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Encyclopedia > Cherokee

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ᎠᏂᏴᏫᏯ
Cherokee

Flag of the Cherokee Nation Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 480 pixelsFull resolution (936 × 562 pixel, file size: 81 KB, MIME type: image/png) PNG file of the Flag of the Cherokee Nation. ...

Flag of the United Keetoowah Band. Image File history File links UKBflag_(bordered). ...

Flag of the Eastern Band Cherokee
Total population

320,000+ Image File history File links Easternbandcherokeeflag. ...

Regions with significant populations
Federally Enrolled members:

Cherokee Nation (f):
   270,000+


United Keetoowah Band of Cherokee Indians, Oklahoma (f):
   10,000 The United Keetoowah Band of Cherokee Indians are a federally recognized Band of Indians headquartered in Tahlequah, Oklahoma. ...


Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians, North Carolina (f):
   10,000+ The Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians are a federally recognized Native American band in the United States of America. ...


(f) = federally recognized

Languages
English, Cherokee
Religions
Christianity (Southern Baptist and Methodist), Traditional Ah-ni-yv-wi-ya, other small Christian groups.
Related ethnic groups
American Natives, Five Civilized Tribes, Tuscarora, other Iroquoians, African-Native Americans, Native Americans.

The Cherokee (ᎠᏂᏴᏫᏯ, ah-ni-yv-wi-ya, in the Cherokee language) are a people native to North America, who, at the time of European contact in the sixteenth century, inhabited what is now the Eastern and Southeastern United States. Most were forcibly moved westward to the Ozark Plateau in the 1830s. They are one of the tribes referred to as the Five Civilized Tribes. According to the 2000 U.S. Census, they are the largest of the 563 federally recognized Native American tribes in the United States. [1] The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Original distribution of the Cherokee language Cherokee (; Tsalagi) is an Iroquoian language spoken by the Cherokee people which uses a unique syllabary writing system. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... The Southern Baptist Convention (SBC) is a United States cooperative ministry agency serving missionary Baptist churches around the world. ... The Methodist movement is a group of denominations of Protestant Christianity. ... Ah-ni-ku-ta-ni or Ah-ni-gu-ta-ni (pronounced Ah-nee-koo-tah-nee/Ah-nee-goo-tah-nee) were the ancient priesthood of the Cherokee or Ah-ni-yv-wi-ya people. ... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Native Americans (disambiguation). ... The Five Civilized Tribes is the term applied to five Native American nations, the Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek, and Seminole, considered civilized by white Anais because they had adopted many of the colonists customs (including the ownership of plantations and black slaves) and had generally good relations with their neighbors. ... The Tuscarora are an American Indian tribe originally in North Carolina, which moved north to New York, and then partially into Canada. ... For other uses, see Iroquois (disambiguation). ... Black Indians is a term generally used to describe people who have significant traces of both African and Native American ancestry and/or African Americans who have lived for a long time with Native Americans. ... This article is about the people indigenous to the United States. ... Cherokee is a tribe of Native Americans. ... Original distribution of the Cherokee language Cherokee (; Tsalagi) is an Iroquoian language spoken by the Cherokee people which uses a unique syllabary writing system. ... North American redirects here. ... The US Southeast is the eastern portion of the Southern United States, but the Census Bureau does not provide a standard definition of a Southeast region of the United States, and organizations that need to subdivide the US are free to define a Southeast region to fit their needs. ... Ozark redirects here. ... http://www. ... The Five Civilized Tribes is the term applied to five Native American nations, the Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek, and Seminole, considered civilized by white Anais because they had adopted many of the colonists customs (including the ownership of plantations and black slaves) and had generally good relations with their neighbors. ... This article is about the people indigenous to the United States. ...


The Cherokee refer to themselves as Tsa-la-gi (pronounced "chaw-la-gee") or A-ni-yv-wi-ya (pronounced "ah knee yuh wee yaw", literal translation: "Principle People"). In 1654, the Powhatan were referring to this people as the Rickahockan. The word "Cherokee" may have originally been derived from the Choctaw trade language[citation needed] word "Cha-la-kee" which means "those who live in the mountains" – or (also Choctaw) "Chi-luk-ik-bi" meaning "those who live in the cave country".[2] The Cherokee were called "Alligewi" by the Delawares. (Heckewelder) Iroquois called them Oyata’ge'ronoñ', "inhabitants of the cave country" (Hewitt). For other uses, see Choctaw (disambiguation). ... A pidgin, or contact language, is the name given to any language created, usually spontaneously, out of a mixture of other languages as a means of communication between speakers of different tongues. ... For the language, see Lenape language. ... The Gnadenhütten massacre (8 March 1782) was a mass murder of nearly 100 Native Americans (mostly women and children) by American militiamen during the American Revolutionary War. ... For other uses, see Iroquois (disambiguation). ...


The characteristics of the Cherokee people were described in the writings of William Bartram in his journey through the Cherokee lands in 1776; Portrait of Bartram by Peale William Bartram (April 20, 1739 — July 22, 1823) was an American naturalist, the son of John Bartram. ... For other uses, see 1776 (disambiguation). ...

"The Cherokee…are tall, erect and moderately robust; their limbs well shaped, so as generally to form a perfect human figure; their features regular, and countenance open, dignified, and placid, yet the forehead and brow are so formed as to strike you instantly with heroism and bravery; the eye, though rather small, yet active and full of fire, the iris always black, and the nose commonly inclining to the aquiline. Their countenance and actions exhibit an air of magnanimity, superiority, and independence. Their complexion is a reddish brown or copper colour; their hair, long, lank, coarse, and black as a raven, and reflecting the like lustre at different exposures to the light. The women of the Cherokees are tall, slender, erect and of a delicate frame; their features formed with perfect symmetry; the countenance cheerful and friendly; and they move with a becoming grace and dignity" (R. C. Pritchard, Researches into the Physical History of Mankind (Volume V, 1847), p.403-4)

The Cherokee Nation and United Keetoowah Band of Cherokee Indians have headquarters in Tahlequah, Oklahoma. The Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians is located at Cherokee, North Carolina. All three are federally recognized. The United Keetoowah Band of Cherokee Indians are a federally recognized Band of Indians headquartered in Tahlequah, Oklahoma. ... Tahlequah is a city in Cherokee County, Oklahoma, United States. ... For other uses, see Oklahoma (disambiguation). ... The Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians are a federally recognized Native American band in the United States of America. ... Cherokee is a town in Swain County, North Carolina. ...

Contents

History

Prehistoric and protohistoric periods

In describing the history of Indians living in the interior of the American southeast, scholars use the term prehistory for the time before the mid-sixteenth century, when several Spanish expeditions journeyed through the southeast. After these expeditions the European historic record is silent until about 1700. The term protohistory is used for this period. The time after about 1700 is called the historic era. Stonehenge, England, erected by Neolithic peoples ca. ... Protohistory refers to a period between prehistory and history, during which a culture or civilization has not yet developed writing, but other cultures have already noted its existence in their own writings. ... HIStory – Past, Present and Future, Book I is a double album by American singer Michael Jackson released in June 1995 and remains Jacksons most conflicting and controversial release. ...


Since historic documentation is generally lacking, Cherokee prehistory and protohistory has been studied via oral tradition, linguistic analysis, and archeology. Archaeology or sometimes in American English archeology (from the Greek words αρχαίος = ancient and λόγος = word/speech) is the study of human cultures through the recovery, documentation and analysis of material remains, including architecture, artefacts, biofacts, human remains, and landscapes. ...


Unlike most other Indians in the American southeast at the start of the historic era, the Cherokee spoke an Iroquoian language. Since the Great Lakes region was the core of Iroquoian languages, it is theorized that the Cherokee migrated south from the Great Lakes region. Linguistic analysis shows a relatively large difference between Cherokee and the northern Iroquoian languages, suggesting a split in the distant past.[3] Glottochronology studies suggest the split occurred between about 1,500 and 1,800 B.C.[4] Insert non-formatt#REDIRECT [[stinky]]ed text here Pre-European contact distribution of the Iroquoian languages. ... The Great Lakes from space The Laurentian Great Lakes are a group of five large lakes in North America on or near the Canada-United States border. ... Glottochronology refers to methods in historical linguistics used to estimate the time at which languages diverged, based on the assumption that the basic (core) vocabulary of a language changes at a constant average rate. ...


The ancient settlement of Keetoowah or giduwa (Cherokee:), on the Tuckasegee River near present-day Bryson City, North Carolina, is frequently cited as the original Cherokee City.[3] Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... The Tuckaseegee River flows in western North Carolina, USA. It begins its course in Jackson County, at the confluence of Panthertown and Greenland Creeks. ... Bryson City is a town located in Swain County, North Carolina. ...


During the early historic era, Europeans wrote of several Cherokee town groups, usually using the terms Lower, Middle, and Overhill towns. The Lower towns were situated on the headwater streams of the Savannah River, mainly in present-day western South Carolina and northeastern Georgia. Keowee was one of the chief towns. The Middle towns were located in present western North Carolina, on the headwater streams of the Tennessee River, such as the Little Tennessee River, Hiwassee River, and French Broad River. Among several chief towns was Nikwasi. The Overhill towns were located across the higher mountains in present eastern Tennessee and northwestern Georgia. Principal towns included Chota and Great Tellico. These terms were created and used by Europeans to describe their changing geopolitical relationship with the Cherokee.[3] The Little Tennessee River, looking south from the Tellico Blockhouse The term Overhill Cherokee refers to the former Cherokee settlements located in what is now Tennessee in the Southeastern United States. ... For the Department of Energy facility, see Savannah River Site The Savannah River is a major river in the southeastern United States, forming most of the border between the states of South Carolina and Georgia. ... Official language(s) English Capital Columbia Largest city Columbia Largest metro area Columbia Area  Ranked 40th  - Total 34,726 sq mi (82,965 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 260 miles (420 km)  - % water 6  - Latitude 32° 2′ N to 35° 13′ N  - Longitude 78° 32′ W to 83... Keowee // Keowee was a Cherokee town in the north of present-day South Carolina. ... Official language(s) English Demonym North Carolinian Capital Raleigh Largest city Charlotte Largest metro area Charlotte metro area Area  Ranked 28th in the US  - Total 53,865 sq mi (139,509 km²)  - Width 150 miles (340 km)  - Length 560[1] miles (900 km)  - % water 9. ... A riverboat passing under the Henley Street Bridge on the Tennessee River. ... The Little Tennessee River is a tributary of the Tennessee River, approximately 135 miles (217 km) long, in the Appalachian Mountains in the southeastern United States. ... The Hiwassee River has its headwaters in North Georgia (as the Hiawassee River) and flows northward into North Carolina (there assuming its more common moniker Hiwassee) before turning westward into Tennessee, flowing into the Tennessee River a few miles west of TN SR58 near Dayton, TN. As the river passes... The French Broad River flows from near Rosman in Transylvania County, North Carolina, into Tennessee. ... Nikwasi (also spelled Nequassee, Nucassee, Noucassih, etc. ... This article is about the U.S. state of Tennessee. ... Chota was a Cherokee town on the outskirts of Tanasi near present-day Vonore, Tennessee. ... Great Tellico was a Cherokee town at the site of present-day Tellico Plains, Tennessee, where the Tellico River emerges from the Appalachian Mountains. ...


