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Encyclopedia > Chemical weapon
Dressing the wounded during a gas attack by Austin O. Spare, 1918.

Chemical warfare is warfare (and associated military operations) using the toxic properties of chemical substances to kill, injure or incapacitate the enemy. Download high resolution version (700x950, 122 KB)Pastel drawing by Austin Osman Spare, 1918, showing a wounded British soldier being dressed during a gas attack. ... Download high resolution version (700x950, 122 KB)Pastel drawing by Austin Osman Spare, 1918, showing a wounded British soldier being dressed during a gas attack. ... Austin Osman Spare (December 30, 1886 _ May 15, 1956) was an English artist and magician. ... For other uses of War, see War (disambiguation). ... For a list of biologically injurious substances, including toxins and other materials, as well as their effects, see poison. ... The phrase Chemical property is context driven, but generally refers to the materials behaviour at standard conditions ( room temperature, 1 atmosphere pressure, oxygen bearing atmosphere). ... A chemical substance is any material substance used in or obtained by a process in chemistry: A chemical compound is a substance consisting of two or more chemical elements that are chemically combined in fixed proportions. ...


Chemical warfare is different from the use of conventional weapons or nuclear weapons because the destructive effects of chemical weapons are not primarily due to any explosive force. The offensive use of living organisms (such as anthrax) is considered as biological warfare rather than chemical warfare. However the use in war of toxic products produced by living organisms (eg. toxins such as botulinum toxin, ricin, or saxitoxin), is considered as chemical warfare under the provisions of the Chemical Weapons Convention. Under this Convention, any toxic chemical, regardless of its origin, is considered as a chemical weapon unless it is used for purposes that are not prohibited (an important legal definition, known as the General Purpose Criterion). A conventional weapon is a weapon that does not incorporate chemical, biological or nuclear payloads. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 km (11 mi) above the epicenter. ... Gasoline explosions, simulating bomb drops at an airshow. ... In biology and ecology, an organism (in Greek organon = instrument) is a living being. ... Anthrax bacteria. ... For a list of biologically injurious substances, including toxins and other materials, as well as their effects, see poison. ... Botulin toxin or botox is the toxic compound produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. ... Castor beans The protein ricin (pronounced rye-sin) is a poison manufactured from the castor bean (Ricinus communis). ... Saxitoxin (STX), is a neurotoxin found in marine dinoflagellates. ... The Chemical Weapons Convention is an arms control agreement which outlaws the production, stockpiling and use of chemical weapons. ...


Chemical weapons are classified as weapons of mass destruction by the United Nations, and their production and stockpiling was outlawed by the Chemical Weapons Convention of 1993. Weapons of Mass Destruction is also the name of rapper Xzibits 2004 album. ... The United Nations, or UN, is an international organization made up of 191 states established in 1945. ... The Chemical Weapons Convention is an arms control agreement which outlaws the production, stockpiling and use of chemical weapons. ... 1993 is a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and marked the Beginning of the International Decade to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination (1993-2003) Events Media:January January 1 - Czechoslovakia divides. ...

Contents

Chemical warfare technology

Chemical Warfare Technology Timeline
Agents Dissemination Protection Detection
1900s Chlorine
Chloropicrin
Phosgene
Mustard
Wind dispersal Smell
1910s Lewisite Chemical shells Gas mask
Rosin oil clothing
1920s Projectiles w/ central bursters CC-2 clothing
1930s G-series nerve agents Aircraft bombs Blister agent detectors
Color change paper
1940s Missile warheads
Spray tanks
Protective ointment (mustard)
Collective protection
Gas mask w/ Whetlerite
1950s
1960s V-series nerve agents Aerodynamic Gas mask w/ water supply Nerve gas alarm
1970s
1980s Binary munitions Improved gas masks
(protection, fit, comfort)
Laser detection
1990s Novichok nerve agents

Although crude chemical warfare has been employed in many parts of the world for thousands of years, "modern" chemical warfare began during World War I. Initially, only well-known commercially available chemicals and their variants were used. These included chlorine and phosgene gas. The methods of dispersing these agents during battle were relatively unrefined and inefficient. Events and Trends Technology Lawrence Hargrave makes the first stable wing design for a heavier-than-air aircraft Orville and Wilbur Wright make the first documented flight in a powered heavier-than-air aircraft Mass production of automobile Wide popularity of home phonograph Panama Canal is built by the United... Events and trends Science Einsteins theory of general relativity Max von Laue discovers the diffraction of x-rays by crystals Alfred Wegener puts forward his theory of continental drift War, peace and politics Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria-Hungary leads to World War I October Revolution in... Centuries: 19th century - 20th century - 21st century Decades: 1870s 1880s 1890s 1900s 1910s - 1920s - 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s Years: 1920 1921 1922 1923 1924 1925 1926 1927 1928 1929 Referred to as the Roaring 20s. ... Events and trends Technology Jet engine invented Science Nuclear fission discovered by Otto Hahn, Lise Meitner and Fritz Strassmann Pluto, the ninth planet from the Sun, is discovered by Clyde Tombaugh British biologist Arthur Tansley coins term ecosystem War, peace and politics Socialists proclaim The death of Capitalism Rise to... Centuries: 19th century - 20th century - 21st century Decades: 1890s 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s - 1940s - 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s Years: 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 1945 1946 1947 1948 1949 Events and trends Technology First nuclear bomb First cruise missile, the V1 flying bomb and the first ballistic missile, the... Events and trends Technology United States tests the first fusion bomb. ... Centuries: 19th century - 20th century - 21st century Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s - 1960s - 1970s 1980s 1990s 2000s 2010s Years: 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 Events and trends The 1960s was a turbulent decade of change around the world. ... Events and trends Although in the United States and in many other Western societies the 1970s are often seen as a period of transition between the turbulent 1960s and the more conservative 1980s and 1990s, many of the trends that are associated widely with the Sixties, from the Sexual Revolution... Events and trends The 1980s marked an abrupt shift towards more conservative lifestyles after the momentous cultural revolutions which took place in the 1960s and 1970s and the definition of the AIDS virus in 1981. ... Events and trends Technology Explosive growth of the Internet; decrease in the cost of computers and other technology Reduction in size and cost of mobile phones leads to a massive surge in their popularity Year 2000 problem (commonly known as Y2K) Microsoft Windows operating system becomes virtually ubiquitous on IBM... Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. ... General Name, Symbol, Number chlorine, Cl, 17 Series halogens Group, Period, Block 17 (VIIA), 3, p Density, Hardness 3. ... Phosgene (also known as carbonyl chloride, C O Cl2) is a highly toxic gas or refrigerated liquid that was used as a chemical weapon in World War I. It has no color, but is detectable in air by its odor, which resembles moldy hay. ...


Germany, the first side to employ chemical warfare on the battlefield, simply opened canisters of chlorine upwind of the opposing side and let the prevailing winds do the dissemination. Soon after, the French modified artillery munitions to contain phosgene – a much more effective method that became the principal means of delivery. The French Republic or France (French: République française or France) is a country whose metropolitan territory is located in western Europe, and which is further made up of a collection of overseas islands and territories located in other continents. ... Historically, artillery refers to any engine used for the discharge of projectiles during war. ... Munition is often defined as a synonyn for ammunition. ...


Since the development of modern chemical warfare in World War I, nations have pursued research and development on chemical weapons that falls into four major categories: new and more deadly agents; more efficient methods of delivering agents to the target (dissemination); more reliable means of defense against chemical weapons; and more sensitive and accurate means of detecting chemical agents.


Chemical warfare agents

A chemical used in warfare is called a chemical warfare agent (CWA), and is usually gaseous at room temperature or is a liquid that evaporates quickly. Such liquids are said to be volatile or have a high vapor pressure. The resulting fumes are toxic, hence the phrase "poison gas" used to describe a chemical weapon deployed in gaseous form. Many chemical agents are made volatile so they can be dispersed over a large region quickly. Gas (actually as, part of the Gnu Binutils package) is the default Gcc Back-end. ... The vapor pressure is the pressure (if the vapor is mixed with other gases, the partial pressure) of a vapor. ...


The earliest target of chemical weapon agent research was not toxicity, but development of agents that can affect a target through the skin and clothing, rendering protective gas masks useless. In July 1917, the Germans first employed mustard gas, the first agent that circumvented gas masks. Mustard easily penetrates leather and fabric to inflict painful burns on the skin. A gas mask is a mask worn on the face to protect the body from airborne pollutants and toxins. ... 1917 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Chemical Structure of Mustard Gas Compound Mustard gas (HD) is a chemical compound that was first used as a chemical weapon in World War I. In pure form, it is a colourless, odourless, viscous liquid at room temperature and causes blistering of the skin. ...


