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Encyclopedia > Chemist
A chemist pours from a round-bottom flask.
A chemist pours from a round-bottom flask.

A chemist is a scientist trained in the science of chemistry. Chemists study the composition of matter and its small-scale properties such as density and acidity instead of large-scale properties like size and shape. Chemists carefully describe the properties they study in terms of quantities, with detail on the level of molecules and their component atoms. Chemists carefully measure substance proportions, reaction rates, and other chemical properties. Image File history File links Julie_Perkins_at_LLNL.jpg Summary Synthetic chemist Julie Perkins works to link two molecules, each of which binds to two protein binding sites. ... Round-bottom flasks are types of flasks having spherical bottoms used as laboratory glassware, mostly for chemical or biochemical work. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Part of a scientific laboratory at the University of Cologne. ... For other uses, see Chemistry (disambiguation). ... In physics, density is defined as mass m per unit volume V. Mathematically, it is expressed as where, in SI units: ρ (rho) is the density of the substance, measured in kg·m-3 m is the mass of the substance, measured in kg V is the volume of the substance... Acidity is a controversial novelette written for the popular South Asian website Chowk. ... In science, a molecule is the smallest particle of a pure chemical substance that still retains its chemical composition and properties. ... “Atomic” redirects here. ... A chemical reaction occurs when vapours of hydrogen chloride in a beaker and ammonia in a test tube meet to form a cloud of a new substance, ammonium chloride A chemical reaction is a process that results in the interconversion of chemical substances. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...


Chemists use this knowledge to learn the composition, structure, chemical reactivity, and properties of unfamiliar substances, as well as to reproduce and synthesize large quantities of useful naturally occurring substances and create new artificial substances and useful processes. Chemists may specialize in any number of subdisciplines of chemistry. Materials scientists and metallurgists share much of the same education and skills with chemists. For other uses, see Chemistry (disambiguation). ... The Materials Science Tetrahedron, which often also includes Characterization at the center Materials science is an interdisciplinary field involving the properties of matter and its applications to various areas of science and engineering. ...

Contents

Education

Jobs for chemists usually require at least a bachelor's degree, but many positions, especially those in research, require a Ph.D.. Most undergraduate programs emphasize mathematics and physics as well as chemistry, partly because chemistry is also known as the "Central Science", thus chemists ought to have an all-rounded knowledge about science. At the Master's level and higher, students tend to specialize in a particular field. Fields of specialization include biochemistry, organic chemistry, inorganic chemistry, analytical chemistry, theoretical chemistry, quantum chemistry and physical chemistry. Post-doctorate experience may be required for certain positions. A bachelors degree (Artium Baccalaureus, A.B. or B.A.) is usually an undergraduate academic degree awarded for a course or major that generally lasts for three, four, or in some cases and countries, five or six years. ... Doctor of Philosophy (Ph. ... Euclid, Greek mathematician, 3rd century BC, as imagined by by Raphael in this detail from The School of Athens. ... Physics (Greek: (phúsis), nature and (phusiké), knowledge of nature) is the science concerned with the discovery and understanding of the fundamental laws which govern matter, energy, space, and time and explaining them using mathematics. ... A masters degree is an academic degree usually awarded for completion of a postgraduate (or graduate) course of one to three years in duration. ... Biochemistry is the study of the chemical processes and transformations in living organisms. ... Organic chemistry is a specific discipline within chemistry which involves the scientific study of the structure, properties, composition, reactions, and preparation (by synthesis or by other means) of chemical compounds consisting of primarily carbon and hydrogen, which may contain any number of other elements, including nitrogen, oxygen, halogens as well... Inorganic chemistry is the branch of chemistry concerned with the properties and reactions of inorganic compounds. ... Analytical chemistry is the analysis of material samples to gain an understanding of their chemical composition and structure. ... Theoretical chemistry is the use of reasoning to explain or predict chemical phenomena. ... Quantum chemistry is a branch of theoretical chemistry, which applies quantum mechanics and quantum field theory to address issues and problems in chemistry. ... Physical Chemistry is the combined science of physics, chemistry, thermodynamics, and quantum mechanics which functions to provide molecular-level interpretations of observed macroscopic phenomena. ...


