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Encyclopedia > Chemistry
Chemistry - the study of interactions of chemical substances with one another and energy based on the structure of atoms, molecules and other kinds of aggregrates

Chemistry (from Egyptian kēme (chem), meaning "earth"[1]) is the science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter, as well as the changes it undergoes during chemical reactions.[2] Chemistry is a physical science related to studies of various atoms, molecules, crystals and other aggregrates of matter whether in isolation or combination. It also incorporates energy and entropy related studies to various chemical substances. Chemistry may refer to: Chemistry, the science of matter at or near the atomic scale Chemistry (album), an album by Girls Aloud Chemistry (band), a Japanese popular music R&B duo Chemistry (Buckshot album), an album by Buckshot & 9th Wonder Interpersonal chemistry, a reaction between people to each other Chemistry... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... For other uses, see Atom (disambiguation). ... Chinese (Wu Xing) Japanese (Godai) Earth (地) | Water (æ°´) | Fire (火) | Air / Wind (風) | Void / Sky / Heaven (空) Hinduism (Tattva) and Buddhism (MahābhÅ«ta) Vayu / Pavan — Air / Wind Agni / Tejas — Fire Akasha — Aether Prithvi / Bhumi — Earth Ap / Jala — Water Bön New Zealand “The Four Elements” redirects here. ... Part of a scientific laboratory at the University of Cologne. ... In physics, matter is commonly defined as the substance of which physical objects are composed, not counting the contribution of various energy or force-fields, which are not usually considered to be matter per se (though they may contribute to the mass of objects). ... Vapours of hydrogen chloride in a beaker and ammonia in a test tube meet to form a cloud of a new substance, ammonium chloride A chemical reaction is a process that results in the interconversion of chemical substances. ... Physical science is an encompassing term for the branches of natural science, and science (generally), that study non-living systems, in contrast to the biological sciences. ... For other uses, see Atom (disambiguation). ... 3D (left and center) and 2D (right) representations of the terpenoid molecule atisane. ... Quartz crystal Synthetic bismuth hopper crystal Insulin crystals Gallium, a metal that easily forms large single crystals A huge monocrystal of potassium dihydrogen phosphate grown from solution by Saint-Gobain for the megajoule laser of CEA. In chemistry and mineralogy, a crystal is a solid in which the constituent atoms... Ice melting - classic example of entropy increasing[1] described in 1862 by Rudolf Clausius as an increase in the disgregation of the molecules of the body of ice. ... Water and steam are two different forms of the same chemical substance A chemical substance is any material with a definite chemical composition, no matter where it comes from. ...


There are several specialized disciplines within chemistry, traditionally grouped by the type of matter being studied or the kind of study, the main amongst them are:

Many more specialized disciplines have emerged (see Subdisciplines and applied fields). Inorganic chemistry is the branch of chemistry concerned with the properties and reactions of inorganic compounds. ... Inorganic chemistry is the branch of chemistry concerned with the properties and reactions of inorganic compounds. ... Organic chemistry is a specific discipline within chemistry which involves the scientific study of the structure, properties, composition, reactions, and preparation (by synthesis or by other means) of chemical compounds consisting of primarily carbon and hydrogen, which may contain any number of other elements, including nitrogen, oxygen, halogens as well... Benzene is the simplest of the arenes, a family of organic compounds An organic compound is any member of a large class of chemical compounds whose molecules contain carbon and hydrogen; therefore, carbides, carbonates, carbon oxides and elementary carbon are not organic (see below for more on the definition controversy... Biochemistry is the study of the chemical processes and transformations in living organisms. ... Water and steam are two different forms of the same chemical substance A chemical substance is any material with a definite chemical composition, no matter where it comes from. ... In biology and ecology, an organism (in Greek organon = instrument) is a living being. ... Physical chemistry is the application of physics to macroscopic, microscopic, atomic and particulate phenomena in chemical systems[1]within the field of chemistry traditionally using the principles, practices and concepts of thermodynamics, quantum chemistry, statistical mechanics and kinetics. ... For the song by 311, see Grassroots Applied science is the exact science of applying knowledge from one or more natural scientific fields to practical problems. ...


Modern chemistry evolved out of alchemy following the chemical revolution (1773), through the reforms of many individuals, particularly French chemist Antoine Lavoisier who, among others, is considered the "father of modern chemistry". Other pioneers (fathers) of modern chemistry include: Robert Boyle (1661), John Dalton (1808),and Jöns Jakob Berzelius (1828), while some consider Geber (d. 815) to be the first chemist.[3][4][5] For other uses, see Alchemy (disambiguation). ... The Chemical Revolution (or the first chemical revolution) denotes the reformulation of chemistry based on the Law of Conservation of Matter and the oxygen theory of combustion, and centered on the work of Antoine Lavoisier. ... Antoine-Laurent de Lavoisier (August 26, 1743 – May 8, 1794), the father of modern chemistry [1], was a French nobleman prominent in the histories of chemistry, finance, biology, and economics. ... Revisions and sourced additions are welcome; please only include historical figures. ... Robert Boyle Robert Boyle (25 January 1627 – 30 December 1691) was an Anglo-Irish natural philosopher, chemist, physicist, inventor, and early gentleman scientist, noted for his work in physics and chemistry. ... John Dalton John Dalton (September 6, 1766 – July 27, 1844) was an English chemist and physicist, born at Eaglesfield, near Cockermouth in Cumberland. ... Friherre Jöns Jakob Berzelius (August 20, 1779 – August 7, 1848) was a Swedish chemist. ... Jabir ibn Hayyan and Geber were also pen names of an anonymous 14th century Spanish alchemist: see Pseudo-Geber. ...

Contents

Overview

Chemistry is the scientific study of interaction of substances called chemical substances[6] that are constituted of atoms or the subatomic components that make up atoms: protons, electrons and neutrons.[7] Atoms combine to produce ions, molecules or crystals. Chemistry can be called "the central science" because it connects the other natural sciences, such as astronomy, physics, material science, biology, and geology.[8][9] Water and steam are two different forms of the same chemical substance A chemical substance is any material with a definite chemical composition, no matter where it comes from. ... For other uses, see Atom (disambiguation). ... In physics, the proton (Greek proton = first) is a subatomic particle with an electric charge of one positive fundamental unit (1. ... e- redirects here. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This article is about the electrically charged particle. ... 3D (left and center) and 2D (right) representations of the terpenoid molecule atisane. ... Quartz crystal Synthetic bismuth hopper crystal Insulin crystals Gallium, a metal that easily forms large single crystals A huge monocrystal of potassium dihydrogen phosphate grown from solution by Saint-Gobain for the megajoule laser of CEA. In chemistry and mineralogy, a crystal is a solid in which the constituent atoms... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into chemistry. ... The Michelson–Morley experiment was used to disprove that light propagated through a luminiferous aether. ... A giant Hubble mosaic of the Crab Nebula, a supernova remnant Astronomy (also frequently referred to as astrophysics) is the scientific study of celestial objects (such as stars, planets, comets, and galaxies) and phenomena that originate outside the Earths atmosphere (such as the cosmic background radiation). ... This is a discussion of a present category of science. ... Materials science includes those parts of chemistry and physics that deal with the properties of materials. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... This article includes a list of works cited but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ...


The genesis of chemistry can be traced to certain practices, known as alchemy, which had been practiced for several millennia in various parts of the world, particularly the middle east.[10] For other uses, see Alchemy (disambiguation). ... These pages contain the trends of millennia and centuries. ...


The structure of objects we commonly use and the properties of the matter we commonly interact with, are a consequence of the properties of chemical substances and their interactions. For example, steel is harder than iron because its atoms are bound together in a more rigid crystalline lattice; wood burns or undergoes rapid oxidation because it can react spontaneously with oxygen in a chemical reaction above a certain temperature; sugar and salt dissolve in water because their molecular/ionic properties are such that dissolution is preferred under the ambient conditions. The steel cable of a colliery winding tower. ... In materials science, hardness is the characteristic of a solid material expressing its resistance to permanent deformation. ... Rose des Sables (Sand Rose), formed of gypsum crystals In mineralogy and crystallography, a crystal structure is a unique arrangement of atoms in a crystal. ... The most fundamental reactions in chemistry are the redox processes. ... General Name, Symbol, Number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals, chalcogens Group, Period, Block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless (gas) very pale blue (liquid) Standard atomic weight 15. ... Vapours of hydrogen chloride in a beaker and ammonia in a test tube meet to form a cloud of a new substance, ammonium chloride A chemical reaction is a process that results in the interconversion of chemical substances. ... Fig. ...


The transformations that are studied in chemistry are a result of interaction either between different chemical substances or between matter and energy. Traditional chemistry involves study of interactions between substances in a chemistry laboratory using various forms of laboratory glassware. In physics, matter is commonly defined as the substance of which physical objects are composed, not counting the contribution of various energy or force-fields, which are not usually considered to be matter per se (though they may contribute to the mass of objects). ... Generally, an interaction is a kind of action which occurs as two or more objects have an effect upon one another. ... Water and steam are two different forms of the same chemical substance A chemical substance is any material with a definite chemical composition, no matter where it comes from. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Brown glass jars with some clear lab glassware in the background Laboratory glassware refers to a variety of equipment, traditionally made of glass, used for scientific experiments and other work in science, especially in chemistry and biology laboratories. ...

Laboratory, Institute of Biochemistry, University of Cologne

A chemical reaction is a transformation of some such substances into one or more other such substances.[11] It can be symbolically depicted through a chemical equation. The number of atoms on the left and the right in the equation for a chemical transformation is most often equal. The nature of chemical reactions a substance may undergo and the energy changes that may accompany it are constrained by certain basic rules, known as chemical laws. ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (2272x1704, 1555 KB) Lab bench. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (2272x1704, 1555 KB) Lab bench. ... Vapours of hydrogen chloride in a beaker and ammonia in a test tube meet to form a cloud of a new substance, ammonium chloride A chemical reaction is a process that results in the interconversion of chemical substances. ... A chemical equation is a symbolic representation of a chemical reaction where the reactant entities are given on the left hand side and the product entities on the right hand side. ...


Energy and entropy considerations are invariably important in almost all chemical studies. Chemical substances are classified in terms of their structure, phase as well as their chemical compositions. They can be analysed using the tools of chemical analysis, e.g. spectroscopy and chromatography. Ice melting - classic example of entropy increasing[1] described in 1862 by Rudolf Clausius as an increase in the disgregation of the molecules of the body of ice. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The chemical composition of a substance refers to the elements of which the substance is composed. ... Analytical chemistry is the analysis of material samples to gain an understanding of their chemical composition and structure. ... Extremely high resolution spectrogram of the Sun showing thousands of elemental absorption lines (fraunhofer lines) Spectroscopy is the study of the interaction between radiation (electromagnetic radiation, or light, as well as particle radiation) and matter. ... For the Second Person album, see Chromatography (album). ...


