches in 1951 and 1954. In 1957, he lost to Vasily Smyslov, but regained the title in a rematch in 1958. In 1960, he lost the title to the Latvian prodigy Mikhail Tal, an accomplished tactician and attacking player. Botvinnik again regained the title in a rematch in 1961. Vasily Vasiliyevich Smyslov (Russian: ) (born March 24, 1921, in Moscow) is a Russian chess grandmaster, and was World Chess Champion from 1957 to 1958. ... Mikhail Tal (Latvian: ; Russian: , Mikhail Nekhemievich Tal, IPA: , sometimes transliterated Mihail Tal) (November 9, 1936–June 28, 1992) was a Soviet-Latvian chess player, a Grandmaster, and the eighth World Chess Champion. ...


Following the 1961 event, FIDE abolished the automatic right of a deposed champion to a rematch, and the next champion, Armenian Tigran Petrosian, a genius of defense and strong positional player, was able to hold the title for two cycles, 1963–1969. His successor, Boris Spassky from Russia (1969–1972), was a player able to win in both positional and sharp tactical style.[26] Tigran Petrosian (Armenian: ) (June 17, 1929 – August 13, 1984) was a former World Chess Champion. ... Boris Spassky Boris Vasilievich Spassky (also Spasskij) (Russian: ) (born January 30, 1937) is a Russian chess player and former world champion. ...

Current World Champion Viswanathan Anand
Current World Champion Viswanathan Anand

The next championship, the so-called Match of the Century, saw the first non-Soviet finalist since before World War II, American Bobby Fischer, who defeated his Candidates opponents by unheard-of margins and clearly won the world championship match. In 1975, however, Fischer refused to defend his title against Soviet Anatoly Karpov when FIDE refused to meet his demands, and Karpov obtained the title by default. Karpov defended his title twice against Viktor Korchnoi and dominated the 1970s and early 1980s with a string of tournament successes.[27] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1495x1317, 242 KB) en: Viswanathan Anand – Indian () grandmaster. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1495x1317, 242 KB) en: Viswanathan Anand – Indian () grandmaster. ... This article uses algebraic notation to describe chess moves. ... The World Chess Championship match between challenger Bobby Fischer and defending champion Boris Spassky in Reykjavík, 1972, has been dubbed the Match of the Century. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Robert James Bobby Fischer (born March 9, 1943) is a United States-born chess Grandmaster who in 1972 became the only US-born chessplayer to become the official World Chess Champion. ... Anatoly Yevgenyevich Karpov (Russian: ) (born May 23, 1951) is a Russian chess grandmaster and former World Champion. ... Viktor Lvovich Korchnoi (also Korchnoy, Kortchnoy, Kortschnoi, etc. ...


Karpov's reign finally ended in 1985 at the hands of another Russian player, Garry Kasparov. Kasparov and Karpov contested five world title matches between 1984 and 1990: Kasparov narrowly retained his title each time.[28] Kasparov would proceed to dominate the chess world until his retirement in 2005, setting records for the highest FIDE rating ever and the most #1 rankings on the FIDE rating list.[29][30] Garry Kimovich Kasparov (IPA: ; Russian: ) (born April 13, 1963, in Baku, Azerbaijan SSR; now Azerbaijan) is a Russian chess grandmaster, former World Chess Champion, writer and political activist. ... The ELO rating system is a method for calculating the relative skill levels of players in two-player games such as chess and Go. ...


In 1993, Garry Kasparov and Nigel Short broke with FIDE to organize their own match for the title and formed a competing Professional Chess Association (PCA). From then until 2006, there were two simultaneous World Champions and World Championships: the PCA or Classical champion extending the Steinitzian tradition in which the current champion plays a challenger in match format (a series of many games); the other following FIDE's new format of many players competing in a tournament to determine the champion. Kasparov lost his Classical title in 2000 to Vladimir Kramnik of Russia. Nigel Short MBE (born June 1, 1965 in Leigh, Lancashire) is widely regarded as the strongest British chess player of the 20th century. ... The Professional Chess Association (PCA), which existed between 1993 and 1996, was a rival organisation to FIDE, the international chess organization. ... Vladimir Borisovich Kramnik (Russian: ) (born June 25, 1975) is a Russian chess grandmaster and the current World Chess Champion. ...


The FIDE World Chess Championship 2006 reunified the titles, when Kramnik beat the FIDE World Champion Veselin Topalov and became the undisputed World Chess Champion.[31] In September 2007, Viswanathan Anand became the next champion by winning a championship tournament of eight players in Mexico City. The FIDE World Chess Championship 2006 was a chess match between Classical World Chess Champion Vladimir Kramnik, and FIDE World Chess Champion Veselin Topalov. ... Veselin Topalov (IPA: ; Bulgarian: ) (born 15 March 1975) is a Bulgarian chess grandmaster and former FIDE world champion. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... This article uses algebraic notation to describe chess moves. ... Nickname: Motto: Capital en movimiento Location of Mexico City in south central Mexico Coordinates: , Country Federal entity Boroughs The 16 delegaciones Founded c. ...

Place in culture

Noble chess players, Germany, c. 1320
Noble chess players, Germany, c. 1320

Pre-modern

In the Middle Ages and during the Renaissance, chess was a part of noble culture;[32] it was used to teach war strategy and was dubbed the "King's Game". Gentlemen are "to be meanly seene in the play at Chestes," says the overview at the beginning of Baldassare Castiglione's The Book of the Courtier (1528, English 1561 by Sir Thomas Hoby), but chess should not be a gentleman's main passion. Castiglione explains it further: Honoré Daumier, Chess players Chess plays central role in the following creations of arts and literature: A Game of Chess is the name of one of the sections in T. S. Eliots The Waste Land Through the Looking-Glass by Lewis Carroll Knights of the South Bronx Searching for... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2024x2960, 654 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Chess ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2024x2960, 654 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Chess ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... This article is about the European Renaissance of the 14th-17th centuries. ... Nobility is a traditional hereditary status (see hereditary titles) that exists today in many countries (mainly present or former monarchies). ... Chess or the Kings game is a book on chess published in 1616. ... i love orange pekoe tea!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! ... The Book of the Courtier (Italian Il Cortegiano) was written by Baldassare Castiglione in 1528. ...

And what say you to the game at chestes?

It is truely an honest kynde of enterteynmente and wittie, quoth Syr Friderick. But me think it hath a fault, whiche is, that a man may be to couning at it, for who ever will be excellent in the playe of chestes, I beleave he must beestowe much tyme about it, and applie it with so much study, that a man may assoone learne some noble scyence, or compase any other matter of importaunce, and yet in the ende in beestowing all that laboure, he knoweth no more but a game. Therfore in this I beleave there happeneth a very rare thing, namely, that the meane is more commendable, then the excellency.[33]

Beautiful chess sets used by the aristocracy of the time are mostly lost, but some of the surviving examples, like the 12th century Lewis chessmen, are of high artistic quality. The Lewis chessmen top: king, queen, bishop middle: knight, rook, pawn bottom: closeup of queen The Lewis chessmen belong to one of the few complete medieval chess sets that have survived until today. ...


At the same time, chess was often used as a basis of sermons on morality. An example is Liber de moribus hominum et officiis nobilium sive super ludo scacchorum ('Book of the customs of men and the duties of nobles or the Book of Chess'), written by an Italian Dominican monk Jacobus de Cessolis circa 1300. The popular work was translated into many other languages (first printed edition at Utrecht in 1473) and was the basis for William Caxton's The Game and Playe of the Chesse (1474), one of the first books printed in English.[34] Different chess pieces were used as metaphors for different classes of people, and human duties were derived from the rules of the game or from visual properties of the chess pieces.[35] Morality (from the Latin manner, character, proper behaviour) has three principal meanings. ... Jacobus de Cessolis (Jacopo da Cessole) (born ca. ... “Caxton” redirects here. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...

Two kings and two queens from the Lewis chessmen at the British Museum.
Two kings and two queens from the Lewis chessmen at the British Museum.

