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Encyclopedia > Chemoreception

A Chemosensor, also known as chemoreceptor, is a cell or group of cells that transduce a chemical signal into an action potential. There are two main classes of the chemosensor: direct and distance. Two examples of distance chemoreceptors are olfactory receptor neurons in the olfactory system, and those in the vomeronasal organ that detect pheromones. Examples of direct chemoreceptors include taste buds in the gustatory system and carotid bodies that detect changes in pH inside the body. Cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green) The cell is the structural and functional unit of all living organisms, sometimes called the building blocks of life. ... In physiology, transduction is the conversion of a stimulus from one form to another. ... A. Schematic of an electrophysiological recording of an action potential showing the various phases which occur as the wave passes a point on a cell membrane. ... An olfactory receptor neuron, also called an olfactory sensory neuron, is the primary transduction cell for olfaction in the olfactory system. ... The olfactory system is the sensory system used for olfaction. ... The vomeronasal organ (VNO) or Jacobsons organ (sometimes misspelled Jacobsens) is an auxiliary olfactory sense organ in some vertebrates, all of which are tetrapods. ... Fanning honeybee exposes Nasonov gland (white-at tip of abdomen) releasing pheromone to entice swarm into an empty hive A pheromone is any chemical produced by a living organism that transmits a message to other members of the same species. ... Taste buds (or lingual papillae) are small structures on the upper surface of the tongue that provide information about the taste of food being eaten. ... The gustatory system is the sensory system that uses taste buds (or lingual papillae) on the upper surface of the tongue to provide information about the taste of food being eaten. ... The carotid body is a small cluster of chemoreceptors, baroreceptors, and supporting cells located near the bifurcation of the carotid artery. ... click here for more info The title of this article is incorrect because of technical limitations. ...


Chemoreceptors and breathing rate

Chemoreceptors in the medulla, carotid arteries and aorta, detect the levels of carbon dioxide in the blood. To do this, they monitor the concentration of hydrogen ions in the blood, which increases the pH of the blood, as a direct consequence of the raised carbon dioxide concentration. The carotid artery is a major artery of the head and neck that supplies blood to the head and neck. ... The largest artery in the human body, the aorta originates from the left ventricle of the heart and brings oxygenated blood to all parts of the body in the systemic circulation. ... Carbon dioxide is an atmospheric gas composed of one carbon and two oxygen atoms. ... Hydronium is the common name for the cation H3O+. Nomenclature According to IUPAC ion nomenclature, it should be referred to as oxonium. ... click here for more info The title of this article is incorrect because of technical limitations. ...


The response is that the inspiratory centre (in the medulla), sends nervous impulses to the external intercostal muscles and the diaphragm, via the phrenic nerve to increase breathing rate and the volume of the lungs during inhalation. Schematic of an electrophysiological recording of an action potential showing the various phases which occur as the wave passes a point on a cell membrane. ... Intercostal muscles are several groups of muscles that run between the ribs. ... A diaphragm is some sort of separating membrane. ... The phrenic nerve arises from spinal nerves C3, C4 and C5. ...


Chemoreceptors and heart rate

Chemoreceptors in the medulla, carotid arteries and aorta, detect the levels of carbon dioxide in the blood, in the same way as applicable in the Breathing Rate section. The carotid artery is a major artery of the head and neck that supplies blood to the head and neck. ... The largest artery in the human body, the aorta originates from the left ventricle of the heart and brings oxygenated blood to all parts of the body in the systemic circulation. ... Carbon dioxide is an atmospheric gas composed of one carbon and two oxygen atoms. ...


In response to this high concentration, a nervous impulse is sent to the cardiovascular centre in the medulla, which will then feedback to the accelerator nerve, increasing nervous impulses here, and prompting the sinoatrial node to stimulate more contractions of the myogenic cardiac muscle (increase heart rate). The cardiovascular centre is a part of the brain, found in the medulla, and is responsible for the regulation of the rate at which the heart beats (see cardiac cycle in heart article). ... The medulla oblongata is the lower portion of the brainstem. ... The sinoatrial node (abbreviated SA node, also called the sinus node) is the impulse generating (pacemaker) tissue located in the right atrium of the heart. ...


Chemoreceptors and sense organs

In taste sensation, the tongue is composed of 5 different taste buds: salty, sour, sweet, bitter, and umami. The salty and sour tastes work directly through the ion channels, the sweet and bitter taste work through G protein-coupled receptors, and the unami sensation is activated by glutamate. Taste is one of the most common and fundamental of the senses in life on Earth. ... In cell biology, G-protein-coupled receptors, also known as GPCR, seven transmembrane receptors, heptahelical receptors, or 7TM receptors, are a class of transmembrane receptors. ...


Noses in vertebrates and antennae in many invertebrates act as distance chemoreceptors. Molecules diffused through the air and bind to specific receptors on olfactory sensory neurons, activating an opening ion channel via G-proteins. Human nose Anatomically, a nose is a protuberance in vertebrates that houses the nostrils, or nares, which admit and expel air for respiration. ... Antennae (singular antenna), are the paired appendages connecting to the first (and in crustaceans also to the second) segment of the head of the members of all subphyla of the arthropods except Chelicerata. ... An olfactory receptor neuron, also called an olfactory sensory neuron, is the primary transduction cell for olfaction in the olfactory system. ...


When inputs from the environment are significant to the survival of the organism the input must be detected. As all life processes are ultimately based on chemistry it is natural that detection and passing on of the external input will involve chemical events. The chemistry of the environment is, of course, relevant to survival, and detection of chemical input from the outside may well articulate directly with cell chemicals. Chemistry (in Greek: χημεία) is the science of matter and its interactions with energy and itself (see physics, biology). ...


For example: The emissions of a predator's food source, such as odors or pheromones, may be in the air or on a surface where the food souce has been. Cells in the head, usually the air passages or mouth, have chemical receptors on their surface that change when in contact with the emissions. The change does not stop there. It passes in either chemical or electrochemical form to the central processor, the brain or spinal cord. The resulting output from the CNS (central nervous system) makes body actions that will engage the food and enhance survival. Odor receptors on the antennae of a Luna moth An odor (American English) or odour (Commonwealth English) is the object of perception of the sense of olfaction. ... Fanning honeybee exposes Nasonov gland (white-at tip of abdomen) releasing pheromone to entice swarm into an empty hive A pheromone is any chemical produced by a living organism that transmits a message to other members of the same species. ... In the anatomy of animals, the brain, or encephalon, is the supervisory center of the nervous system. ... The spinal cord is a part of the vertebrate nervous system that is enclosed in and protected by the vertebral column (it passes through the spinal canal). ... The vertebrate central nervous system consists of the brain and spinal cord. ...


See also: Sensory receptor In a sensory system, a sensory receptor is a structure that recognizes a stimulus in the internal or external environment of an organism. ...


 
 

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