17th Century

According to James Mooney, the English first had contact with the Cherokee in 1654. One of the earliest European-American accounts comes from the expedition of James Needham and Gabriel Arthur, sent in 1673 by fur-trader Abraham Wood of Virginia to the Overhill Cherokee country. Wood hoped to forge a direct trading connection with the Cherokee in order to bypass the Occaneechi Indians who were serving as middlemen on the Trading Path. The two Virginians did make contact with the Cherokee, although Needham was killed on the return journey and Arthur was almost killed. By the late seventeenth century, traders from both Virginia and South Carolina were making regular journeys to Cherokee lands, but few wrote about their experiences. Much of the early trading contact period has only been pieced together by colonial laws and lawsuits involving traders. The trade was mainly deerskins, raw material for the booming European leather industry, in exchange for European technology "trade goods" such as iron and steel tools (kettles, knives, etc), firearms, gunpowder, and ammunition. In 1705 these traders complained that their business had been lost and replaced by Indian slave trade instigated by Governor Moore of South Carolina. Moore had commissioned people to "set upon, assault, kill, destroy, and take captive as many Indians as possible". These captives would be sold and the profits split with the Governor.[5] Abraham Wood was an English fur trader (specifically the deerskin trade) and explorer of colonial Virginia during the 17th century. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... The Occaneechi are Native Americans related to the Saponi, Tutelo, Monacan, and other eastern Siouan peoples living in the Piedmont region of present-day North Carolina and Virginia. ... The Trading Path is not simply one wide path as many named historic roads were or are. ... The deerskin trade between Colonial America and the Native Americans was one of the most important trading relationships between Europeans and Native Americans, especially in the southeast. ...


Although selling alcohol to Indians was made illegal by colonial governments at an early date, rum, and later whiskey, were a common item of trade.[6]


18th century

Tah-Chee (Dutch), A Cherokee Chief, 1837, Smithsonian American Art Museum
Tah-Chee (Dutch), A Cherokee Chief, 1837, Smithsonian American Art Museum

Of the southeastern Indian confederacies of the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries (Creek, Chickasaw, Choctaw, etc), the Cherokee were one of the most populous and powerful, and were relatively isolated by their hilly and mountainous homeland. A relatively small-scale trading system was established with Virginia in the late seventeenth century. A much stronger and important trade relationship with the colony of South Carolina, based in Charles Town, began in the 1690s and overshadowed the Virginia relationship by the 1700s.[7] Nickname: Motto: Aedes Mores Juraque Curat (She cares for her temples, customs, and rights) Location of Charleston in South Carolina. ...


Although there was some trading contact, the Cherokee remained relatively unaffected by the presence of European colonies in America until the Tuscarora War and its aftermath. In 1711 the Tuscarora began attacking colonists in North Carolina after diplomatic attempts to address various grievances failed. The governor of North Carolina asked South Carolina for military aid. Before the war was over several years later, South Carolina had mustered and sent two armies against the Tuscarora. The ranks of both armies were made up mostly of Indians, with Yamasee troops especially. The first army, under the command of John Barnwell, campaigned in North Carolina in 1712. By the end of the year a fragile peace had been established, and the army dispersed. No Cherokee were involved in the first army. Hostilities between the Tuscarora and North Carolina broke out soon after, and in late 1712 to early 1713 a second army from South Carolina fought the Tuscarora. This army consisted of about 100 British and over 700 Indian soldiers. As with the first army, the second depended heavily on the Yamasee and Catawba. This time, however, hundreds of Cherokee joined the army. The army's campaign ended after a major Tuscarora defeat at Hancock's Fort. All told, over 1,000 Tuscarora and allied Indians were killed or captured. Those captured were mainly sold into the Indian slave trade. Although the second army from South Carolina disbanded soon after the battle, the Tuscarora War continued for several years. Some previously neutral Tuscarora turned hostile, and the Iroquois confederacy entered the dispute. In the end a large number of Tuscarora moved north to live among the Iroquois. The Tuscarora War was fought in North Carolina during the autumn of 1711 until 11 February 1715 between the British, Dutch, and German settlers and the Tuscarora, a local American Indian tribe. ... The Tuscarora are an American Indian tribe originally in North Carolina, which moved north to New York, and then partially into Canada. ... The Yamasee were a Muskogean Native American tribe that lived in coastal region of present-day northern Florida and southern Georgia near the Savannah River. ... For other uses, see Catawba. ... Indian slavery was the practice of using indigenous peoples of the Americas as slaves, which existed with the Spanish from the earliest days on the Caribbean islands they first settled. ... For other uses, see Iroquois (disambiguation). ...


The Tuscarora War altered the geopolitical context of colonial America in several ways, including a general Iroquois interest in the south. For the many southeastern Indians involved, it was the first time so many had collaborated in a military campaign and seen how different the various English colonies were. As a result the war helped to bind the Indians of the entire region together, enhancing Indian networks of communication and trade. The Cherokee became much more closely integrated with the region's various Indians and Europeans. The Tuscarora War marked the beginning of an English-Cherokee relationship that, despite breaking down on occasion, remained strong for much of the 18th century. The Tuscarora War also marks the rise of Cherokee military power, demonstrated in the 1714 attack and destruction of the Yuchi town of Chestowee (in today's southeastern Tennessee). The English traders Alexander Long and Eleazer Wiggan instigated the attack through various deceptions and promises, although there was a pre-existing conflict between the Cherokee and Yuchi. The traders' plot was based in the Cherokee town of Euphase (Great Hiwassee), and mainly involved Cherokee from that town. In May 1714 the Cherokee destroyed the Yuchi town of Chestowee. Inhabitants not killed or captured fled to the Creek or the Savannah River Yuchi. Long and Wiggan had told the Cherokee that the South Carolina government wished for and approved this attack, which was not true. The governor of South Carolina, having heard of the plot, sent a messenger to tell the Cherokee not to continue and attack the Savannah River Yuchi. The Cherokee attack on the Yuchi ended with Chestowee, but it was enough to catch the attention of every Indian tribe attack Chestowee. The messenger arrived too late to save Chestowee but played a role in the and European colony in the region. Thus around 1715, after the Tuscarora War and the attack on Chestowee, the Cherokee emerged as a major power.[7] Original territory of the Yuchi Tribe The Yuchi, also spelled Euchee and Uchee, are a Native American Indian tribe previously living in the eastern Tennessee River valley in Tennessee, northern Georgia and northern Alabama who now primarily live in the northeastern Oklahoma area. ... Great Hiwassee, also known as Ayuhwasi Egwaha was an important Overhill Cherokee town. ...


In 1715, just as the Tuscarora War was winding down, the Yamasee War broke out. Numerous Indian tribes launched attacks on South Carolina. The Cherokee participated in some of the attacks, but were divided on what course to take. After South Carolina's militia succeeded in driving off the Yamasee and Catawba the Cherokee's position became strategically pivotal. Both South Carolina and the Lower Creek tried to gain Cherokee support. Some Cherokee favored an alliance with South Carolina and war on the Creek, while others favored the opposite. The impasse was resolved in January 1716, when a delegation of Creek leaders was murdered at the Cherokee town of Tugaloo. Subsequently, the Cherokee launched attacks against the Creek, but in 1717 peace treaties between South Carolina and the Creek were finalized, undermining the Cherokee's commitment to war. Hostility and sporadic raids between the Cherokee and Creek continued for decades.[8] The Yamasee War (1715–1716) was a conflict between Native Americans, principally of the Yamasee tribe, and British colonists, which occurred in South Carolina. ... The Carolina Colony grants Haystack of 1663 and 1665 The Province of Carolina from 1663 to 1729, was a North American British colony. ... For other uses, see Catawba. ... Tugaloo was a Cherokee town on the Tugaloo River, at the mouth of Toccoa Creek, near present-day Toccoa, Georgia and very near the historic tavern called Travelers Rest. ...


In 1730, at Nikwasi, Chief Moytoy II of Tellico was chosen as "Emperor" by the Elector Chiefs of the principal Cherokee towns. He unified the Cherokee Nation from a society of interrelated city-states in the early 18th century with the aid of an unofficial English envoy, Sir Alexander Cuming. Moytoy agreed to recognize King George II of Great Britain as the Cherokee protector. Seven prominent Cherokee, including Attacullaculla, traveled with Sir Alexander Cuming back to England. The Cherokee delegation stayed in London for four months. The visit culminated in a formal treaty of alliance between the British and Cherokee, the 1730 Treaty of Whitehall. While the journey to London and the treaty were important factors in future British-Cherokee relations, the title of Cherokee Emperor did not carry much clout among the Cherokee and eventually passed out of Moytoy's direct avuncular lineage. The unification of the Cherokee nation was essentially ceremonial, with political authority remaining town-based for decades afterward. In addition, Sir Alexander Cuming's aspirations to play an important role in Cherokee affairs failed.[9] In 1735 the Cherokee were estimated to have sixty-four towns and villages and 6000 fighting men. In 1738 - 39 smallpox, introduced to the country onboard slave ships, broke out among the Cherokee and killed nearly half their population within a year. Hundreds of others committed suicide due to the disfigurement. Nikwasi (also spelled Nequassee, Nucassee, Noucassih, etc. ... Moytoy Pigeon of Tellico, Principal Chief and Emperor of the Cherokee was the leading Chief of the Cherokee tribe from April 3, 1730 to 1760. ... Great Tellico was a Cherokee town at the site of present-day Tellico Plains, Tennessee, where the Tellico River emerges from the Appalachian Mountains. ... George II (George Augustus; 10 November 1683 – 25 October 1760) was King of Great Britain and Ireland, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg (Hanover) and Archtreasurer and Prince-Elector of the Holy Roman Empire from 11 June 1727 until his death. ... Attacullaculla of Chota-Tenase, Principal Chief of the Cherokee, (ca. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Smallpox (also known by the Latin names Variola or Variola vera) is a contagious disease unique to humans. ...

Cherokee land claim around 1600
Cherokee land claim around 1600

Beginning at about the time of the American Revolutionary War in the late 18th century, divisions over continued accommodation of encroachments by white settlers, despite repeated violations of previous treaties, caused some Cherokee to begin to leave the Cherokee Nation. Many of these dissidents became known as the Chickamauga. Led by Chief Dragging Canoe, the Chickamauga made alliances with the Shawnee and engaged in raids against colonial settlements. Some of these early dissidents eventually moved across the Mississippi River to areas that would later become the states of Arkansas and Missouri. Their settlements were established on the St. Francis and the White Rivers by 1800. This article is about military actions only. ... Chickamauga, or Chickamauga-Cherokee, was a term used by colonial and early Americans to differentiate between the pro-British Cherokee led by Dragging Canoe, and those abiding by the peace treaties signed in 1777 at DeWitts Corner with Georgia and South Carolina and at Fort Henry with Virginia and... Dragging Canoe (1730? – 1792) was an American Indian war leader who led a dissident band of young Cherokees against the United States in the American Revolutionary War. ... The Shawnee are a people native to North America, and are therefore considered to be Native Americans. ... The Chickamauga Wars (1776–1794) were a series of conflicts that were a continuation of the Cherokee struggle against the encroachment into their territory by American frontiersmen from the British colonies which had broken out into open warfare in 1776 between the Cherokee led by Dragging Canoe (called the Chickamauga... For the river in Canada, see Mississippi River (Ontario). ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... The Saint Francis River is a tributary of the Mississippi River in southeastern Missouri and northeastern Arkansas in the United States. ... The White River is a 722-mile-long river that flows through the US states of Arkansas and Missouri. ...