The knyght ought to be made alle armed upon an hors in suche wyse that he haue an helme on his heed and a spere in his ryght hande/ and coueryd wyth his sheld/ a swerde and a mace on his lyft syde/ Cladd wyth an hawberk and plates to fore his breste/ legge harnoys on his legges/ Spores on his heelis on his handes his gauntelettes/ his hors well broken and taught and apte to bataylle and couerid with his armes/ whan the knyghtes ben maad they ben bayned or bathed/ that is the signe that they shold lede a newe lyf and newe maners/ also they wake alle the nyght in prayers and orysons vnto god that he wylle gyue hem grace that they may gete that thynge that they may not gete by nature/ The kynge or prynce gyrdeth a boute them a swerde in signe/ that they shold abyde and kepe hym of whom they take theyr dispenses and dignyte.[36] Two kings and two queens from the Uig, or Lewis chessmen at the British Museum. ... Two kings and two queens from the Uig, or Lewis chessmen at the British Museum. ... The Lewis chessmen top: king, queen, bishop middle: knight, rook, pawn bottom: closeup of queen The Lewis chessmen belong to one of the few complete medieval chess sets that have survived until today. ... The British Museum in London, England is one of the worlds greatest museums of human history and culture. ...

On the other side, political and religious authorities in many places forbade chess as frivolous or as a sort of gambling. Caravaggio, The Cardsharps, c. ...


Known in the circles of clerics, students and merchants, chess entered into the popular culture of Middle Ages. An example is the 209th song of Carmina Burana from the 13th century, which starts with the names of chess pieces, Roch, pedites, regina...[37] Carmina Burana (IPA: ; note that the stress is on the first syllable of Carmina, not the second) also known as the Burana Codex is a manuscript collection, now in the Bayerische Staatsbibliothek in Munich, of more than 1000 poems and songs written in the early 13th century. ...

Honoré Daumier, The Chess Players
Honoré Daumier, The Chess Players

Modern

To the Age of Enlightenment, chess appeared mainly for self-improvement. Benjamin Franklin, in his article "The Morals of Chess" (1750), wrote: Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2024x1564, 273 KB) Description: Title: de: Schachspieler Technique: de: Öl auf Leinwand Dimensions: de: 24 × 32 cm Country of origin: de: Frankreich Current location (city): de: Paris Current location (gallery): de: Musée du Petit-Palais Other notes: Source: The Yorck... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2024x1564, 273 KB) Description: Title: de: Schachspieler Technique: de: Öl auf Leinwand Dimensions: de: 24 × 32 cm Country of origin: de: Frankreich Current location (city): de: Paris Current location (gallery): de: Musée du Petit-Palais Other notes: Source: The Yorck... Honoré Daumier (portrait by Nadar). ... The Enlightenment (French: ; German: ; Italian: ; Portuguese: ) was an eighteenth century movement in European and American philosophy — some classifications also include 17th century philosophy (usually called the Age of Reason). ... Benjamin Franklin (January 17 [O.S. January 6] 1706 – April 17, 1790) was one of the most well known Founding Fathers of the United States. ...

"The Game of Chess is not merely an idle amusement; several very valuable qualities of the mind, useful in the course of human life, are to be acquired and strengthened by it, so as to become habits ready on all occasions; for life is a kind of Chess, in which we have often points to gain, and competitors or adversaries to contend with, and in which there is a vast variety of good and ill events, that are, in some degree, the effect of prudence, or the want of it. By playing at Chess then, we may learn:

1st, Foresight, which looks a little into futurity, and considers the consequences that may attend an action ...

2nd, Circumspection, which surveys the whole Chess-board, or scene of action: - the relation of the several Pieces, and their situations; ...

3rd, Caution, not to make our moves too hastily...."[38]

Through the Looking-Glass, Red King snoring, illustration by John Tenniel
Through the Looking-Glass, Red King snoring, illustration by John Tenniel

With these or similar hopes, chess is taught to children in schools around the world today and used in armies to train minds of cadets and officers.[39] Image File history File links Red_King_sleeping. ... Image File history File links Red_King_sleeping. ... Through the Looking-Glass, and What Alice Found There (1871) is a work of childrens literature by Lewis Carroll (Charles Lutwidge Dodgson), generally categorized as literary nonsense. ... 1889 Self-portrait Sir John Tenniel (February 28, 1820 – February 25, 1914) was an English illustrator. ...


Moreover, chess is often depicted in the arts, used for example as a metaphor of a struggle of two, as a symbol of cold logic, or - in the spirit of medieval moralists - as an allegory of society's life. Significant works, where chess plays a key role, range from Thomas Middleton's A Game at Chess over Through the Looking-Glass by Lewis Carroll to The Royal Game by Stefan Zweig or Vladimir Nabokov's The Defense. In Ingmar Bergman's 1957 movie The Seventh Seal, a knight plays chess with Death. The Arts is a broad subdivision of culture, comprised of many expressive disciplines. ... This article is about metaphor in literature and rhetoric. ... Allegory of Music by Filippino Lippi. ... A Game at Chess is a comic satirical play by Thomas Middleton, first staged in August 1624 by the Kings Men at the Globe Theatre, and notable for its political content. ... Through the Looking-Glass, and What Alice Found There (1871) is a work of childrens literature by Lewis Carroll (Charles Lutwidge Dodgson), generally categorized as literary nonsense. ... The Royal Game (Schachnovelle in the original German) is a novel by Austrian author Stefan Zweig first published in 1944, after the authors death. ... The Defense - also titled The Luzhin Defense, a novel written by Vladimir Nabokov, published in 1930. ...   (IPA: in Swedish; usually IPA: in English) (July 14, 1918 – July 30, 2007) was a Swedish film, stage, and opera director. ... The Seventh Seal (Swedish: Det sjunde inseglet) is an existential 1957 Swedish film directed by Ingmar Bergman about the journey of a medieval knight (Max von Sydow) across a plague-ridden landscape. ...


Chess is also present in the contemporary popular culture. For example, J. K. Rowling's Harry Potter plays "Wizard's Chess" while the characters of Star Trek prefer "Tri-Dimensional Chess" and the hero of Searching for Bobby Fischer struggles against adopting the aggressive and misanthropic views of a real chess Grandmaster. This article is about the Harry Potter series of novels. ... In the fictional Harry Potter series, many magical objects exist for the use of the characters. ... This article is about the entire Star Trek franchise. ... E D C B A Raumschach starting position The up-side-down knight is used to represent the unicorn. ... Searching for Bobby Fischer is an acclaimed film of 1993 based on the life of Joshua Waitzkin. ...

Notation for recording moves

Main article: Chess notation
Algebraic chess notation
Algebraic chess notation

Chess games and positions are recorded using a special notation, most often algebraic chess notation.[40] Abbreviated (or short) algebraic notation generally records moves in the format abbreviation of the piece moved - file where it moved - rank where it moved, e.g. Qg5 means "queen moves to the g-file and 5th rank (that is, to the square g5). If there are two pieces of the same type that can move to the same square, one more letter or number is added to indicate the file or rank from which the piece moved, e.g. Ngf3 means "knight from the g-file moves to the square f3". The letter P indicating a pawn is not used, so that e4 means "pawn moves to the square e4". Chess notation is the term for systems that record the moves made during a game of chess and several have been developed. ... Image File history File links SCD_algebraic_notation. ... Chessboard notation Algebraic chess notation is used to record and describe the moves in a game of chess. ...


If the piece makes a capture, "x" is inserted behind the abbreviation of the piece, e.g. Bxf3 means "bishop captures on f3". When a pawn makes a capture, the file from which the pawn departed is used in place of a piece initial. For example, exd5 (pawn on the e-file captures the piece on d5).

The "Scholar's mate"

If a pawn moves to its last rank, achieving promotion, the piece chosen is indicated after the move, for example e1Q or e1=Q. Castling is indicated by the special notations 0-0 for kingside castling and 0-0-0 for queenside. A move which places the opponent's king in check usually has the notation "+" added. Checkmate can be indicated by "#" (occasionally "++", although this is occasionally used for a double check instead). At the end of the game, "1-0" means "White won", "0-1" means "Black won" and "½-½" indicates a draw. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... An animation showing a Scholars Mate This article uses algebraic notation to describe chess moves. ... In chess, a double check is a check delivered by two pieces at the same time. ...


Chess moves can be annotated with punctuation marks and other symbols. For example ! indicates a good move, !! an excellent move, ? a mistake, ?? a blunder, !? an interesting move that may not be best or ?! a dubious move, but not easily refuted. When annotating chess-games, commentators frequently use question marks and exclamation points to denote a move as bad or good. ...


