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Encyclopedia > Chera dynasty
சேரர்
Cheras
Image:Chera territoriesa.png
Chera territories
Official language Tamil
Capitals Karur (Vanchi Muthur)
Government Monarchy
Preceding state Unknown
Succeeding states Gangas, Zamorins, Kochi, Travancore, Hoysala, Vijayanagara

The Chera dynasty (Tamil: சேரர்) was one of the ancient Tamil dynasties that ruled southern India from ancient times until around the fifteenth century CE. The Early Cheras ruled over the Coimbatore, Karur and Salem Districts in South India, which now forms part of the modern day Tamil Nadu.The other two major Tamil dynasties were the Cholas in the eastern Coromandel Coast and Pandyas in the south central peninsula. These dynasties began ruling before the Sangam era (300 BCE - 200 CE) during which the Tamil language, arts and literature flourished. Cheras is best described as a suburb in the Federal Territory of Kuala Lumpur. ... Location Coordinates : Time Zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer: CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name Chera (Spanish) Spanish name Chera Administration Country Autonomous Community Valencian Community Province Valencia Comarca Requena-Utiel Geography Land Area 49. ... Cheras is a bustling suburb that stretches from the outskirts of Kuala Lumpur to Kajang in state of Selangor, Malaysia. ... An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in the countries, states, and other territories. ... Tamil ( ; IPA: ) is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Tamil people, originating on the Indian subcontinent. ... Not to be confused with capitol. ... Karur (Tamil : கரூர் ) is a town and a municipality in Karur district in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. ... Vanchi was the ancient capital of the Chera kingdom. ... For the documentary series, see Monarchy (TV series). ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Zamorin, a title of the kings of Kozhikode (Calicut) The Samoothiri Raja (anglicized as Zamorin) were the erstwhile rulers of Kozhikode (Calicut). ... Perumpadapu Swaroopam (also know as Madarajyam, Goshree Rajyam, Kuru Swaroopam) was the name of the Kingdom of Kochi. ... Flag for former princely state of Travancore For the suburb of Travancore in Melbourne, Australia, see Travancore, Victoria. ... The Hoysala Empire ruled part of southern India from 1000 to 1346. ... The Vijayanagara empire was based in the Deccan, in peninsular and southern India, from 1336 onwards. ... Tamil ( ; IPA: ) is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Tamil people, originating on the Indian subcontinent. ... Languages Tamil Religions Hinduism, Christianity, Islam, Buddhism, Jainism Related ethnic groups Dravidian people Brahui people Kannadigas Malayalis Tamils Telugus Tuluvas Gonds The Tamil people are a multi-ethnic group from the Indian subcontinent with a recorded history going back more than two millennia. ... South India is a geographic and linguistic-cultural region of India. ... , Coimbatore (Tamil: ), also known as Kovai (Tamil: ), is a major industrial city in India and the second largest city in the state of Tamil Nadu. ... Karur (Tamil : கரூர் ) is a town and a municipality in Karur district in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. ... Salem District Salem District is a district of Tamil Nadu state in southern India. ... Tamil Nadu (தமிழ் நாடு, Land of the Tamils) is a state at the southern tip of India. ... The Cholas were a South Indian Tamil dynasty, antedating the early Sangam literature (c. ... Districts along the Coromandel Coast Map of the coast (French) The Coromandel Coast is the name given to the southeastern coast of the Indian peninsula. ... The Pandyan kingdom was an ancient state at the tip of South India, founded around the 6th century BCE. It was part of the Dravidian cultural area, which also comprised other kingdoms such as that of the Pallava, the Chera, the Chola, the Chalukya and the Vijayanagara. ... For other uses of Sangam see Sangam (disambiguation). ... Tamil ( ; IPA: ) is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Tamil people, originating on the Indian subcontinent. ... Tamil literature is literature in the Tamil language which most prominently includes the contributions of the Tamil country (or Tamizhagam) history, a large part of which constitutes the modern state of Tamil Nadu and Kerala as well as some parts of Karnataka and Andra pradesh. ...