Historians

Much of what is known about pre 19th century Cherokee history, culture, and society comes from the papers of American writer John Howard Payne. The Payne papers describe the memory Cherokee elders had of a traditional societal structure in which a "white" organization of elders represented the seven clans. This group, which was hereditary and described as priestly, was responsible for religious activities such as healing, purification, and prayer. A second group of younger men, the "red" organization, was responsible for warfare. However, warfare was considered a polluting activity which required the purification of the priestly class before participants could reintegrate in normal village life. John Howard Payne (1791-1852) was an American actor and playwright. ...


This hierarchy had faded by the time of the Cherokee removal in 1838. The reasons for the change have been debated and may include: a revolt by the Cherokee against the abuses of the priestly class, the massive smallpox epidemic of the late 1730s, and the incorporation of Christian ideas, which transformed Cherokee religion by the end of the eighteenth century.[10] Indian Removal was a nineteenth century policy of the government of the United States that sought to relocate American Indian (or Native American) tribes living east of the Mississippi River to lands west of the river. ... Smallpox (also known by the Latin names Variola or Variola vera) is a contagious disease unique to humans. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ...

An early 20th Century photo of a traditional Cherokee stickball player.
An early 20th Century photo of a traditional Cherokee stickball player.

Ethnographer James Mooney, who studied the Cherokee in the late 1880s, traced the decline of the former hierarchy to the revolt.[11] By the time of Mooney, the structure of Cherokee religious practitioners was more informal and based more on individual knowledge and ability than upon heredity. In addition, separation of the Eastern Cherokee, who had not participated in the removal and remained in the mountains of western North Carolina, further complicated the traditional hierarchies.[10] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 228 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (241 × 634 pixel, file size: 217 KB, MIME type: image/png) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 228 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (241 × 634 pixel, file size: 217 KB, MIME type: image/png) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Stickball has been called Native American Stickball, and the analogy is appropriate. ... James Mooney (1861-1921) was a notable anthropologist who lived for several years among the Cherokee. ...


Another major source of early cultural history comes from the materials written in Cherokee by the didanvwisgi (Cherokee:ᏗᏓᏅᏫᏍᎩ), or Cherokee medicine men, after the creation of the Cherokee syllabary by Sequoya in the 1820s. These materials were initially only used by the didanvwisgi (Cherokee:ᏗᏓᏅᏫᏍᎩ) and were considered extremely powerful.[10] Later, these were widely adopted by the Cherokee people. Medicine man is an English term used to describe Native American religious figures; such individuals are analogous to shamans. ...


19th century

In 1815—after the War of 1812 in which Cherokees fought on behalf of both the British and American armies— the U.S. Government established a Cherokee Reservation in Arkansas. The reservation boundaries extended from north of the Arkansas River to the southern bank of the White River. Cherokee bands who lived in Arkansas were: The Bowl, Sequoyah, Spring Frog and The Dutch. Another band of Cherokee lived in southeast Missouri, western Kentucky and Tennessee in frontier settlements and in European majority communities around the Mississippi River. This article is about the U.S.–U.K. war. ... The Arkansas River flows through Colorado, Kansas, Oklahoma, and Arkansas. ... For the river in Canada, see Mississippi River (Ontario). ...

Chief John Ross, c. 1840
Chief John Ross, c. 1840

John Ross was an important figure in the history of the Cherokee tribe. His father emigrated from Scotland prior to the Revolutionary War; his mother was a quarter-blood Cherokee woman whose father was also from Scotland. John Ross began his public career in 1809. The Cherokee Nation was founded in 1820, with elected public officials. John Ross became the chief of the tribe in 1828 and remained the chief until his death in 1866. Image File history File links Chief_John_Ross. ... Image File history File links Chief_John_Ross. ... For other persons named John Ross, see John Ross (disambiguation). ... For other persons named John Ross, see John Ross (disambiguation). ... This article is about the country. ...


Trail of Tears

Cherokees were displaced from their ancestral lands in northern Georgia and the Carolinas in a period of rapidly expanding white population. Some of the rapid expansion was due to a gold rush around Dahlonega, Georgia in the 1830s. Various official reasons for the removal were given. One official argument was that the Cherokee were not efficiently using their land and the land should be given to white farmers. Others suggest that President Andrew Jackson's reasons for this removal policy were humanitarian. Jackson said that the policy was an effort to prevent the Cherokee from facing the fate of "the Mohegan, the Narragansett, and the Delaware".[12] However there is ample evidence that the Cherokee were adapting modern farming techniques, and a modern analysis shows that the area was in general in a state of economic surplus.[13] For other meanings, see Gold rush (disambiguation) A gold rush is a period of feverish migration of workers into the area of a dramatic discovery of commercial quantities of gold. ... Historic Lumpkin County Courthouse, which now houses the Dahlonega Gold Museum Historic Site Dahlonega is a town in Lumpkin County, Georgia, USA, and is its county seatGR6. ... For other uses, see Andrew Jackson (disambiguation). ... The Mohegan tribe is an Algonquian-speaking tribe living in eastern (upper Thames valley) Connecticut [1] that was jointly ruled by the Pequot tribe until 1637. ... Tribal flag The Narragansett tribe, or more accurately Nahahiganseck Sovereign Nation, are a Native American tribe who controlled the area surrounding Narragansett Bay in present-day Rhode Island, and also portions of Connecticut, and eastern Massachusetts. ... The Lenape or Lenni-Lenape (later named Delaware Indians by Europeans) were, in the 1600s, loosely organized bands of Native American people practicing small-scale agriculture to augment a largely mobile hunter-gatherer society in the region around the Delaware River, the lower Hudson River, and western Long Island Sound. ...


Despite a Supreme Court ruling in their favor, many in the Cherokee Nation were forcibly relocated West, a migration known as the Trail of Tears or in Cherokee Nunna Daul Tsunny (Cherokee:The Trail Where They Cried). This took place during the Indian Removal Act of 1830, although as of 1883, the Cherokee were the last large southern Indian tribe to be removed. Even so, the harsh treatment the Cherokee received at the hands of white settlers caused some to enroll to emigrate west.[14] Holding States were not permitted to redraw the boundaries of Indian lands or forbid residence in those territories, because the Constitution granted sole authority to Congress to regulate relations with sovereign Indian tribes. ... For other uses, see Trail of Tears (disambiguation). ... The Indian Removal Act, part of a U.S. government policy known as Indian Removal, was signed into law by President Andrew Jackson on May 28, 1830. ...


Samuel Carter, author of Cherokee Sunset, writes: "Then… there came the reign of terror. From the jagged-walled stockades the troops fanned out across the Nation, invading every hamlet, every cabin, rooting out the inhabitants at bayonet point. The Cherokees hardly had time to realize what was happening as they were prodded like so many sheep toward the concentration camps, threatened with knives and pistols, beaten with rifle butts if they resisted."[15] A stockade is an enclosure of palisades and tall walls made of logs placed side by side vertically with the tops sharpened to provide some security. ...


Ridge opposition

Among the Cherokee, John Ross led the battle to halt their removal. Ross's position was in opposition to a group known as the "Ridge Party" or the "Treaty Party". This was in reference to the Treaty of New Echota, which exchanged Cherokee land for land in the west and its principle signers John Ridge and his father Major Ridge. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... John Ridge (1892 - June 1829, Indian Name: Yellow Bird) was the son of Major Ridge and a member of the Cherokee Tribe. ... This portrait of Major Ridge was painted by Charles Bird King in 1834. ...

Cherokee Nation Courthouse in Tahlequah, Oklahoma, mid-19th century
Cherokee Nation Courthouse in Tahlequah, Oklahoma, mid-19th century

On June 22, 1839, the prominent signers of the Treaty of New Echota were executed, including Major Ridge, John Ridge and Elias Boudinot by Cherokee extremists. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1050x803, 182 KB) Summary Cherokee Nation Courthouse 1800s Licensing This image is in the public domain in the United States. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1050x803, 182 KB) Summary Cherokee Nation Courthouse 1800s Licensing This image is in the public domain in the United States. ... Tahlequah is a city in Cherokee County, Oklahoma, United States. ... is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1839 (MDCCCXXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Elias Boudinot Elias Boudinot (1800–1839) was a Cherokee Indian who started and edited the tribes first newspaper. ...


In the early 1860s, John Ridge's son, novelist John Rollin Ridge, led a group of delegates to Washington, D.C. as early as the 1860s in a failed attempt to gain federal recognition for a Cherokee faction that was opposed to the leadership of Chief John Ross.[16] John Rollin Ridge John Rollin Ridge (Cherokee name: Cheesquatalawny, or Yellow Bird, March 19, 1827–October 5, 1867), a member of the Cherokee tribe, is considered the first Native American novelist. ... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ... For other persons named John Ross, see John Ross (disambiguation). ...


Separation

In 1848, a group of Cherokee set out on an expedition to California, looking for new settlement lands. The expedition followed the Arkansas River upstream to Rocky Mountains in present-day Colorado, then followed the base of mountains northward into present-day Wyoming, before turning westward. The route become known as the Cherokee Trail or the Rocky Mountain Trail, starting from Fort Smith, Arkansas that also extended northward to Montana all the way to the Canadian border near Cut Bank, Montana. This article is about the U.S. state. ... For individual mountains named Rocky Mountain, see Rocky Mountain (disambiguation). ... Official language(s) English Demonym Coloradan Capital Denver Largest city Denver Largest metro area Denver-Aurora Metro Area Area  Ranked 8th in the US  - Total 104,185 sq mi (269,837 km²)  - Width 280 miles (451 km)  - Length 380 miles (612 km)  - % water 0. ... Official language(s) English Capital Cheyenne Largest city Cheyenne Area  Ranked 10th  - Total 97,818 sq mi (253,348 km²)  - Width 280 miles (450 km)  - Length 360 miles (580 km)  - % water 0. ... The Cherokee Trail was a historic trail in the present-day U.S. states of Colorado and Wyoming that was used from the late 1840s up through the early 1860s. ... Fort Smith is a city situated at the junction of the Arkansas and Poteau rivers. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Cut Bank is a city located in Glacier County, Montana. ...


The group, which undertook gold prospecting in California, returned along the same route the following year, noticing placer gold deposits in tributaries of the South Platte. The discovery went unnoticed for a decade but eventually became one of the primary sources of the Pike's Peak Gold Rush of 1859 and other gold rushes across the western U.S. in the 1860s. Miners operate a hydraulic sluice in San Francisquito Canyon, Los Angeles County. ... The South Platte River is a river in the states of Colorado and Nebraska in the western United States. ... Miners at Pikes Peak The Pikes Peak Gold Rush (later known as the Colorado Gold Rush) was the boom in gold prospecting and mining in the Pikes Peak Country of northwestern Kansas Territory and southwestern Nebraska Territory of the United States that began in July 1858 and lasted...

Map of the present-day Cherokee Nation Tribal Statistical Area
Map of the present-day Cherokee Nation Tribal Statistical Area

Not all of the eastern Cherokees were removed on the Trail of Tears. William Holland Thomas, a white store owner and state legislator from Jackson County, North Carolina, helped over 600 Cherokee from Qualla Town (the site of modern-day Cherokee, North Carolina) obtain North Carolina citizenship. As citizens, they were exempt from forced removal to the west. In addition, over 400 other Cherokee hid from Federal troops in the remote Snowbird Mountains of neighboring Graham County, North Carolina, under the leadership of Tsali (ᏣᎵ)[17] (the subject of the outdoor drama Unto These Hills held in Cherokee, North Carolina). Together, these groups were the basis for what is now known as the Eastern Band of Cherokees. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Jackson County is a county located in the southwest of the U.S. state of North Carolina. ... Cherokee is a town in Swain County, North Carolina. ... Graham County is a county located in the U.S. state of North Carolina. ... Unto These Hills is the second oldest outdoor historical drama in the United States after The Lost Colony in Manteo, North Carolina. ...