Employment

The three major employers of chemists are academic institutions, industry, especially the chemical industry and the pharmaceutical industry, and government laboratories. Chemical tanks in Lillebonne, France Chemical industry includes those industries involved in the production of petrochemicals, agrochemicals, pharmaceuticals, polymers, paints, oleochemicals etc. ... This is a list of pharmaceutical and biotech companies that are major manufacturers on global or national markets : Abbott Laboratories Able Laboratories Akzo Nobel Allergan Almirall Prodesfarma Alphapharm Altana (previously Byk Gulden) ALZA, part of Johnson & Johnson Amgen AstraZeneca, formed from the merger of Astra AB and Zeneca Group PLC...


Chemistry typically is divided into several major sub-disciplines. There are also several main cross-disciplinary and more specialized fields of chemistry. There is a great deal of overlap between different branches of chemistry, as well as with other scientific fields such as biology, medicine, physics, and several engineering disciplines.

  • Analytical chemistry is the analysis of material samples to gain an understanding of their chemical composition and structure. Analytical chemistry incorporates standardized experimental methods in chemistry. These methods may be used in all subdisciplines of chemistry, excluding purely theoretical chemistry.
A chemist prepares a new fuel cell for testing.
A chemist prepares a new fuel cell for testing.
  • Inorganic chemistry is the study of the properties and reactions of inorganic compounds. The distinction between organic and inorganic disciplines is not absolute and there is much overlap, most importantly in the sub-discipline of organometallic chemistry.
  • Medicinal chemistry is the science involved with designing, synthesizing and developing pharmaceutical drugs. Medicinal chemistry involves the identification, synthesis and development of new chemical entities suitable for therapeutic use. It also includes the study of existing drugs, their biological properties, and their quantitative structure-activity relationships.