Chemistry is an integral part of the science curriculum both at the high school as well as the early college level. At these levels, it is often called 'general chemistry' which is an introduction to a wide variety of fundamental concepts that enable the student to acquire tools and skills useful at the advanced levels, whereby chemistry is invariably studied in any of its various sub-disciplines. Scientists, engaged in chemical research are known as chemists.[12] Most chemists specialize in one or more sub-disciplines. Part of a scientific laboratory at the University of Cologne. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For a List of scientists, see: List of anthropologists List of astronomers List of biologists List of chemists List of computer scientists List of economists List of engineers List of geologists List of inventors List of mathematicians List of meteorologists List of physicists Scientist pairs List of scientist pairs See... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... A chemist is a scientist who specializes in chemistry. ...


History

Antoine Lavoisier

Father of modern chemistry
Born August 26, 1743
Paris, France
Died May 8, 1794 (aged 50)
Paris, France
Occupation chemist, economist and nobleman.
Main article: History of chemistry
See also: Alchemy, Timeline of chemistry, and Nobel Prize in Chemistry

The genesis of chemistry can be traced to the widely observed phenomenon of burning that led to metallurgy- the art and science of processing ores to get metals (e.g. metallurgy in ancient India). The greed for gold led to the discovery of the process for its purification, even though, the underlying principles were not well understood -- it was thought to be a transformation rather than purification. Many scholars in those days thought it reasonable to believe that there exist means for transforming cheaper (base) metals into gold. This gave way to alchemy, and the search for the Philosopher's Stone, which was believed to bring about such a transformation by mere touch.[13] Image File history File links Antoine_lavoisier_color. ... is the 238th day of the year (239th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events February 14 - Henry Pelham becomes British Prime Minister February 21 - - The premiere in London of George Frideric Handels oratorio, Samson. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... is the 128th day of the year (129th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1794 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... This article is about the capital of France. ... Face-to-face trading interactions on the New York Stock Exchange trading floor. ... Nobility is a traditional hereditary status (see hereditary titles) that exists today in many countries (mainly present or former monarchies). ... Portrait of Monsieur Lavoisier and his Wife, by Jacques-Louis David The history of chemistry may be said to begin with the distinction of chemistry from alchemy by Robert Boyle in his work The Sceptical Chymist (1661). ... For other uses, see Alchemy (disambiguation). ... Timeline of chemistry lists important works, discoveries, ideas, inventions, and experiments that significantly changed mankinds understanding of the composition of matter and of the interactions thereof, the modern science known as chemistry. ... This is a list of Nobel Prize laureates in Chemistry from 1901 to 2006. ... A combustion reaction taking place in a igniting match Combustion or burning is a complex sequence of exothermic chemical reactions between a fuel and an oxidant accompanied by the production of heat or both heat and light in the form of either a glow or flames. ... Georg Agricola, author of De re metallica, an important early book on metal extraction Metallurgy is a domain of materials science that studies the physical and chemical behavior of metallic elements, their intermetallic compounds, and their mixtures, which are called alloys. ... Ayas. ... The philosophers stone, in Latin lapis philosophi, is a legendary substance that supposedly could turn inexpensive metals such as lead into gold (chrysopoeia in the Greek language) and/or create an elixir that would make humans younger, thus delaying death. ...


Some consider medieval Muslims to be the earliest chemists, who introduced precise observation and controlled experimentation into the field, and discovered numerous chemical substances.[14] The most influential Muslim chemists were Geber (d. 815), al-Kindi (d. 873), al-Razi (d. 925), and al-Biruni (d. 1048).[15] The works of Geber became more widely known in Europe through Latin translations by a pseudo-Geber in 14th century Spain, who also wrote some of his own books under the pen name "Geber". The contribution of Indian alchemists and metallurgists in the development of chemistry was also quite significant.[16] Alchemy in Islam differs from the general alchemy in certain ways, one of which is that Muslim alchemists didnt believe in the creation of life in the laboratory. ... Observation is an activity of a sapient or sentient living being (e. ... In the scientific method, an experiment (Latin: ex- periri, of (or from) trying) is a set of observations performed in the context of solving a particular problem or question, to support or falsify a hypothesis or research concerning phenomena. ... Water and steam are two different forms of the same chemical substance A chemical substance is any material with a definite chemical composition, no matter where it comes from. ... Jabir ibn Hayyan and Geber were also pen names of an anonymous 14th century Spanish alchemist: see Pseudo-Geber. ... Abū-Yūsuf Ya’qūb ibn Ishāq al-Kindī (c. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... (September 15, 973 in Kath, Khwarezm – December 13, 1048 in Ghazni) was a Persian[1][2][3] Muslim polymath[4] of the 11th century, whose experiments and discoveries were as significant and diverse as those of Leonardo da Vinci or Galileo, five hundred years before the Renaissance; al-Biruni was... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ... Pseudo-Geber (false Geber) is the name assigned by modern scholars to an anonymous alchemist born in the 14th century, probably in Spain. ... Ayas. ...


The emergence of chemistry in Europe was primarily due to the recurrent incidence of the plague and blights there during the so called Dark Ages. This gave rise to a need for medicines. It was thought that there exists a universal medicine called the Elixir of Life that can cure all diseases, but like the Philosopher's Stone, it was never found. The bubonic plague or bubonic fever is the best-known variant of the deadly infectious disease caused by the enterobacteria Yersinia pestis. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... The elixir of life, also known as the elixir of immortality or Dancing Water and sometimes equated with the Philosophers stone, is a legendary potion, or drink, that grants the drinker eternal life or eternal youth. ...


For some practitioners alchemy was an intellectual pursuit, over time, they got better at it. Paracelsus (1493-1541), for example, rejected the 4-elemental theory and with only a vague understanding of his chemicals and medicines, formed a hybrid of alchemy and science in what was to be called iatrochemistry. Similarly, the influences of philosophers such as Sir Francis Bacon (1561-1626) and René Descartes (1596-1650), who demanded more rigor in mathematics and in removing bias from scientific observations, led to a scientific revolution. In chemistry, this began with Robert Boyle (1627-1691), who discovered gases, and came up with equations that were known as Boyle's Law.[17] Chemistry indeed came of age when Antoine Lavoisier (1743-1794), developed the theory of Conservation of mass in 1783; and the development of the Atomic Theory by John Dalton around 1800. The Law of Conservation of Mass resulted in the reformulation of chemistry based on this law and the oxygen theory of combustion, which was largely based on the work of Lavoisier. Lavoisier's fundamental contributions to chemistry were a result of a conscious effort to fit all experiments into the framework of a single theory. He established the consistent use of the chemical balance, used oxygen to overthrow the phlogiston theory, and developed a new system of chemical nomenclature and made contibution to the modern metric system. Lavoisier also worked to translate the archaic and technical language of chemistry into something that could be easily understood by the largely uneducated masses, leading to an increased public interest in chemistry. All these advances in chemistry led to what is usually called the chemical revolution. The contributions of Lavoisier led to what is now called modern chemistry - the chemistry that is studied in educational institutions all over the world. It is because of these and other contribtuions that Antoine Lavoisier is often celebrated as the "Father of Modern Chemistry". The later discovery of Friedrich Wöhler that many natural substances, the Organic compounds, can indeed be synthesized in a chemistry laboratory also helped the modern chemistry to mature from its infancy. Presumed portrait of Paracelsus, attributed to the school of Quentin Matsys. ... Iatrochemistry is a branch of both chemistry and medicine. ... Sir Francis Bacon Francis Bacon, 1st Viscount St Albans (January 22, 1561 - April 9, 1626) was an English philosopher, statesman, and essayist. ... René Descartes (French IPA: ) (March 31, 1596 – February 11, 1650), also known as Renatus Cartesius (latinized form), was a highly influential French philosopher, mathematician, scientist, and writer. ... The event which many historians of science call the scientific revolution can be dated roughly as having begun in 1543, the year in which Nicolaus Copernicus published his De revolutionibus orbium coelestium (On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres) and Andreas Vesalius published his De humani corporis fabrica (On the... Robert Boyle Robert Boyle (25 January 1627 – 30 December 1691) was an Anglo-Irish natural philosopher, chemist, physicist, inventor, and early gentleman scientist, noted for his work in physics and chemistry. ... Boyles law (sometimes referred to as the Boyle Mariotte law) is one of the gas laws. ... Antoine-Laurent de Lavoisier (August 26, 1743 – May 8, 1794), the father of modern chemistry [1], was a French nobleman prominent in the histories of chemistry, finance, biology, and economics. ... The law of conservation of mass/matter, also known as law of mass/matter conservation (or the Lomonosov-Lavoisier law), states that the mass of a closed system of substances will remain constant, regardless of the processes acting inside the system. ... In chemistry and physics, atomic theory is a theory of the nature of matter, which states that matter is composed of discrete units called atoms, as opposed to obsolete beliefs that matter could be divided into any arbitrarily small quantity. ... John Dalton John Dalton (September 6, 1766 – July 27, 1844) was an English chemist and physicist, born at Eaglesfield, near Cockermouth in Cumberland. ... Phlogiston theory was a 17th century attempt to explain oxidation processes, such as fire and rust. ... The Chemical Revolution (or the first chemical revolution) denotes the reformulation of chemistry based on the Law of Conservation of Matter and the oxygen theory of combustion, and centered on the work of Antoine Lavoisier. ... Friedrich Wöhler (July 31, 1800 - September 23, 1882) was a German chemist, best-known for his synthesis of urea, but also the first to isolate several of the elements. ... Benzene is the simplest of the arenes, a family of organic compounds An organic compound is any member of a large class of chemical compounds whose molecules contain carbon and hydrogen; therefore, carbides, carbonates, carbon oxides and elementary carbon are not organic (see below for more on the definition controversy... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


The discoveries of the chemical elements has a long history from the days of alchemy and culminating in the creation of the periodic table of the chemical elements by Dmitri Mendeleev (1834-1907)[18] and later discoveries of some synthetic elements. The discovery of the elements known to exist today is presented here in chronological order. ... For a diagram of the periodic table, see standard periodic table below. ... Portrait of Dimitri Mendeleyev by Ilya Repin Dmitri Mendeleev (Russian: , Dmitriy Ivanovich Mendeleyev  ) (8 February [O.S. 27 January] 1834 in Tobolsk – 2 February [O.S. 20 January] 1907 in Saint Petersburg), was a Russian chemist. ... The chemical elements labeled as synthetic are unstable, with a half-life so short (ranging from a fraction of millisecond to a few million years) relative to the age of the Earth that any atoms of that element that may have been present when the Earth formed have long since...