Out of gratitude to Thomas, these Western North Carolina Cherokees served in the American Civil War as part of Thomas's Legion. Thomas's Legion consisted of infantry, cavalry, and artillery. The legion mustered approximately 2,000 men of both Cherokee and white origin, fighting primarily in Virginia, where their battle record was outstanding.[18] Thomas's Legion was the last Confederate unit in the eastern theater of the war to surrender after capturing Waynesville, North Carolina on May 9, 1865. They agreed to cease hostilities on the condition of being allowed to retain their arms for hunting. This, together with Stand Watie The chief of the Southern Cherokee Nation.'s surrender of western forces on July 23, 1865, gave the Cherokees the distinction of being the very last Confederates to capitulate in both theaters of the Civil War. In Oklahoma, the Dawes Act of 1887 broke up the tribal land base. Under the Curtis Act of 1898, Cherokee courts and governmental systems were abolished by the U.S. Federal Government. Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... Location in North Carolina Country United States State North Carolina County Haywood County Incorporated 1871 Mayor Henry Foy Area    - City 20. ... is the 129th day of the year (130th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1865 (MDCCLXV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Stand Watie Stand Watie (12 December 1806 – 9 September 1871) (also known as Degataga stand firm and Isaac S. Watie) was a leader of the Cherokee Nation and a brigadier general of the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War. ... is the 204th day of the year (205th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1865 (MDCCLXV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Also known as the Dawes Severalty Act, the Dawes Act authorized the President of the United States to have Native American tribal lands surveyed and divided into allotments for individual Native American families. ...


20th century

These and other acts were designed to end tribal sovereignty and to pave the way for Oklahoma Statehood in 1907. The Federal government appointed chiefs to the Cherokee Nation, often just long enough to sign a treaty. In reaction to this, the Cherokee Nation recognized that it needed leadership and a general convention was convened in 1938 to elect a Chief. They choose J. B. Milam as principal chief, and, as a goodwill gesture, President Franklin Delano Roosevelt confirmed the election in 1941. Jesse Bartley Milam was the Principal Chief of the Cherokee Nation from 1941 to 1949. ... Franklin Delano Roosevelt (January 30, 1882–April 12, 1945), 32nd President of the United States, the longest-serving holder of the office and the only man to be elected President more than twice, was one of the central figures of 20th century history. ...


W. W. Keeler was appointed chief in 1949. Because the federal government had adopted a self-determination policy, the Cherokee Nation was able to rebuild its government and W. W. Keeler was elected chief by the people, via a Congressional Act signed by President Richard Nixon. Keeler, who was also the President of Phillips Petroleum, was succeeded by Ross Swimmer and then Wilma Mankiller. Nixon redirects here. ... ConocoPhillips (NYSE: COP) was founded by the merger of the Conoco Inc. ... Wilma Pearl Mankiller (born November 18, 1945 in Tahlequah, Oklahoma) was the first female Chief of the Cherokee Nation. ...


The 1997 Cherokee Constitutional Crisis

The Cherokee Nation was seriously destabilized in May 1997 in what was variously described as either a nationalist "uprising" or an "anti-constitutional coup" instigated by Joe Byrd, their Principal Chief. Elected in 1995 Byrd's style of government had left him locked in a battle of strength with the judicial branch of the Cherokee tribe. The crisis came to a dramatic head when on March 22, 1997 Joe Byrd, Principal Chief, stated in a press conference that he would decide which orders of the Cherokee Nation’s Supreme Court were lawful and which were not. A simmering crisis continued over the creation by the Principal Chief of his own private, armed paramilitary force. The crisis came to a head on June 20, 1997 when his private army illegally seize custody of the Cherokee Nation Courthouse from its legal caretakers and occupants, the Cherokee Nation Marshals, the Judicial Appeals Tribunal and its court clerks, and to physically oust the lawful occupants at gunpoint. Immediately there were demands for the courthouse to be returned to the judicial branch of the Cherokee Nation but these requests were ignored by the Principal Chief [19] For the band, see 1997 (band). ... During the 1998 Cherokee National Holiday, Joe Byrds private Security Forces and BIA Police armed with guns and rifles looked down from rooftops onto the crowd of Cherokee Elders, families, and children while a BIA helicopter circled overhead. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday. ...


The Federal Authorities of the United States initially refused to intervene because this would constitute a breach of tribal sovereignty. However, the State of Oklahoma recognized that the activities of Joe Byrd were breaches in State Law and by August had sent in state troopers and specialist anti-terrorist teams. Joe Byrd was forced to attend a meeting in Washington DC with the Bureau of Indian Affairs where he was compelled to re-open the courts. He served the remainder of his elected term under supervision and remains a free man. For other uses, see Oklahoma (disambiguation). ... Flag Seal Nickname: DC, The District Motto: Justitia Omnibus (Justice for All) Location Location of Washington, D.C., with regard to the surrounding states of Maryland and Virginia. ... The Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) is an agency of the federal government of the United States within the Department of the Interior charged with the administration and management of 55. ...


Joe Byrd lost the election in 1999 to Chad Smith who is currently the chief of the Nation. Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ... Chadwick Corntassel Smith Principal Chief of the Cherokee Nation Chadwick Corntassel Smith was elected as Principal Chief of the Cherokee Nation in 1999. ...


The United Keetoowah Band

The United Keetoowah Band took a different track than the Cherokee Nation and received federal recognition after the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934 . Members of the United Keetoowah Band are descended from the Old Settlers, Cherokees who moved west before the Removal. The tribe requires a quarter blood quantum for enrollment and UKB members must have at least one ancestor listed on the Final Dawes Roll of the Cherokee. The Indian Reorganization Act of 1934, also known as the Wheeler-Howard Act or informally, the Indian New Deal, was a U.S. federal legislation which secured certain rights to Native Americans, including Alaska Natives. ... Blood Quantum Laws is an umbrella term that describes legislation enacted to define membership in Native American groups. ...


Customs and Ceremonies

Marriage

In Indian Territory, for a white man to marry a Cherokee woman, he was required to petition the court with approval of ten of her blood relatives. Once married, the man became a member of the tribe, yet could not hold any tribal office. Yet he still remained under the laws of the United States. Many chose to live together and call themselves married. This was known as "common law" marriage.


Language and writing system

Main article: Cherokee language
Sequoyah
Sequoyah

The Cherokee speak an Iroquoian language which is polysynthetic and is written in a syllabary invented by Sequoyah (ᏍᏏᏆᏱ). For years, many people wrote transliterated Cherokee on the Internet or used poorly intercompatible fonts to type out the syllabary. However, since the fairly recent addition of the Cherokee syllables to Unicode, the Cherokee language is experiencing a renaissance in its use on the Internet. As of January 2007, however, the Cherokee Nation of Oklahoma still officially uses a non-unicode font for online documents, including online editions of the Cherokee Phoenix.[citation needed] Original distribution of the Cherokee language Cherokee (; Tsalagi) is an Iroquoian language spoken by the Cherokee people which uses a unique syllabary writing system. ... Download high resolution version (500x720, 58 KB)Picture of Sequoyah from the danish Wikipedia. ... Download high resolution version (500x720, 58 KB)Picture of Sequoyah from the danish Wikipedia. ... Insert non-formatt#REDIRECT [[stinky]]ed text here Pre-European contact distribution of the Iroquoian languages. ... Polysynthetic languages are highly synthetic languages, i. ... A syllabary is a set of written symbols that represent (or approximate) syllables, which make up words. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The Unicode Standard, Version 5. ... The Cherokee Phoenix was the first Indian published newspaper. ...

Cherokee Syllabary

The Cherokee language does not contain any "r" based sounds, and as such, the word "Cherokee" when spoken in the language is expressed as Tsa-la-gi (pronounced Jah-la-gee, or Je-la-gee) by native speakers, since these sounds most closely resemble the English language. A Southern Cherokee group did speak a local dialect with a trill consonant "r" sound, after early contact with Europeans of both French and Spanish ancestry in Georgia and Alabama during the early 18th century (This "r" sound spoken in the dialect of the Elati, or Lower, Cherokee area – Georgia and Alabama – became extinct in the 19th century around the time of the Trail of Tears, examples are Tsaragi or Tse-La-gee). The ancient Ani-kutani (ᎠᏂᎫᏔᏂ) dialect and Oklahoma dialects do not contain any 'r'-based sounds. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... In phonetics, a trill is a consonantal sound produced by vibrations between the articulator and the place of articulation. ... Ah-ni-ku-ta-ni or Ah-ni-gu-ta-ni (pronounced Ah-nee-koo-tah-nee/Ah-nee-goo-tah-nee) were the ancient priesthood of the Cherokee or Ah-ni-yv-wi-ya people. ...


Because of the polysynthetic nature of the Cherokee Language, new and descriptive words in Cherokee are easily constructed to reflect or express modern concepts. Some good examples are di-ti-yo-hi-hi (Cherokee:ᏗᏘᏲᎯᎯ) which means "he argues repeatedly and on purpose with a purpose". This is the Cherokee word for attorney. Another example is di-da-ni-yi-s-gi (Cherokee:ᏗᏓᏂᏱᏍᎩ) which means the final catcher or "he catches them finally and conclusively". This is the Cherokee word for policeman.


Many words, however, have been borrowed from the English Language, such as gasoline which in Cherokee is ga-so-li-ne (Cherokee:ᎦᏐᎵᏁ). Many other words were borrowed from the languages of tribes who settled in Oklahoma in the early twentieth century. One of the more humorous examples relates to an own on Oklahoma named "Nowata". The word "nowata" is a Delaware Indian word for "welcome" (more precisely the Delaware word is "nu-wi-ta" which can mean "welcome" or "friend" in the Delaware Language). The white settlers of the area used the name "nowata" for the township, and local Cherokee's, being unaware the word had its origins in the Delaware Language, called the town a-ma-di-ka-ni-gv-na-gv-na (Cherokee:ᎠᎹᏗᎧᏂᎬᎾᎬᎾ) which means "the water is all gone from here", i.e. "no water".


Other examples of borrowed words are ka-wi (Cherokee:ᎧᏫ) for coffee and wa-tsi (Cherokee:ᏩᏥ) for watch (which led to u-ta-na wa-tsi (Cherokee:ᎤᏔᎾ ᏩᏥ) or "big watch" for clock).


Language drift

There are two main dialects in Cherokee spoken by modern speakers. The Giduwa dialect (Eastern Band) and the Otali Dialect (also called the Overhill dialect) spoken in Oklahoma. The Otali dialect has drifted significantly from Sequoyah's Syllabary in the past 150 years, and many contracted and borrowed words have been adopted into the language. These noun and verb roots in Cherokee, however, can still be mapped to Sequoyah's Syllabary. In modern times, there are more than 85 syllables in use by modern Cherokee speakers. Modern Cherokee speakers who speak Otali employ 122 distinct syllables in Oklahoma.