Persistency

All chemical weapon agents are classified according to their persistency, a measure of the length of time that a chemical agent remains effective after dissemination. Chemical agents are classified as persistent or nonpersistent.


Agents classified as non-persistent lose effectiveness after only a few minutes or hours. Purely gaseous agents such as chlorine are non-persistent, as are highly volatile agents such as sarin and most other nerve agents. Tactically, non-persistent agents are very useful against targets that are to be taken over and controlled very quickly. Generally speaking, non-persistent agents present only an inhalation hazard. If you are looking for the finch, see Serin Sarin or GB (O-Isopropyl methylphosphonofluoridate) is an extrememly toxic substance that is one of the worlds most dangerous weapons of war. ...


By contrast, persistent agents tend to remain in the environment for as long as a week, complicating decontamination. Defense against persistent agents requires shielding for extended periods of time. Non-volatile liquid agents, such as blister agents and the oily VX nerve agent, do not easily evaporate into a gas, and therefore present primarily a contact hazard. 1. ...


Classes of chemical warfare agents

Chemical warfare agents are organized into several categories according to the manner in which they affect the human body. The names and number of categories varies slightly from source to source, but in general types of chemical warfare agents are as follows:

Classes of chemical weapon agents
Class of agent Examples Symptoms Effects Rate of action Persistency Notes
Nerve agent Sarin, VX Difficulty breathing, sweating, drooling, convulsions, dimming of vision. Inhibits the breakdown of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in the victim's synapses. Vapors: seconds to minutes; Skin: 2 to 18 hours VX is persistent and a contact hazard; other agents are non-persistent and present mostly inhalation hazards. Nerve agents are hundreds to thousands times more lethal than blister, pulmonary or blood agents.
Blood agent Hydrogen cyanide Rapid breathing, convulsions, and coma. Prevents the normal use of oxygen by the body tissues so that vital organs cease to function within minutes. Immediate onset Non-persistent and an inhalation hazard. All based on cyanide
Vesicant
(Blister agent)
Mustard gas, Lewisite Burning or stinging of eyes and skin. Creates extreme burning pain; conjunctivitis; large fluid blisters on the skin that heal slowly, and may become infected. Vapors: 4 to 6 hours, eyes and lungs affected more rapidly; Skin: 2 to 48 hours Persistent and a contact hazard. Used to incapacitate rather than kill, overloading the medical facilities.
Pulmonary agent
(Choking agent, lung toxicants)
Phosgene Difficulty breathing; tearing of the eyes. Damages and floods the respiratory system, resulting in suffocation; survivors often suffer chronic breathing problems. Immediate to 3 hours Non-persistent and an inhalation hazard. These were commonly used in World War I, but were rendered mostly obsolete by the more effective nerve agents.
Lachrymatory agent Tear gas, pepper spray Powerful eye irritation Causes severe stinging of the eyes and temporary blindness. Immediate Non-persistent and an inhalation hazard. In recent decades these agents are usually used for riot-control purposes, therefore they are also often called riot control agents.
Incapacitating agent BZ Confusion, confabulation, hallucination, and with regression to automatic "phantom" behaviors such as plucking and disrobing. Decreases effect of acetylcholine in subject. Causes peripheral nervous system effects that are the opposite of those seen in nerve agent poisoning. Inhaled: 30 minutes to 20 hours; Skin: Up to 36 hours after skin exposure to BZ. Duration is typically 72 to 96 hours. Extremely persistent in soil and water and on most surfaces; contact hazard. -

There are other chemicals used militarily that are not technically considered to be "chemical weapon agents," such as: Nerve agents (also known as nerve gases, though these chemicals are liquid at room temperature) are a class of phosphorus-containing organic chemicals (organophosphates) that inhibit the acetylcholinesterase enzyme in animals. ... If you are looking for the finch, see Serin Sarin or GB (O-Isopropyl methylphosphonofluoridate) is an extrememly toxic substance that is one of the worlds most dangerous weapons of war. ... 1. ... Neurotransmitters are chemicals that are used to relay, amplify and modulate electrical signals between a presynaptic and a postsynaptic neuron. ... The chemical compound acetylcholine, often abbreviated as ACh, was the first neurotransmitter to be identified. ... Synapses allow nerve cells to communicate with one another through axons and dendrites, converting electrical signals into chemical ones. ... Categories: Stub | Chemical weapons ... Hydrogen cyanide is a chemical compound with chemical formula H-C≡N. A solution of hydrogen cyanide in water is called hydrocyanic acid or prussic acid. ... A cyanide is any chemical compound that contains the group C≡N, with the carbon atom triple bonded to the nitrogen atom. ... Categories: Stub | Chemical weapons ... Chemical Structure of Mustard Gas Compound Mustard gas (HD) is a chemical compound that was first used as a chemical weapon in World War I. In pure form, it is a colourless, odourless, viscous liquid at room temperature and causes blistering of the skin. ... Chemical structure of Lewisite Lewisite is a chemical compound from a chemical family called arsines. ... Conjunctivitis is an inflammation of the conjunctiva (the outermost layer of the eye and the inner surface of the eyelids), often due to infection. ... A blister or bulla is a defense mechanism of the human body. ... Categories: Chemical weapons | Stub ... Phosgene (also known as carbonyl chloride, C O Cl2) is a highly toxic gas or refrigerated liquid that was used as a chemical weapon in World War I. It has no color, but is detectable in air by its odor, which resembles moldy hay. ... Suffocation can mean two things: Suffocation, or Asphyxia, is a medical condition where the body is depraved of oxygen. ... Categories: Stub | Chemical weapons ... A riot control agent is a type of lachrymatory agent (or lacrimatory agent). ... Pepper spray is a non-lethal chemical agent which is used in riot control and personal self-defense. ... A riot control agent is a type of lachrymatory agent (or lacrimatory agent). ... The term incapacitating agent is defined by the U.S. Department of Defense as An agent that produces temporary physiological or mental effects, or both, which will render individuals incapable of concerted effort in the performance of their assigned duties. ... 3-quinuclidinyl benzilate (QNB) is an odorless military incapacitating agent. ... Confusion can have the following meanings: Unclarity, e. ... Confabulation is the confusion of imagination as memory. ... A hallucination is a false sensory perception in the absence of an external stimulus, as distinct from an illusion, which is a misperception of an external stimulus. ... The chemical compound acetylcholine, often abbreviated as ACh, was the first neurotransmitter to be identified. ... The peripheral nervous system or PNS, is part of the nervous system, and consists of the nerves and neurons that reside or extend outside the central nervous system--to serve the limbs and organs, for example. ...

  • Defoliants that destroy vegetation, but are not immediately toxic to human beings. (Agent Orange, for instance, used by the United States in Vietnam, contained dioxins and is known for its long-term cancer effects and for causing genetic damage leading to serious birth deformities.)
  • Incendiary or explosive chemicals (such as napalm, extensively used by the United States in Vietnam, or dynamite) because their destructive effects are primarily due to fire or explosive force, and not direct chemical action.
  • Viruses, bacteria, or other organisms, or their toxic products. Their use is classified as biological warfare.

A defoliant is a name for any chemical sprayed or dusted on plants to destroy, partly or totally, specific forms of vegetation or all forms of vegetation. ... Agent Orange is the code name for a powerful herbicide and defoliant used widely by the U.S. military during the Vietnam War. ... Dioxins form a family of toxic chlorinated organic compounds that bioaccumulate in humans and wildlife due to their fat solubility. ... When normal cells are damaged or old they undergo apoptosis; cancer cells, however, avoid apoptosis. ... An incendiary device is a device or weapon designed to create a fire. ... This article is concerned solely with chemical explosives. ... Napalm is a flammable, gasoline-based weapon invented in 1942. ... Dynamite is an explosive based on the explosive potential of nitroglycerin using Kieselguhr as an absorbent. ... A common alternate meaning of virus is computer virus. ... Phyla/Divisions Actinobacteria Aquificae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chlamydiae/Verrucomicrobia Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus_Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Nitrospirae Omnibacteria Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Bacteria (singular, bacterium) are a major group of living organisms. ... A biotoxin is any toxin produced by a living organism (plant, animal, fungus, bacteria). ... Biological warfare, also known as germ warfare, is the use of any organism ( bacteria, virus or other disease-causing organism) or toxin found in nature, as a weapon of war. ...