For example, one variant of a simple trap known as the Scholar's mate, animated in the picture to the right, can be recorded:
1. e4 e5
2. Qh5?! Nc6
3. Bc4 Nf6??
4. Qxf7# 1-0 An animation showing a Scholars Mate This article uses algebraic notation to describe chess moves. ...

Strategy and tactics

Chess strategy consists of setting and achieving long-term goals during the game — for example, where to place different pieces — while tactics concentrate on immediate maneuver. These two parts of chess thinking cannot be completely separated, because strategic goals are mostly achieved by the means of tactics, while the tactical opportunities are based on the previous strategy of play.


Because of different strategic and tactical patterns, a game of chess is usually divided into three distinct phases: Opening, usually the first 10 to 25 moves, when players develop their armies and set up the stage for the coming battle; middlegame, the developed phase of the game; and endgame, when most of the pieces are gone and kings start to take an active part in the struggle. A chess opening is the group of initial moves of a chess game (the opening moves). ... In chess, the middlegame refers to the portion of the game that happens immediately after the opening (usually the first move after the procession of moves that make up a standard opening) and blends somewhat with the endgame. ... EndGame is the name of a 1997 story arc of the Sonic the Hedgehog comic book published by published by Archie Comics. ...

Fundamentals of strategy

Main article: Chess strategy

Chess strategy is concerned with evaluation of chess positions and with setting up goals and long-term plans for the future play. During the evaluation, players must take into account the value of pieces on board, pawn structure, king safety, space, and control of key squares and groups of squares (for example, diagonals, open-files, and dark or light squares). This article seems not to be written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia entry. ... In chess, the pawn structure (sometimes known as the pawn skeleton) is the configuration of pawns on the chessboard. ...

An Example of Visualizing Pawn Structures

The most basic is to count the total value of pieces of both sides.[41] The point values used for this purpose are based on experience; usually pawns are considered worth one point, knights and bishops about three points each, rooks about five points (the value difference between a rook and a bishop being known as the exchange), and queens about nine points. In the endgame, the king is generally more powerful than a minor piece but less powerful than a rook, thus it is sometimes assigned a fighting value of four points. These basic values are then modified by other factors like position of the piece (for example, advanced pawns are usually more valuable than those on initial positions), coordination between pieces (for example, a pair of bishops usually coordinates better than the pair bishop + knight), or type of position (knights are generally better in closed positions with many pawns while bishops are more powerful in open positions). Image File history File links Chess_zhor_22. ... Image File history File links Chess_zver_22. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... 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Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links Chess_zver_22. ... Image File history File links Chess_zhor_22. ... Image File history File links Chess_zhor_22. ... Image File history File links Chess_zver_22. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... 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Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... 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Another important factor in the evaluation of chess positions is the pawn structure (sometimes known as the pawn skeleton), or the configuration of pawns on the chessboard.[42] Pawns being the least mobile of the chess pieces, the pawn structure is relatively static, and largely determines the strategic nature of the position. Weaknesses in the pawn structure, such as isolated, doubled or backward pawns and holes, once created, are usually permanent. Care must therefore be taken to avoid them unless they are compensated by another valuable asset (for example, by the possibility to develop an attack). In chess, an isolated pawn is a pawn for which there is no friendly pawn on an adjacent file. ... In chess, doubled pawns are two pawns of the same player residing on the same file. ... In chess, a backward pawn is a pawn that is behind the pawns of the same color on the adjacent files and that cannot easily be advanced. ... This page explains commonly used terms in chess in alphabetical order. ...

Fundamentals of tactics

Main article: Chess tactics
A tactical puzzle from Lucena's 1497 book
A tactical puzzle from Lucena's 1497 book

In chess, tactics in general concentrate on short-term actions — so short-term that they can be calculated in advance by a human player or by a computer. The possible depth of calculation depends on the player's ability or speed of the processor. In quiet positions with many possibilities on both sides, a deep calculation is not possible, while in "tactical" positions with a limited number of forced variants, it is possible to calculate very long sequences of moves. In chess, a tactic refers to a short sequence of moves which limits the opponents options and which results in tangible gain. ... Download high resolution version (773x1134, 103 KB)Tratado de amores e arte del axedrez (1497) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Download high resolution version (773x1134, 103 KB)Tratado de amores e arte del axedrez (1497) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Categories: Stub | 1465 births | 1530 deaths | Chess players ...


Simple one-move or two-move tactical actions — threats, exchanges of material, double attacks etc. — can be combined into more complicated variants, tactical maneuvers, often forced from one side or from both. Theoreticians described many elementary tactical methods and typical maneuvers, for example pins, forks, skewers, discovered attacks (especially discovered checks), zwischenzugs, deflections, decoys, sacrifices, underminings, overloadings, and interferences.[43] Here there is an absolute pin on the black knight because moving it would illegally expose the black king to check from the white bishop. ... The white knight is forking the black king and rook. ... In chess, a skewer (or thrust) is an attack upon two pieces in a line and is similar to a pin. ... In chess, a discovered attack is an attack revealed when one piece moves out of the way of another. ... In chess, zwischenzug (German for intermediate move) is a common tactic that occurs in almost every game. ... Honfi - Barczay, Kecskemet 1977. ... In the game of chess, a sacrifice is the deliberate giving up of a chess piece by a player, allowing or even forcing the opponent to capture it. ... Undermining (also known as Removal of the Guard) is a chess tactic in which a defensive piece is captured, leaving one of the opponents pieces undefended or underdefended. ... Overloading is a chess tactic in which a defensive piece is given an additional assignment which it cant complete without abandoning its original assignment. ... Interference is a chess tactic which seldom arises, and is therefore often overlooked. ...


A forced variant which is connected with a sacrifice and usually results in a tangible gain is named a combination.[44] Brilliant combinations — such as those in the Immortal game — are described as beautiful and are admired by chess lovers. Finding a combination is also a common type of chess puzzle aimed at development of players' skills. In chess, a combination is a relatively long sequence of moves, often initiated by a sacrifice, which leaves the opponent few options and results in tangible gain. ... For other uses, see Immortal game (disambiguation). ...

Opening

Main article: Chess opening

A chess opening is the group of initial moves of a game (the "opening moves"). Recognized sequences of opening moves are referred to as openings and have been given names such as the Ruy Lopez or Sicilian Defense. They are catalogued in reference works such as the Encyclopaedia of Chess Openings. A chess opening is the group of initial moves of a chess game (the opening moves). ... Moves 1. ... The Sicilian defence is a chess opening which begins with: 1. ... The Encyclopaedia of Chess Openings (ECO) is a classification system for the opening moves in a game of chess. ...


There are dozens of different openings, varying widely in character from quiet positional play (e.g. the Réti Opening) to very aggressive (e.g. the Latvian Gambit). In some opening lines, the exact sequence considered best for both sides has been worked out to 30–35 moves or more.[45] Professional players spend years studying openings, and continue doing so throughout their careers, as opening theory continues to evolve. The Réti Opening (also called the Zukertort Opening and the Kings Knight Opening) is a chess opening characterized by the opening move 1. ... This article uses algebraic notation to describe chess moves. ...


The fundamental strategic aims of most openings are similar:[46]

  • Development: To place (develop) the pieces (particularly bishops and knights) on useful squares where they will have an impact on the game.
  • Control of the center: Control of the central squares allows pieces to be moved to any part of the board relatively easily, and can also have a cramping effect on the opponent.
  • King safety: It is often enhanced by castling.
  • Pawn structure: Players strive to avoid the creation of pawn weaknesses such as isolated, doubled or backward pawns, and pawn islands.

Apart from these fundamentals, other strategic plans or tactical sequences may be employed in the opening. In chess, the pawn structure (sometimes known as the pawn skeleton) is the configuration of pawns on the chessboard. ...

Middlegame

Main article: Middlegame

The middlegame is the part of the game when most pieces have been developed. Because the opening theory has ended, players have to assess the position, to form plans based on the features of the positions, and at the same time to take into account the tactical possibilities in the position.[47] In chess, the middlegame refers to the portion of the game that happens immediately after the opening (usually the first move after the procession of moves that make up a standard opening) and blends somewhat with the endgame. ...


Typical plans or strategical themes — for example the minority attack, that is the attack of queenside pawns against an opponent who has more pawns on the queenside — are often appropriate just for some pawn structures, resulting from a specific group of openings. The study of openings should therefore be connected with the preparation of plans typical for resulting middlegames. This page explains commonly used terms in chess in alphabetical order. ... In chess, the pawn structure (sometimes known as the pawn skeleton) is the configuration of pawns on the chessboard. ...