Treaties, Government and Tribal Recognition

Treaties


Treaty of Hopeville, 1785: Changed the boundaries between the U.S. and Cherokee lands. Known as the "Talking Leaves Treaty" since the Cherokee claimed that when the treaties no longer suited the Americans, they would blow away like talking leaves.


Treaty of Holston, 1791:Established boundaries between the United States and the Cherokee Nation. Guaranteed by the United States that the lands of the Cherokee Nation have not been ceded to the United States. The Treaty of Holston was signed William Blount, governor in and over the territory of the United States south of the Ohio River, and superintendent of Indian Affairs for the southern district for the United States and representatives of the Cherokee Nation on July 2, 1791 and proclaimed on February...


Treaty with the Cherokee, 1798: The boundaries promised in the previous treaty had not been marked and white settlers had come in. Because of this, the Cherokee were told they would need to cede new lands as an "acknowledgement" of the protection of the United States. The U.S. would guarantee the Cherokee could keep the remainder of their land "forever".


Treaties of Tellico, 1804 - 1806: Roads had been built on the Cherokee land, and the U.S. added that it's citizens should have "free and unmolested use and enjoyment of them", plus build a new road to deliver mail. Give the State of Tennessee some land for to convene an assembly. The U.S. wanted the Cherokee to become farmers. They began to send farming tools and spinning wheels as part of the treaties in place of some of the monies that were to be paid.


Treaties of Washington: 1819 - 1835


Resolution of Rattlesnake Springs, 1838: "Resolved, by the Committee and Council of the Cherokee Nation in General Council assembled, that the whole Cherokee territory, as described in the first article of the treaty of 1819 between the United States and the Cherokee Nation, and, also, in the constitution of the Cherokee Nation, still remains the rightful and undoubted property of the said Cherokee Nation; and that all damages and losses, direct or indirect, resulting from the enforcement of the alleged stipulations of the pretended treaty of New Echota, are in justice and equity, chargeable to the account of the United States. The inherent sovereignty of the Cherokee Nation, together with the constitution, laws, and usages, of the same, are, and, by the authority aforesaid, hereby declared to be in full force and virtue, and shall continue so to be in perpetuity, subject to such modifications as the general welfare may render expedient. The Cherokee people do not intend that it shall be so construed as yielding or giving sanction or approval to the pretended treaty of 1835; nor as compromising, in any manner, their just claim against the United States hereafter, for a full and satisfactory indemnification for their country and for all individual losses and injuries."


Government


1822 A Cherokee supreme court was established


1823 National committee given power to review acts of national council.


1827 Cherokee Constitution


1839 Cherokee Constitution (after relocation)


1868 First declaration of a formal government of the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians


1888 Charter of Incorporation issued by the State of North Carolina to the Eastern Band


1975 Constitution of the Cherokee Nation of Oklahoma


The Moytoy ruled the Cherokee people through the sixteenth and eighteenth centuries culminating with the destruction of Chota-Tanasi by the American revolutionary forces fighting Oconostota in 1780. However Oconostota's successor, Hanging Maw, married a granddaughter of Moytoy I (and sister of Attacullaculla). During this time, inheritance was largely matrilineal. Kinship and clan membership was of primary importance until around 1820. Moytoy II was the leading Chief of the Cherokee tribe from April 3, 1730 to 1760. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Stalking Turkey. ... Hanging Maw was the leading chief of the Cherokee from 1780 to 1792. ... Attacullaculla of Chota-Tenase, Principal Chief of the Cherokee, (ca. ...


After being ravaged by smallpox, and pressed by increasingly violent land-hungry settlers, the Cherokee adopted a whiteman's form of government in an effort to retain their lands. They established a governmental system modeled on that of the United States, with an elected principal chief, senate, and house of representatives. On April 10, 1810 the seven Cherokee clans met and began the abolition of blood vengeance by giving the sacred duty to the new Cherokee National government. Clans formally relinquished judicial responsibilities by the 1820s when the Cherokee Supreme Court was established. In 1825, the National Council extended citizenship to the children of Cherokee men married to white women. These ideas were largely incorporated into the 1827 Cherokee constitution.[20] The constitution stated that "No person who is of negro or mulatlo [sic] parentage, either by the father or mother side, shall be eligible to hold any office of profit, honor or trust under this Government," with an exception for, "negroes and descendants of white and Indian men by negro women who may have been set free."[21] This feeling may have been more widely held among the elite than the general population.[22] Representation of Mulattos during the Latin American colonial period Mulatto (also Mulato) is a term of Spanish and/or Portuguese origin describing the first generation offspring of a Sub-Saharan African and a European. ...


Today the Cherokee Nation of Oklahoma has judicial, executive and legislative branches with executive power vested in the Principal Chief, legislative power in the Tribal Council, and judicial power in the Cherokee Nation Judicial Appeals Tribunal.


The Principal and Deputy Principal Chief, and the council are elected to four-year terms by the registered tribal voters. The council is the legislative branch of government and represent the nine districts of the Cherokee Nation in the 14 county jurisdictional area.


The judicial branch of tribal government includes the District Court and Judicial Appeals Tribunal, which is comparable to the U.S. Supreme Court. The tribunal consists of three members who are appointed by the Principal Chief and confirmed by the council. It is the highest court of the Cherokee Nation and oversees internal legal disputes and the District Court. The District Judge and an Associate District Judge preside over the tribe’s District Court and hear all cases brought before it under jurisdiction of the Cherokee Nation Judicial Code.


The Congress of the United States, The Federal Courts, and State Courts have repeatedly upheld the sovereignty of Native Tribes, defining their relationship in political rather than racial terms, and have stated it is a compelling interest of the United States.[23]This principle of self-government and tribal sovereignty is controversial. According to the Boston College Sociologist and Cherokee Citizen, Eva Marie Garroutte, there are upwards of 32 separate definitions of "Indian" used in federal legislation as of a 1978 congressional survey.[24] The 1994 Federal Legislation AIRFA (American Indian Religious Freedom Act) defines an Indian as one who belongs to an Indian Tribe, which is a group that "is recognized as eligible for the special programs and services provided by the United States to Indians because of their status as Indians." Congress in Joint Session. ... The American Indian Religious Freedom Act (commonly abbreviated to AIRFA) is a 1978 United States federal law and a joint resolution of Congress which pledged to protect and preserve the traditional religious rights of American Indians, Eskimos, Aleuts, and Native Hawaiians. ...


Race and blood quantum are not factors in CNO tribal eligibility. To be considered a citizen in the Cherokee Nation of Oklahoma , you need one Indian ancestor listed on the Dawes Rolls[25]. The tribe currently has members who share African-American, Latino, Asian, white and other ancestry. The Eastern Band Cherokee and United Keetoowah tribes do require one quarter Cherokee blood quantum. The Dawes Rolls were created by the Dawes Commission. ...


Tribal Recognition

Many groups have sought recognition by the federal government as Cherokee tribes, but today there are only three groups recognized by the government. Cherokee Nation spokesman Mike Miller has discussed that some groups, which he calls Cherokee Heritage Groups, are encouraged.[26] Others, however, are controversial for their attempts to gain economically through their claims to be Cherokee, a claim which is disputed by the three federally recognized groups, who assert themselves as the only groups having the legal right to present themselves as Cherokee Indian Tribes.[27] This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ...


Modern Cherokee Nation

Cherokee Nation Historic Courthouse in Tahlequah, Oklahoma.
Cherokee Nation Historic Courthouse in Tahlequah, Oklahoma.
The Cherokee Female Seminary was built in 1889 by the Oklahoma Cherokees.
The Cherokee Female Seminary was built in 1889 by the Oklahoma Cherokees.

The modern Cherokee nation, in recent times, has experienced an almost unprecedented expansion in economic growth, equality, and prosperity for its citizens. The Cherokee Nation of Oklahoma (CNO), under the leadership of Principal Chief Chad Smith, has significant business, corporate, real estate, and agricultural interests, including numerous highly profitable casino operations. The CNO controls Cherokee Nation Enterprises, Cherokee Nation Industries, and Cherokee Nation Businesses. CNI is a very large defense contractor that creates thousands of jobs in eastern Oklahoma for Cherokee citizens. Chadwick “Corntassel” Smith was elected as Principal Chief of the Cherokee Nation in 1999. ...


The CNO has constructed health clinics throughout Oklahoma, contributed to community development programs, built roads and bridges, constructed learning facilities and universities for its citizens, instilled the practice of Gadugi and self-reliance in its citizens, revitalized language immersion programs for its children and youth, and is a powerful and positive economic and political force in Eastern Oklahoma. This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ...


The CNO hosts the Cherokee National Holiday on Labor Day weekend each year, and 80,000 to 90,000 Cherokee Citizens travel to Tahlequah, Oklahoma, for the festivities. It also publishes the Cherokee Phoenix, a tribal newspaper which has operated continuously since 1828, publishing editions in both English and the Sequoyah Syllabary. The Cherokee Nation council appropriates money for historic foundations concerned with the preservation of Cherokee Culture, including the Cherokee Heritage Center which hosts a reproduction of an ancient Cherokee Village, Adams Rural Village (a turn-of-the-century village), Nofire Farms and the Cherokee Family Research Center (genealogy), which is open to the public.[28] The Cherokee Heritage Center is home to the Cherokee National Museum, which has numerous exhibitions also open to the public. The CHC is the repository for the Cherokee Nation as its National Archives. The CHC operates under the Cherokee National Historical Society, Inc., and is governed by a Board of Trustees with an executive committee. The Cherokee National Holiday is an annual event held each Labor Day weekend in Tahlequah, OK. The event celebrates the September 6, 1839 signing of the Cherokee Nation Constitution in Oklahoma after the Trail of Tears Indian removal ended. ... This article is about the holiday in the United States. ... Tahlequah is a city in Cherokee County, Oklahoma, United States. ... The Cherokee Phoenix was the first Indian published newspaper. ... The Cherokee Heritage Center is a historical society and museum campus located in Tahlequah, Oklahoma sponsored by the Cherokee Nation that seeks to preserve historical and cultural artifacts, language, traditional crafts, and culture of the Cherokee People in Oklahoma, and also hosts the central geneaology database and geneaology research center...


The Cherokee Nation of Oklahoma also supports the Cherokee Nation Film Festivals in Tahlequah, Oklahoma and participates in the Sundance Film Festival in Park City, Utah. The Silver King mine was once the worlds richest. ...


The Eastern Band of the Cherokee Indians in North Carolina led by Chief Michell Hicks hosts over a million visitors a year to cultural attractions of the 100-square-mile sovereign nation. This reservation, the "Qualla Boundary" has a population of over 8000 Cherokee consisting primarily of direct descendants of those Indians who managed to avoid “The Trail of Tears”. Attractions include the Oconaluftee Indian Village, Museum of the Cherokee Indian, and the country’s oldest and foremost Native American crafts cooperative. The outdoor drama "Unto These Hills" which debuted in 1950 recently broke record attendance sales. Together with Harrah’s Cherokee Casino and Hotel, Cherokee Indian Hospital and Cherokee Boys Club the tribe put over $78 million dollars into the local economy in 2005. The Qualla Boundary is essentially the reservation of the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians in North Carolina. ... Between 1790 and 1830 the population of Georgia increased six-fold. ...