Chemical weapon designations

Most chemical weapons are assigned a one- to three-letter "NATO weapon designation" in addition to, or in place of, a common name. Binary munitions, in which precursors for chemical weapon agents are automatically mixed in shell to produce the agent just prior to its use, are indicated by a "-2" following the agent's designation (for example, GB-2 and VX-2). For the National Association of Theatre Owners, please see National Association of Theatre Owners. ... Binary Chemical Weapons are chemical weapons wherein the toxic agent is not contained within the weapon in its active state, but in the form of two chemical precursors, physically separated within the weapon. ...


Some examples are given below:

Blood agents: Vesicants:
Pulmonary agents: Incapacitating agents:
Lachrymatory agents: Nerve agents:

Categories: Stub | Chemical weapons ... Hydrogen cyanide is a chemical compound with chemical formula H-C≡N. A solution of hydrogen cyanide in water is called hydrocyanic acid or prussic acid. ... Chemical structure of Lewisite Lewisite is a chemical compound from a chemical family called arsines. ... Chemical Structure of Mustard Gas Compound Mustard gas (HD) is a chemical compound that was first used as a chemical weapon in World War I. In pure form, it is a colourless, odourless, viscous liquid at room temperature and causes blistering of the skin. ... Phosgene (also known as carbonyl chloride, C O Cl2) is a highly toxic gas or refrigerated liquid that was used as a chemical weapon in World War I. It has no color, but is detectable in air by its odor, which resembles moldy hay. ... BZ may stand for: 3-quinuclidinyl benzilate, an odorless military incapacitating agent Belize (ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 country code) Benzodiazepines Bz - benzoyl group () C6H5-CO- . The functional group - acyl derived from benzoic acid bzip2 This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise... Pepper spray is a non-lethal chemical agent which is used in riot control and personal self-defense. ... A riot control agent is a type of lachrymatory agent (or lacrimatory agent). ... If you are looking for the finch, see Serin Sarin or GB (O-Isopropyl methylphosphonofluoridate) is an extrememly toxic substance that is one of the worlds most dangerous weapons of war. ... 1. ...

Chemical agent delivery

The most important factor in the effectiveness of chemical weapons is the efficiency of its delivery, or dissemination, to a target. The most common techniques include munitions (such as bombs, projectiles, warheads) that allow dissemination at a distance and spray tanks which disseminate from low-flying aircraft. Developments in the techniques of filling and storage of munitions have also been important.


Although there have been many advances in chemical weapon delivery since World War I, it is still difficult to achieve effective dispersion. The dissemination is highly dependent on atmospheric conditions because many chemical agents act in gaseous form. Thus, weather observations and forecasting are essential to optimize weapon delivery and reduce the risk of injuring friendly forces.


Dispersion

Dispersion of chlorine in World War I

Dispersion is the simplest technique of delivering an agent to its target. It consists of placing the chemical agent upon or adjacent to a target immediately before dissemination, so that the material is most efficiently used. Use of poison gas in World War I This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Use of poison gas in World War I This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ...


World War I saw the earliest implementation of this technique, when German forces simply opened canisters of chlorine and allowed the wind to carry the gas across enemy lines. While simple and easy, this technique had numerous disadvantages. Delivery depended greatly on wind speed and direction. If the wind was fickle, as at Loos, the gas could blow back, causing friendly casualties. Gas clouds gave plenty of warning, allowing the enemy time to protect themselves, though many soldiers found the sight of a creeping gas cloud unnerving. Also gas clouds had limited penetration, capable only of affecting the front-line trenches before dissipating. Although it produced limited results in World War I, this technique shows how simple chemical weapon dissemination can be. Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. ... The Battle of Loos was one of the major British offensives mounted on the Western Front in 1915 during World War I. The battle was the British component of the combined Anglo-French offensive known as the Second Battle of Artois. ...


Shortly after this "open canister" dissemination, French forces developed a technique for delivery of phosgene in a non-explosive artillery shell. This technique overcame many of the risks of dealing with gas in cylinders. First, gas shells were independent of the wind and increased the effective range of gas, making any target within reach of guns vulnerable. Second, gas shells could be delivered without warning, especially the clear, nearly odorless phosgene — there are numerous accounts of gas shells, landing with a "plop" rather than exploding, being initially dismissed as dud high explosive or shrapnel shells, giving the gas time to work before the soldiers were alerted and took precautions. Phosgene (also known as carbonyl chloride, C O Cl2) is a highly toxic gas or refrigerated liquid that was used as a chemical weapon in World War I. It has no color, but is detectable in air by its odor, which resembles moldy hay. ... Historically, artillery refers to any engine used for the discharge of projectiles during war. ... This article is concerned solely with chemical explosives. ... Shrapnel, in the strict sense, is shot deliberately included in a landmine or shell intended to be scattered by the explosion. ...


The major drawback of artillery delivery was the difficulty of achieving a killing concentration. Each shell had a small gas payload and an area would have to be subjected to saturation bombardment to produce a cloud to match cylinder delivery.


Over the years, there were some refinements in this technique. In the 1950s and early 1960s, chemical artillery rockets contained a multitude of submunitions, so that a large number of small clouds of the chemical agent would form directly on the target. Events and trends Technology United States tests the first fusion bomb. ... Centuries: 19th century - 20th century - 21st century Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s - 1960s - 1970s 1980s 1990s 2000s 2010s Years: 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 Events and trends The 1960s was a turbulent decade of change around the world. ...


Thermal dissemination

Enlarge
An American-made MC-1 gas bomb

Thermal dissemination is the use of explosives or pyrotechnics to deliver chemical agents. This technique, developed in the 1920s, was a major improvement over earlier dispersal techniques, in that it allowed significant quantities of an agent to be disseminated over a considerable distance. Thermal dissemination remains the principal method of disseminating chemical agents today. An MC-1 gas bomb File links The following pages link to this file: Chemical warfare Categories: U.S. military images ... An MC-1 gas bomb File links The following pages link to this file: Chemical warfare Categories: U.S. military images ... The M117 is an air-dropped general-purpose bomb used by United States military forces. ... This article is concerned solely with chemical explosives. ... The word pyrotechnic (literally meaning fire technology) refers to any chemical explosive device, but especially fireworks. ... Centuries: 19th century - 20th century - 21st century Decades: 1870s 1880s 1890s 1900s 1910s - 1920s - 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s Years: 1920 1921 1922 1923 1924 1925 1926 1927 1928 1929 Referred to as the Roaring 20s. ...


Most thermal dissemination devices consist of a bomb or projectile shell that contains a chemical agent and a central "burster" charge; when the burster detonates, the agent is expelled laterally. This article is about explosive devices. ... A shell is a projectile, which, as opposed to a bullet, is not only shot by explosives, but also contains explosives itself. ...


Thermal dissemination devices, though common, are not particularly efficient. First, a percentage of the agent is lost by incineration in the initial blast and by being forced onto the ground. Second, the sizes of the particles vary greatly because explosive dissemination produces a mixture of liquid droplets of variable and difficult to control sizes.


The efficacy of thermal detonation is greatly limited by the flammability of some agents. For flammable aerosols, the cloud is sometimes totally or partially ignited by the disseminating explosion in a phenomenon called flashing. Explosively disseminated VX will ignite roughly one third of the time. Despite a great deal of study, flashing is still not fully understood, and a solution to the problem would be a major technological advance. http://visibleearth. ... 1. ...


Despite the limitations of central bursters, most nations use this method in the early stages of chemical weapon development, in part because standard munitions can be adapted to carry the agents.


Aerodynamic dissemination

Aerodynamic dissemination is the non-explosive delivery of a chemical agent from an aircraft, allowing aerodynamic stress to disseminate the agent. This technique is the most recent major development in chemical agent dissemination, originating in the mid-1960s. Centuries: 19th century - 20th century - 21st century Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s - 1960s - 1970s 1980s 1990s 2000s 2010s Years: 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 Events and trends The 1960s was a turbulent decade of change around the world. ...