All the above major areas of chemistry employ chemists. Other fields where chemical degrees are useful include Astrochemistry, Atmospheric chemistry, Chemical Engineering, Chemo-informatics, Electrochemistry, Geochemistry, Green chemistry, History of chemistry, Materials science, Molecular Biology, Molecular genetics, Nuclear chemistry, Organometallic chemistry, Petrochemistry, Pharmacology, Photochemistry, Phytochemistry, Polymer chemistry, Supramolecular chemistry, Surface chemistry and nanotechnology. Analytical chemistry is the analysis of material samples to gain an understanding of their chemical composition and structure. ... The chemical composition of a substance refers to the elements of which the substance is composed. ... Look up Structure in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Biochemistry is the study of the chemical processes and transformations in living organisms. ... A chemical compound is a chemical substance consisting of two or more different chemically bonded chemical elements, with a fixed ratio determining the composition. ... A chemical reaction occurs when vapours of hydrogen chloride in a beaker and ammonia in a test tube meet to form a cloud of a new substance, ammonium chloride A chemical reaction is a process that results in the interconversion of chemical substances. ... Interaction is a kind of action that occurs as two or more objects have an effect upon one another. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Medicinal or pharmaceutical chemistry is a scientific discipline at the intersection of chemistry and pharmacy involved with designing, synthesizing and developing pharmaceutical drugs. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Laura_Miller_at_ANL.jpg Summary A new fuel cell developed at Argonne, called TuffCell, provides mechanical strength, easy fabrication and increased performance. ... A fuel cell is an electrochemical device similar to a battery, but differing from the latter in that it is designed for continuous replenishment of the reactants consumed; i. ... Inorganic chemistry is the branch of chemistry concerned with the properties and reactions of inorganic compounds. ... n-butyllithium, an organometallic compound. ... Medicinal or pharmaceutical chemistry is a scientific discipline at the intersection of chemistry and pharmacy involved with designing, synthesizing and developing pharmaceutical drugs. ... According to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, a new chemical entity means a drug that contains no active moiety that has been approved by FDA in any other application submitted under section 505(b) of the Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act. ... Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) is the process by which chemical structure is quantitatively correlated with a well defined process, such as biological activity or chemical reactivity. ... Organic chemistry is a specific discipline within chemistry which involves the scientific study of the structure, properties, composition, reactions, and preparation (by synthesis or by other means) of chemical compounds consisting of primarily carbon and hydrogen, which may contain any number of other elements, including nitrogen, oxygen, halogens as well... A chemical reaction occurs when vapours of hydrogen chloride in a beaker and ammonia in a test tube meet to form a cloud of a new substance, ammonium chloride A chemical reaction is a process that results in the interconversion of chemical substances. ... Benzene is the simplest of the arenes, a family of organic compounds An organic compound is any member of a large class of chemical compounds whose molecules contain carbon and hydrogen; therefore, carbides, carbonates, carbon oxides and elementary carbon are not organic (see below for more on the definition controversy... Physical Chemistry is the combined science of physics, chemistry, thermodynamics, and quantum mechanics which functions to provide molecular-level interpretations of observed macroscopic phenomena. ... Willard Gibbs - founder of chemical thermodynamics In thermodynamics, chemical thermodynamics is the mathematical study of the interrelation of heat and work with chemical reactions or with a physical change of state within the confines of the laws of thermodynamics. ... In physical chemistry, chemical kinetics or reaction kinetics study reaction rates in a chemical reaction. ... English chemists John Daniell (left) and Michael Faraday (right), both credited to be founders of electrochemistry as known today. ... Quantum chemistry is a branch of theoretical chemistry, which applies quantum mechanics and quantum field theory to address issues and problems in chemistry. ... Statistical mechanics is the application of probability theory, which includes mathematical tools for dealing with large populations, to the field of mechanics, which is concerned with the motion of particles or objects when subjected to a force. ... Extremely high resolution spectrum of the Sun showing thousands of elemental absorption lines (fraunhofer lines) Spectroscopy is the study of matter and its properties by investigating light, sound, or particles that are emitted, absorbed or scattered by the matter under investigation. ... Theoretical chemistry is the use of reasoning to explain or predict chemical phenomena. ... Molecular physics is the study of the physical properties of molecules and of the chemical bonds between atoms that bind them into molecules. ... Calculus [from Latin, literally chalk pebble (used in reckoning)] is a major area in mathematics, with applications in science, engineering, business, and medicine. ... Theoretical chemistry is the use of reasoning to explain or predict chemical phenomena. ... Euclid, Greek mathematician, 3rd century BC, as imagined by by Raphael in this detail from The School of Athens. ... Physics (Greek: (phúsis), nature and (phusiké), knowledge of nature) is the science concerned with the discovery and understanding of the fundamental laws which govern matter, energy, space, and time and explaining them using mathematics. ... Fig. ... Quantum chemistry is a branch of theoretical chemistry, which applies quantum mechanics and quantum field theory to address issues and problems in chemistry. ... Computational chemistry is a branch of chemistry that uses the results of theoretical chemistry incorporated into efficient computer programs to calculate the structures and properties of molecules and solids, applying these programs to real chemical problems. ... A computer program is a collection of instructions that describe a task, or set of tasks, to be carried out by a computer. ... Condensed matter physics is the field of physics that deals with the macroscopic physical properties of matter. ... Molecular physics is the study of the physical properties of molecules and of the chemical bonds between atoms that bind them into molecules. ... Descartes held that non-human animals could be reductively explained as automata — De homines 1622. ... Astrochemistry is the study of the chemicals found in outer space, usually in molecular gas clouds, and their formation, interaction and destruction. ... Atmospheric chemistry is a branch of atmospheric science in which the chemistry of the Earths atmosphere and that of other planets is studied. ... Chemical engineering is the branch of engineering that deals with the application of physical science, e. ... Cheminformatics is the use of computer and informational techniques, applied to a range of problems in the field of chemistry. ... English chemists John Daniell (left) and Michael Faraday (right), both credited to be founders of electrochemistry as known today. ... The field of geochemistry involves study of the chemical composition of the Earth and other planets, chemical processes and reactions that govern the composition of rocks and soils, and the cycles of matter and energy that transport the Earths chemical components in time and space, and their interaction with... Green Chemistry is the design of chemical products and processes that reduce or eliminate the use and generation of hazardous substances. ... Portrait of Monsieur Lavoisier and his Wife, by Jacques-Louis David The history of chemistry may be said to begin with the distinction of chemistry from alchemy by Robert Boyle in his work The Skeptical Chymist, which was written after a long and tearfilled talk with his father, and alchymist... The Materials Science Tetrahedron, which often also includes Characterization at the center Materials science is an interdisciplinary field involving the properties of matter and its applications to various areas of science and engineering. ... Molecular biology is the study of biology at a molecular level. ... Molecular genetics is the field of biology which studies the structure and function of genes at a molecular level. ... Nuclear chemistry is a subfield of chemistry dealing with radioactivity, nuclear processes and nuclear properties. ... n-butyllithium, an organometallic compound. ... Petrochemistry is the branch of chemistry that studies the transformation of crude oil (petroleum) and natural gas into usefull products and raw materials. ... Pharmacology (in Greek: pharmacon (φάρμακον) meaning drug, and logos (λόγος) meaning science) is the study of how substances interact with living organisms to produce a change in function. ... Photochemistry is the study of the interaction of light and chemicals. ... Phytochemistry is in the strict sense of the word the study of phytochemicals. ... Polymer chemistry or macromolecular chemistry is a multidisciplinary science that deals with the chemical synthesis and chemical properties of polymers or macromolecules. ... Supramolecular chemistry refers to the area of chemistry which focuses on the noncovalent bonding interactions of molecules. ... Surface chemistry is the study of chemical phenomena that occur at the interface of two phases, usually between a gas and a solid or between a liquid and a solid. ... Buckminsterfullerene C60, also known as the buckyball, is the simplest of the carbon structures known as fullerenes. ...