Environment

Today the Cherokee Nation is one of America's biggest proponents of ecological protection. Since 1992, the Nation has served as the lead for the Inter-Tribal Environmental Council.[29] The mission of ITEC is to protect the health of American Indians, their natural resources and their environment as it relates to air, land and water. To accomplish this mission, ITEC provides technical support, training and environmental services in a variety of environmental disciplines. Currently, there over forty ITEC member tribes in Oklahoma, New Mexico, and Texas. Official language(s) None Spoken language(s) English 68. ... For other uses, see Texas (disambiguation). ...


Cherokee Freedmen

The seal of the Cherokee Nation.
The seal of the Cherokee Nation.

The Cherokee Freedmen, descendants of African American slaves owned by citizens of the Cherokee Nation during the Antebellum Period, were first guaranteed Cherokee citizenship via treaty in 1866, in the wake of the American Civil War. Their citizenship was revoked in the 1980s. On March 7, 2006, the Cherokee Nation Judicial Appeal Tribunal announced that the Cherokee Freedmen were eligible once more for Cherokee citizenship. This ruling proved controversial; while the Cherokee Freedman had historically been recorded as "citizens" of the Cherokee Nation at least since 1866 and the later Dawes Commission Land Rolls, the ruling "did not limit membership to people possessing Cherokee blood".[30] This ruling was consistent with the 1975 Constitution of the Cherokee Nation, in its acceptance of the Cherokee Freedmen on the basis of historical citizenship, rather than evidenced blood relation. Cherokee Citizens of the Cherokee Nation of Diverse Ancestry (2007) The Cherokee Freedmen controversy is an on-going political and tribal dispute among the Cherokee Nation and the Cherokee Freedmen (descendants of the former slaves of Cherokee citizens). ... Image File history File links CNSeal. ... Image File history File links CNSeal. ... An African American (also Afro-American, Black American, or simply black) is a member of an ethnic group in the United States whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Africa. ... Look up Antebellum in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... is the 66th day of the year (67th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The American Dawes Commission, named for its first chairman Henry L. Dawes, was authorized under a rider to an Indian Office appropriation bill, March 3, 1893. ...


The Principal Chief of the Cherokee Nation, Chad Smith, later announced that because of issues raised by the Cherokee people, the issue of Freedmen citizenship was being considered for a vote proposing amendments to the Cherokee Nation Constitution. These amendments were intended to restrict tribal membership exclusively to Cherokees by blood descent, thus excluding the Freedmen from tribal membership.[31] The Constitution had always restricted governmental positions to persons of Cherokee blood. Chadwick Corntassel Smith Principal Chief of the Cherokee Nation Chadwick Corntassel Smith was elected as Principal Chief of the Cherokee Nation in 1999. ...


In March 2007, the tribe voted on the constitutional amendment.[32] 76.6% of voters affirmed the proposed amendment, revoking the tribal citizenship of the descendants of black slaves who had formerly been considered Cherokee citizens.[33] The vote to oust the Freedmen provoked a firestorm of controversy, particularly from various political circles, including the Congressional Black Caucus. There were calls for the revocation of all federal funding for the Cherokee Nation.[34] The Congressional Black Caucus is an organization representing African American members of the Congress of the United States. ...


The Cherokee Freedmen were reinstated as citizens of the Cherokee Nation by the Cherokee Nation Tribal Courts on May 15, 2007, while appeals are pending in the Cherokee Nation Courts and Federal Court.[35] is the 135th day of the year (136th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ...


On May 22, 2007, the Cherokee Nation received notice from the United States Bureau of Indian Affairs that the BIA and Federal Government had denied the amendments to the 1975 Cherokee Nation Constitution because it required BIA approval, which had not been obtained. The BIA also noted that the Cherokee Nation had excluded the Cherokee Freedmen from the amendment vote. The Cherokee Nation Supreme Court ruled that the Cherokee Nation could take away the approval authority it had granted the federal government. Principal Chief Smith has also argued against the requirement of BIA approval for constitutional amendments.[36][37] Congresswoman Diane Watson responded by introducing a bill which would sever ties between the United States and the Cherokee Nation until the Freedmen issue is resolved.[38][39] is the 142nd day of the year (143rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... The Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) is an agency of the federal government of the United States within the Department of the Interior charged with the administration and management of 55. ... Diane Edith Watson PhD (born November 12, 1933), American politician, has been a member of the United States House of Representatives since 2001, representing the 33rd District of California (map). ...


As of August 9, 2007, the BIA has given the Cherokee Nation consent to modify their Constitution without approval from the Department of the Interior.[40] is the 221st day of the year (222nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ...


Relationship with the Eastern Band

The Cherokee Nation participates in numerous joint programs with the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians. It also participates in cultural exchange programs and joint Tribal Council meetings involving councillors from both Cherokee Tribes which address issues affecting all of the Cherokee People. Unlike the adversarial relationship between the administrations of the United Keetoowah Band of Cherokee Indians and the Cherokee Nation, the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians interactions with the Cherokee Nation present a unified spirit of Gadugi with the leaders and citizens of the Eastern Band. The United Keetoowah Band tribal council unanimously passed a resolution to approach the Cherokee Nation for a joint council meeting between the two Nations, as a means of "offering the olive branch", in the words of the UKB Council. While a date was set for the meeting between members of the Cherokee Nation council and UKB representation Chief Smith vetoed the meeting. Image File history File links Easternbandcherokeeflag. ... Image File history File links Easternbandcherokeeflag. ... The United Keetoowah Band of Cherokee Indians are a federally recognized Band of Indians headquartered in Tahlequah, Oklahoma. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ...


Marriage Law controversy

On June 14, 2004, the Cherokee Nation Tribal Council voted to officially define marriage as a union between man and woman, thereby outlawing same-sex marriage. This decision came in response to an application by a lesbian couple submitted on May 13. The decision kept Cherokee law in line with Oklahoma state law, which outlawed gay marriage as the result of a popular referendum on a constitutional amendment in 2004. is the 165th day of the year (166th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Recognized in some regions United States (MA, CA eff. ... is the 133rd day of the year (134th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Famous Cherokees

There have been many famous Cherokees in American history, including Sequoyah, who invented the Cherokee writing system. It was thought for many years that he was the only person to single-handedly invent a writing system, however it has been recently speculated that there was an ancient clan of Cherokee priests who had an older, mostly secret rudimentary written language from which Sequoyah may have gotten inspiration. Many historians speculate that Sequoyah never learned to speak, read or write the English language for various reasons. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


Jimi Hendrix, lead singer, guitarist, revolutionist and frontman of Jimi Hendrix Experience, was of Cherokee heritage through his maternal grandmother, Nora Rose Moore.[41] Musician Tori Amos also shares Cherokee ancestry.[42] Jimi Hendrix (November 27, 1942 – September 18, 1970) was an American guitar virtuoso, singer and songwriter. ... Jimi Hendrix James Marshall Jimi Hendrix (November 27, 1942 - September 18, 1970) was an American guitarist, singer, songwriter and producer who is widely considered to be the most important electric guitarist in the history of popular music. ... Tori Amos (born Myra Ellen Amos on August 22, 1963) is an American pianist and singer-songwriter. ...


Elias Boudinot, statesman, orator, and editor, wrote "Poor Sarah", the first Native-American novel. Stand Watie, Buck's younger brother, was a famous frontiersman and the last commander of Confederate forces to surrender in the American Civil War. Elias Boudinot Elias Boudinot (1800–1839) was a Cherokee Indian who started and edited the tribes first newspaper. ... Stand Watie Stand Watie (12 December 1806 – 9 September 1871) (also known as Degataga stand firm and Isaac S. Watie) was a leader of the Cherokee Nation and a brigadier general of the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War. ... Motto Deo Vindice (Latin: Under God, Our Vindicator) Anthem (none official) God Save the South (unofficial) The Bonnie Blue Flag (unofficial) Dixie (unofficial)  States that seceded under CSA control  States and territories claimed by CSA without formal secession and/or control Capital Montgomery, Alabama (until May 29, 1861) Richmond, Virginia... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total...


Ned Christie was a Cherokee patriot who became the subject of many books and magazine articles, including a fictional novel by Pulitzer Prize-winning author Larry McMurtry (Zeke and Ned) and Ned Christie's War, a Western novel by author Robert J. Conley. // Ned Christie, a Cherokee, was born December 14, 1852 at Wauhillau, in the Goingsnake District of the Cherokee Nation and died November 3, 1892 in the Goingsnake District. ... The Pulitzer Prize is an American award regarded as the highest national honor in print journalism, literary achievements, and musical composition. ... Larry McMurtry (born June 3, 1936 in Wichita Falls, Texas) is a novelist, screenwriter, and essayist. ... Robert J. Conley (1940-) is a Cherokee author living in Omaha. ...


Will Rogers was of Cherokee heritage.[43] Businessman and owner of the Tennessee Titans football team Bud Adams is an enrolled member of the tribe. William Penn Adair Rogers (November 4, 1879 – August 15, 1935) was a Cherokee-American cowboy, comedian, humorist, social commentator, vaudeville performer, and actor. ... City Nashville, Tennessee Team colors Navy, Titan Blue, White, and Red Head Coach Jeff Fisher Owner Bud Adams General manager Mike Reinfeldt Mascot T-Rac League/Conference affiliations American Football League (1960–1969) Eastern Division (1960–1969) National Football League (1970–present) American Football Conference (1970–present) AFC Central (1970... Kenneth Stanley Bud Adams, Jr. ...


Tom Threepersons, an early 20th century cowboy, lawman, soldier, and Rodeo winner of the 1912 Calgary Stampede, was an Oklahoma born Cherokee. He was the subject of the biography, Tom Threepersons, the Legend of an Indian Cowboy, by author Hugh A. Dempsey. (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999 in the... For other uses, see Cowboy (disambiguation). ... Police officers in South Australia German state police officer in Hamburg A police officer (also known as a policeman or police constable, and colloquially as copper, cop or bobby (on the beat)) is a warranted worker of a police force. ... This article is about a military rank. ... For other uses, see Rodeo (disambiguation). ... Year 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Rider at the Stampede Rodeo Statue at Stampede Grounds, with the Calgary Tower in the background Stampede grounds The Calgary Stampede, which bills itself as The Greatest Outdoor Show on Earth, is a large, non-profit festival, exhibition, and rodeo held in Calgary, Alberta for 10 days in the second... For other uses, see Biography (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Author (disambiguation). ...


U.S. Congressman Larry McDonald from Georgia was of Cherokee heritage, through his mother's side of the family. His father's family hailed from Scotland. Lawrence Patton McDonald (April 1, 1935 – September 1, 1983) was an American statesman and a member of the United States House of Representatives, representing the seventh congressional district of Georgia as a Democrat. ...