The Sangam Chera capital was Vanchi Muthur (otherwise called Karuvur, modern Karur).[1] , their area included western and south area of Tamilnadu and also controlling areas closer to the region from Malai Nadu or hill country (modern Kerala). Chera rulers warred frequently with their neighbouring kingdoms. They sometimes inter-married with the families of the rival kings as a means of political alliances. Throughout the reign of the Cheras, trade continued to bring prosperity to Tamil Country (part of which is modern north Kerala), with spices, ivory, timber, pearls and gems being exported to Egypt, Rome, Greece, Phoenicia, Arabia, Mesopotamia and Persia.Evidence for extensive foreign trade from ancient times is available throughout the Malabar coast, from the Roman, Greek and Arabic coins unearthed from Kollam, Kodungallur, Eyyal (near Trissur) in Northern Kerala . Muziris, has been referenced by ancient writers, such as the author of the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea to be an inland port probably near Kodungallur. Sangam Cheran coins and inscriptions are found only in Karur, Erode and Coimbatore region of modern Tamil Nadu. Vanchi was the ancient capital of the Chera kingdom. ... Karur (Tamil : கரூர் ) is a town and a municipality in Karur district in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. ... -1... Names, routes and locations of the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea. ... Karur (Tamil : கரூர் ) is a town and a municipality in Karur district in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... , Coimbatore (Tamil: ), also known as Kovai (Tamil: ), is a major industrial city in India and the second largest city in the state of Tamil Nadu. ... Tamil Nadu (தமிழ் நாடு, Land of the Tamils) is a state at the southern tip of India. ...


While Cheras had their own religion (Hinduism), other religious traditions came to this area during the period of the Chera kings. Jainism came to Chera Kingdom by the second century BCE. Hinduism is a religious tradition[1] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... Jain and Jaina redirect here. ... The Chera kingdom (Tamil: சேரர் Malayalam: േചര ) was one of the ancient Tamil dynasties who ruled the southern India from ancient times until around the fifteenth century CE. The Early Cheras ruled over the Malabar Coast, Coimbatore, Karur and Salem Districts in South India, which now forms part of the modern day...

Contents

History

In early Tamil literature the great Chera rulers are referred to as Cheral, Kuttuvan, Irumporai, Kollipurai and Athan. Chera rulers were also called Kothai or Makothai. The nobility among the Cheras were called Cheraman in general. The word Kerala, of possible Prakrit origins, does not appear in Sangam Literature. Ashoka's edicts mention an independent dynasty known by the name Ceraputta, who were outside Ashoka's empire. The unknown author of Periplus of the Erythraean Sea mentions Chera as Cerobothra ("Keralaputhra") whose capital is Karur, while Pliny, the Roman historian of the first century, calls it Caelobothras. It is believed that religiously the Cheras were Shaivites.[2] The kings of the dynasty referred to themselves as Vanavar.[3] Sangam literature refers to a body of classical Tamil literature created between the years 200 BCE and 300 CE.[1][2] This collection contains 2381 poems written by 473 poets, some 102 of whom are anonymous authors[3]. The period during which these poems were written is commonly referred to... The pillars of Ashoka are a series of columns dispersed throughout the northern Indian subcontinent, and erected by the Mauryan king Ashoka during his reign in the 3rd century BCE. SAlMAN Ashish Many of the pillars are carved with proclamations reflecting Buddhist teachings: the Edicts of Ashoka. ... Names, routes and locations of the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea. ... Pliny the Elder: an imaginative 19th Century portrait. ...