History

Main article: History of chemistry

The word chemist is a corruption of the New Latin noun chimista, an abbreviation of alchimista (alchemist). Portrait of Monsieur Lavoisier and his Wife, by Jacques-Louis David The history of chemistry may be said to begin with the distinction of chemistry from alchemy by Robert Boyle in his work The Skeptical Chymist, which was written after a long and tearfilled talk with his father, and alchymist... New Latin (or Neo-Latin) is a post-medieval version of Latin, now used primarily in International Scientific Vocabulary cladistics and systematics. ... In English, a noun or noun substantive is a lexical category which can co-occur with (in)definite articles and attributive adjectives, and function as the head of a noun phrase. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see Alchemy (disambiguation). ...


The roots of chemistry can be traced to the phenomenon of burning. Fire was a mystical force that transformed one substance into another and thus was of primary interest to mankind. It was fire that led to the discovery of iron and glass. After gold was discovered and became a precious metal, many people were interested to find a method that could convert other substances into gold. This led to the protoscience called Alchemy. Alchemists discovered many chemical processes that led to the development of modern chemistry. Chemistry as we know it today, was invented by Antoine Lavoisier with his law of Conservation of mass in 1783. The discoveries of the chemical elements has a long history culminating in the creation of the periodic table by Dmitri Mendeleyev. The Nobel Prize in Chemistry created in 1901 gives an excellent overview of chemical discovery in the past 100 years. Combustion or burning is a complex sequence of chemical reactions between a fuel and an oxidant accompanied by the production of heat or both heat and light in the form of either a glow or flames. ... Conflagration redirects here. ... General Name, Symbol, Number iron, Fe, 26 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 8, 4, d Appearance lustrous metallic with a grayish tinge Atomic mass 55. ... Glass can be made transparent and flat, or into other shapes and colors as shown in this sphere from the Verrerie of Brehat in Brittany. ... General Name, Symbol, Number gold, Au, 79 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 6, d Appearance metallic yellow Atomic mass 196. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see Alchemy (disambiguation). ... In computing, a process is, roughly speaking, a task being run by a computer, often simultaneously with many other tasks. ... Antoine-Laurent de Lavoisier (August 26, 1743 – May 8, 1794) the father of modern chemistry, was a French nobleman prominent in the histories of chemistry, finance, biology, and economics. ... The law of conservation of mass/matter, also known as Law of Mass Conservation (or the Lomonosov-Lavoisier law), states that the mass of a closed system of substances will remain constant, regardless of the processes acting inside the system. ... The discovery of the elements known to exist today is presented here in chronological order. ... The periodic table of the chemical elements is a tabular method of displaying the chemical elements, first devised in 1869 by the Russian chemist Dmitri Mendeleev. ... Portrait of Dmitri Mendeleyev by Ilya Repin Dmitri Ivanovich Mendeleyev (Russian: ▶(?)) (8 February [O.S. 27 January] 1834 in Tobolsk – 2 February [O.S. 20 January] 1907 in Saint Petersburg), was a Russian chemist. ... This is a list of Nobel Prize laureates in Chemistry from 1901 to 2006. ...


See also

Wikibooks
Wikibooks Wikiversity has more about this subject:

Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo-en. ... This page aims to list articles related to chemistry. ... This is a list of famous chemists: (alphabetical order) Contents: Top - 0–9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Emil Abderhalden, (1877–1950), Swiss chemist Richard Abegg, (1869–1910), German... This is a list of important publications in chemistry, organized by field. ... There are very many scientific journals in chemistry containing original research, or reviews of other publications, or both. ...

References


  Results from FactBites:
 
Chemist (793 words)
Chemists may also do some of their research in a factory or outdoors.
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