Middlegame is also the phase in which most combinations occur. Middlegame combinations are often connected with the attack against the opponent's king; some typical patterns have their own names, for example the Boden's Mate or the Lasker—Bauer combination. In chess, a combination is a relatively long sequence of moves, often initiated by a sacrifice, which leaves the opponent few options and results in tangible gain. ... Bodens Mate is a checkmate pattern in chess. ... The chess game between Emanuel Lasker and Johann Hermann Bauer played in Amsterdam in 1889 is one of the most famous of all time on account of Laskers sacrifice of both bishops to blow away the pawn cover around his opponents king and win material. ...


Another important strategical question in the middlegame is whether and how to reduce material and transform into an endgame. For example, minor material advantages can generally be transformed into victory only in an endgame, and therefore the stronger side must choose an appropriate way to achieve an ending. Not every reduction of material is good for this purpose; for example, if one side keeps a light-squared bishop and the opponent has a dark-squared one, the transformation into a bishops and pawns ending is usually advantageous for the weaker side only, because an endgame with bishops on opposite colors is likely to be a draw, even with an advantage of one or two pawns. EndGame is the name of a 1997 story arc of the Sonic the Hedgehog comic book published by published by Archie Comics. ...

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An example of zugzwang: The side which is to make a move is in a disadvantage. Black on move must go 1. ... Kb7 and allow white to queen after 2. Kd7. White on move must allow a draw either after 1. Kc6 stalemate, or through insufficient material after losing his last pawn.

Endgame

Main article: Endgame

The endgame (or end game or ending) is the stage of the game when there are few pieces left on the board. There are three main strategic differences between earlier stages of the game and endgame:[48] Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... 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Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Zugzwang (German for compulsion to move, IPA: ) is a term used in combinatorial game theory and in other types of games (particularly in chess). ... Stalemate is a situation in chess where the player whose turn it is to move has no legal moves but is not in check. ... EndGame is the name of a 1997 story arc of the Sonic the Hedgehog comic book published by published by Archie Comics. ...

  • During the endgame, pawns become more important; endgames often revolve around attempting to promote a pawn by advancing it to the eighth rank.
  • The king, which has to be protected in the middlegame owing to the threat of checkmate, becomes a strong piece in the endgame and it is often advisable to bring it to the center of the board where it can protect its own pawns, attack the pawns of opposite color, and hinder movement of the opponent's king.
  • Zugzwang, a disadvantage because the player has to make a move, is often a factor in endgames and rarely in other stages of the game.

Endgames can be classified according to the type of pieces that remain on board. Basic checkmates are positions in which one side has only a king and the other side has one or two pieces and can checkmate the opposing king, with the pieces working together with their king. King and pawn endgames involve only kings and pawns on one or both sides and the task of the stronger side is to promote one of the pawns. Other more complicated endings are classified according to the pieces on board other than kings, e.g. "rook and pawn versus rook endgame". Zugzwang (German for compulsion to move, IPA: ) is a term used in combinatorial game theory and in other types of games (particularly in chess). ... For other uses, see Checkmate (disambiguation). ... EndGame is the name of a 1997 story arc of the Sonic the Hedgehog comic book published by published by Archie Comics. ... The chess endgame of a rook and pawn versus rook is of fundamental importance, and has been widely studied. ...

Chess composition

Main article: Chess problem
Richard Réti
Ostrauer Morgenzeitung
4 December 1921
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White to play and draw

One of the most famous chess studies ever composed. It seems impossible to catch the advanced black pawn, while the white pawn can be easily stopped by the black king. The idea of the solution is to advance to both pawns at the same time using specific properties of the board's geometry. 1. Kg7! h4 2. Kf6 Kb6 (or 2. ... h3 3. Ke7 and the white king can support its own pawn) 3. Ke5!! (and now the white king comes just in time to the white pawn, or catches the black one) 3. ... h3 4. Kd6 draw. Godfrey Heathcote Hampstead and Highgate Express, 1905-06 (First Prize) White to move and mate in two. ... Richard Réti (1889 – 1929) was a Czechoslovakian chess player, although he was born in what was then Hungary. ... Czech Republic Moravian-Silesian Ostrava 23  - Moravská Ostrava a Přívoz  - Hošťálkovice  - Hrabová  - Ostrava-Jih  - Krásné Pole  - Lhotka  - Mariánské Hory a Hulváky  - Martinov  - Michálkovice  - Nová BÄ›lá  - Nová Ves  - PetÅ™kovice  - Plesná  - Polanka nad Odrou  - Poruba  - Proskovice  - Pustkovec  - Radvanice a Bartovice  - Stará BÄ›lá  - Slezsk... is the 338th day of the year (339th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... 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Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ...

Chess composition is the art of creating chess problems (these problems themselves are sometimes also called chess compositions). A person who creates such problems is known as a chess composer.[49] Chess composer is a person who creates chess problems. ...


Most chess problems exhibit the following features:

  • The position is composed, that is, it has not been taken from an actual game, but has been invented for the specific purpose of providing a problem.
  • There is a specific stipulation, that is, a goal to be achieved; for example, to checkmate black within a specified number of moves.
  • There is a theme (or combination of themes) that the problem has been composed to illustrate: chess problems typically instantiate particular ideas. Many of these themes have their own names, often by persons who used them first, for example Novotny or Lacny theme.
  • The problem exhibits economy in its construction: no greater force is employed than that required to guarantee that the problem's intended solution is indeed a solution and that it is the problem's only solution.
  • The problem has aesthetic value. Problems are experienced not only as puzzles but as objects of beauty. This is closely related to the fact that problems are organized to exhibit clear ideas in as economical a manner as possible.

There are many types of chess problems. The two most important are: The Novotny (also often spelled as Nowotny, even in non-German sources) is a device found in chess problems. ... The Lacny or Lacny cycle is a chess problem theme named after Ľudovít Lačný, the first person to demonstrate the idea. ...

  • Directmates: white to move first and checkmate black within a specified number of moves against any defense. These are often referred to as "mate in n", where n is the number of moves within which mate must be delivered - for example "mate in three" (a three-mover).
  • Studies: orthodox problems in which the stipulation is that white to play must win or draw. Almost all studies are endgame positions.

Chess composition is a distinct branch of chess sport, and tournaments (or tourneys) exist for both the composition and solving of chess problems. Richard Réti Neueste Schachnachrichten, 1922 White to play and draw. ... EndGame is the name of a 1997 story arc of the Sonic the Hedgehog comic book published by published by Archie Comics. ...

Competitive play

Organization of competitions

Contemporary chess is an organized sport with structured international and national leagues, tournaments and congresses. Chess's international governing body is FIDE (Fédération Internationale des Échecs). Most countries have a national chess organization as well (such as the US Chess Federation and English Chess Federation), which in turn is a member of FIDE. FIDE is a member of the International Olympic Committee (IOC), but the game of chess has never been part of the Olympic Games; chess does have its own Olympiad, held every two years as a team event. An estimated 605 million people worldwide know how to play chess, and 7.5 million are members of national chess federations, which exist in 160 countries worldwide. This makes chess one of the most popular sports worldwide.[50] Look up Congress in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Fédération Internationale des Échecs or World Chess Federation is an international organization that connects the various national chess federations around the world. ... The United States Chess Federation (USCF) is a non-profit organization, the governing chess organization within the United States, and one of the federations of the FIDE. The USCF was founded in 1939 from the merger of two regional chess organizations, and grew gradually until 1972, when membership doubled to... The English Chess Federation (ECF) is the governing chess organization within England and is one of the federations of the FIDE. The ECF was founded in 1904 as the British Chess Federation and although Scotland, Wales, Ireland and the Channel Islands had their own federations for many years, it was... Stamp The International Olympic Committee (French: Comité International Olympique) is an organization based in Lausanne, Switzerland, created by Pierre de Coubertin and Demetrios Vikelas on June 23, 1894. ... The five Olympic rings were designed in 1913, adopted in 1914 and debuted at the Games at Antwerp, 1920. ... The Chess Olympiad is a chess event which has been officially organised by FIDE since 1927 and takes place in even years. ...