This technique eliminates many of the limitations of thermal dissemination by eliminating the flashing effect and theoretically allowing precise control of particle size. In actuality, the altitude of dissemination, wind direction and velocity, and the direction and velocity of the aircraft greatly influence particle size. There are other drawbacks as well; ideal deployment requires precise knowledge of aerodynamics and fluid dynamics, and because the agent must usually be dispersed within the boundary layer (less than 200–300 ft above the ground), it puts pilots at risk. Aerodynamics is a branch of fluid dynamics concerned with the study of gas flows, first analysed by George Cayley in the 1800s. ... This article or section should be merged with Fluid mechanics Fluid dynamics is the study of fluids (liquids and gases) in motion, and the effect of the fluid motion on fluid boundaries, such as solid containers or other fluids. ... The boundary layer is the layer of fluid in the immediate vicinity of a bounding surface. ...


Significant research is still being applied toward this technique. For example, by modifying the properties of the liquid, its breakup when subjected to aerodynamic stress can be controlled and an idealized particle distribution achieved, even at supersonic speed. Additionally, advances in fluid dynamics, computer modeling, and weather forecasting allow an ideal direction, speed, and altitude to be calculated, such that weapon agent of a predetermined particle size can predictably and reliably hit a target. A computer simulation or a computer model is a computer program which attempts to simulate an abstract model of a particular system. ... BBCs Alex Deakin presenting a weather report. ...


Sociopolitical climate of chemical warfare

ARMIS BELLA NON VENENIS GERI

"War is fought with weapons, not with poisons"

While the study of chemicals and their military uses was widespread in China, the use of toxic materials has historically been viewed with mixed emotions and some disdain in the West. The Great Wall of China, stretching over 6,700 km, was erected beginning in the 3rd century BC to guard the north from raids by men on horses. ...


One of the earliest reactions to the use of chemical agents was from Rome. Struggling to defend themselves from the Roman legions, Germanic tribes poisoned the wells of their enemies, with Roman jurists having been recorded as declaring "armis bella non venenis geri", meaning "war is fought with weapons, not with poisons." Soldiers reenacting the Roman Army on manoeuvres (in Nashville, Tennessee) Rome was a militarized state whose history was often closely entwined with its military history over the 1228 years that the Roman state is traditionally said to have existed. ... See also Legion software and Legion forummer. ... The term Germanic peoples may refer to: the Germanic tribes that in the first millennium were seen as a barbarian threat by the Roman Empire and its successors; the Germanic Christianity that in the second millennium came to dominate much of Northern Europe, politically organized in the Holy Roman Empire... A weapon is a tool used to kill or incapacitate a person or animal, or destroy a military target. ... This article is about the dangerous substance. ...


It is perhaps because of this view that in Europe before World War I, the use of poisonous chemicals in battle was typically the result of local initiative, and not the result of an active chemical weapons program. There are many reports of the isolated use of chemical agents in individual battles or sieges, but there was no true tradition of their use outside of incendiaries and smoke. Despite this tendency, there have been several attempts to initiate large-scale implementation of poison gas in several wars, but with the notable exception of World War I, the responsible authorities generally rejected the proposals for ethical reasons. World map showing location of Europe A satellite composite image of Europe Europe is geologically and geographically a peninsula, forming the westernmost part of Eurasia. ... Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. ... A siege is a prolonged military blockade and assault of a city or fortress with the intent of conquering by force or attrition. ... An incendiary device is a device or weapon designed to create a fire. ... For the movie starring Harvey Keitel, see Smoke (movie); for the cigar aficionado magazine, see Smoke (magazine) Smoke is a suspension in air of small particles resulting from incomplete combustion of a fuel. ... Ethics is a general term for what is often described as the science (study) of morality. In philosophy, ethical behavior is that which is good or right. ...


For example, in 1854 Lyon Playfair, a British chemist, proposed using a cyanide-filled artillery shell against enemy ships during the Crimean War. The British Ordnance Department rejected the proposal as "as bad a mode of warfare as poisoning the wells of the enemy." Events January 13 - The accordion is patented by Anthony Faas. ... The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is a country in western Europe, and member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the G8, the European Union, and NATO. Usually known simply as the United Kingdom, the UK, or (inaccurately) as Great Britain or Britain, the UK has four constituent... A cyanide is any chemical compound that contains the group C≡N, with the carbon atom triple bonded to the nitrogen atom. ... Historically, artillery refers to any engine used for the discharge of projectiles during war. ... The Crimean War lasted from 28 March 1854 to 1856. ...


This general concern over the use of poison gas manifested itself in 1899 at the Hague Conference with a proposal prohibiting shells filled with asphyxiating gas. The proposal was passed, despite a single dissenting vote from the United States. The American representative, Naval Capt. Alfred Thayer Mahan, justified voting against the measure on the grounds that "the inventiveness of Americans should not be restricted in the development of new weapons." 1899 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... The Hague Conventions were international treaties negotiated at the First and Second Peace Conferences at The Hague, Netherlands in 1899 and 1907, respectively, and were, along with the Geneva Conventions, among the first formal statements of the laws of war and war crimes in the nascent body of international law. ... Rear Admiral Alfred Thayer Mahan (27 September 1840 - 1 December 1914) was a United States Navy officer, naval strategist, and educator, widely considered the foremost theorist of sea power. ...


After extensive use of chemical weapons in World War I, the popular view of chemical weapons grew from distaste to disgust, such that their use had become the ultimate atrocity in the minds of most people at the time. So much so, in fact, that in 1925, sixteen of the world's major nations signed the Geneva Protocol, thereby pledging never to use gas biological methods of warfare again. Notably, in the United States, the Protocol languished in the Senate until 1975, when it was finally ratified. Events January-May January 3 - Benito Mussolini announces he is taking dictatorial powers over Italy. ... The Protocol for the Prohibition of the Use in War of Asphyxiating, Poisonous or other Gases, and of Bacteriological Methods of Warfare, usually called the Geneva Protocol, is a treaty to ban the use of chemical and biological weapons. ... The United States Senate is the upper house of the U.S. Congress, smaller than the United States House of Representatives. ... 1975 was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1975 calendar). ...


Efforts to eradicate chemical weapons

  • August 27, 1874: The Brussels Declaration Concerning the Laws and Customs of War is signed, specifically forbidding the "employment of poison or poisoned weapons."
  • September 4, 1900: The Hague Conference, which includes a declaration banning the "use of projectiles the object of which is the diffusion of asphyxiating or deleterious gases," enters into force.
  • February 6, 1922: After World War I, the Washington Arms Conference Treaty prohibited the use of asphyxiating, poisonous or other gases. It was signed by the United States, Britain, Japan, France, and Italy, but France objected to other provisions in the treaty and it never went into effect.
  • September 7, 1929: The Geneva Protocol enters into force, prohibiting the use of poison gas and bacteriological methods of warfare. As of 2004, there are 132 signatory nations.
  • May 1991: President George H.W. Bush unilaterally commits the United States to destroying all chemical weapons and to renounce the right to chemical weapon retaliation.
  • April 29, 1997: The Chemical Weapons Convention enters into force, augmenting the Geneva Protocol of 1925 by outlawing the production, stockpiling and use of chemical weapons.
Nation CW Possession Signed CWC Ratified CWC
Albania Known January 14, 1993 May 11, 1994
China Probable January 13, 1993 April 4, 1997
Egypt Probable No No
India Known January 14, 1993 September 3, 1996
Iran Known January 13, 1993 November 3, 1997
Israel Probable January 13, 1993 No
Libya Known No January 6, 2004
(acceded)
Myanmar (Burma) Possible January 13, 1993 No
North Korea Known No No
Pakistan Probable January 13, 1993 October 28, 1997
Russia Known January 13, 1993 November 5, 1997
Serbia
and Montenegro
Probable No April 20, 2000
(acceded)
Sudan Possible No May 5, 1999
(acceded)
Syria Known No No
Taiwan Possible No No
United States Known January 13, 1993 April 25, 1997
Vietnam Probable January 13, 1993 No