Other famous people who claim Cherokee ancestry (some are highly questionable such as controversial college professor and political activist Ward Churchhill) include the actors Johnny Depp, Liv Tyler, Shannon Elizabeth, Burt Reynolds, James Garner, Chuck Norris, James Earl Jones, Lou Diamond Philips, David Carradine, Charisma Carpenter, Wes Studi, Stephanie Kramer and Christopher Judge ; the dancers Mark Ballas and Eve Torres ; the musicians Steven Tyler (Aerosmith), Nokie Edwards (The Ventures), John Phillips (The Mamas and the Papas), Eartha Kitt, Tim McGraw, Bill McGrath, Billy Ray Cyrus, Miley Cyrus; the actress, model, and singer Ashley Tesoro; the actress Megan Fox; the actress and singer Cher (her real name Cherilyn Ann Sarkisian); the singer, musician and actor Elvis Presley ; actress and models Hunter Tylo, Carmen Electra, Daisy Fuentes, Janice Dickinson and Ali Landry; actress Catherine Zeta Jones despite the fact she's from Britain; the singers Rita Coolidge and Tiffany ; the country music singers Billy Ray Cyrus, Loretta Lynn and Crystal Gayle; the boxer Jack Dempsey ; comedian Jeanane Garofalo; baseball catcher Park Owens; basketball guard Cherokee Parks; the painter Robert Rauschenberg ; actor and environmentalist Robert Redford; the activists Rosa Parks and John Leak Springston, former principal chief of the Cherokee Nation, Wilma Mankiller; and the writers Mitch Cullin and Alex Haley. John Christopher Depp II[1] (born June 9, 1963) is an American actor, best known for his frequent portrayals of offbeat and eccentric characters such as Jack Sparrow in the Pirates of the Caribbean trilogy and the titular character of Tim Burtons Edward Scissorhands. ... Liv Tyler (born Liv Rundgren, on July 1, 1977, at Mount Sinai Hospital in New York City, New York[1]) is an American actress and model. ... Shannon Elizabeth (born Shannon Elizabeth Fadal; September 7, 1973) is an American actress and former fashion model. ... Burton Leon Reynolds, Jr. ... For other uses, see James Garner (disambiguation). ... Carlos Ray Chuck Norris (born on 10 March 1940) is an American martial artist, action star, Hollywood actor, and recently, an internet phenomenon, who is best known for playing Cordell Walker on Walker, Texas Ranger. ... James Earl Jones (born January 17, 1931) is an American Academy Award-nominated, Emmy- and Tony Award-winning actor of film and stage well known for his deep basso voice. ... Phillips from a promo poster for La Bamba Lou Diamond Phillips (born Louis Upchurch on February 17, 1962, at Subic Bay Naval Station, Philippines), named for Marine legend Lou Diamond, is an American actor. ... David Carradine (born John Arthur Carradine on December 8, 1936 in Hollywood, California) is an American actor. ... Charisma Lee Carpenter (born July 23, 1970) is an American actress. ... Wesley Wes Studi (born December 17, 1947) is an American actor of Cherokee Indian descent. ... Stepfanie Kramer (born August 6, 1956) is an American actress and singer. ... Douglas Christopher Judge (born October 13, 1964 in Los Angeles, California) is an American actor of African American and Cherokee Indian descent. ... Mark Ballas is a professional ballroom dancer on the ABC program Dancing with the Stars. ... -1... Stephen Victor Tallarico (born March 26, 1948 in Yonkers, New York),[1] better known as Steven Tyler (and often nicknamed The Demon of Screamin) is an American musician and songwriter. ... This article is about the band Aerosmith. ... Nokie Edwards (born Nole Edwards 9 May 1935, in Lahoma, Oklahoma) is a guitarist best known for his work with The Ventures. ... Several notable people have been called John Phillips: John Phillips (1935-2001) was a musician and member of The Mamas & the Papas John Phillips (1631-1706) was an author and secretary to John Milton Sir John Phillips (1700-1764) was appointed a Privy Counsellor in 1763. ... The Mamas & the Papas were a leading vocal group of the 1960s, and one of the few American groups to maintain widespread success during the British Invasion, along with The Beach Boys. ... Eartha Kitt (born Eartha Mae Keith on January 17, 1927),[1] is an American actress, singer, and cabaret star. ... For the song by Taylor Swift, see Tim McGraw (song). ... Billy Ray Cyrus (born August 25, 1961) is an American country singer-songwriter and actor, best known for his hit single Achy Breaky Heart. A multi-platinum selling recording artist, he has one number one country single and seven top-ten singles. ... Miley Cyrus (born Destiny Hope Cyrus[1] on November 23, 1992 in Franklin, Tennessee) is an American actress and singer. ... Ashley Lyn Cafagna (born February 15, 1983 in Iowa City, Iowa, United States), better known as Ashley Tesoro, is an American actress and singer. ... -1... This article is about the entertainer. ... Elvis redirects here. ... Hunter Tylo (born July 3, 1962) is an American actress. ... Tara Patrick redirects here. ... Daisy Fuentes Daisy Fuentes (born November 17, 1966 in Havana, Cuba) is a Cuban model and actress. ... Janice Doreen Dickinson (born 15 february 1955) is an American supermodel [1][2] fashion photographer, actress, author and agent. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Catherine Zeta-Jones as seen in the 2004 film The Terminal Catherine Zeta_Jones (born September 25, 1969) is an Academy Award-winning Welsh actress. ... Rita Coolidge (born May 1, 1945, in Lafayette, Tennessee) is a Grammy Award winning American Singer. ... Tiffany Renee Darwish (born October 2, 1971), known popularly as Tiffany, is an American singer who had a number of teen pop hits during the late 1980s. ... Billy Ray Cyrus (born August 25, 1961) is an American country singer-songwriter and actor, best known for his hit single Achy Breaky Heart. A multi-platinum selling recording artist, he has one number one country single and seven top-ten singles. ... Loretta Lynn (born Loretta Webb April 14, 1934) is an American country singer-songwriter and was one of the leading country female vocalists during the 1960s and 1970s and overall is revered as a country icon. ... (UTC) Crystal Gayle (born January 8, 1951) is an American country singer best known for a series of country-pop crossover hits in the late 70s and early 80s, including the Grammy Award-winning, Dont It Make My Brown Eyes Blue. ... For other uses, including another boxing champion, see Jack Dempsey (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Rauschenberg redirects here. ... Robert Redford (born August 18, 1936)[1] is an Academy Award-winning American motion picture director, actor, producer, businessman, model, environmentalist and philanthropist. ... Rosa Louise McCauley Parks (February 4, 1913 – October 24, 2005) was an African American civil rights activist and seamstress whom the U.S. Congress dubbed the Mother of the Modern-Day Civil Rights Movement. Parks is famous for her refusal on December 1, 1955 to obey bus driver James Blake... John Leak Springston (1844 – 1929) John Leak Springston, circa: 1870 John Leak Springston, a Cherokee, is best known as an Indian activist; during his life he was a Cherokee Interpreter, Editor, Lawyer, and Keetoowah Revivalist. ... Wilma Pearl Mankiller (born November 18, 1945 in Tahlequah, Oklahoma) was the first female Chief of the Cherokee Nation. ... Mitch Cullin (born March 23, 1968 in Santa Fe, New Mexico) is an American writer of Scotch-Irish and Cherokee descent. ... Alexander Murray Palmer Haley (August 11, 1921 – February 10, 1992) was an American writer. ...


See also

The Anglo-Cherokee War (1759–1761), also known as the Cherokee War, the Cherokee Uprising, the Cherokee Rebellion, was a conflict between British forces in North America and Cherokee Indians during the French and Indian War. ... Ah-ni-ku-ta-ni or Ah-ni-gu-ta-ni (pronounced Ah-nee-koo-tah-nee/Ah-nee-goo-tah-nee) were the ancient priesthood of the Cherokee or Ah-ni-yv-wi-ya people. ... Black Indians is a term generally used to describe people who have significant traces of both African and Native American ancestry and/or African Americans who have lived for a long time with Native Americans. ... The Cherokee Black Drink was a ceremonial drink consumed during purification and renewal ceremonies under the ancient Ah-ni-ku-ta-ni moon ceremonies traditionally performed by the Cherokee or Ah-ni-yv-wi-ya people. ... The Cherokee Clans were the traditional social organization of ancient Cherokee or Ah-ni-yv-wi-ya society. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... Original distribution of the Cherokee language Cherokee (; Tsalagi) is an Iroquoian language spoken by the Cherokee people which uses a unique syllabary writing system. ... The Cherokee Moons Ceremonies were the ancient seasonal round of ceremonies practiced during ancient times by the Ah-ni-yv-wi-ya or Cherokee People in the ancient culture. ... The Cherokee are a Native American culture who mainly live in the southeastern United States and in Oklahoma. ... Cherokee Nation Warriors Society Color Guard and Color Guard for the Cherokee Nation. ... The Cherokee National Holiday is an annual event held each Labor Day weekend in Tahlequah, OK. The event celebrates the September 6, 1839 signing of the Cherokee Nation Constitution in Oklahoma after the Trail of Tears Indian removal ended. ... The Old North State Council (ONSC) is a local council of the Boy Scouts of America that serves the western Piedmont Triad region of North Carolina. ... Cherokee society refers to the society and culture of the Cherokee (or ah-ni-yv-wi-ya in Cherokee) people. ... The Chickamauga Wars (1776–1794) were a series of conflicts that were a continuation of the Cherokee struggle against the encroachment into their territory by American frontiersmen from the British colonies which had broken out into open warfare in 1776 between the Cherokee led by Dragging Canoe (called the Chickamauga... Dragging Canoe (1730? – 1792) was an American Indian war leader who led a dissident band of young Cherokees against the United States in the American Revolutionary War. ... Elizabethton is the county seat of Carter County, Tennessee. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... It has been suggested that List of Native American tribes be merged into this article or section. ... This article is about the people indigenous to the United States. ... The one-drop rule is a historical colloquial term in the United States that holds that a person with any trace of sub-Saharan ancestry (however small or invisible) cannot be considered white[1] and so unless said person has an alternative non-white ancestry they can claim, such as... The Original Keetoowah Society is a Cherokee religious organization that preserves the culture and teachings of the Keetoowah Nighthawk Society in Oklahoma. ... The Cherokee Stomp Dance performed by the Western Cherokee People in Oklahoma is unique within the Cherokee Culture. ... Sycamore Shoals is a stretch of the Watauga River near present-day Elizabethton, Tennessee, USA, offering a ford crossing of the river. ... For other uses, see Trail of Tears (disambiguation). ... Unto These Hills is the second oldest outdoor historical drama in the United States after The Lost Colony in Manteo, North Carolina. ...