The current World Chess Champion is Viswanathan Anand of India,[51] the reigning Women's World Champion is Xu Yuhua from China. However, the world's highest rated female player, Judit Polgar, has never participated in the Women's World Chess Championship, instead preferring to compete with the leading men. This article uses algebraic notation to describe chess moves. ... Xu Yuhua Xu Yuhua (October 29, 1976) is a Chinese chess player. ... Judit Polgár (born July 23, 1976) is a Hungarian chess player. ... The Womens World Chess Championship is played to determine the womens world champion in chess. ...


Other competitions for individuals include the World Junior Chess Championship, the European Individual Chess Championship and the National Chess Championships. Invitation-only tournaments regularly attract the world's strongest players and these include Spain's Linares event, Monte Carlo's Melody Amber tournament, the Dortmund Sparkassen meeting, Sofia's M-tel Masters and Wijk aan Zee's Corus tournament. The World Junior Chess Championship is an under-20 event (players must have been under 20 years old on the 1st of January in the year of competition). ... View of the tournament hall from the Mens (Zegrze) 2005 event The European Individual Chess Championship is a chess tournament organized by the European Chess Union. ... A number of countries hold national championships in chess. ... The annual Linares chess tournament, usually played around the end of February, takes its name from the city of Linares in the Jaén province of Andalusia, Spain, in which it is held. ... The Melody Amber chess tournament, which uniquely combines blind chess and speed chess is an annual invitation-only event for some of the worlds best players. ... The Dortmund Sparkassen Chess Meeting is an elite chess tournament held every July in Dortmund, Germany. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion, because: no real content, ad? If you disagree with its speedy deletion, please explain why on its talk page or at Wikipedia:Speedy deletions. ... The Corus chess tournament takes place every year, usually in January, in a small town called Wijk aan Zee, part of the larger Beverwijkin the province of North Holland in the Netherlands. ...


Regular team chess events include the aforementioned Chess Olympiad and the European Team Championship. The 37th Chess Olympiad was held 2006 in Turin, Italy; Armenia won the gold in the unrestricted event, and Ukraine took the top medal for the women. The World Chess Solving Championship and World Correspondence Chess Championships are both team and individual events. The Chess Olympiad is a chess event which has been officially organised by FIDE since 1927 and takes place in even years. ... The European Team Championship (often abbreviated in texts and games databases as ETC) is an international team chess event, eligible for the participation of European nations whose chess federations are located in zones 1. ... The 37th Chess Olympiad took place from 20 May to 6 June 2006 in Turin, (Italy). ... For other uses, see Turin (disambiguation). ... The World Chess Solving Championship (WCSC) is an annual competition in the solving of chess problems organised by FIDE via the Permanent Commission of the FIDE for Chess Compositions (PCCC). ... Correspondence chess is chess played by various forms of long-distance correspondence, usually through a correspondence chess server, through email or by the postal system; less common methods which have been employed include fax and homing pigeon. ...


Besides these prestigious competitions, there are thousands of other chess tournaments, matches and festivals held around the world every year, which cater to players of all levels, from beginners to experts.

Titles and rankings

The best players can be awarded specific lifetime titles by the world chess organization FIDE:[52] Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,280 × 960 pixels, file size: 135 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,280 × 960 pixels, file size: 135 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... The title Grandmaster is awarded to world-class chess masters by the world chess organization FIDE. Apart from World Champion, Grandmaster is the highest title a chess player can attain. ... Ruslan Ponomariov (Ukrainian: ; Russian: ) (born October 11, 1983) is a Ukrainian chess player and former FIDE world champion. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

  • International Grandmaster (shortened: Grandmaster, GM or IGM) is awarded to world-class chess masters. Apart from World Champion, Grandmaster is the highest title a chess player can attain. Before FIDE will confer the title on a player, the player must have an ELO chess rating (see below) of at least 2500 at one time and three favorable results (called norms) in tournaments involving other Grandmasters, including some from countries other than the applicant's. There are also other milestones a player can achieve to attain the title, such as winning the World Junior Championship.
  • International Master (shortened: IM). The conditions are similar to GM, but less demanding. The minimum rating for the IM title is 2400.
  • FIDE Master (shortened: FM). The usual way for a player to qualify for the FIDE Master title is by achieving a FIDE Rating of 2300 or more.
  • Candidate Master (shortened: CM). Similar to FM, but with a FIDE Rating of at least 2200.

All the titles are open to men and women. Separate women-only titles, such as Woman Grandmaster (WGM), are also available. Beginning with Nona Gaprindashvili in 1978, a number of women have earned the GM title, and most of the top ten women in 2006 hold the unrestricted GM title.[53] The title Grandmaster is awarded to world-class chess masters by the world chess organization FIDE. Apart from World Champion, Grandmaster is the highest title a chess player can attain. ... The title International Master is awarded to outstanding chess players by the world chess organization FIDE. The title is open to both men and women. ... FIDE Master (FM) is a title awarded by the world chess governing body, Fédération Internationale des Échecs (FIDE). ... The Candidate Master (CM) title is awarded by the world chess governing body, Fédération Internationale des Échecs (FIDE). ... Nona Gaprindashvili Nona Gaprindashvili (born May 3, 1941) is a Georgian chess player, and the sixth womens world chess champion (1962-1978). ...


International titles are awarded to composers and solvers of chess problems, and to correspondence chess players (by the International Correspondence Chess Federation). Moreover, national chess organizations may also award titles, usually to the advanced players still under the level needed for international titles; an example is the Chess expert title used in the USA. Chess expert is a rating and title given by the United States Chess Federation. ...


In order to rank players, FIDE, ICCF and national chess organizations use the Elo rating system developed by Arpad Elo. Elo is a statistical system based on assumption that the chess performance of each player in his games is a random variable. Arpad Elo thought of a player's true skill as the average of that player's performance random variable, and showed how to estimate the average from results of player's games. The US Chess Federation implemented Elo's suggestions in 1960, and the system quickly gained recognition as being both fairer and more accurate than older systems; it was adopted by FIDE in 1970.[54] International Correspondence Chess Federation (ICCF) was founded in 1951 as a new appearance of the ICCA (International Correspondence Chess Association), which was founded in 1945, as successor of the IFSB (Internationaler Fernschachbund), founded in 1928. ... Chess Go The Elo rating system is a method for calculating the relative skill levels of players in two-player games such as chess and Go. ... . Árpád Élő (1903-1992) is the creator of the ELO rating system. ... A statistical model is used in applied statistics. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...


The highest ever FIDE rating was 2851, which Garry Kasparov had on the July 1999 and January 2000 lists.[55] In the most recent list (October 2007), the highest rated player is the current world champion Viswanathan Anand of India with a rating of 2801.[56]

Mathematics and computers

Mathematicians Euler, de Moivre and Vandermonde studied the knight's tour.
Mathematicians Euler, de Moivre and Vandermonde studied the knight's tour.

Chess is interesting from the mathematical point of view. Many combinatorical and topological problems connected to chess were known of for hundreds of years. In 1913, Ernst Zermelo used it as a basis for his theory of game strategies, which is considered as one of the predecessors of the game theory.[57] 1990s Pressure-sensory Chess Computer with LCD screen The idea of creating a chess-playing machine dates back to the eighteenth century. ... Chess and mathematics have been pursued intellectually for centuries by many researchers and scientists, especially mathematicians. ... Image File history File links Knight's_tour. ... Image File history File links Knight's_tour. ... Leonhard Euler aged 49 (oil painting by Emanuel Handmann, 1756) Leonhard Euler (April 15, 1707 - September 18, 1783) (pronounced oiler) was a Swiss mathematician and physicist. ... Abraham de Moivre (May 26, 1667 - November 27, 1754), was a French mathematician famous for de Moivres formula, which links complex numbers and trigonometry, and for his work on the normal distribution and probability theory. ... Alexandre-Théophile Vandermonde (28 February 1735 -1 January 1796) was a French musician and chemist who worked with Bezout and Lavoisier; his name is now principally associated with determinant theory in mathematics. ... An open knights tour of a chessboard The Knights tour as solved by The Turk, a chess-playing machine hoax. ... Combinatorics is a branch of pure mathematics concerning the study of discrete (and usually finite) objects. ... A Möbius strip, an object with only one surface and one edge; such shapes are an object of study in topology. ... Ernst Friedrich Ferdinand Zermelo (July 27, 1871, Berlin, German Empire – May 21, 1953, Freiburg im Breisgau, West Germany) was a German mathematician, whose work has major implications for the foundations of mathematics and hence on philosophy. ... Game theory is a branch of applied mathematics that is often used in the context of economics. ...