Sangam Cheras

The only source available for us regarding the early Chera Kings is the anthologies of the Sangam literature. Scholars now generally agree that this literature belongs to the first few centuries CE.[4] The internal chronology of this literature is still far from settled. The Sangam literature is full of names of the kings and the princes, and of the poets who extolled them. Despite a rich literature that depicts the life and work of these people, these are not worked into connected history so far. Their capital is stated to be modern Karur in Tamilnadu. For other uses of Sangam see Sangam (disambiguation). ... Sangam literature refers to a body of classical Tamil literature created between the years 200 BCE and 300 CE.[1][2] This collection contains 2381 poems written by 473 poets, some 102 of whom are anonymous authors[3]. The period during which these poems were written is commonly referred to... Karur (Tamil : கரூர் ) is a town and a municipality in Karur district in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. ...


Pathirruppaththu, the fourth book in the Ettuthokai anthology mentions a number of Chera Kings of the Chera dynasty. Each King is praised in ten songs sung by the Court Poet and the Kings are in the following order: Pathirruppaththu (பதிற்றுப்பத்து), is the fourth book in the Ettuthokai, a Sangam literature anthology. ... Ettuthokai (எட்டுத்தொகை)– The Eight Anthologies - form part of the Pathinenmaelkanakku anthology series of the Sangam Literature. ...

  1. Nedum Cheralathan,
  2. Palyane Chel Kezhu Kuttuvan,
  3. Kalankai Kanni Narmudi Cheral,
  4. Kadal Pirakottiya Vel Kezhu Kuttuvan,
  5. Attu Kottu Pattu Cheralathan,
  6. Chelva Kadunko Azhi Athan,
  7. Thakadur Erintha Perum Cheral Irumporai,
  8. Kudako Ilam Cheral Irumporai.

The first two kings were the sons of Uthiyan Cheralathan and Veliyan Nallini. The third, fourth and fifth kings were sons of Nedum Cheralathan, while the mother of fourth King (also known as Chenkuttuvan) was Chola Princess Manikilli. Chelva Kadunko Vazhiyathan was the son of Anthuvan Cheral Irumporai and Porayan Perumthevi. Perum Cheral Irumporai was the son of Vazhiyathan and Ilam Cheral Irumporai was the son of a Chera ruler Kuttuvan Irumporai (son of Mantharan Cheral Irumporai).[citation needed]


Archaeology has also found epigraphic evidence regarding these early Cheras.[5] The most important of these is the Pugalur (Aranattarmalai) inscription. This inscription refers to three generations of Chera rulers Adam Cheral Irrumporai, his son Perumkadungo, and his son Ilamkadungo. The charter was issued when Perum Kadungo was the ruler monarch and Ilam Kadungo was appointed prince. Athan refers only to a crowned King of Chera dynasty who accepted this title at the time of coronation. Athan Cheral Irumporai was the son of Perum Cheral Irumporai. It therefore follows that Perumkadungo was the son of a crowned King of the Chera Dynasty. Perum Kadunko means that he was the Senior Ko (Senior ruler) of Kadunadu, located in the Tamilnadu side of the Sahya Mountains.


'Purananuru' refers to Udiyan Cheral, who probably ruled in the first – second centuries CE. It is said that he fed the rival armies during the war of Mahabharata. Imayavaramban Neduncheralathan, another Sangam age king claimed to have conquered up to the Himalayas and to have inscribed his emblem in the face of the mountains. Senguttuvan was another famous Chera, whose contemporary Gajabahu II of Lanka according to Mahavamsa visited the Chera country.[6] For the film by Peter Brook, see The Mahabharata (1989 film). ... For the movie Himalaya, see Himalaya (film). ... Senguttuvan was a Chera king who probably lived during the early centuries of the Common Era. ... Lanka is the name given in Hindu mythology to the island fortress capital of the evil king Ravana in the epic Ramayana. ... The Mahavansha, also Mahawansha, (Pāli: great chronicle) is a historical record, often thought to be the oldest written record oh history, written in the Pāli language, of the Buddhist kings as well as Dravidian kings of Sri Lanka. ...