August 27 is the 239th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (240th in leap years), with 126 days remaining. ... Events January - April January 1 - New York City annexes The Bronx January 23 - Marriage of the Duke of Edinburgh, second son of Queen Victoria, to Grand Duchess Marie Alexandrovna of Russia, only daughter of Emperor Alexander III of Russia. ... September 4 is the 247th day of the year (248th in leap years). ... 1900 is a common year starting on Monday. ... The Hague Conventions were international treaties negotiated at the First and Second Peace Conferences at The Hague, Netherlands in 1899 and 1907, respectively, and were, along with the Geneva Conventions, among the first formal statements of the laws of war and war crimes in the nascent body of international law. ... February 6 is the 37th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1922 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... September 7 is the 250th day of the year (251st in leap years). ... 1929 was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Protocol for the Prohibition of the Use in War of Asphyxiating, Poisonous or other Gases, and of Bacteriological Methods of Warfare, usually called the Geneva Protocol, is a treaty to ban the use of chemical and biological weapons. ... 2004 is a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... May is the fifth month of the year in the Gregorian Calendar and one of seven Gregorian months with the length of 31 days. ... 1991 is a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Order: 41st President Vice President: Dan Quayle Term of office: January 20, 1989 – January 20, 1993 Preceded by: Ronald Reagan Succeeded by: Bill Clinton Date of birth: June 12, 1924 Place of birth: Milton, Massachusetts First Lady: Barbara Pierce Bush Political party: Republican George Herbert Walker Bush, KBE (born June... Seal of the Congress. ... December 31 is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 2004 is a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Chemical Weapons Convention is an arms control agreement which outlaws the production, stockpiling and use of chemical weapons. ... The word proliferation can refer to: Nuclear proliferation Chemical weapon proliferation the spread in use of other weapons systems Cell proliferation According to Gloria Anzaldúa (1990), the difference between appropriation and proliferation is that the first steals and harms; the second helps heal breaches of knowledge. ... April 29 is the 119th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (120th in leap years). ... 1997 is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year of the Reef. ... Albania is a Mediterranean country in southeastern Europe. ... January 14 is the 14th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1993 is a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and marked the Beginning of the International Decade to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination (1993-2003) Events Media:January January 1 - Czechoslovakia divides. ... May 11 is the 131st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (132nd in leap years). ... 1994 was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International year of the Family. ... The Great Wall of China, stretching over 6,700 km, was erected beginning in the 3rd century BC to guard the north from raids by men on horses. ... January 13 is the 13th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1993 is a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and marked the Beginning of the International Decade to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination (1993-2003) Events Media:January January 1 - Czechoslovakia divides. ... April 4 is the 94th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (95th in leap years). ... 1997 is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year of the Reef. ... The Arab Republic of Egypt, commonly known as Egypt, (in Arabic: مصر, romanized Miṣr or Maṣr, in Egyptian dialect) is a republic mostly located in north-eastern Africa. ... The Republic of India is the second most populous country in the world, with a population of more than one billion, and is the seventh largest country by geographical area. ... January 14 is the 14th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1993 is a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and marked the Beginning of the International Decade to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination (1993-2003) Events Media:January January 1 - Czechoslovakia divides. ... 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January 13 is the 13th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1993 is a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and marked the Beginning of the International Decade to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination (1993-2003) Events Media:January January 1 - Czechoslovakia divides. ... The Great Socialist Peoples Libyan Arab Jamahiriya or Libya (Arabic: ليبيا) is a country in North Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, located between Egypt on the east, Sudan on the southeast, Chad and Niger on the south and Algeria and Tunisia to the west. ... January 6 is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 2004 is a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Union of Myanmar, also known as Burma, is a country in Southeast Asia. ... January 13 is the 13th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1993 is a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and marked the Beginning of the International Decade to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination (1993-2003) Events Media:January January 1 - Czechoslovakia divides. ... North Korea, officially the Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea (DPRK; Korean: Chosŏn Minjujuŭi Inmin Konghwaguk; Hangul: 조선민주주의인민공화국; Hanja: 朝鮮民主主義人民共和國), is a country in eastern Asia, covering the northern half of the peninsula of Korea. ... The Islamic Republic of Pakistan (, or Islami Jamhooriya-e-Pakistan, in Urdu), or Pakistan, is a country located in South Asia and is part of the Greater Middle East. ... January 13 is the 13th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1993 is a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and marked the Beginning of the International Decade to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination (1993-2003) Events Media:January January 1 - Czechoslovakia divides. ... October 28 is the 301st day of the year (302nd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 64 days remaining. ... 1997 is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year of the Reef. ... The Russian Federation (Russian: Росси́йская Федера́ция, transliteration: Rossiyskaya Federatsiya or Rossijskaja Federacija), or Russia (Russian: Росси́я, transliteration: Rossiya or Rossija), is a country that stretches over a vast expanse of eastern Europe and northern Asia. ... January 13 is the 13th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1993 is a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and marked the Beginning of the International Decade to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination (1993-2003) Events Media:January January 1 - Czechoslovakia divides. ... November 5 is the 309th day of the year (310th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 56 days remaining. ... 1997 is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year of the Reef. ... Serbia and Montenegro (Serbian: Србија и Црна Гора, often abbreviated as SCG) is the name of the union of Serbia and Montenegro, two former Yugoslav republics united since 2003 in a loose confederation. ... April 20 is the 110th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (111th in leap years). ... 2000 is a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Republic of the Sudan, or Republic of Sudan (in recent years the definite article has increasingly been dropped in common usage) is the largest country in Africa, situated in the northeast part of the continent. ... May 5 is the 125th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (126th in leap years). ... 1999 is a common year starting on Friday of the Common Era, and was designated the International Year of Older Persons by the United Nations. ... The Syrian Arab Republic or Syria is a country in the Middle East, bordering (from south to north) on Lebanon, Israel, Jordan, Iraq and Turkey. ... Taiwan is mostly mountainous in the east, but gradually transitions to gently sloping plains in the west (satellite photo by NASA). ... January 13 is the 13th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1993 is a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and marked the Beginning of the International Decade to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination (1993-2003) Events Media:January January 1 - Czechoslovakia divides. ... April 25 is the 115th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (116th in leap years). ... 1997 is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year of the Reef. ... The Socialist Republic of Vietnam is a country in Southeast Asia. ... January 13 is the 13th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1993 is a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and marked the Beginning of the International Decade to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination (1993-2003) Events Media:January January 1 - Czechoslovakia divides. ...

Chemical weapon proliferation

Main article: Chemical weapon proliferation Despite numerous efforts to reduce or eliminate them, many nations continue to research and/or stockpile chemical weapon agents. ...


Despite numerous efforts to reduce or eliminate them, some nations continue to research and/or stockpile chemical weapon agents. To the right is a summary of the nations that have either declared weapon stockpiles, or are suspected of secretly stockpiling or possessing CW research programs. Notable examples include China and Israel. The Great Wall of China, stretching over 6,700 km, was erected beginning in the 3rd century BC to guard the north from raids by men on horses. ...


According to the testimony Assistant Secretary of State for Intelligence and Research Carl W. Ford before the Senate Committee on Foreign Relations, it is very probable that China has an advanced chemical warfare program, including research and development, production, and weaponization capabilities. Furthermore, there is considerable concern from the US regarding China's contact and sharing of chemical weapons expertise with other states of proliferation concern, including Syria and Iran.


As of December 2004, Israel has signed but not ratified the Chemical Weapons Convention, and according to the Russian Federation Foreign Intelligence Service, Israel has significant stores of chemical weapons of its own manufacture. It possesses a highly developed chemical and petrochemical industry, skilled specialists, and stocks of source material, and is capable of producing several nerve, blister and incapacitating agents. In 1974, in a hearing before the U.S. Senate Armed Services Committee, General Almquist stated that Israel had an offensive chemical weapons capability. 1974 is a common year starting on Tuesday (click on link for calendar). ...


History

Chemical warfare in ancient and classical times

Chemical weapons have been used for millennia in the form of poisoned arrows, but evidence can be found for the existence of more advanced forms of chemical weapons in ancient and classical times. Archers in Competition Archery is the practice of using a bow to shoot arrows. ...


A good example of early chemical warfare was the late Stone Age (10 000 BC) hunter-gatherer societies in Southern Africa, known as the San. They used poisoned arrows, tipping the wood, bone and stone tips of their arrows with poisons obtained from their natural environment. These poisons were mainly derived from scorpion or snake venom, but it is believed that some poisonous plants were also utilised. The arrow was fired into the target of choice, usually an antelope (the favourite being an Eland), with the hunter then tracking the doomed animal until the poison caused its collapse. Stone Age fishing hook. ... World map showing location of Africa A satellite composite image of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest continent in both area and population, after Asia. ... A scorpion is an invertebrate animal with eight legs belonging to the order Scorpiones in the class Arachnida. ... Families Acrochordidae Aniliidae Anomalepididae Anomochilidae Atractaspididae Boidae Bolyeriidae Colubridae Cylindrophiidae Elapidae Hydrophiidae Leptotyphlopidae Loxocemidae Pythonidae Tropidophiidae Typhlopidae Uropeltidae Viperidae Xenopeltidae Snakes are cold blooded legless reptiles closely related to lizards, which share the order Squamata. ... This article is about the toxin. ... This article deals with the African herbivorous mammal. ...