The number of legal positions in chess is estimated to be between 1043 and 1050, with a game-tree complexity of approximately 10123. The game-tree complexity of chess was first calculated by Claude Shannon as 10120, a number known as the Shannon number.[58] Typically an average position has thirty to forty possible moves, but there may be as few as zero (in the case of checkmate or stalemate) or as many as 218. In game theory, game complexity is a measure of the complexity of a game. ... Claude Shannon Claude Elwood Shannon (April 30, 1916 – February 24, 2001), an American electrical engineer and mathematician, has been called the father of information theory,[1] and was the founder of practical digital circuit design theory. ... The Shannon number, 1078, is an estimation of the game-tree complexity of chess. ...


The most important mathematical challenge of chess is the development of algorithms which can play chess. The idea of creating a chess playing machine dates to the eighteenth century; around 1769, the chess playing automaton called The Turk became famous before being exposed as a hoax.[59] Serious trials based on automatons, such as El Ajedrecista, were too complex and limited to be useful. In mathematics, computing, linguistics, and related disciplines, an algorithm is a finite list of well-defined instructions for accomplishing some task that, given an initial state, will terminate in a defined end-state. ... The Canard Digérateur of Jacques de Vaucanson, hailed in 1739 as the first automaton capable of digestion. ... An engraving of the Turk from Karl Gottlieb von Windischs 1784 book Inanimate Reason The Turk was a famous hoax that purported to be a chess-playing machine. ... A hoax is an attempt to trick an audience into believing that something false is real. ... The Canard Digérateur of Jacques de Vaucanson, hailed in 1739 as the first automaton capable of digestion. ... Gonzalo Torres y Quevedo showing his automaton to Norbert Weiner. ...


Since the advent of the digital computer in the 1950s, chess enthusiasts and computer engineers have built, with increasing degrees of seriousness and success, chess-playing machines and computer programs. The groundbreaking paper on computer chess, "Programming a Computer for Playing Chess", was published in 1950 by Shannon. He wrote: ... Computer Engineering (also sometimes called Computer Systems Engineering) is a specialised discipline that combines electrical engineering and computer science. ...

The chess machine is an ideal one to start with, since: (1) the problem is sharply defined both in allowed operations (the moves) and in the ultimate goal (checkmate); (2) it is neither so simple as to be trivial nor too difficult for satisfactory solution; (3) chess is generally considered to require "thinking" for skillful play; a solution of this problem will force us either to admit the possibility of a mechanized thinking or to further restrict our concept of "thinking"; (4) the discrete structure of chess fits well into the digital nature of modern computers.[60]

1990s chess-playing computer
1990s chess-playing computer

The Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) held the first major chess tournament for computers, the North American Computer Chess Championship, in September 1970. CHESS 3.0, a chess program from Northwestern University, won the championship. At first considered only a curiosity, the best chess playing programs, for example Rybka or Hydra, have become extremely strong. Garry Kasparov, then ranked number one in the world, lost a match against IBM's Deep Blue in 1997.[61] Nevertheless, from the point of view of artificial intelligence, chess-playing programs are relatively simple: they essentially explore huge numbers of potential future moves by both players and apply an evaluation function to the resulting positions. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1280x960, 209 KB) Summary Photo of Radio Shack Chess Computer 2150L. Photographer releases all rights worldwide. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1280x960, 209 KB) Summary Photo of Radio Shack Chess Computer 2150L. Photographer releases all rights worldwide. ... The Association for Computing Machinery, or ACM, was founded in 1947 as the worlds first scientific and educational computing society. ... World Computer Chess Championship (WCCC) is an annual event where computer chess engines compete against each other. ... Chess was a pioneering chess program from the 1970s, authored by Larry Atkin and David Slate at Northwestern University. ... Northwestern University (NU) is a selective private, nonsectarian, coeducational research university with campuses located in Evanston, Illinois and downtown Chicago, Illinois. ... A chess engine is a computer program that can play the game of chess. ... Rybka is a computer chess engine by International Master Vasik Rajlich. ... Hydra is a chess machine, designed by a team with Dr. Christian Chrilly Donninger, Ulf Lorenz, GM Christopher Lutz and Muhammad Nasir Ali. ... Garry Kimovich Kasparov (IPA: ; Russian: ) (born April 13, 1963, in Baku, Azerbaijan SSR; now Azerbaijan) is a Russian chess grandmaster, former World Chess Champion, writer and political activist. ... International Business Machines Corporation (IBM, or colloquially, Big Blue) (NYSE: IBM) (incorporated June 15, 1911, in operation since 1888) is headquartered in Armonk, New York, USA. The company manufactures and sells computer hardware, software, and services. ... Kasparov vs. ... AI redirects here. ... An evaluation function, also known as heuristic evaluation function or static evaluation function by game-playing programs to estimate the value or goodness of a position in the minimax algorithm. ...


With huge databases of past games and high analytical ability, computers also help players to learn chess and prepare for matches. Additionally, Internet Chess Servers allow people to find and play opponents all over the world. The presence of computers and modern communication tools have also raised concerns regarding cheating during games, most notably the "bathroom controversy" during the 2006 World Championship. An Internet chess server (ICS) is a server to facilitate the play, discussion, and viewing of chess over the Internet. ... “Cheat” redirects here. ... The FIDE World Chess Championship 2006 was a chess match between Classical World Chess Champion Vladimir Kramnik, and FIDE World Chess Champion Veselin Topalov. ...

Psychology

There is an extensive scientific literature on chess psychology.[62][63][64] Alfred Binet and others showed that knowledge and verbal, rather than visuospatial, ability lies at the core of expertise.[65][66] Adriaan de Groot, in his doctoral thesis, showed that chess masters can rapidly perceive the key features of a position.[67] According to de Groot, this intuitive perception, made possible by years of practice and study, is more important than the sheer ability to anticipate moves. De Groot also showed that chess masters can memorize positions shown for a few seconds almost perfectly. Memorization ability alone does not account for this skill, since masters and novices, when faced with random arrangements of chess pieces, had equivalent recall (about half a dozen positions in each case). Rather, it is the ability to recognize patterns, which are then memorized, which distinguished the skilled players from the novices. When the positions of the pieces were taken from an actual game, the masters had almost total positional recall.[68] Alfred Binet Alfred Binet (July 8, 1857 – October 18, 1911), French psychologist and inventor of the first usable intelligence test, the basis of todays IQ test. ... Adriaan de Groot, a Dutch chess master and psychologist conducted some of the most famous chess experiments of all time in the 1940s-60. ... In psychology and the cognitive sciences, perception is the process of acquiring, interpreting, selecting, and organizing sensory information. ...


More recent research has focused on the respective roles of knowledge and look-ahead search; brain imaging studies of chess masters and novices; blindfold chess; the role of personality and intelligence in chess skill, gender differences, and computational models of chess expertise. In addition, the role of practice and talent in the development of chess and other domains of expertise has led to a lot of research recently. Ericsson and colleagues have argued that deliberate practice is sufficient for reaching high levels of expertise, like master in chess.[69] However, more recent research indicates that factors other than practice are important. For example, Gobet and colleagues have shown that stronger players start playing chess earlier, that they are more likely to be left-handed, and that they are more likely to be born in late winter and early spring.[70] [71] This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Searching is the act of trying to find something or someone. ... Brain imaging is a fairly recent discipline within medicine and neuroscience. ... Blindfold Chess is a way to play chess, whereby play is conducted without the players having sight of the positions of the pieces, or any physical contact with them. ... Know Your Personality - a poster describing some of the theoretical aspects in the personality research. ... For other uses, see Intelligence (disambiguation). ...

Variants

Main article: Chess variant
Glinski's Hexagonal Chess, one of many chess variants
Glinski's Hexagonal Chess, one of many chess variants

Chess variants are forms of chess where the game is played with a different board, special fairy pieces or different rules. There are more than two thousand published chess variants,[72] the most popular being xiangqi in China and shogi in Japan.[73] A chess variant is a game derived from, related to or similar to chess in at least one respect. ... Image File history File links Glinski_Chess_Setup. ... Image File history File links Glinski_Chess_Setup. ... Glińskis hexagonal chess. ... A fairy chess piece or unorthodox chess piece is a chess piece not used in conventional chess, but used in certain chess variants and some chess problems. ... Chinese chess redirects here. ... Shogi ), or Japanese chess, is the most popular of a family of chess variants native to Japan. ...