The early Cheras controlled a large territory of the Kongu region. They also ruled the kodunthamizh regions of Travancore (Venadu) and the Malabar (Kuttanadu) west coast through vassals. They were in contact with the Satavahanas in the north and with the Romans and Greeks.[7] Trade flourished overseas and there was a considerable exchange of gold and coins, as seen by archaeological evidence and literature. The Romans brought vast amounts of gold in exchange of 'Kari' (Pepper) from Malainadu. [2] Flag for former princely state of Travancore Travancore or Thiruvithaamkoor (Malayalam: തിരുവിതാങ്കൂര്‍ [], തിരുവിതാംകൂര്‍ [], തിരുവിതാങ്കോട് []) was a princely state in India with its capital at Trivandrum (Thiruvananthapuram). ... [Land of uncivilised] Bekal Fort Beach, Kerala Malabar (Malayalam: മലബാര്‍ ) is a region of southern India, lying between the Western Ghats and the Arabian Sea, and derived from the Malayalam word Mala mean Hill and Persian word Bar means Kingdom, and is same as the word meaning of Malayalam. ... Approximate extent of the Satavahana Empire, circa 150 CE. The Sātavāhanas, also known as the Andhras, were a dynasty which ruled in Southern and Central India starting from around 230 BCE. Although there is some controversy about when the dynasty came to an end, the most liberal estimates... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ...


Bhakti era Cheras

Little is known about the Cheras between c. third century CE and the eight century CE. An obscure dynasty, the Kalabhras, invaded the Tamil country, displaced the existing kingdoms and ruled for around three centuries. They were displaced by the Pallavas and the Pandyas in the sixth century CE. A Pandya ruler, Arikesari Parankusa Maravarman (c.730 – 765CE), mentioned in a number of Pandya copper-plate inscriptions, was a prominent ruler during this period. He claims to have defeated a prominent Chera king. The name of the Chera king is not known, however from the details of the battles between the Pandya and the Chera, the Chera territory ceded seems to have included the entire Malabar and Travancore (Kuttanadu and Venadu) and the southern Pandya country from Kanyakumari to Thirunelveli the seat of the Cheras being in Karur Kongu Nadu. The Chera kings took the title of Perumal during this period and patronised the Vaishnavite sect. Kulasekara Alwar who ruled in the 8th century became a devotional Vaishnavite poet. Pallavas also mention in their inscriptions about their battles with the Cheras. Pulakesin II, in his Aihole inscription mentioned " Pulikesin II, driving the Pallava behind the forts of Kanchi, reached as far south as the Kaveri river, and there caused prosperity to the Chola, Chera and Pandya".[8] Kalabhras were the South Indian dynasty who between the 3rd and the 6th century C.E. ruled over entire Tamil country, displacing the ancient Chola, Pandya and Chera dynasties. ... The Pandyan kingdom was an ancient state at the tip of South India, founded around the 6th century BCE. It was part of the Dravidian cultural area, which also comprised other kingdoms such as that of the Pallava, the Chera, the Chola, the Chalukya and the Vijayanagara. ... Example of a Chola inscription in Tamil from the 12th century C.E. Siyakas Harsola Paramara copper plate of 1005 Indian copper plate inscriptions play an extremely important role in the reconstruction of the history of India. ... For other uses, see Kanyakumari (disambiguation). ... Tirunelveli is a city in Tamil Nadu state of southern India. ... Kongu Nadu is the north western region of the state of Tamil Nadu in Southern India. ... Vaishnavites are followers of Vaishnavism in which Vishnu or His avatars are worshipped as the supreme God. ... Pulakesi II (c. ... Aihole (Kannada ಐಹೊಳೆ)is in the Bagalkot district of Karnataka, India. ...