Etymology

Main article: Chemistry (etymology)

The word chemistry comes from the earlier study of alchemy, which is basically the quest to make gold from earthen starting materials.[19] As to the origin of the word "alchemy" the question is a debatable one; it certainly can be traced back to the Greeks, and some, following E. Wallis Budge, have also asserted Egyptian origins. Alchemy, generally, derives from the old French alkemie from the Arabic al-kimia - "the art of transformation". The Arabs borrowed the word "kimia" from the Greeks when they conquered Alexandria in the year 642 AD. A tentative outline is as follows: In the history of science, the etymology of the word chemistry is a debatable issue. ... Nickname: Alexandria on the map of Egypt Map of Alexandria Coordinates: , Country Egypt Founded 334 BC Government  - Governor Adel Labib Population (2001)  - City 3,500,000 Time zone EET (UTC+2)  - Summer (DST) EEST (UTC+3) Twin Cities  - Baltimore  United States  - Cleveland  United States  - ConstanÅ£a  Romania  - Durban  South Africa...

  1. Egyptian alchemy [5,000 BCE – 400 BCE], formulate early "element" theories such as the Ogdoad.
  2. Greek alchemy [332 BCE – 642 CE], the Greek king Alexander the Great conquers Egypt and founds Alexandria, having the world's largest library, where scholars and "wise" men gather to study.
  3. Arabian alchemy [642 CE – 1200], the Arabs take over Alexandria; Jabir is the main chemist
  4. European alchemy [1300 – present], Pseudo-Geber builds on Arabic chemistry
  5. Chemistry [1661], Boyle writes his classic chemistry text The Sceptical Chymist
  6. Chemistry [1787], Lavoisier writes his classic Elements of Chemistry
  7. Chemistry [1803], Dalton publishes his Atomic Theory

Thus, an alchemist was called a 'chemist' in popular speech, and later the suffix "-ry" was added to this to describe the art of the chemist as "chemistry". In Egyptian mythology, the Ogdoad are the eight deities worshipped in Hermopolis. ... For the film of the same name, see Alexander the Great (1956 film). ... Alchemy in Islam differs from the general alchemy in certain ways, one of which is that Muslim alchemists didnt believe in the creation of life in the laboratory. ... Jabir ibn Hayyan and Geber were also pen names of an anonymous 14th century Spanish alchemist: see Pseudo-Geber. ... Pseudo-Geber (false Geber) is the name assigned by modern scholars to an anonymous alchemist born in the 14th century, probably in Spain. ... Robert Boyle Robert Boyle (25 January 1627 – 30 December 1691) was an Anglo-Irish natural philosopher, chemist, physicist, inventor, and early gentleman scientist, noted for his work in physics and chemistry. ... Antoine-Laurent de Lavoisier (August 26, 1743 – May 8, 1794), the father of modern chemistry [1], was a French nobleman prominent in the histories of chemistry, finance, biology, and economics. ... John Dalton John Dalton (September 6, 1766 – July 27, 1844) was an English chemist and physicist, born at Eaglesfield, near Cockermouth in Cumberland. ...


Definitions

In retrospect, the definition of chemistry seems to invariably change per decade, as new discoveries and theories add to the functionality of the science. Shown below, for example, are some of the standard definitions used by various noted chemists:

  • Alchemy (330) – the study of the composition of waters, movement, growth, embodying and disembodying, drawing the spirits from bodies and bonding the spirits within bodies (Zosimos).[20]
  • Chymistry (1661) – the subject of the material principles of mixt bodies (Boyle).[21]
  • Chymistry (1663) – a scientific art, by which one learns to dissolve bodies, and draw from them the different substances on their composition, and how to unite them again, and exalt them to an higher perfection (Glaser).[22]
  • Chemistry (1730) – the art of resolving mixt, compound, or aggregate bodies into their principles; and of composing such bodies from those principles (Stahl).[23]
  • Chemistry (1837) – the science concerned with the laws and effects of molecular forces (Dumas).[24]
  • Chemistry (1947) – the science of substances: their structure, their properties, and the reactions that change them into other substances (Pauling).[25]
  • Chemistry (1998) – the study of matter and the changes it undergoes (Chang).[26]

Zosimos of Panopolis was a Greek alchemist from the end of the 3rd century, beginning of the 4th A.D., who was born in Panopolis, present day Akhmim in the South of Egypt, ca. ... Robert Boyle Robert Boyle (25 January 1627 – 30 December 1691) was an Anglo-Irish natural philosopher, chemist, physicist, inventor, and early gentleman scientist, noted for his work in physics and chemistry. ... Christopher Glaser, a pharmaceutical chemist of the 17th century, was a native of Basel, became demonstrator of chemistry at the Jardin du Roi in Paris and apothecary to Louis XIV and to the duke of Orleans. ... Georg Ernst Stahl (October 21, 1660 - May 24, 1734), was a German chemist and physician. ... Jean Baptiste Andr Dumas Jean Baptiste Andr Dumas (July 14, 1800 - April 10, 1884), French chemist, best known for his works on organic analysis and synthesis, as well as the determination of atomic weights (relative atomic masses) by measuring vapor densities. ... Linus Carl Pauling (February 28, 1901 – August 19, 1994) was an American quantum chemist and biochemist. ... Raymond Chang is a professor at Williams College in the Department of Chemistry. ...

Basic concepts

Several concepts are essential for the study of chemistry, some of them are:[27] A concept is an abstract, universal psychical entity that serves to designate a category or class of entities, events or relations. ...


Atom

Main article: Atom

An atom is the basic unit of an element. It is a collection of matter consisting of a positively charged core (the atomic nucleus) which contains protons and neutrons, and which maintains a number of electrons to balance the positive charge in the nucleus. Atom is also the smallest entity that can be envisaged to retain some of the chemical properties of the element, viz. Electronegativity, Ionization potential, Preferred oxidation state(s), Coordination number, Preferred types of bonds to form e.g., metallic, ionic, covalent. For other uses, see Atom (disambiguation). ... The nucleus of an atom is the very small dense region, of positive charge, in its centre consisting of nucleons (protons and neutrons). ... For alternative meanings see proton (disambiguation). ... Properties In physics, the neutron is a subatomic particle with no net electric charge and a mass of 940 MeV/c² (1. ... e- redirects here. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Electronegativity is a measure of the ability of an atom or molecule to attract electrons in the context of a chemical bond. ... The ionization potential, or ionization energy, of an atom or molecule is the energy required to strip it of an electron. ... In chemistry, the oxidation state is an indicator of the degree of oxidation of an atom in a chemical compound. ... In chemistry coordination number (c. ... A chemical bond is the physical process responsible for the attractive interactions between atoms and molecules, and that which confers stability to diatomic and polyatomic chemical compounds. ... For alternative meanings see metal (disambiguation). ... This article is about the electrically charged particle. ... Covalent bonding is a form of chemical bonding characterized by the sharing of one or more pairs of electrons between atoms, in order to produce a mutual attraction, which holds the resultant molecule together. ...


Element

Main article: Chemical element

The concept of chemical element is related to that of chemical substance. A chemical element is characterized by a particular number of protons in the nuclei of its atoms. This number is known as the atomic number of the element. For example, all atoms with 6 protons in their nuclei are atoms of the chemical element carbon, and all atoms with 92 protons in their nuclei are atoms of the element uranium. However, several isotopes of an element, that differ from one another in the number of neutrons present in the nucleus, may exist. The periodic table of the chemical elements A chemical element, or element, is a type of atom that is defined by its atomic number; that is, by the number of protons in its nucleus. ... In physics, the proton (Greek proton = first) is a subatomic particle with an electric charge of one positive fundamental unit (1. ... The nucleus of an atom is the very small dense region, of positive charge, in its centre consisting of nucleons (protons and neutrons). ... It has been suggested that List of elements by atomic number be merged into this article or section. ... General Name, symbol, number carbon, C, 6 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 14, 2, p Appearance black (graphite) colorless (diamond) Standard atomic weight 12. ... General Name, symbol, number uranium, U, 92 Chemical series actinides Group, period, block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery gray metallic; corrodes to a spalling black oxide coat in air Standard atomic weight 238. ... Isotopes are any of the several different forms of an element each having different atomic mass (mass number). ...


The most convenient presentation of the chemical elements is in the periodic table of the chemical elements, which groups elements by atomic number. Due to its ingenious arrangement, groups, or columns, and periods, or rows, of elements in the table either share several chemical properties, or follow a certain trend in characteristics such as atomic radius, electronegativity, etc. Lists of the elements by name, by symbol, and by atomic number are also available. For a diagram of the periodic table, see standard periodic table below. ... A periodic table group is a vertical column in the periodic table of the chemical elements. ... Look up period in Wiktionary, the free dictionary Period, and periodic, is part of many concepts: In astronomy Orbital period. ... Atomic radius: Ionic radius Covalent radius Metallic radius van der Waals radius edit Atomic radius, and more generally the size of an atom, is not a precisely defined physical quantity, nor is it constant in all circumstances. ... Electronegativity is a measure of the ability of an atom or molecule to attract electrons in the context of a chemical bond. ... This is a list of chemical elements, sorted by name and color coded according to type of element. ... Categories: Chemical elements ...


Compound

Main article: Chemical compound

A compound is a substance with a particular ratio of atoms of particular chemical elements which determines its composition, and a particular organization which determines chemical properties. For example, water is a compound containing hydrogen and oxygen in the ratio of two to one, with the oxygen between the hydrogens, and an angle of 104.5° between them. Compounds are formed and interconverted by chemical reactions. A chemical compound is a chemical substance of two or more different chemically bonded chemical elements, with a fixed ratio determining the composition. ... The periodic table of the chemical elements A chemical element, or element, is a type of atom that is defined by its atomic number; that is, by the number of protons in its nucleus. ... Chemical structure refers to the spatial arrangement of atoms in a molecule and the chemical bonds that hold the atoms together. ... This article describes water from a scientific and technical perspective. ... General Name, Symbol, Number hydrogen, H, 1 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 1, 1, s Appearance colorless Atomic mass 1. ... General Name, Symbol, Number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals, chalcogens Group, Period, Block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless (gas) very pale blue (liquid) Standard atomic weight 15. ... Vapours of hydrogen chloride in a beaker and ammonia in a test tube meet to form a cloud of a new substance, ammonium chloride A chemical reaction is a process that results in the interconversion of chemical substances. ...


Substance

Main article: Chemical substance

A chemical substance is a kind of matter with a definite composition and set of properties. Strictly speaking, a mixture of compounds, elements or compounds and elements is not a chemical substance, but it may be called a chemical. Most of the substances we encounter in our daily life are some kind of mixture, e.g. air, alloys, biomass etc. Water and steam are two different forms of the same chemical substance A chemical substance is any material with a definite chemical composition, no matter where it comes from. ... The chemical composition of a substance refers to the elements of which the substance is composed. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Layers of Atmosphere—not to scale (NOAA) [1] Earths atmosphere is a layer of gases surrounding the planet Earth and retained by the Earths gravity. ... An alloy is a homogeneous mixture of two or more elements, at least one of which is a metal, and where the resulting material has metallic properties. ... See biomass (ecology) for the use of the term in ecology, where it refers to the cumulation of living matter Switchgrass, a tough plant used in the biofuel industry in the United States Rice chaff. ...