Notes

  1. ^ The American Indian and Alaska Native Population: 2000. Census 2000 Brief (2002-02-01). Retrieved on 2007-03-10.
  2. ^ [the name of the Kanawha on the Spanish map of Lopez y Cruz (1755), is given as "Tchalaquei" (the earliest Spanish form of "Cherokee," from the Choctaw, choluk, a hollow or cave); while the Cherokee (now Tennessee) River itself is called "Rio de los Cherakis."] The Wilderness Trail (New York, 1911) Charles A. Hanna
  3. ^ a b c Mooney, James [1900] (1995). Myths of the Cherokee. Dover Publications. ISBN 0-486-28907-9. 
  4. ^ Glottochronology from: Lounsbury, Floyd (1961), and Mithun, Marianne (1981), cited in The Native Languages of the Southeastern United States, by Nicholas A. Hopkins.
  5. ^ Mooney, Pg. 32
  6. ^ Drake, Richard B. (2001). A History of Appalachia. University Press of Kentucky. ISBN 0-8131-2169-8. 
  7. ^ a b Gallay, Alan (2002). The Indian Slave Trade: The Rise of the English Empire in the American South 1670-1717. Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-10193-7. 
  8. ^ Oatis, Steven J. (2004). A Colonial Complex: South Carolina's Frontiers in the Era of the Yamasee War, 1680-1730. University of Nebraska Press. ISBN 0-8032-3575-5. 
  9. ^ Finger, John R. (2001). Tennessee Frontiers: Three Regions in Transition. Indiana University Press. ISBN 0-253-33985-5. 
  10. ^ a b c Irwin 1992
  11. ^ Mooney, p.392
  12. ^ Wishart, p.120
  13. ^ Wishart 1995
  14. ^ Perdue, p.565
  15. ^ Carter (III), Samuel (1976). Cherokee sunset: A nation betrayed : a narrative of travail and triumph, persecution and exile. New York: Doubleday, p. 232. ISBN 0-385-06735-6. 
  16. ^ Christiensen 1992
  17. ^ Tsali. History and culture of the Cherokee (North Carolina Indians). Retrieved on 2007-03-10.
  18. ^ Will Thomas. History and culture of the Cherokee (North Carolina Indians). Retrieved on 2007-03-10.
  19. ^ Cherokee Chief Attacks
  20. ^ Perdue, p.564
  21. ^ Perdue, pp.564-565
  22. ^ Perdue, p.566
  23. ^ State of Utah Court Case
  24. ^ Garroutte, p.16
  25. ^ Cherokee Nation Registration
  26. ^ Glenn 2006
  27. ^ Official Statement Cherokee Nation 2000, Pierpoint 2000
  28. ^ Cherokee Heritage Center. Retrieved on 2007-03-10.
  29. ^ Inter-Tribal Environmental Council. Retrieved on 2007-03-10.
  30. ^ Freedman Decision. Retrieved on 2007-03-10.
  31. ^ Citizen Views Fall on Both Sides of Freedmen Issue. Cherokee Nation News Release (2006-03-13). Retrieved on 2007-03-10.
  32. ^ Morris, Frank. "Cherokee Tribe Faces Decision on Freedmen", National Public Radio, 2007-02-21. Retrieved on 2007-03-11. 
  33. ^ "Cherokees eject slave descendants", BBC News, 2007-03-04. Retrieved on 2007-03-10. 
  34. ^ "Freedmen Seek Federal Injunction To Protect Cherokee Citizenship", KOTV News, 2007-05-09. Retrieved on 2007-07-07. 
  35. ^ "Cherokee Courts Reinstate Freedmen". 
  36. ^ Cherokee Nation Says It Will Abide by Court's Decision on Constitution [1]
  37. ^ BIA rejects Cherokee Amendment [2]
  38. ^ [3] To sever United States' government relations with the Cherokee Nation of Oklahoma until such time as the Cherokee Nation of Oklahoma restores full tribal citizenship to the Cherokee Freedmen...]. Retrieved on 2007-07-07.
  39. ^ Watson Introduces Legislation to Sever U.S. Relations with the Cherokee Nation of Oklahoma (June 21, 2007). Retrieved on 2007-07-07.
  40. ^ Letter from Carl Altman, 8-9-2007. Retrieved on 2007-09-07.
  41. ^ Michael J. Fairchild, liner notes to Jimi Hendrix: Blues, MCAD-11060, 1994
  42. ^ Broadway Books | Tori Amos: Piece by Piece by Tori Amos and Ann Powers
  43. ^ Carter JH. Father and Cherokee Tradition Molded Will Rogers. Retrieved on 2007-03-10.

Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 32nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 69th day of the year (70th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... James Mooney (1861-1921) was a notable anthropologist who lived for several years among the Cherokee. ... Dover Publications is a book publisher founded in 1941. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 69th day of the year (70th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 69th day of the year (70th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 69th day of the year (70th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 69th day of the year (70th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 69th day of the year (70th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 72nd day of the year (73rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 69th day of the year (70th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 52nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 70th day of the year (71st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 63rd day of the year (64th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 69th day of the year (70th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 129th day of the year (130th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 188th day of the year (189th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 188th day of the year (189th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 188th day of the year (189th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 250th day of the year (251st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 69th day of the year (70th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

  • Christensen, P.G., Minority Interaction in John Rollin Ridge's The Life and Adventures of Joaquin Murieta MELUS, Vol. 17, No. 2, Before the Centennial. (Summer, 1991 - Summer, 1992), pp. 61-72.
  • Duvall, Deborah L (2000). Tahlequah: And the Cherokee Nation. Arcadia Publishing. ISBN 0-7385-0782-2. 
  • Ehle, John (1988). Trail of Tears: The Rise and Fall of the Cherokee Nation. Anchor Books. ISBN 0-385-23954-8. 
  • Finger, John R (1993). Cherokee Americans: The Eastern Band of Cherokees in the Twentieth Century. University of Nebraska Press. ISBN 0-8032-6879-3. 
  • Garroutte, Eva Marie. Real Indians: identity and the survival of Native America. University of California Press, 2003
  • Glenn, Eddie. "A league of nations?" Tajlequah Daily Press. January 6, 2006 (Accessed May 24, 2007 here).
  • Hill, Sarah H (1997). Weaving New Worlds: Southeastern Cherokee Women and Their Basketry. University of North Carolina Press. ISBN 0-8078-4650-3. 
  • Irwin, L, "Cherokee Healing: Myth, Dreams, and Medicine." American Indian Quarterly. Vol. 16, 2, 1992, p. 237
  • Kilpatrick, Jack; Kilpatrick, Anna Gritts (1995). Friends of Thunder: Folktales of the Oklahoma Cherokees. University of Oklahoma Press. ISBN 0-8061-2722-8. 
  • Mooney, James. "Myths of the Cherokees." Bureau of American Ethnology, Nineteenth Annual Report, 1900, Part I. Pp. 1-576. Washington: Smithsonian Institution.
  • Morello, Carol. "Native American Roots, Once Hidden, Now Embraced". Washington Post, April 7, 2001
  • Meredith, Howard; Meredith, Mary Ellen (2003). Reflection on Cherokee Literary Expression. Edwin Mellon Press. ISBN 0-7734-6763-7. 
  • Perdue, T. "Clan and Court: Another Look at the Early Cherokee Republic." American Indian Quarterly. Vol. 24, 4, 2000, p. 562
  • Pierpoint, Mary. Unrecognized Cherokee claims cause problems for nation. Indian Country Today. August 16, 2000 (Accessed May 16, 2007) [4]
  • Russell, Steve. "Review of Real Indians: Identity and the Survival of Native America" PoLAR: Political and Legal Anthropology Review. May 2004, Vol. 27, No. 1, pp. 147-153
  • Strickland, Rennard (1982). Fire and the Spirits: Cherokee Law from Clan to Court. University of Oklahoma Press. ISBN 0-8061-1619-6. 
  • Sturm, Circe. Blood Politics, Racial Classification, and Cherokee National Identity: The Trials and Tribulations of the Cherokee Freedmen. American Indian Quarterly, WInter/Spring 1998, Vol 22. No 1&2 pgs 230-258
  • Thornton, Russell. The Cherokees: A Population History. University of Nebraska Pres, 1992
  • Vickers, Paul T (2005). Chiefs of Nations First Edition: The Cherokee Nation 1730 to 1839: 109 Years of Political Dialogue and Treaties. iUniverse, Inc. ISBN 0-595-36984-7. 
  • Wishart, David M. "Evidence of Surplus Production in the Cherokee Nation Prior to Removal." Journal of Economic History. Vol. 55, 1, 1995, p. 120
  • Robert Conley, a novelist and short story writer who is a member of the UKB. Recommended titles: Mountain Windsong, The Witch of Goingsnake and Other Stories, and Ned Christie's War.[5]
  • Buyer Beware, Only Three Cherokee Groups Recognized Official Statement Cherokee Nation, Oklahoma, Monday, November 13, 2000 (Accessed May 21, 2007 here)
  • "Census 2000 PHC-T-18. American Indian and Alaska Native Tribes in the United States: 2000" United States Census Bureau, Census 2000, Special Tabulation (Accessed May 27, 2007 here)
  • "Principal Chief results" (Accessed July 5, 2007) [6]

John Ehle (born December 13, 1925 in Asheville, North Carolina) is an American writer known best for fictional novels set in the Appalachian mountains. ... Wilma Pearl Mankiller (born November 18, 1945 in Tahlequah, Oklahoma) was the first female Chief of the Cherokee Nation. ... Michael Wallis (b. ...

External links

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Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1058x1058, 477 KB) aa Wikipedia logo, version 1058px square, no text Wikipedia logo by Nohat (concept by Paullusmagnus); compare Wikipedia File links The following pages link to this file: Arabic language Talk:Anarcho-capitalism Talk:Algorithm Talk:Anno Domini Talk:The... Wikipedia (IPA: , or ( ) is a multilingual, web-based, free content encyclopedia project, operated by the Wikimedia Foundation, a non-profit organization. ...

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Other The Midewiwin (also spelled Midewin and Medewiwin) is from the term for the Grand Medicine Society of the aboriginal groups of the Maritimes, New England and Great Lakes regions in North America. ... This article is about the native North American people. ...

Native American Tribes officially recognized by the United States

Cherokee is one of the 562 Indian Tribal Entities within the contiguous 48 States recognized and eligible to receive services from the United States Bureau of Indian Affairs included in the latest list issued by the Bureau of Indian Affairs, Department of Interior of the United States on April 4, 2008.
  Image File history File links Biaseal. ... Federally recognized tribes are those Indian tribes recognized by the United States Bureau of Indian Affairs for certain federal government purposes. ... The Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) is an agency of the federal government of the United States within the Department of the Interior charged with the administration and management of 55. ... Federally recognized tribes are those Indian tribes recognized by the United States Bureau of Indian Affairs for certain federal government purposes. ... The Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) is an agency of the federal government of the United States within the Department of the Interior charged with the administration and management of 55. ... The United States Department of the Interior (DOI) is a Cabinet department of the United States government that manages and conserves most federally owned land. ... The government of the United States, established by the United States Constitution, is a federal republic of 50 states, a few territories and some protectorates. ... is the 94th day of the year (95th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ...

Black Indians is a term generally used to describe people who have significant traces of both African and Native American ancestry and/or African Americans who have lived for a long time with Native Americans. ... The Five Civilized Tribes is the term applied to five Native American nations, the Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek, and Seminole, considered civilized by white Anais because they had adopted many of the colonists customs (including the ownership of plantations and black slaves) and had generally good relations with their neighbors. ... For other uses, see Chickasaw (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Choctaw (disambiguation). ... The Creek are an American Indian people originally from the southeastern United States, also known by their original name Muscogee (or Muskogee), the name they use to identify themselves today. ... For other uses, see Seminole (disambiguation). ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Cherokee (0 words)
The Cherokee were in the dubious position of fighting the pro-British Iroquois and the pro-French Algonquin at the same time, but they held their own, despite devastating smallpox epidemics in 1738 and 1753 which killed almost half of them.
Although the Cherokee signed a treaty in 1754 confirming their alliance and allowing the construction of British forts in their territory to defend the colonies, the lingering suspicion remained they were sympathetic to the French.
Almost 100 Cherokee accompanying a Virginia expedition against the Ohio Shawnee lost their provisions while crossing a river and were abandoned by their white "allies." Angry at this treatment, the Cherokee helped themselves to some of the Virginians' horses and were attacked.
Cherokee Heritage Center - Home (0 words)
There you can decide with the Cherokee leaders of the day whether or not to become involved in the war being fought between their trade partners the British and the colonists who continue to encroach on Cherokee lands.
Cherokee Pottery: People of One Fire features a collection of visually stunning and culturally significant pottery made by the Cherokee people spanning centuries of dramatic culture change.
From its utilitarian, ceremonial, and decorative uses in prehistoric times to its contemporary appeal as fine art, the pottery of the Cherokees has continued as a vibrant and distinct part of their culture.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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