In the reign of Pandya Parantaka Nedumjadaiyan (765 – 790), the Cheras were still in Karur and were a close ally of the Pallavas. Pallavamalla Nadivarman defeated the Pandya Varaguna with the help of a Chera king. Cultural contacts between the Pallava court and the Chera country were common.[9] The Saivite saint Cheraman Perumal and the other is the Vaishnavite saint Kulasekhara, were famous in the Hindu religious movements. Kulasekhara became one of the celebrated Alvars and his poems came to be called the Perumal Thirumozhi. Cheraman Perumal ruled around the eighth and the ninth centuries. In this Kulasekhara calls himself Kongar Kon (the king of the Kongu people) hailing from Kollinagar (Karur). Adi Shankara was his contemporary. Kongumandala Satakam also says that Cheraman Perumal went to Kayilai with Sundarar from Kongu Nadu. The Pallavas were hereditary Hindu rulers who dominated southeastern India between the 4th and 9th centuries. ... Saivite: of Saivism; belonging to Saivism, the Hindu denomination that worships God Siva as the Supreme God. ... This article belongs in one or more categories. ... One of the twelve Alvars, born in the asterism Punarvasu, Kulasekara-azhvaar ruled the Chera Kingdom. ... The Alvars are Hindu saints, followers of Lord Vishnu. ... This article belongs in one or more categories. ... Karur (Tamil : கரூர் ) is a town and a municipality in Karur district in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. ... Adi Shankara (Malayalam: ആദി ശങ്കരന്‍, DevanāgarÄ«: , , IPA: ); c. ...


Notes

  1. ^ Nagaswami, R. (1995). Roman Karur: A peep into Tamil's past. Brahad Prakashan, Madras.http://www.tamilartsacademy.com/books/roman%20karur/cover.html
  2. ^ P. 104 Indian Anthropologist: Journal of the Indian Anthropological Association By Indian Anthropological Association
  3. ^ P. 15 The Ācārya, Śaṅkara of Kāladī: A Story By Savita R. Bhave, M. G. Gyaltsan, Muṣṭafá Amīn, 1933- Madugula, I S Madugula
  4. ^ The age of Sangam is established through the correlation between the evidence on foreign trade found in the poems and the writings by ancient Greek and Romans such as Periplus of the Erythrian Sea. See Nilakanta Sastri, K.A., History of South India, pp 106
  5. ^ See report in Frontline, June/July 2003 [1]
  6. ^ See Mahavamsa – http://lakdiva.org/mahavamsa/. Since Senguttuvan (Kadal pirakottiya Vel Kezhu Kuttuvan) was a contemporary of Gajabahu II he was the Chera King during 170-185 CE.
  7. ^ These foreigners were called Yavana in the ancient times
  8. ^ See Verse 31 Aihole Inscription of Pulakesi II - http://www.mssu.edu/projectsouthasia/HISTORY/primarydocs/Epigraphy/AiholeInscription.htm
  9. ^ See A History of South India – pp 146 – 147

References

PULAKESI II (C.610-642 A.D.): Pulakesi II ascended the throne in C.610 A. D., and he has been rightly regarded as the ablest monarch in the Chalukyan line. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Chera Dynasty (9912 words)
Perum Cheral Irumporai was the son of Vazhiyathan and Ilam Cheral Irumporai was the son of a Chera ruler Kuttuvan Irumporai (son of Mantharan Cheral Irumporai).
It is interesting that in the Sangam works the Chera kings are said to ascend the neck of the elephants.(36) In the coins under discussion where riders are shown, the principal rider is shown on the neck of the elephant.
This Chera is undoubtedly the founder of the imperial Chera dynasty.
Chera dynasty at AllExperts (1993 words)
The Chera dynasty (Tamil: சேரர் Malayalam: ചേര) were one of the ancient Tamil dynasties who ruled the southern India from ancient times until around the fifteenth century CE.
Two of the Chera kigns of this period, The Saivite saint Cheraman Perumal and the other is the Vaishnavite Saint Kulasekhara, were famous in the Hindu religious movements.
The Chera dynasty went into a temporary decline after this defeat, although the remnants of the Cheras continued to cause trouble for their Chola overlords.
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