Chess variants can be divided into:

  • Direct predecessors of chess, chaturanga and shatranj.
  • Traditional national or regional chess variants like xiangqi, shogi, janggi and makruk, which share common predecessors with Western chess.
  • Modern variants of chess, such as Chess960, where the initial position is selected randomly before each game. This random positioning makes it almost impossible to prepare the opening play in advance.[74]


Chaturanga. ... Shatranj is an old form of chess, which has been popular in Persia and the Middle East for almost 1000 years[1]. The modern chess has gradually developed from this game. ... Chinese chess redirects here. ... Shogi ), or Japanese chess, is the most popular of a family of chess variants native to Japan. ... Janggi is one of a family of strategic board games of which Western chess, Japanese Shogi, and the very similar Chinese Xiangqi are also members. ... Makruk, starting position. ... One of 960 possible starting positions. ... One of 960 possible starting positions. ...

See also

Notes

  1. ^ World Chess Federation. FIDE Laws of Chess. Retrieved 30 November 2006.
  2. ^ a b c d e Wilkinson 1943
  3. ^ a b Chinese chess. (2007). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved July 31, 2007, from Encyclopedia Britannica Online: http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9024151
  4. ^ [1] book
  5. ^ Hooper and Whyld, 144-45 (first edition)
  6. ^ Sonja Musser Golladay's English Translation of Alfonso X's Book of Games. Retrieved 11 December 2006
  7. ^ Davidson (1981), p. 9
  8. ^ Hooper and Whyld, 144-45 (first edition)
  9. ^ Davidson (1981), p. 13–17
  10. ^ Calvo, Ricardo. Valencia Spain: The Cradle of European Chess. Retrieved 10 December 2006
  11. ^ An analysis from the feminist perspective: Weissberger, Barbara F. (2004). Isabel Rules: constructing queenship, wielding power. University of Minnesota Press. ISBN 0-8166-4164-1.  P. 152ff
  12. ^ See History of the stalemate rule.
  13. ^ Calvo, Ricardo. Valencia Spain: The Cradle of European Chess. Retrieved 10 December 2006
  14. ^ Louis Charles Mahe De La Bourdonnai. Chessgames.com. Retrieved 30 November 2006.
  15. ^ Metzner, Paul (1998). Crescendo of the Virtuoso: Spectacle, Skill, and Self-Promotion in Paris during the Age of Revolution. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-20684-3.  Online version
  16. ^ Bird, Henry Edward. Chess History and Reminiscences. Retrieved 10 December 2006
  17. ^ London Chess Club. Chessgames.com. Retrieved 30 November 2006.
  18. ^ Chess history. worldchessnetwork.com. Retrieved 30 November 2006.
  19. ^ Burgess, Graham, Nunn, John and Emms, John (1998). The Mammoth Book of the World's Greatest Chess Games. Carroll & Graf Publishers. ISBN 0-7867-0587-6. , p. 14.
  20. ^ Shibut, Macon (2004). Paul Morphy and the Evolution of Chess Theory. Courier Dover Publications. ISBN 0-486-43574-1. 
  21. ^ Steinitz, William and Landsberger, Kurt (2002). The Steinitz Papers: Letters and Documents of the First World Chess Champion. McFarland & Company. ISBN 0-7864-1193-7. 
  22. ^ Kasparov 1983a
  23. ^ Kasparov 1983b
  24. ^ Menchik at ChessGames.com. Retrieved 11 December 2006
  25. ^ Kasparov 2003b, 2004a, 2004b, 2006
  26. ^ Kasparov 2003b, 2004a
  27. ^ Kasparov 2003a, 2006
  28. ^ Keene, Raymond (1993). Gary Kasparov's Best Games. B. T. Batsford Ltd.. ISBN 0-7134-7296-0. , p. 16.
  29. ^ Kasparov at ChessGames.com. Retrieved 13 December 2006
  30. ^ FIDE Top List statistics. Retrieved May 3, 2007
  31. ^ Kramnik at ChessGames.com. Retrieved 13 December 2006
  32. ^ Vale, Malcolm (2001). The Princely Court: Medieval Courts and Culture in North-West Europe, 1270–1380. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-926993-9.  Pp. 170–199
  33. ^ The Second Book of the Courtier. uoregon.edu Retrieved 9 December 2006. Translated by Sir Thomas Hoby (1561) as edited by Walter Raleigh for David Nutt, Publisher, London, 1900.
  34. ^ The Introduction of Printing into England and the Early Work of the Press: The First Book printed in English (1907), from The Cambridge History of English and American Literature, Vol II. Online at bartleby.com. Retrieved 12 December 2006
  35. ^ Adams, Jenny (2006). Power Play: The Literature and Politics of Chess in the Late Middle Ages. University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 0-8122-3944-X. 
  36. ^ Caxton, William. The Game and Playe of the Chesse. Project Gutenberg. Retrieved 9 December 2006.
  37. ^ Camina Burana. Bibliotheca Augustana. Retrieved 2 November 2006.
  38. ^ Franklin, Benjamin.The Morals of Chess. metajedrez.com.ar. Retrieved 2 December 2006.
  39. ^ National Scholastic Chess Foundation. Retrieved 10 December 2006
  40. ^ FIDE Laws of Chess, App. E. Retrieved 11 December 2006
  41. ^ Harding (2003), p. 1–7
  42. ^ Harding (2003), p. 138ff
  43. ^ Harding (2003), p. 8ff
  44. ^ Harding (2003), p. 70ff
  45. ^ Collins, Sam (2005). Understanding the Chess Openings. Gambit Publications. ISBN 1-904600-28-X. 
  46. ^ Tarrasch, Siegbert (1987). The Game of Chess. Courier Dover Publications. ISBN 0-486-25447-X. 
  47. ^ Harding (2003), p. 32–151
  48. ^ Harding (2003), p. 187ff
  49. ^ Howard, Kenneth S (1961). How to Solve Chess Problems. Courier Dover Publications. ISBN 0-486-20748-X. 
  50. ^ Chess in the Olympics. Retrieved 19 December 2006
  51. ^ [http://www.usatoday.com/sports/2007-09-30-anand_N.htm India's Anand seizes chess title
  52. ^ World Chess Federation. FIDE Handbook: Chess Rules. 1.0. Requirements for the titles designated in 0.31. Retrieved 9 December 2006.
  53. ^ Current FIDE lists of top players with their titles are online at fide.com. Retrieved 11 December 2006
  54. ^ FIDE Handbook The working of the FIDE Rating System. Retrieved 13 December 2006
  55. ^ European Chess Union. Retrieved 11 December 2006
  56. ^ FIDE Top 100 Players
  57. ^ Zermelo, Ernst (1913), Uber eine Anwendung der Mengenlehre auf die Theorie des Schachspiels, Proceedings of the Fifth International Congress of Mathematicians 2, 501-4. Cited from Eichhorn, Christoph: Der Beginn der Formalen Spieltheorie: Zermelo (1913), http://www.mathematik.uni-muenchen.de/~spielth/artikel/Zermelo.pdf Retrieved March 23, 2007.
  58. ^ Chess. Mathworld.Wolfram.com. Retrieved 5 December 2006.
  59. ^ Levitt, Gerald M. (2000). The Turk, chess automaton. McFarland & Company. ISBN 0-7864-0778-6. 
  60. ^ Shannon, Claude E. XXII. Programming a Computer for Playing Chess. Philosophical Magazine, Ser.7, Vol. 41, No. 314 - March 1950. Available online at computerhistory.orgPDF (175 KiB) Retrieved 6 December 2006.
  61. ^ Feng-Hsiung Hsu (2002). Behind Deep Blue: Building the Computer that Defeated the World Chess Champion. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-09065-3. ; Deep Blue — Kasparov Match. research.ibm.com. Retrieved 30 November 2006.
  62. ^ Gobet, Fernand, de Voogt, Alex, & Retschitzki, Jean (2004). Moves in mind: The psychology of board games. Psychology Press. ISBN 1841693367. 
  63. ^ Holding, Dennis (1985). The psychology of chess skill. Erlbaum. ISBN 978-0898595758. 
  64. ^ Saariluoma, Pertti (1995). Chess players' thinking: A cognitive psychological approach. Routledge. ISBN 0415120799-1-DBS. 
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  66. ^ Working memory in chess, <http://www.dur.ac.uk/c.p.fernyhough/Robbinsetal1996.pdf>
  67. ^ De Groot, A. D. (1965). Thought and choice in chess (first Dutch edition in 1946). The Hague: Mouton Publishers.
  68. ^ Richards J. Heuer, Jr. Psychology of Intelligence Analysis Center for the Study of Intelligence, Central Intelligence Agency 1999 (see Chapter 3).
  69. ^ Ericsson, K. A., Krampe, R. Th., & Tesch-Römer, C. (1993). The role of deliberate practice in the acquisition of expert performance. Psychological Review, 100, 363–406. Available online at http://www.freakonomics.com/pdf/DeliberatePractice(PsychologicalReview).pdfPDF (1.25 MiB) Retrieved 15 July 2007.
  70. ^ Gobet. F. & Chassy, P. (in press). Season of birth and chess expertise. Journal of Biosocial Science. Available online at http://bura.brunel.ac.uk/bitstream/2438/736/1/Seasonality+and+chess.pdfPDF (65.8 KiB) Retrieved 15 July 2007.
  71. ^ Gobet. F. & Campitelli, G. (2007). The role of domain-specific practice, handedness and starting age in chess. Developmental Psychology, 43, 159–172. Available online at http://bura.brunel.ac.uk/bitstream/2438/611/1/Gobet_DevPsyc_Final.pdf PDF (196 KiB) Retrieved 15 July 2007.
  72. ^ Pritchard, D. (2000). Popular Chess Variants. Bastford Chess Books. ISBN 0-7134-8578-7. 
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References