Nomenclature of substances is a critical part of the language of chemistry. Generally it refers to a system for naming chemical compounds. Earlier in the history of chemistry substances were given name by their discoverer, which often led to some confusion and difficulty. However, today the IUPAC system of chemical nomenclature allows chemists to specify by name specific compounds amongst the infinite variety of possible chemicals. The standard nomenclature of chemical substances is set by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC). There are well-defined systems in place for naming chemical species. Organic compounds are named according to the organic nomenclature system.[28] Inorganic compounds are named according to the inorganic nomenclature system.[29] In addition the Chemical Abstracts Service has devised a method to index chemical substance. In this scheme each chemical substance is identifiable by a numeric number known as CAS registry number. A chemical compound is a chemical substance of two or more different chemically bonded chemical elements, with a fixed ratio determining the composition. ... IUPAC logo The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) (Pronounced as eye-you-pack) is an international non-governmental organization established in 1919 devoted to the advancement of chemistry. ... Benzene is the simplest of the arenes, a family of organic compounds An organic compound is any member of a large class of chemical compounds whose molecules contain carbon and hydrogen; therefore, carbides, carbonates, carbon oxides and elementary carbon are not organic (see below for more on the definition controversy... Organic nomenclature is the system established for naming and grouping organic compounds. ... Traditionally, inorganic compounds are considered to be of mineral, not biological, origin. ... Inorganic nomenclature is a systematic way of naming inorganic compounds. ... Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) is a division of the American Chemical Society, and produces Chemical Abstracts, and related products. ... CAS registry numbers are unique numerical identifiers for chemical compounds, polymers, biological sequences, mixtures and alloys. ...


Molecule

Main article: Molecule

A molecule is the smallest indivisible portion, beside an atom, of a pure chemical substance that has its unique set of chemical properties, that is, its potential to undergo a certain set of chemical reactions with other substances. Molecules can exist as electrically neutral units unlike ions. Molecules are typically a set of atoms bound together by covalent bonds, such that the structure is electrically neutral and all valence electrons are paired with other electrons either in bonds or in lone pairs. 3D (left and center) and 2D (right) representations of the terpenoid molecule atisane. ... Water and steam are two different forms of the same chemical substance A chemical substance is any material with a definite chemical composition, no matter where it comes from. ... In mathematics, a set can be thought of as any collection of distinct objects considered as a whole. ... ... Covalent bonding is a form of chemical bonding that is characterized by the sharing of pairs of electrons between atoms, or sometimes between atoms and other covalent bonds. ... A lone pair is an electron pair without bonding or sharing with other atoms. ...

A molecular structure depicts the bonds and relative positions of atoms in a molecule such as that in Paclitaxel shown here

One of the main characteristic of a molecule is its geometry often called its structure. While the structure of diatomic, triatomic or tetra atomic molecules may be trivial, (linear, angular pyramidal etc.) the structure of polyatomic molecules, that are constituted of more than six atoms (of several elements) can be crucial for its chemical nature. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (818x448, 9 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Chemistry Portal:Chemistry/Selected picture Talk:Nicolaou Taxol total synthesis User:Xxpor Portal:Chemistry/Selected picture/5 ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (818x448, 9 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Chemistry Portal:Chemistry/Selected picture Talk:Nicolaou Taxol total synthesis User:Xxpor Portal:Chemistry/Selected picture/5 ... Paclitaxel is a drug used in the treatment of cancer. ... Geometry of the water molecule Molecules have fixed equilibrium geometries--bond lengths and angles--that are dictated by the laws of quantum mechanics. ...


Mole

Main article: Mole (unit)

A mole is the amount of a substance that contains as many elementary entities (atoms, molecules or ions) as there are atoms in 0.012 kilogram (or 12 grams) of carbon-12, where the carbon-12 atoms are unbound, at rest and in their ground state.[30] The number of atoms in 0.012 kilogram of carbon-12 is known as the Avogadro constant, and is determined empirically. The currently accepted value is 6.02214179(30)×1023 mol-1 (2007 CODATA). It is much like the term "a dozen" in that it is an absolute number (having no units) and can describe any type of elementary object, although the mole's use is usually limited to measurement of subatomic, atomic, and molecular structures. The mole (symbol: mol) is the SI base unit that measures an amount of substance. ... Water and steam are two different forms of the same chemical substance A chemical substance is any material with a definite chemical composition, no matter where it comes from. ... The kilogram or kilogramme (symbol: kg) is the SI base unit of mass. ... BIC pen cap, about 1 gram. ... Carbon 12 is a stable isotope of the element carbon. ... In physics, the ground state of a quantum mechanical system is its lowest-energy state. ... The Avogadro constant (symbols: L, NA), also called the Avogadro number and, in German scientific literature, sometimes also known as the Loschmidt constant/number, is formally defined to be the number of entities in one mole,[1][2] that is the number of carbon-12 atoms in 12 grams (0. ... CODATA (Committee on Data for Science and Technology) was established in 1966 as an interdisciplinary committee of the International Council of Science (ICSU), formerly the International Council of Scientific Unions. ... Dozen is another word for the number twelve. ... Helium atom (not to scale) Showing two protons (red), two neutrons (green) and a probability cloud (gray) of two electrons (yellow). ... For other uses, see Atom (disambiguation). ... 3D (left and center) and 2D (right) representations of the terpenoid molecule atisane. ...


The number of moles of a substance in one liter of a solution is known as its molarity. Molarity is the common unit used to express the concentration of a solution in physical chemistry. Making a saline water solution by dissolving table salt (NaCl) in water This article is about chemical solutions. ... This page refers to concentration in the chemical sense. ... In chemistry, concentration is the measure of how much of a given substance there is mixed with another substance. ... Physical chemistry is the application of physics to macroscopic, microscopic, atomic and particulate phenomena in chemical systems[1]within the field of chemistry traditionally using the principles, practices and concepts of thermodynamics, quantum chemistry, statistical mechanics and kinetics. ...


Ions and Salts

Main article: Ion

An ion is a charged species, or an atom or a molecule that has lost or gained one or more electrons. Positively charged cations (e.g. sodium cation Na+) and negatively charged anions (e.g. chloride Cl) can form a crystalline lattice of neutral salts (e.g. sodium chloride NaCl). Examples of polyatomic ions that do not split up during acid-base reactions are hydroxide (OH) and phosphate (PO43−). This article is about the electrically charged particle. ... An ion is an atom or group of atoms with a net electric charge. ... For sodium in the diet, see Edible salt. ... ... The chloride ion is formed when the element chlorine picks up one electron to form an anion (negatively-charged ion) Cl−. The salts of hydrochloric acid HCl contain chloride ions and can also be called chlorides. ... For other uses, see Salt (disambiguation). ... Jordanian and Israeli salt evaporation ponds at the south end of the Dead Sea Sodium chloride, also known as common salt, table salt, or halite, is a chemical compound with the formula NaCl. ... An electrostatic potential map of the nitrate ion (NO3−). Areas coloured red are lower in energy than areas coloured yellow A polyatomic ion is a molecule that bears ionic groups, that is, a molecule with a charge. ... Acids and bases: Acid-base reaction theories pH Self-ionization of water Buffer solutions Systematic naming Electrochemistry Acid-base extraction Acids: Strong acids Weak acids Mineral acids Organic acids Bases: Strong bases Weak bases Organic bases edit An acid-base reaction is a chemical reaction between an acid and a... Hydroxide is a polyatomic ion consisting of oxygen and hydrogen: OH− It has a charge of −1. ... Above is a ball-and-stick model of the inorganic hydrogenphosphate anion (HPO42−). Colour coding: P (orange); O (red); H (white). ...


Ions in the gaseous phase is often known as plasma. A plasma lamp, illustrating some of the more complex phenomena of a plasma, including filamentation. ...


Phase

Main article: Phase (matter)

In addition to the specific chemical properties that distinguish different chemical classifications chemicals can exist in several phases. For the most part, the chemical classifications are independent of these bulk phase classifications; however, some more exotic phases are incompatible with certain chemical properties. A phase is a set of states of a chemical system that have similar bulk structural properties, over a range of conditions, such as pressure or temperature. Physical properties, such as density and refractive index tend to fall within values characteristic of the phase. The phase of matter is defined by the phase transition, which is when energy put into or taken out of the system goes into rearranging the structure of the system, instead of changing the bulk conditions. In the physical sciences, a phase is a set of states of a macroscopic physical system that have relatively uniform chemical composition and physical properties (i. ... In mathematics, a set can be thought of as any collection of distinct objects considered as a whole. ... The use of water pressure - the Captain Cook Memorial Jet in Lake Burley Griffin in Canberra, Australia. ... Fig. ... In physics, density is mass m per unit volume V. For the common case of a homogeneous substance, it is expressed as: where, in SI units: ρ (rho) is the density of the substance, measured in kg·m-3 m is the mass of the substance, measured in kg V is... The refractive index (or index of refraction) of a medium is a measure for how much the speed of light (or other waves such as sound waves) is reduced inside the medium. ... In physics, a phase transition, (or phase change) is the transformation of a thermodynamic system from one phase to another. ...


Sometimes the distinction between phases can be continuous instead of having a discrete boundary, in this case the matter is considered to be in a supercritical state. When three states meet based on the conditions, it is known as a triple point and since this is invariant, it is a convenient way to define a set of conditions. A supercritical fluid is any substance at a temperature and pressure above its thermodynamic critical point. ... In physics, the triple point of a substance is the temperature and pressure at which three phases (gas, liquid, and solid) of that substance may coexist in thermodynamic equilibrium. ...


The most familiar examples of phases are solids, liquids, and gases. Many substances exhibit multiple solid phases. For example, there are three phases of solid iron (alpha, gamma, and delta) that vary based on temperature and pressure. A principle difference between solid phases is the crystal structure, or arrangement, of the atoms. Less familiar phases include plasmas, Bose-Einstein condensates and fermionic condensates and the paramagnetic and ferromagnetic phases of magnetic materials. While most familiar phases deal with three-dimensional systems, it is also possible to define analogs in two-dimensional systems, which has received attention for its relevance to systems in biology. For other uses, see Solid (disambiguation). ... A liquid will usually assume the shape of its container A liquid is one of the main states of matter. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... General Name, symbol, number iron, Fe, 26 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 8, 4, d Appearance lustrous metallic with a grayish tinge Standard atomic weight 55. ... Enargite crystals In mineralogy and crystallography, a crystal structure is a unique arrangement of atoms in a crystal. ... A Plasma lamp In physics and chemistry, a plasma is an ionized gas, and is usually considered to be a distinct phase of matter. ... A Bose–Einstein condensate is a phase of matter formed by bosons cooled to temperatures very near to absolute zero (0 kelvins or -273. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Simple Illustration of a paramagnetic probe made up from miniature magnets. ... Ferromagnetism is the phenomenon by which materials, such as iron, in an external magnetic field become magnetized and remain magnetized for a period after the material is no longer in the field. ... For other uses, see Magnet (disambiguation). ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ...