Dating from the 4th century BC, writings of the Mohist sect in China describe the use of bellows to pump smoke from burning balls of mustard and other toxic vegetables into tunnels being dug by a besieging army. Even older Chinese writings dating back to about 1000 BC contain hundreds of recipes for the production of poisonous or irritating smokes for use in war along with numerous accounts of their use. From these accounts we know of the arsenic-containing "soul-hunting fog", and the use of finely divided lime dispersed into the air to suppress a peasant revolt in AD 178. (5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - other centuries) (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium AD) Events Invasion of the Celts into Ireland Kingdom of Macedon conquers Persian empire Romans build first aqueduct Chinese use bellows The Scythians are beginning to be absorbed into the Sarmatian... Founded by Mo Zi (whose actual surname was Di, and whose given name was Mo), Mohism (墨家), or Moism, is a Chinese philosophy that evolved at the same time as Confucianism, Taoism and Legalism (Hundred Schools of Thought). ... The Great Wall of China, stretching over 6,700 km, was erected beginning in the 3rd century BC to guard the north from raids by men on horses. ... Mustard refers to several plants in the genus Brassica, which also includes cabbages and turnips, and also it refers to the proverbially tiny mustard seed, used as a spice. ... (Redirected from 1000 BC) Centuries: 12th century BC - 11th century BC - 10th century BC Decades: 1050s BC 1040s BC 1030s BC 1020s BC 1010s BC - 1000s BC - 990s BC 980s BC 970s BC 960s BC 950s BC Events and Trends 1006 BC - David becomes king of the ancient Israelites (traditional... General Name, Symbol, Number arsenic, As, 33 Series metalloids Group, Period, Block 15 (VA), 4, p Density, Hardness 5727 kg/m3, 3. ... Events First condemnation of the Montanist heresy Last (7th) year of Xiping era and start of Guanghe era of the Chinese Han Dynasty. ...


The earliest recorded use of gas warfare in the West dates back to the 5th century BC, during the Peloponnesian War between Athens and Sparta. Spartan forces besieging an Athenian city placed a lighted mixture of wood, pitch, and sulfur under the walls hoping that the noxious smoke would incapacitate the Athenians so that they would not be able to resist the assault that followed. Sparta wasn't alone in its use of unconventional tactics during these wars: Solon of Athens is said to have used hellebore roots to poison the water in an aqueduct leading from the Pleistrus River around 590 BC during the siege of Cirrha. (6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC - other centuries) (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium AD) Events Demotic becomes the dominant script of ancient Egypt Persians invade Greece twice (Persian Wars) Battle of Marathon (490) Battle of Salamis (480) Athenian empire formed and falls Peloponnesian War... Map of the Greek world at the start of the Peloponnesian War Temple of Apollo at Corinth The Peloponnesian War was begun in 431 BC between the Athenian Empire and the Peloponnesian League which included Sparta and Corinth. ... The Acropolis in central Athens, one of the most important landmarks in world history. ... This article needs cleanup. ... Solon Solon (Greek: Σόλων, c. ... Hellebore (Ranunculaceae helleborus) is a white flower often grown in gardens for decorative purposes, as well as for purported medicinal abilities and uses in witchcraft. ... Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 640s BC 630s BC 620s BC 610s BC 600s BC - 590s BC - 580s BC 570s BC 560s BC 550s BC 540s BC Events and Trends 598 BC - Jehoaichin succeeds Jehoiakim as King of Judah 598 BC - Babylonians capture Jerusalem...


The rediscovery of chemical warfare

During the Renaissance, people again considered using chemical warfare. One of the earliest such references is from Leonardo da Vinci, who proposed a powder of sulfide of arsenic and verdigris in the 15th century: By Region: Italian Renaissance Northern Renaissance -French Renaissance -German Renaissance -English Renaissance The Renaissance was a great cultural movement which brought about a period of scientific revolution and artistic transformation, at the dawn of modern European history. ... Leonardo da Vinci Leonardo da Vinci (April 15, 1452 – May 2, 1519) was an Italian Renaissance architect, musician, anatomist, inventor, engineer, sculptor, geometer, and painter. ... Verdigris is the common name for the chemical Cu(CH3COO)2. ... (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ...

throw poison in the form of powder upon galleys. Chalk, fine sulfide of arsenic, and powdered verdegris may be thrown among enemy ships by means of small mangonels, and all those who, as they breathe, inhale the powder into their lungs will become asphyxiated.

It is unknown whether this powder was ever actually used. Categories: Wikipedia cleanup | Historical stubs | Siege engines | Ancient Roman military technology | Medieval Weaponry | Medieval Weapons | Catapult ...


In the 17th century during sieges, armies attempted to start fires by launching incendiary shells filled with sulphur, tallow, rosin, turpentine, saltpeter, and/or antimony. Even when fires were not started, the resulting smoke and fumes provided a considerable distraction. Although their primary function was never abandoned, a variety of fills for shells were developed to maximize the effects of the smoke. (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... A siege is a prolonged military blockade and assault of a city or fortress with the intent of conquering by force or attrition. ... An incendiary device is a device or weapon designed to create a fire. ... Historically, artillery refers to any engine used for the discharge of projectiles during war. ... General Name, Symbol, Number sulfur, S, 16 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 16 (VIA), 3 , p Density, Hardness 1960 kg/m3, 2 Appearance Lemon yellow at STP Atomic properties Atomic weight 32. ... Tallow is rendered beef or mutton fat (suet). ... Rosin is a solid form of resin obtained from pines and some other plants, mostly conifers, produced by heating fresh liquid resin to vapourise the volatile liquid terpene components. ... Turpentine is a fluid obtained by distillation from resin obtained from trees, mainly various species of pine (Pinus). ... The chemical compound potassium nitrate is a naturally occurring mineral source of nitrogen. ... General Name, Symbol, Number antimony, Sb, 51 Series metalloids Group, Period, Block 15 (VA), 5, p Density, Hardness 6697 kg/m3, 3 Appearance silvery lustrous grey Atomic properties Atomic weight 121. ...


In 1672, during his siege of the city of Groningen, Christoph Bernhard van Galen (the Bishop of Münster) employed several different explosive and incendiary devices, some of which had a fill that included belladonna, intended to produce toxic fumes. Just three years later, August 27, 1675, the French and the Germans concluded the Strasbourg Agreement, which included an article banning the use of "perfidious and odious" toxic devices. Groningen is a municipality and a city in the north of the Netherlands, and the capital of the Groningen province. ... For information on the erotic actress Belladonna see: Belladonna. ... August 27 is the 239th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (240th in leap years), with 126 days remaining. ... Events January 5 - The Battle of Turckeim August 10 - Building of the Royal Greenwich Observatory began November 11 - Guru Gobind Singh becomes the Tenth Guru of the Sikhs. ... The French Republic or France (French: République française or France) is a country whose metropolitan territory is located in western Europe, and which is further made up of a collection of overseas islands and territories located in other continents. ...


In 1854, Lyon Playfair, a British chemist, proposed a cacodyl cyanide artillery shell for use against enemy ships as way to solve the stalemate during the siege of Sevastopol. The proposal was backed by Admiral Thomas Cochrane of the Royal Navy. It was considered by the Prime Minister, Lord Palmerston, but the British Ordnance Department rejected the proposal as "as bad a mode of warfare as poisoning the wells of the enemy." Playfair’s response was used to justify chemical warfare into the next century: Lord Playfair Lyon Playfair, 1st Baron Playfair, GCB, FRS (May 1, 1818) - (May 29, 1898) was a Scottish scientist and Parliamentarian. ... The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is a country in western Europe, and member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the G8, the European Union, and NATO. Usually known simply as the United Kingdom, the UK, or (inaccurately) as Great Britain or Britain, the UK has four constituent... Categories: Stub | Chemical weapons ... Sevastopol (Севастополь, Sevastopol’ in Ukrainian; Aqyar in Crimean Tatar), formerly known as Sebastopol, is a port city in Ukraine, located on the Black Sea coast of Crimean peninsula. ... Thomas Cochrane, 10th Earl of Dundonald Thomas Cochrane, 10th Earl of Dundonald (14 December 1775–October 31, 1860) was a politician and naval adventurer. ... Royal Navy Ensign The Royal Navy is the navy of the United Kingdom. ... Henry John Temple, 3rd Viscount Palmerston (October 20, 1784 - October 18, 1865) was a British Prime Minister and Liberal politician. ...