  • Davidson, Henry A. (1949, 1981). A Short History of Chess. McKay. ISBN 0-679-14550-8. 
  • Harding, Tim (2003). Better Chess for Average Players. Courier Dover Publications. ISBN 0-486-29029-8. 
  • Hooper, David and Whyld, Kenneth (1992). The Oxford Companion to Chess, 2nd Edition. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-866164-9.  Reprint: (1996) ISBN 0-19-280049-3
  • Kasparov, Garry (2003a). My Great Predecessors, part I. Everyman Chess. ISBN 1-85744-330-6. 
  • Kasparov, Garry (2003b). My Great Predecessors, part II. Everyman Chess. ISBN 1-85744-342-X. 
  • Kasparov, Garry (2004a). My Great Predecessors, part III. Everyman Chess. ISBN 1-85744-371-3. 
  • Kasparov, Garry (2004b). My Great Predecessors, part IV. Everyman Chess. ISBN 1-85744-395-0. 
  • Kasparov, Garry (2006). My Great Predecessors, part V. Everyman Chess. ISBN 1-85744-404-3. 
  • Wilkinson, Charles K. (May, 1943). "Chessmen and Chess". The Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin New Series, Vol. 1, No. 9: 271-279. 

Further reading

  • Fine, Reuben (1983). The World's Great Chess Games. Courier Dover Publications. ISBN 0-486-24512-8. 
  • Gobet, Fernand, de Voogt, Alex, & Retschitzki, Jean (2004). Moves in mind: The psychology of board games. Psychology Press. ISBN 1841693367. 
  • Mason, James (1947). The Art of Chess. Dover Publications. ISBN 0-486-20463-4.  (see the included supplement, "How Do You Play Chess")
  • Rizzitano, James (2004). Understanding Your Chess. Gambit Publications. ISBN 1-904600-07-7. 
  • David Shenk (2006). The Immortal Game: A History of Chess. Doubleday. ISBN 0-385-51010-1. 
  • Tarrasch, Siegbert (1994). The Game of Chess. Algebraic Edition. Hays Publishing. ISBN 1-880673-94-0. 

External links

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One of the most common ways for chess historians to trace when the board game chess entered a country is to look at the literature of that country. ... This page explains commonly used terms in chess in alphabetical order. ... This article examines a number of methodologies that have been suggested for the task of comparing top chess players throughout history, particularly the question of comparing the greatest players of different eras. ... It has been suggested that Chess During World War II be merged into this article or section. ... This is a list of chess players. ... This is a list of articles related to chess. ... Bowdler - Conway, London, 1788, the first example of the famous double rook sacrifice; The immortal game between Adolf Anderssen and Lionel Kieseritzky (1851); The evergreen game between Adolf Anderssen and Jean Dufresne (1852); The opera game between Paul Morphy and two allies, the Duke of Brunswick and Count Isouard (1858... Depicts many of the strongest international chess tournaments in history. ... The following is a list of world chess championship matches (see World Chess Championship). ... The Womens World Chess Championship is played to determine the womens world champion in chess. ... A number of countries hold national championships in chess. ... The Chess Olympiad is a chess event which has been officially organised by FIDE since 1927 and takes place in even years. ... is the 334th day of the year (335th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 345th day of the year (346th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 344th day of the year (345th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Stalemate is a situation in chess where the player whose turn it is to move has no legal moves but is not in check. ... is the 344th day of the year (345th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 334th day of the year (335th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Henry Edward Bird (1830 - 1908) was an English chess player. ... is the 344th day of the year (345th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 334th day of the year (335th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 334th day of the year (335th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 345th day of the year (346th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 347th day of the year (348th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 123rd day of the year (124th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 347th day of the year (348th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 343rd day of the year (344th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Cambridge History of English and American Literature. ... is the 346th day of the year (347th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 343rd day of the year (344th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 306th day of the year (307th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 336th day of the year (337th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 344th day of the year (345th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 345th day of the year (346th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Siegbert Tarrasch Siegbert Tarrasch (March 5, 1862 – February 17, 1934) was one of the strongest chess players of the late 19th century and early 20th century. ... is the 353rd day of the year (354th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 343rd day of the year (344th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 345th day of the year (346th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 347th day of the year (348th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 345th day of the year (346th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 339th day of the year (340th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... “PDF” redirects here. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to... is the 340th day of the year (341st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 334th day of the year (335th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... “PDF” redirects here. ... MiB redirects here. ... is the 196th day of the year (197th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... “PDF” redirects here. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to... is the 196th day of the year (197th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... “PDF” redirects here. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to... is the 196th day of the year (197th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... David Brine Pritchard (1919 - 2005) was a chess writer and indoor game consultant. ... David Brine Pritchard (1919 - 2005) was a chess writer and indoor game consultant. ... is the 205th day of the year (206th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 334th day of the year (335th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... David Vincent Hooper (31 August 1915- May 1998), born in Reigate, was a British chess player and writer. ... Kenneth Whyld (March 6, 1926 - July 11, 2003) was a British chess author and researcher, best known as the co-author (with David Hooper) of the Oxford Companion to Chess, the standard single-volume chess reference work in English. ... The Oxford Companion to Chess is a reference book on chess written by David Hooper and Kenneth Whyld. ... Reuben Fine (October 11, 1914 - March 26, 1993) was one of the best chess players in the world during the 1930s. ... James Mason (November 19, 1849 – January 18, 1905) was a famous chess player and writer. ... Doubleday is one of the largest book publishing companies in the world. ... Siegbert Tarrasch Siegbert Tarrasch (March 5, 1862 – February 17, 1934) was one of the strongest chess players of the late 19th century and early 20th century. ... Image File history File links Chess. ... Image File history File links Sound-icon. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 269th day of the year (270th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Sound-icon. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiquote-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links WikiNews-Logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiversity-logo-Snorky. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... International Correspondence Chess Federation ICCF is the International Correspondence Chess Federation. ... The Association of Chess Professionals (ACP) is a not-for-profit organisation, the closest thing in existence to a trade union for professional chess players. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Chess - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (5000 words)
Chess is played on a square board of 8 rows (called ranks) and 8 columns (called files), giving 64 squares of alternating light and dark color, which are referred to as "light squares" and "dark squares".
Chess openings are a sequence of moves, often memorized, which will help a player build up their position and prepare for the middlegame.
Chess variants are forms of chess where the game is played with a different board, special fairy pieces or different rules.
Chess Guide - Online Games Information (1116 words)
Chess (the "Game of Kings") is a board game for two players, which requires 32 chesspieces (or chessmen) and a board demarcated by 64 squares.
Chess is one of humanity's more popular games; it is has been described not only as a game, but also as both art and science.
Chess is played both recreationally and competitively in clubs, tournaments, on-line, and by mail (correspondence chess).
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