Chemical bond

Main article: Chemical bond
Electron atomic and molecular orbitals

A chemical bond is a concept for understanding how atoms stick together in molecules. It may be visualized as the multipole balance between the positive charges in the nuclei and the negative charges oscillating about them.[31] More than simple attraction and repulsion, the energies and distributions characterize the availability of an electron to bond to another atom. These potentials create the interactions which holds together atoms in molecules or crystals. In many simple compounds, Valence Bond Theory, the Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion model (VSEPR), and the concept of oxidation number can be used to predict molecular structure and composition. Similarly, theories from classical physics can be used to predict many ionic structures. With more complicated compounds, such as metal complexes, valence bond theory fails and alternative approaches, primarily based on principles of quantum chemistry such as the molecular orbital theory, are necessary. See diagram on electronic orbitals. A chemical bond is the physical process responsible for the attractive interactions between atoms and molecules, and that which confers stability to diatomic and polyatomic chemical compounds. ... Image File history File links Electron_orbitals. ... Image File history File links Electron_orbitals. ... e- redirects here. ... In chemistry, a molecular orbital is a region in which an electron may be found in a molecule. ... Multipole moments in mathematics and mathematical physics are an orthogonal basis for the decomposition of a function, based on the response of a field to point sources that are brought infinitely close to each other. ... Interaction is a kind of action that occurs as two or more objects have an effect upon one another. ... For other uses, see Atom (disambiguation). ... 3D (left and center) and 2D (right) representations of the terpenoid molecule atisane. ... Quartz crystal Synthetic bismuth hopper crystal Insulin crystals Gallium, a metal that easily forms large single crystals A huge monocrystal of potassium dihydrogen phosphate grown from solution by Saint-Gobain for the megajoule laser of CEA. In chemistry and mineralogy, a crystal is a solid in which the constituent atoms... In chemistry, valence bond theory explains the nature of a chemical bond in a molecule in terms of atomic valencies. ... Geometry of the water molecule Molecules have fixed equilibrium geometries--bond lengths and angles--that are dictated by the laws of quantum mechanics. ... The oxidation number of an element in a molecule or complex is the charge that it would have if all the ligands (basically, atoms that donate electrons) were removed along with the electron pairs that were shared with the central atom[1]. It means that the oxidation number is the... Classical physics is physics based on principles developed before the rise of quantum theory, usually including the special theory of relativity and general theory of relativity. ... Synthesis of copper(II)-tetraphenylporphine, a metal complex, from tetraphenylporphine and copper(II) acetate monohydrate. ... Quantum chemistry is a branch of theoretical chemistry, which applies quantum mechanics and quantum field theory to address issues and problems in chemistry. ... In chemistry, a molecular orbital is a region in which an electron may be found in a molecule. ...


Chemical reaction

Main article: Chemical reaction

Chemical reaction is a concept related to the transformation of a chemical substance through its interaction with another, or as a result of its interaction with some form of energy. A chemical reaction may occur naturally or carried out in a laboratory by chemists in specially designed vessels which are often laboratory glassware. It can result in the formation or dissociation of molecules, that is, molecules breaking apart to form two or more smaller molecules, or rearrangement of atoms within or across molecules. Chemical reactions usually involve the making or breaking of chemical bonds. Oxidation, reduction, dissociation, acid-base neutralization and molecular rearrangement are some of the commonly used kinds of chemical reactions. Vapours of hydrogen chloride in a beaker and ammonia in a test tube meet to form a cloud of a new substance, ammonium chloride A chemical reaction is a process that results in the interconversion of chemical substances. ... Water and steam are two different forms of the same chemical substance A chemical substance is any material with a definite chemical composition, no matter where it comes from. ... Heat, a form of energy, is partly potential energy and partly kinetic energy. ... Brown glass jars with some clear lab glassware in the background Laboratory glassware refers to a variety of equipment, traditionally made of glass, used for scientific experiments and other work in science, especially in chemistry and biology laboratories. ... Dissociation is a psychological state or condition in which certain thoughts, emotions, sensations, or memories are separated from the rest of the psyche. ... For other uses, see Atom (disambiguation). ... A chemical bond is the physical process responsible for the attractive interactions between atoms and molecules, and that which confers stability to diatomic and polyatomic chemical compounds. ... Illustration of a redox reaction Redox (shorthand for oxidation/reduction reaction) describes all chemical reactions in which atoms have their oxidation number (oxidation state) changed. ... Dissociation is a psychological state or condition in which certain thoughts, emotions, sensations, or memories are separated from the rest of the psyche. ... Neutralization is a chemical reaction, also called a water forming reaction, in which an acid and a base or alkali (soluble base) react and produce a salt and water. ... A rearrangement reaction is a broad class of organic reactions where the carbon skeleton of a molecule is rearranged to give a structural isomer of the original molecule. ...


A chemical reaction can be symbolically depicted through a chemical equation. While in a non-nuclear chemical reaction the number and kind of atoms on both sides of the equation are equal[32], for a nuclear reaction this holds true only for the nuclear particles viz. protons and neutrons. A chemical equation is a symbolic representation of a chemical reaction where the reactant entities are given on the left hand side and the product entities on the right hand side. ...


The sequence of steps in which the reorganization of chemical bonds may be taking place in the course of a chemical reaction is called its mechanism. A chemical reaction can be envisioned to take place in a number of steps, each of which may have a different speed. Many reaction intermediates with variable stability can thus be envisaged during the course of a reaction. Reaction mechanisms are proposed to explain the kinetics and the relative product mix of a reaction. Many physical chemists specialize in exploring and proposing the mechanisms of various chemical reactions. Several empirical rules, like the Woodward-Hoffmann rules often come handy while proposing a mechanism for a chemical reaction. In chemistry, a reaction mechanism is the step by step sequence of elementary reactions by which overall chemical change occurs. ... The IUPAC Gold Book[1] defines a reaction intermediate or an intermediate a molecular entity (atom, ion, molecule. ... In physical chemistry, chemical kinetics or reaction kinetics study reaction rates in a chemical reaction. ... A chemist is a scientist who specializes in chemistry. ... The Woodward-Hoffmann rules devised by Robert Burns Woodward and Roald Hoffmann are a set of rules in organic chemistry predicting the stereochemistry of pericyclic reactions based on orbital symmetry. ...


A stricter definition of chemical reactions has been proposed by IUPAC[33] According to this definition, "a Chemical Reaction is a process that results in the interconversion of chemical species". Under this definition, a chemical reaction may be an elementary reaction or a stepwise reaction. An additional caveat is made, in that this definition includes cases where the interconversion of conformers is experimentally observable. Such detectable chemical reactions normally involve sets of molecular entities as indicated by this definition, but it is often conceptually convenient to use the term also for changes involving single molecular entities (i.e. 'microscopic chemical events'). The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) is an international non-governmental organization devoted to the advancement of chemistry. ... The IUPAC Compendium of Chemical Terminology defines elementary reaction as A reaction for which no reaction intermediates have been detected or need to be postulated in order to describe the chemical reaction on a molecular scale. ... A stepwise reaction is a chemical reaction with at least one reaction intermediate or reactive intermediates and involving at least two consecutive elementary reactions. ... Conformational isomerism is the phenomenon of molecules with the same structural formula but different conformations (conformers) of atoms about a rotating bond. ...


Energy

Main article: Energy

A chemical reaction is invariably accompanied by an increase or decrease of energy of the substances involved. Some energy is transferred between the surroundings and the reactants of the reaction in the form of heat or light, thus the products of a reaction may have more or less energy than the reactants. A reaction is said to be exothermic if the final state is lower on the energy scale than the initial state; in case of endothermic reactions the situation is otherwise. Vapours of hydrogen chloride in a beaker and ammonia in a test tube meet to form a cloud of a new substance, ammonium chloride A chemical reaction is a process that results in the interconversion of chemical substances. ... In Chemistry an endothermic reaction is one in which the reactants have less energy than the products, and thus a net input of energy, usually in the form of heat, is required. ... In chemistry, an exothermic reaction is one that releases heat . ... For other uses, see Heat (disambiguation) In physics, heat, symbolized by Q, is energy transferred from one body or system to another as a result of a difference in temperature. ... Photochemistry is the study of the interaction of light and chemicals. ... In thermodynamics, the word exothermic describes a process or reaction that releases energy in the form of heat. ... In thermodynamics, the word endothermic describes a process or reaction that absorbs energy in the form of heat. ...


Chemical reactions are invariably not possible unless the reactants surmount an energy barrier known as the activation energy. The speed of a chemical reaction (at given temperature T) is related to the activation energy E, by the Boltzmann's population factor e E / kT - that is the probability of molecule to have energy greater than or equal to E at the given temperature T. This exponential dependence of a reaction rate on temperature is known as the Arrhenius equation. The activation energy necessary for a chemical reaction can be in the form of heat, light, electricity or mechanical force in the form of ultrasound[34]. The sparks generated by striking steel against a flint provide the activation energy to initiate combustion in this Bunsen burner. ... The Arrhenius equation is a simple, but remarkably accurate, formula for the temperature dependence of a chemical reaction rate, more correctly, of a rate coefficient, as this coefficient includes all magnitudes that affect reaction rate except for concentration. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Lightning strikes during a night-time thunderstorm. ... In physics, force is anything that can cause a massive body to accelerate. ... Ultrasound is a form of cyclic sound pressure with a frequency greater than the upper limit of human hearing, this limit being approximately 20 kilohertz (20,000 hertz). ...


A related concept Free energy, which incorporates entropy considerations too, is a very useful means for predicting the feasibility of a reaction and determining the state of equilibrium of a chemical reaction, in chemical thermodynamics. A reaction is feasible only if the total change in the Gibbs free energy is negative, ; if it is equal to zero the chemical reaction is said to be at equilibrium. The free energy is a measure of the amount of mechanical (or other) work that can be extracted from a system, and is helpful in engineering applications. ... Willard Gibbs - founder of chemical thermodynamics In thermodynamics, chemical thermodynamics is the mathematical study of the interrelation of heat and work with chemical reactions or with a physical change of state within the confines of the laws of thermodynamics. ... In thermodynamics, the Gibbs free energy is a thermodynamic potential which measures the useful work obtainable from a closed thermodynamic system at a constant temperature and pressure. ... Apparatus for carrying out acid-base titration. ...


There are only a limited possible states of energy for electrons, atoms and molecules. These are determined by the rules of quantum mechanics, which require quantization of energy of a bound system. The atoms/molecules in an higher energy state are said to be excited. The molecules/atoms of substance in an excited energy state are often much more reactive, that is amenable to chemical reactions. Fig. ... Generally, quantization is the state of being constrained to a set of discrete values, rather than varying continuously. ...