There was no sense in this objection. It is considered a legitimate mode of warfare to fill shells with molten metal which scatters among the enemy, and produced the most frightful modes of death. Why a poisonous vapor which would kill men without suffering is to be considered illegitimate warfare is incomprehensible. War is destruction, and the more destructive it can be made with the least suffering the sooner will be ended that barbarous method of protecting national rights. No doubt in time chemistry will be used to lessen the suffering of combatants, and even of criminals condemned to death.

Later, during the American Civil War, New York school teacher John Doughty proposed the offensive use of chlorine gas, delivered by filling a 10 inch (254 millimeter) artillery shell with 2 to 3 quarts (2 to 3 liters) of liquid chlorine, which could produce many cubic feet (a few cubic meters) of chlorine gas. Doughty’s plan was apparently never acted on, as it was probably presented to Brigadier General James W. Ripley, Chief of Ordnance, who was described as being congenitally immune to new ideas. The American Civil War was fought in the United States from 1861 until 1865 between the United States – forces coming mostly from the 23 northern states of the Union – and the newly-formed Confederate States of America, which consisted of 11 southern states that had declared their secession. ... General Name, Symbol, Number chlorine, Cl, 17 Series halogens Group, Period, Block 17 (VIIA), 3, p Density, Hardness 3. ... Mid-19th century tool for converting between different standards of the inch An inch is an Imperial unit of length. ... A millimetre (American spelling: millimeter), symbol mm is an SI unit of length that is equal to one thousandth of a metre. ... A quart is a unit of measurement for volume. ... The litre (or liter in US) is a metric unit of volume. ... metre or meter, see meter (disambiguation) The metre is the basic unit of length in the International System of Units. ...

A soldier with mustard gas burns, ca. 1914-1918.

This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ...

Chemical warfare in World War I

Main article: Use of poison gas in World War I A poison gas attack in World War I. The use of poison gas was a major military innovation of the First World War. ...


The first full-scale deployment of chemical warfare agents was during World War I, originating in the Second Battle of Ypres, April 22, 1915, when the Germans attacked French, Canadian and Algerian troops with chlorine gas. Since then a total 50,965 tons of pulmonary, lachrymatory, and vesicant agents were deployed by both sides of the conflict, including chlorine, phosgene and mustard gas. Official figures declare about 1,176,500 non-fatal casualties and 85,000 fatalities directly caused by chemical warfare agents during the course of the war. A poison gas attack in World War I. The use of poison gas was a major military innovation of the First World War. ... The Second Battle of Ypres was the first time Germany used chemical weapons on a large scale on the Western Front in World War I. The Second Battle of Ypres consisted of four separate battles: The Battle of Gravenstafel - 22nd to 23rd April 1915 The Battle of St Julien - 24th... April 22 is the 112th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (113th in leap years). ... 1915 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... The French Republic or France (French: République française or France) is a country whose metropolitan territory is located in western Europe, and which is further made up of a collection of overseas islands and territories located in other continents. ... Canada is a sovereign state in northern North America, the northern-most country in the world, and the second largest in total area. ... The People’s Democratic Republic of Algeria, or Algeria, is a nation in north Africa, and the second largest country on the African continent. ... General Name, Symbol, Number chlorine, Cl, 17 Series halogens Group, Period, Block 17 (VIIA), 3, p Density, Hardness 3. ... Phosgene (also known as carbonyl chloride, C O Cl2) is a highly toxic gas or refrigerated liquid that was used as a chemical weapon in World War I. It has no color, but is detectable in air by its odor, which resembles moldy hay. ... Chemical Structure of Mustard Gas Compound Mustard gas (HD) is a chemical compound that was first used as a chemical weapon in World War I. In pure form, it is a colourless, odourless, viscous liquid at room temperature and causes blistering of the skin. ...


To this day unexploded WWI-era chemical ammunition is still frequently uncovered when the ground is dug in former battle or depot areas and continues to pose a threat to the civilian population in Belgium and France. The French and Belgian governments have had to launch special programs for treating discovered ammunition. The Kingdom of Belgium (Dutch: Koninkrijk België, French: Royaume de Belgique, German: Königreich Belgien) is a country in Western Europe, bordered by the Netherlands, Germany, Luxembourg, France, and the North Sea. ...


After the war, most of the unused German chemical warfare agents were dropped into the Baltic Sea. Over time, the salt water causes the shell casings to corrode, and mustard gas occasionally leaks from these containers and washes onto shore as a wax-like solid resembling amber. Even in this solidified form, the agent is active enough to cause severe contact burns to anybody handling it. The Baltic Sea is located in Northern Europe, bounded by the Scandinavian Peninsula, the mainland of east and central Europe, and the Danish islands. ... Chemical Structure of Mustard Gas Compound Mustard gas (HD) is a chemical compound that was first used as a chemical weapon in World War I. In pure form, it is a colourless, odourless, viscous liquid at room temperature and causes blistering of the skin. ... AMBER (an acronym for Assisted Model Building and Energy Refinement) is a force field for molecular dynamics developed by Peter Kollmans group in the University of California, San Francisco. ...


Chemical warfare in the interwar years

After World War I, the United States and many of the European powers attempted to take advantage of the opportunities that the war created by attempting to establish and hold colonies. During this interwar period, chemical agents were occasionally used to subdue populations and suppress rebellion. World map showing location of Europe A satellite composite image of Europe Europe is geologically and geographically a peninsula, forming the westernmost part of Eurasia. ...


Following the defeat of the Ottoman Empire in 1917, the Ottoman government collapsed completely and the former empire was divided amongst the victorious powers in the Treaty of Sèvres. The British occupied Mesopotamia (present-day Iraq) and established a colonial government. The Ottoman Empire at the height of its power Imperial motto El Muzaffer Daima The Ever Victorious (as written in tugra) Official language Ottoman Turkish Capital İstanbul ( Constantinople/Asitane/Konstantiniyye ) Sovereigns Sultans of the Osmanli Dynasty Population ca 40 million Area 12+ million km² Establishment 1299 Dissolution October 29, 1923... 1917 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... The Treaty of Sèvres of August 10, 1920, made peace between the Allied and Associated Powers1 and the Ottoman Empire after World War I. The treaty was signed by the Ottoman Sultan Mehmed VI, who was trying to save his throne but was rejected by the independence movement in... The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is a country in western Europe, and member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the G8, the European Union, and NATO. Usually known simply as the United Kingdom, the UK, or (inaccurately) as Great Britain or Britain, the UK has four constituent... Mesopotamia ( Greek: Μεσοποταμία, translated from Old Persian Miyanrudan the Land between the Rivers or the Aramaic name Beth-Nahrin two rivers) is a region of Southwest Asia. ... The Republic of Iraq is a Middle Eastern country in southwestern Asia encompassing the ancient region of Mesopotamia at the confluence of the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers. ... World map of colonialism circa 1945. ...


In 1920, the Arab and Kurdish people of Mesopotamia revolted against the British occupation, which cost the British dearly. As the Mesopotamian resistance gained strength, the British resorted to increasingly repressive measures, and Winston Churchill himself, in his role as Colonial Secretary, authorized the use of chemical agents, mostly mustard gas, on the Mesopotamian resistors. Mindful of the financial cost of suppressing the dissidents, Churchill was confident that chemical weapons could be inexpensively employed against the Mesopotamian tribes, saying "I do not understand this squeamishness about the use of gas. I am strongly in favour of using poison gas against uncivilised tribes." [1] (http://www.informationwar.org/state%20terrorism/Britain_using_chemical_weapons.htm) Opposition to the use of gas and technical difficulties may have prevented the gas from being used in Mesopotamia (historians are currently divided on the issue)[2]  (http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/war/iraq/britain_iraq_07.shtml). Chemical weapons had caused so much misery and revulsion in World War I that their use had become the ultimate atrocity in the minds of most people at the time. So much so, in fact, that in 1925, sixteen of the world's major nations signed the Geneva Protocol, thereby pledging never to use gas or bacteriological methods of warfare. While the United States signed the protocol, the Senate did not ratify it until 1975. 1920 is a leap year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar) Events January January 7 - Forces of Russian White admiral Kolchak surrender in Krasnoyarsk. ... Arab (disambiguation). ... Kurds are one of the Iranian peoples and speak Kurdish, a north-Western Iranian language related to Persian. ... Mesopotamia ( Greek: Μεσοποταμία, translated from Old Persian Miyanrudan the Land between the Rivers or the Aramaic name Beth-Nahrin two rivers) is a region of Southwest Asia. ... Events January-May January 3 - Benito Mussolini announces he is taking dictatorial powers over Italy. ... The Protocol for the Prohibition of the Use in War of Asphyxiating, Poisonous or other Gases, and of Bacteriological Methods of Warfare, usually called the Geneva Protocol, is a treaty to ban the use of chemical and biological weapons. ...