The phase of a substance is invariably determined by its energy and those of its surroundings. When the intermolecular forces of a substance are such that energy of the surroundings is not sufficient to overcome them, it occurs in a more ordered phase like liquid or solid[35] as is the case with water, it is liquid at room temperature because its molecules are bound by hydrogen bonds. Whereas hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a gas at room temperature and standard pressure, as its molecules are bound by weaker dipole-dipole interactions. Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... A liquid will usually assume the shape of its container A liquid is one of the main states of matter. ... In chemistry, a hydrogen bond is a type of attractive intermolecular force that exists between two partial electric charges of opposite polarity. ... Hydrogen sulfide (hydrogen sulphide in British English), H2S, is a colorless, toxic, flammable gas that is responsible for the foul odor of rotten eggs and flatulence. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...


The transfer of energy from one chemical substance to other depend on the size of energy quanta emitted from one substance. However, heat energy is easily transferred from almost any substance to another mainly because the vibrational and rotational energy levels in a substance are very closely placed. Because, the electronic energy levels are not so closely spaced, ultraviolet electromagnetic radiation is not transferred with equal felicity, as is also the case with electrical energy. In physics quanta is the plural of quantum. ...


The existence of characteristic energy levels for different chemical substances is useful for their identification by the analysis of spectral lines of different kinds of spectra often used in chemical spectroscopy e.g. IR, microwave, NMR, ESR etc. This is used to identify the composition of remote objects - like stars and far galaxies - by analyzing their radiation (see spectroscopy). Water and steam are two different forms of the same chemical substance A chemical substance is any material with a definite chemical composition, no matter where it comes from. ... A spectral line is a dark or bright line in an otherwise uniform and continuous spectrum, resulting from an excess or deficiency of photons in a narrow frequency range, compared with the nearby frequencies. ... Infrared spectroscopy (IR Spectroscopy) is the subset of spectroscopy that deals with the IR region of the EM spectrum. ... Rotational spectroscopy studies the absorption of electromagnetic radiation (typically in the microwave region of the electromagnetic spectrum) by molecules. ... NMR may refer to: Nuclear magnetic resonance, a phenomenon involving the interaction of atomic nuclei and external magnetic fields Nielsen Media Research, a U.S. company which measures TV, radio and newspaper audiences This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share... Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) or Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) is a spectroscopic technique which detects species that have unpaired electrons, generally meaning that the molecule in question is a free radical if it is an organic molecule, or that it has transition metal ions if it is an inorganic complex. ... Extremely high resolution spectrogram of the Sun showing thousands of elemental absorption lines (fraunhofer lines) Spectroscopy is the study of the interaction between radiation (electromagnetic radiation, or light, as well as particle radiation) and matter. ...

Emission spectrum of iron

The term chemical energy is often used to indicate the potential of a chemical substance to undergo a transformation through a chemical reaction or transform other chemical substances. Iron emission spectrum This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... General Name, symbol, number iron, Fe, 26 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 8, 4, d Appearance lustrous metallic with a grayish tinge Standard atomic weight 55. ... Lightning is the electric breakdown of air by strong electric fields, or a plasma, which causes an energy transfer from the electric field to heat, mechanical energy (the random motion of air molecules caused by the heat), and light. ... Vapours of hydrogen chloride in a beaker and ammonia in a test tube meet to form a cloud of a new substance, ammonium chloride A chemical reaction is a process that results in the interconversion of chemical substances. ...


Chemical laws

Main article: Chemical law

Chemical reactions are governed by certain laws, which have become fundamental concepts in chemistry. Some of them are: Chemical Laws are the Laws of nature relevant to chemistry. ...

The law of conservation of mass states that the mass of a system of substances will always remain constant, regardless of the processes acting inside the system. ... 15ft sculpture of Einsteins 1905 E = mc² formula at the 2006 Walk of Ideas, Germany In physics, mass-energy equivalence is the concept that all mass has an energy equivalence, and all energy has a mass equivalence. ... Nuclear chemistry is a subfield of chemistry dealing with radioactivity, nuclear processes and nuclear properties. ... In physics, the conservation of energy states that the total amount of energy in an isolated system remains constant, although it may change forms, e. ... Apparatus for carrying out acid-base titration. ... Thermodynamics (from the Greek θερμη, therme, meaning heat and δυναμις, dunamis, meaning power) is a branch of physics that studies the effects of changes in temperature, pressure, and volume on physical systems at the macroscopic scale by analyzing the collective motion of their particles using statistics. ... In physical chemistry, chemical kinetics or reaction kinetics study reaction rates in a chemical reaction. ... One of the fundamental observations of modern chemistry, the law of definite proportions states that, in a pure compound, the elements combine in definite proportions to each other. ... In chemistry, the law of multiple proportions is one of the most basic laws of stoichiometry. ... A visual representation of the law in action. ... In optics, the Beer-Lambert law, also known as Beers law or the Lambert-Beer law or the Beer-Lambert-Bouguer law is an empirical relationship that relates the absorption of light to the properties of the material through which the light is traveling. ... Ficks laws of diffusion describe diffusion, and define the diffusion coefficient D. // Ficks laws of diffusion were derived by Adolf Fick in the year 1855. ... Raoults law states that The vapor pressure of each chemical component in an ideal solution is dependent on the vapor pressure of the individual component and the mole fraction of the component present in the solution [1]. Once the components in the solution have reached chemical equilibrium, the total... In chemistry, Henrys law is one of the gas laws, formulated by William Henry. ... Boyles law (sometimes referred to as the Boyle Mariotte law) is one of the gas laws. ... Wikibooks has more about this subject: Constructing school science lab equipment/Making Charles law tubes AARON IS SO COOL!!!!! Charles law (sometimes called the Law of Charles) is one of the gas laws. ... Gay-Lussacs law is one of two laws named after the French chemist Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac, which relate to the properties of gases and are known by the same name. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

Subdisciplines

Chemistry is typically divided into several major sub-disciplines. There are also several main cross-disciplinary and more specialized fields of chemistry.[36]

  • Analytical chemistry is the analysis of material samples to gain an understanding of their chemical composition and structure. Analytical chemistry incorporates standardized experimental methods in chemistry. These methods may be used in all subdisciplines of chemistry, excluding purely theoretical chemistry.
  • Inorganic chemistry is the study of the properties and reactions of inorganic compounds. The distinction between organic and inorganic disciplines is not absolute and there is much overlap, most importantly in the sub-discipline of organometallic chemistry.
  • Materials chemistry is the preparation, characterization, and understanding of substances with a useful function. The field is a new breadth of study in graduate programs, and it integrates elements from all classical areas of chemistry with a focus on fundamental issues that are unique to materials. Primary systems of study include the chemistry of condensed phases (solids, liquids, polymers) and interfaces between different phases.

Other fields include Astrochemistry, Atmospheric chemistry, Chemical Engineering, Chemical biology, Chemo-informatics, Electrochemistry, Environmental chemistry, Flow chemistry, Geochemistry, Green chemistry, History of chemistry, Materials science, Medicinal chemistry, Molecular Biology, Molecular genetics, Nanotechnology, Organometallic chemistry, Petrochemistry, Pharmacology, Photochemistry, Phytochemistry, Polymer chemistry, Solid-state chemistry, Sonochemistry, Supramolecular chemistry, Surface chemistry, Immunochemistry and Thermochemistry. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The chemical composition of a substance refers to the elements of which the substance is composed. ... Chemical structure refers to the spatial arrangement of atoms in a molecule and the chemical bonds that hold the atoms together. ... Biochemistry is the study of the chemical processes and transformations in living organisms. ... A chemical compound is a chemical substance of two or more different chemically bonded chemical elements, with a fixed ratio determining the composition. ... Vapours of hydrogen chloride in a beaker and ammonia in a test tube meet to form a cloud of a new substance, ammonium chloride A chemical reaction is a process that results in the interconversion of chemical substances. ... Interaction is a kind of action that occurs as two or more objects have an effect upon one another. ... “Life on Earth” redirects here. ... Medicinal or pharmaceutical chemistry is a scientific discipline at the intersection of chemistry and pharmacy involved with designing, synthesizing and developing pharmaceutical drugs. ... Neurochemistry is a branch of neuroscience that is heavily devoted to the study of neurochemicals. ... Molecular biology is the study of biology at a molecular level. ... DNA, the molecular basis for inheritance. ... Inorganic chemistry is the branch of chemistry concerned with the properties and reactions of inorganic compounds. ... n-butyllithium, an organometallic compound. ... The Materials Science Tetrahedron, which often also includes Characterization at the center Materials science or Materials Engineering is an interdisciplinary field involving the properties of matter and its applications to various areas of science and engineering. ... A polymer is a long, repeating chain of atoms, formed through the linkage of many molecules called monomers. ... In general usage, an interface is the point, area, or surface along which two substances or other qualitatively different things meet; it is also used metaphorically for the juncture between items. ... Nuclear chemistry is a subfield of chemistry dealing with radioactivity, nuclear processes and nuclear properties. ... // Transmutation is the conversion of one object into another. ... This article is 200 KB or more in size. ... Organic chemistry is a specific discipline within chemistry which involves the scientific study of the structure, properties, composition, reactions, and preparation (by synthesis or by other means) of chemical compounds consisting of primarily carbon and hydrogen, which may contain any number of other elements, including nitrogen, oxygen, halogens as well... Vapours of hydrogen chloride in a beaker and ammonia in a test tube meet to form a cloud of a new substance, ammonium chloride A chemical reaction is a process that results in the interconversion of chemical substances. ... Benzene is the simplest of the arenes, a family of organic compounds An organic compound is any member of a large class of chemical compounds whose molecules contain carbon and hydrogen; therefore, carbides, carbonates, carbon oxides and elementary carbon are not organic (see below for more on the definition controversy... Physical chemistry is the application of physics to macroscopic, microscopic, atomic and particulate phenomena in chemical systems[1]within the field of chemistry traditionally using the principles, practices and concepts of thermodynamics, quantum chemistry, statistical mechanics and kinetics. ... Willard Gibbs - founder of chemical thermodynamics In thermodynamics, chemical thermodynamics is the mathematical study of the interrelation of heat and work with chemical reactions or with a physical change of state within the confines of the laws of thermodynamics. ... In physical chemistry, chemical kinetics or reaction kinetics study reaction rates in a chemical reaction. ... English chemists John Daniell (left) and Michael Faraday (right), both credited to be founders of electrochemistry as known today. ... Statistical mechanics is the application of probability theory, which includes mathematical tools for dealing with large populations, to the field of mechanics, which is concerned with the motion of particles or objects when subjected to a force. ... Extremely high resolution spectrogram of the Sun showing thousands of elemental absorption lines (fraunhofer lines) Spectroscopy is the study of the interaction between radiation (electromagnetic radiation, or light, as well as particle radiation) and matter. ... Molecular physics is the study of the physical properties of molecules and of the chemical bonds between atoms that bind them into molecules. ... Calculus (from Latin, pebble or little stone) is a branch of mathematics that includes the study of limits, derivatives, integrals, and infinite series, and constitutes a major part of modern university education. ... Quantum chemistry is a branch of theoretical chemistry, which applies quantum mechanics and quantum field theory to address issues and problems in chemistry. ... Chemical physics is a subdiscipline of physics that investigates physicochemical phenomena using techniques from atomic and molecular physics and condensed matter physics; it is the branch of physics that studies chemical processes from the point of view of physics. ... Theoretical chemistry involves the use of physics to explain or predict chemical phenomena. ... Euclid, Greek mathematician, 3rd century BC, as imagined by by Raphael in this detail from The School of Athens. ... This is a discussion of a present category of science. ... Fig. ... Quantum chemistry is a branch of theoretical chemistry, which applies quantum mechanics and quantum field theory to address issues and problems in chemistry. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Computational chemistry is a branch of chemistry that uses the results of theoretical chemistry incorporated into efficient computer programs to calculate the structures and properties of molecules and solids, applying these programs to complement the information obtained by actual chemical experiments, predict hitherto unobserved chemical phenomena, and solve related problems. ... A computer program is a collection of instructions that describe a task, or set of tasks, to be carried out by a computer. ... Condensed matter physics is the field of physics that deals with the macroscopic physical properties of matter. ... Molecular physics is the study of the physical properties of molecules and of the chemical bonds between atoms that bind them into molecules. ... Astrochemistry is the study of the chemicals found in outer space, usually in molecular gas clouds, and their formation, interaction and destruction. ... Atmospheric chemistry is a branch of atmospheric science in which the chemistry of the Earths atmosphere and that of other planets is studied. ... Chemical engineering is the branch of engineering that deals with the application of physical science (e. ... Chemical biology is a scientific discipline spanning the fields of chemistry and biology that frequently employs compounds produced by synthetic chemistry to study and manipulate biological systems. ... Cheminformatics is the use of computer and informational techniques, applied to a range of problems in the field of chemistry. ... English chemists John Daniell (left) and Michael Faraday (right), both credited to be founders of electrochemistry as known today. ... Environmental chemistry is the scientific study of the chemical and biochemical phenomena that occur in natural places. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... The field of geochemistry involves study of the chemical composition of the Earth and other planets, chemical processes and reactions that govern the composition of rocks and soils, and the cycles of matter and energy that transport the Earths chemical components in time and space, and their interaction with... Green chemistry is a chemical philosophy encouraging the design of products and processes that reduce or eliminate the use and generation of hazardous substances. ... Portrait of Monsieur Lavoisier and his Wife, by Jacques-Louis David The history of chemistry may be said to begin with the distinction of chemistry from alchemy by Robert Boyle in his work The Sceptical Chymist (1661). ... The Materials Science Tetrahedron, which often also includes Characterization at the center Materials science or Materials Engineering is an interdisciplinary field involving the properties of matter and its applications to various areas of science and engineering. ... Medicinal or pharmaceutical chemistry is a scientific discipline at the intersection of chemistry and pharmacy involved with designing, synthesizing and developing pharmaceutical drugs. ... Molecular biology is the study of biology at a molecular level. ... Molecular genetics is the field of biology which studies the structure and function of genes at a molecular level. ... Buckminsterfullerene C60, also known as the buckyball, is the simplest of the carbon structures known as fullerenes. ... n-butyllithium, an organometallic compound. ... Petrochemistry is the branch of chemistry that studies the transformation of crude oil (petroleum) and natural gas into usefull products and raw materials. ... Pharmacology (in Greek: pharmakon (φάρμακον) meaning drug, and lego (λέγω) to tell (about)) is the study of how substances interact with living organisms to produce a change in function. ... Photochemistry is the study of the interaction of light and chemicals. ... Phytochemistry is in the strict sense of the word the study of phytochemicals. ... Polymer chemistry or macromolecular chemistry is a multidisciplinary science that deals with the chemical synthesis and chemical properties of polymers or macromolecules. ... Solid-state chemistry is the study of solid materials, which may be molecular. ... In chemistry, the study of sonochemistry is concerned with understanding the effect of sonic waves and wave properties on chemical systems. ... Supramolecular chemistry refers to the area of chemistry which focuses on the noncovalent bonding interactions of molecules. ... Surface chemistry is the study of chemical phenomena that occur at the interface of two phases, usually between a gas and a solid or between a liquid and a solid. ... Immunochemistry is a branch of chemistry that involves the study of the reactions and components on the immune system. ... The world’s first ice-calorimeter, used in the winter of 1782-83, by Antoine Lavoisier and Pierre-Simon Laplace, to determine the heat evolved in various chemical changes; calculations which were based on Joseph Black’s prior discovery of latent heat. ...


Chemical industry

Main article: chemical industry

The chemical industry represents an important economic activity. The global top 50 chemical producers in 2004 had sales of 587 billion US dollars with a profit margin of 8.1% and research and development spending of 2.1% of total chemical sales.[37] Chemical tanks in Lillebonne, France Chemical industry includes those industries involved in the production of petrochemicals, agrochemicals, pharmaceuticals, polymers, paints, oleochemicals etc. ... Chemical tanks in Lillebonne, France Chemical industry includes those industries involved in the production of petrochemicals, agrochemicals, pharmaceuticals, polymers, paints, oleochemicals etc. ... The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States. ... The phrase research and development (also R and D or R&D) has a special commercial significance apart from its conventional coupling of scientific research and technological development. ...


References

  1. ^ See: Chemistry (etymology) for possible origins of this word.
  2. ^ Chemistry. (n.d.). Merriam-Webster's Medical Dictionary. Retrieved August 19, 2007, from Dictionary.com website: http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/Chemistry
  3. ^ Mi Gyung, Kim (2003). Affinity, That Elusive Dream - A Genealogy of the Chemical Revolution. MIT Press. ISBN 0-262-11273-6. 
  4. ^ Dr. A. Zahoor (1997). JABIR IBN HAIYAN (Geber). University of Indonesia.
  5. ^ Paul Vallely. How Islamic inventors changed the world. The Independent.
  6. ^ What is Chemistry?
  7. ^ Matter: Atoms from Democritus to Dalton by Anthony Carpi, Ph.D.
  8. ^ Theodore L. Brown, H. Eugene Lemay, Bruce Edward Bursten, H. Lemay. Chemistry: The Central Science. Prentice Hall; 8 edition (1999). ISBN 0130103101. Pages 3-4.
  9. ^ It is sometimes called the central science because it is seen as occupying an intermediate position in a hierarchy of the sciences by "reductive level", between physics and biology. See Carsten Reinhardt. Chemical Sciences in the 20th Century: Bridging Boundaries. Wiley-VCH, 2001. ISBN 3527302719. Pages 1-2.
  10. ^ Dictionary of the History of Ideas: Alchemy [1]
  11. ^ IUPAC Gold Book Definition
  12. ^ California Occupational Guide Number 22: Chemists[2]
  13. ^ http://www.chemheritage.org/explore/ancients-time.html
  14. ^ Will Durant (1980), The Age of Faith (The Story of Civilization, Volume 4), p. 162-186, Simon & Schuster, ISBN 0671012002:

    "Chemistry as a science was almost created by the Muslims; for in this field, where the Greeks (so far as we know) were confined to industrial experience and vague hypothesis, the Saracens introduced precise observation, controlled experiment, and careful records. They invented and named the alembic (al-anbiq), chemically analyzed innumerable substances, composed lapidaries, distinguished alkalis and acids, investigated their affinities, studied and manufactured hundreds of drugs. Alchemy, which the Muslims inherited from Egypt, contributed to chemistry by a thousand incidental discoveries, and by its method, which was the most scientific of all medieval operations." In the history of science, the etymology of the word chemistry is a debatable issue. ... Indonesia University (in Indonesian: Universitas Indonesia), abbreviated as UI, has its roots in the oldest tertiary-level education facilities in Indonesia (then the Dutch East Indies). ... The Independent is a British compact newspaper published by Tony OReillys Independent News & Media. ... The Gold Book or Compendium of Chemical Terminology (ISBN 0865426848) is a book published by IUPAC containing internationally accepted definitions for terms in chemistry. ... Will Durant William James Durant (November 5, 1885–November 7, 1981) was an American philosopher, historian, and writer. ... Look up Hypothesis in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In older Western historical literature, the Saracens were the people of the Saracen Empire, another name for the Arab Caliphate under the rule of the Umayyad and Abbasid dynasties. ... Observation is an activity of a sapient or sentient living being (e. ... In the scientific method, an experiment (Latin: ex- periri, of (or from) trying) is a set of observations performed in the context of solving a particular problem or question, to support or falsify a hypothesis or research concerning phenomena. ... An alembic is an alchemical still consisting of two retorts connected by a tube. ... Water and steam are two different forms of the same chemical substance A chemical substance is any material with a definite chemical composition, no matter where it comes from. ... A lapidary (the word means concerned with stones) is an artisan who practices the craft of working, forming and finishing stone, mineral, gemstones, and other suitably durable materials (amber, shell, jet, pearl, copal, coral, horn and bone, glass and other synthetics) into functional and/or decorative, even wearable, items (e. ... In chemistry, an alkali (from Arabic: al-qalyالقلوي, القالي ) is a basic, ionic salt of an alkali metal or alkali earth metal element. ... Acidity redirects here. ... For other meanings, see Drug (disambiguation). ...

  15. ^ Dr. K. Ajram (1992), Miracle of Islamic Science, Appendix B, Knowledge House Publishers, ISBN 0911119434.

    "Humboldt regards the Muslims as the founders of chemistry." An 1859 portrait of Alexander von Humboldt by the artist Julius Schrader, showing Mount Chimborazo in the background. ...

  16. ^ Will Durant (1935): Our Oriental Heritage: Simon & Schuster:

    "Something has been said about the chemical excellence of cast iron in ancient India, and about the high industrial development of the Gupta times, when India was looked to, even by Imperial Rome, as the most skilled of the nations in such chemical industries as dyeing, tanning, soap-making, glass and cement... By the sixth century the Hindus were far ahead of Europe in industrial chemistry; they were masters of calcinations, distillation, sublimation, steaming, fixation, the production of light without heat, the mixing of anesthetic and soporific powders, and the preparation of metallic salts, compounds and alloys. The tempering of steel was brought in ancient India to a perfection unknown in Europe till our own times; King Porus is said to have selected, as a specially valuable gift from Alexander, not gold or silver, but thirty pounds of steel. The Moslems took much of this Hindu chemical science and industry to the Near East and Europe; the secret of manufacturing "Damascus" blades, for example, was taken by the Arabs from the Persians, and by the Persians from India."" Will Durant William James Durant (November 5, 1885–November 7, 1981) was an American philosopher, historian, and writer. ...

  17. ^ BBC - History - Robert Boyle (1627 - 1691) [3]
  18. ^ About: Chemistry - Time line of Element Discovery [4].
  19. ^ Alchemy Lab: History of Alchemy [5]
  20. ^ Strathern, P. (2000). Mendeleyev’s Dream – the Quest for the Elements. New York: Berkley Books.
  21. ^ Boyle, Robert (1661). The Sceptical Chymist. New York: Dover Publications, Inc. (reprint). ISBN 0486428257. 
  22. ^ Glaser, Christopher (1663). Traite de la chymie.  as found in: Kim, Mi Gyung (2003). Affinity, That Elusive Dream - A Genealogy of the Chemical Revolution. The MIT Press. ISBN 0-262-11273-6. 
  23. ^ Stahl, George, E. (1730). Philosophical Principles of Universal Chemistry. 
  24. ^ Dumas, J. B. (1837). 'Affinite' (lecture notes), vii, pg 4. “Statique chimique”, Paris: Academie des Sciences
  25. ^ Pauling, Linus (1947). General Chemistry. Dover Publications, Inc.. ISBN 0486656225. 
  26. ^ Chang, Raymond (1998). Chemistry, 6th Ed.. New York: McGraw Hill. ISBN 0-07-115221-0. 
  27. ^ General Chemistry Online - Companion Notes: Matter [6]
  28. ^ IUPAC Nomenclature of Organic Chemistry [7]
  29. ^ IUPAC Provisional Recommendations for the Nomenclature of Inorganic Chemistry (2004) [8]
  30. ^ Official SI Unit definitions
  31. ^ visionlearning: Chemical Bonding by Anthony Carpi, Ph. [9]
  32. ^ http://goldbook.iupac.org/C01034.html
  33. ^ Gold Book Link
  34. ^ http://www.newscientisttech.com/article/dn11427
  35. ^ http://www.chem4kids.com/files/matter_changes.html
  36. ^ The Canadian Encyclopedia: Chemistry Subdisciplines [10]
  37. ^ (July 18, 2005) "Top 50 Chemical Producers". Chemical & Engineering News 83 (29): 20–23. 

The Gold Book or Compendium of Chemical Terminology (ISBN 0865426848) is a book published by IUPAC containing internationally accepted definitions for terms in chemistry. ... is the 199th day of the year (200th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Chemistry & Engineering News is a weekly chemistry trade magazine published by the American Chemical Society. ...

Further reading

Popular reading

  • Atkins, P.W. Galileo's Finger (Oxford University Press) ISBN 0198609418
  • Atkins, P.W. Atkins' Molecules (Cambridge University Press) ISBN 0521823978
  • Stwertka, A. A Guide to the Elements (Oxford University Press) ISBN 0195150279

Introductory undergraduate text books

  • Chang, Raymond. Chemistry 6th ed. Boston: James M. Smith, 1998. ISBN 0-07-115221-0.
  • Atkins, P.W., Overton, T., Rourke, J., Weller, M. and Armstrong, F. Shriver and Atkins inorganic chemistry (4th edition) 2006 (Oxford University Press) ISBN 0-19-926463-5
  • Clayden, J., Greeves, N., Warren, S., Wothers, P. Organic Chemistry 2000 (Oxford University Press) ISBN 0-19-850346-6
  • Voet and Voet Biochemistry (Wiley) ISBN 0-471-58651-X

Advanced Undergraduate-level or Graduate text books

  • Atkins, P.W. Physical Chemistry (Oxford University Press) ISBN 0-19-879285-9
  • Atkins, P.W. et al. Molecular Quantum Mechanics (Oxford University Press)
  • McWeeny, R. Coulson's Valence (Oxford Science Publications) ISBN 0-19-855144-4
  • Pauling, L. The Nature of the chemical bond (Cornell University Press) ISBN 0-8014-0333-2
  • Pauling, L., and Wilson, E. B. Introduction to Quantum Mechanics with Applications to Chemistry (Dover Publications) ISBN 0-486-64871-0
  • Stephenson, G. Mathematical Methods for Science Students (Longman)ISBN 0-582-44416-0
  • Smart and Moore Solid State Chemistry: An Introduction (Chapman and Hall) ISBN 0-412-40040-5

Professional societies

The American Chemical Society (ACS) is a learned society (professional association) based in the United States that supports scientific inquiry in the field of chemistry. ... The Chemical Institute of Canada is a Canadian professional umbrella organization for chemists (Canadian Society for Chemistry), chemical engineers (Canadian Society for Chemical Engineering) and chemical technologists (Canadian Society for Chemical Technology). ... Chemical Society of Peru Official Logo Chemical Society of Peru is a non-profit scientific institution devoted to chemistry. ... IUPAC logo The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) (Pronounced as eye-you-pack) is an international non-governmental organization established in 1919 devoted to the advancement of chemistry. ... The Royal Australian Chemical Institute is both the qualifying body in Australia for professional chemists and a learned society promoting the science and practice of chemistry in all its branches. ... Royal Society of Chemistry The Royal Society of Chemistry is a learned society (professional association) in the United Kingdom with the goal of advancing the chemical sciences. ... The Society of Chemical Industry (SCI) is a learned society set up in 1881 to further the application of chemistry and related sciences for the public benefit.[1]. The headquarters are in Belgrave square, London, but there are also offices in the USA, Canada and Australia. ... The World Association of Theoretical and Computational Chemists (WATOC) is a scholarly association founded in 1982 in order to encourage the development and application of theoretical methods in chemistry, particularly quantum chemistry and computational chemistry. ...

See also

Lists

// Where can an average student with little to no budget find common chemical component for home use? The following table, compiled from an archive of old chemistry textbooks, lists the household equivalents of chemicals which would ordinarily need to be purchased in large quantity from a chemical supply house. ... Below is a list of basic topics in chemistry -- topics which will help the beginner become familiar with the field of chemistry. ... This page aims to list articles related to chemistry. ... This is a list of famous chemists: (alphabetical order) Contents: Top - 0–9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Emil Abderhalden, (1877–1950), Swiss chemist Richard Abegg, (1869–1910), German... The original list from this page has been split into the following three lists, as the number of compounds became too long. ... This is a list of important publications in chemistry, organized by field. ... The periodic table of the chemical elements, also called the Mendeleev periodic table, is a tabular display of the known chemical elements. ... Timeline of chemistry lists important works, discoveries, ideas, inventions, and experiments that significantly changed mankinds understanding of the composition of matter and of the interactions thereof, the modern science known as chemistry. ... Unsolved problems in chemistry tend to be (can we make X compound) and are solved rather quickly, but here are some persistent questions with deep implications: Solvolysis of the norbornyl cation: Why is the norbornyl cation so stable? Is it symmetrical? This problem has been largely settled for the unsubstituted...

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For a full list of external links and suppliers see Wikipedia:Chemical sources. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiquote-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links WikiNews-Logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiversity-logo-Snorky. ... Image File history File links Wikiversity-logo-Snorky. ... Wikiversity logo Wikiversity is a Wikimedia Foundation beta project[1], devoted to learning materials and activities, located at www. ... Image File history File links Portal. ... A students summary of the Cosmological Argument in mind map form. ...

This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Biochemistry is the study of the chemical processes and transformations in living organisms. ... Bioinorganic Chemistry is a specialized field that spans the chemistry of metal-containing molecules. ... Chemical biology is a scientific discipline spanning the fields of chemistry and biology that frequently employs compounds produced by synthetic chemistry to study and manipulate biological systems. ... Chemistry education is an active area of research within both the disciplines of chemistry and education, focusing on learning and teaching of chemistry in schools, colleges and universities, with the goals of understanding how students learn chemistry, how best to teach chemistry, and how to improve learning outcomes by changing... Click chemistry is a concept introduced by K. Barry Sharpless in 2001 and describes chemistry tailored to generate substances quickly and reliably by joining small units together as nature does. ... In chemistry, a cluster is an ensemble of bound atoms intermediate in size between a molecule and a bulk solid. ... Computational chemistry is a branch of chemistry that uses the results of theoretical chemistry incorporated into efficient computer programs to calculate the structures and properties of molecules and solids, applying these programs to complement the information obtained by actual chemical experiments, predict hitherto unobserved chemical phenomena, and solve related problems. ... English chemists John Daniell (left) and Michael Faraday (right), both credited to be founders of electrochemistry as known today. ... Environmental chemistry is the scientific study of the chemical and biochemical phenomena that occur in natural places. ... Green chemistry is a chemical philosophy encouraging the design of products and processes that reduce or eliminate the use and generation of hazardous substances. ... Inorganic chemistry is the branch of chemistry concerned with the properties and reactions of inorganic compounds. ... The Materials Science Tetrahedron, which often also includes Characterization at the center Materials science or Materials Engineering is an interdisciplinary field involving the properties of matter and its applications to various areas of science and engineering. ... Medicinal or pharmaceutical chemistry is a scientific discipline at the intersection of chemistry and pharmacy involved with designing, synthesizing and developing pharmaceutical drugs. ... Nuclear chemistry is a subfield of chemistry dealing with radioactivity, nuclear processes and nuclear properties. ... Organic chemistry is a specific discipline within chemistry which involves the scientific study of the structure, properties, composition, reactions, and preparation (by synthesis or by other means) of chemical compounds consisting of primarily carbon and hydrogen, which may contain any number of other elements, including nitrogen, oxygen, halogens as well... n-butyllithium, an organometallic compound. ... For other uses, see Pharmacy (disambiguation). ... Pharmacology (in Greek: pharmakon (φάρμακον) meaning drug, and lego (λέγω) to tell (about)) is the study of how substances interact with living organisms to produce a change in function. ... Physical chemistry is the application of physics to macroscopic, microscopic, atomic and particulate phenomena in chemical systems[1]within the field of chemistry traditionally using the principles, practices and concepts of thermodynamics, quantum chemistry, statistical mechanics and kinetics. ... Photochemistry is the study of the interaction of light and chemicals. ... Polymer chemistry or macromolecular chemistry is a multidisciplinary science that deals with the chemical synthesis and chemical properties of polymers or macromolecules. ... Solid-state chemistry is the study of solid materials, which may be molecular. ... Supramolecular chemistry refers to the area of chemistry which focuses on the noncovalent bonding interactions of molecules. ... Theoretical chemistry involves the use of physics to explain or predict chemical phenomena. ... The world’s first ice-calorimeter, used in the winter of 1782-83, by Antoine Lavoisier and Pierre-Simon Laplace, to determine the heat evolved in various chemical changes; calculations which were based on Joseph Black’s prior discovery of latent heat. ... Wet chemistry is a term used to refer to chemistry generally done in the liquid phase. ... This page aims to list articles on Wikipedia that describe particular biomolecules or types of biomolecules. ... This page aims to list well-known inorganic compounds, including organometallic compounds, to stimulate the creation of Wikipedia articles. ... This page aims to list well-known organic compounds, including organometallic compounds, to stimulate the creation of Wikipedia articles. ... For a diagram of the periodic table, see standard periodic table below. ... The Michelson–Morley experiment was used to disprove that light propagated through a luminiferous aether. ... A giant Hubble mosaic of the Crab Nebula, a supernova remnant Astronomy (also frequently referred to as astrophysics) is the scientific study of celestial objects (such as stars, planets, comets, and galaxies) and phenomena that originate outside the Earths atmosphere (such as the cosmic background radiation). ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Earth science (also known as geoscience, the geosciences or the Earth Sciences), is an all-embracing term for the sciences related to the planet Earth. ... This is a discussion of a present category of science. ...


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