During the Rif War in Spanish-occupied Morocco in 1921-1927, combined Spanish and French forces dropped mustard gas bombs in an attempt to put down the Berber rebellion. (See also: Rif, Abd el-Krim) The Kingdom of Spain or Spain (Spanish and Galician: Reino de España or España; Catalan: Regne dEspanya; Basque: Espainiako Erresuma) is a country located in the southwest of Europe. ... The Kingdom of Morocco is a country in northwest Africa. ... 1921 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Events January 7 - First transatlantic telephone call - New York City to London January 9 - Military rebellion crushed in Lisbon January 14 - Paul Doumer elected president of France January 19 - Britain sends troops to China February 12 - First British troops lad on Shanghai February 14 - Earthquake in Yugoslavia - 700 dead February... The Kingdom of Spain or Spain (Spanish and Galician: Reino de España or España; Catalan: Regne dEspanya; Basque: Espainiako Erresuma) is a country located in the southwest of Europe. ... Wiktionary has a definition of: French Wikipedia en français French in its formal sense and used in its capitalized form, denotes: Something from or related to France. ... The Berbers (also called Imazighen, free men, singular Amazigh) are a predominantly Muslim ethnic group indigenous to the Maghreb, speaking the Berber languages of the Afroasiatic family. ... This is about a region in Morocco: RIF is also an acronym/initialism. ... Time Magazine, August 17, 1925 Abd el-Krim (c. ...


In 1935 Fascist Italy used mustard gas during the invasion of Ethiopia. Ignoring the Geneva Protocol, which it signed seven years earlier, the Italian military dropped mustard gas in bombs, sprayed it from airplanes, and spread it in powdered form on the ground. 15,000 chemical casualties were reported, mostly from mustard gas. 1935 was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Benito Mussolini and Adolf Hitler Fascism (in Italian, fascismo), capitalized, refers to the right-wing authoritarian political movement which ruled Italy from 1922 to 1943 under the leadership of Benito Mussolini. ... The Italian Republic or Italy (Italian: Repubblica Italiana or Italia) is a country in southern Europe. ... Chemical Structure of Mustard Gas Compound Mustard gas (HD) is a chemical compound that was first used as a chemical weapon in World War I. In pure form, it is a colourless, odourless, viscous liquid at room temperature and causes blistering of the skin. ... The Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia (Ityopiya, Amharic ኢትዮጵያ) is a country situated in the Horn of Africa. ... The Protocol for the Prohibition of the Use in War of Asphyxiating, Poisonous or other Gases, and of Bacteriological Methods of Warfare, usually called the Geneva Protocol, is a treaty to ban the use of chemical and biological weapons. ...


Chemical warfare in World War II

The chemical structure of , discovered by in .
The chemical structure of sarin nerve gas, discovered by Germany in 1938.

During World War II, chemical warfare was revolutionized by Nazi Germany's accidental discovery of the nerve agents tabun, sarin and soman. The Nazis developed and manufactured large quantities of several agents, but chemical warfare was not extensively used by either side. Recovered Nazi documents suggest that German intelligence incorrectly thought that the Allies also knew of these compounds, interpreting their lack of mention in the Allies' scientific journals as evidence that information about them was being suppressed. Germany ultimately decided not to use the new nerve agents, fearing a potentially devastating Allied retaliatory nerve agent deployment. Sarin structural diagram. ... If you are looking for the finch, see Serin Sarin or GB (O-Isopropyl methylphosphonofluoridate) is an extrememly toxic substance that is one of the worlds most dangerous weapons of war. ... Nerve agents (also known as nerve gases, though these chemicals are liquid at room temperature) are a class of phosphorus-containing organic chemicals (organophosphates) that inhibit the acetylcholinesterase enzyme in animals. ... 1938 was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Nerve agents (also known as nerve gases, though these chemicals are liquid at room temperature) are a class of phosphorus-containing organic chemicals (organophosphates) that inhibit the acetylcholinesterase enzyme in animals. ... Tabun or GA (Ethyl N,N-dimethylphosphoramidocyanidate) is an extremely toxic substance that is one of the worlds most dangerous weapons of war. ... If you are looking for the finch, see Serin Sarin or GB (O-Isopropyl methylphosphonofluoridate) is an extrememly toxic substance that is one of the worlds most dangerous weapons of war. ... Soman or GD (O-Pinacolyl methylphosphonofluoridate) is an extrememly toxic substance that is one of the worlds most dangerous weapons of war. ... The Abwehr was the common name for the German military foreign information and counterintelligence department, during both World War I and World War II. Abwehr is a German word, which is commonly translated to the English defence. The head of the Abwehr during World War II was Admiral Wilhelm Canaris. ... In general, allies are people or groups that have joined an alliance and are working together to achieve some common purpose. ...


Although chemical weapons were not deployed on a large scale during World War II, there were some recorded uses of them by the Axis Powers, when retaliation wasn't feared: The Axis Powers is a term for those participants in World War II opposed to the Allies. ...

Flag of Japan adopted 1870, official 1999 Japanese Naval Ensign adopted 1889, re-adopted 1954 The Empire of Japan (大日本帝国; Dai Nippon Teikoku) was the official title of Japan before the end of World War II. The names Imperial Japan and Japanese Empire are also used. ... Chemical Structure of Mustard Gas Compound Mustard gas (HD) is a chemical compound that was first used as a chemical weapon in World War I. In pure form, it is a colourless, odourless, viscous liquid at room temperature and causes blistering of the skin. ... Categories: Stub | Chemical weapons ... Chemical structure of Lewisite Lewisite is a chemical compound from a chemical family called arsines. ... The Great Wall of China, stretching over 6,700 km, was erected beginning in the 3rd century BC to guard the north from raids by men on horses. ... Biological warfare, also known as germ warfare, is the use of any organism ( bacteria, virus or other disease-causing organism) or toxin found in nature, as a weapon of war. ... distribution of cholera Cholera (also called Asiatic cholera) is an infectious disease of the gastrointestinal tract caused by the Vibrio cholerae bacterium. ... Dysentery is a severe diarrhea illness often associated with blood in the feces. ... This is about the disease typhoid fever. ... Plague redirects here. ... Anthrax bacteria. ... 1944 was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... The title Grand Mufti refers to the highest official of religious law in a Sunni Muslim country. ... Islam ( Arabic al-islām الإسلام,  listen?) the submission to God is a monotheistic faith and the worlds second-largest religion. ... The Palestinian flag, adopted in 1948, is a widely recognized modern symbol of the Palestinian people. ... Adolf Hitler (20 April 1889 – 30 April 1945), a German politician who was the founder of the Third Reich (1933-1945), is widely regarded as one of the most significant and reviled leaders in world history. ... The word Jew ( Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination of these attributes. ... The term Palestine may refer to: Palestine: A geographical region in the Middle East, centered on Jerusalem. ... Tel Aviv at night Dizengof Center Allenby Street Tel Aviv-Yafo (Hebrew תל אביב-יפו; Arabic تل ابيب-يافا Tal Abīb-Yāfā) is an Israeli city on the coast of the Mediterranean sea. ... For the pioneering virtual community, see The WELL. A well is an artificial boring in the earth through which water, oil or gas can be obtained. ... Insecticide application by crop spraying An insecticide is a pesticide whose purpose is to kill or to prevent the multiplication of insects. ... Zyklon B label — Note that “Gift” translates as “poison” Zyklon B was the tradename of a pesticide ultimately used by Nazi Germany in some Holocaust gas chambers. ... Hydrogen cyanide is a chemical compound with chemical formula H-C≡N. A solution of hydrogen cyanide in water is called hydrocyanic acid or prussic acid. ... A concentration camp is a large detention center created for political opponents, aliens, specific ethnic or religious groups, civilians of a critical war-zone, or other groups of people, often during a war. ... Auschwitz is the name loosely used to identify three main Nazi German concentration camps and 45-50 sub-camps. ... Monument at Majdanek Memorial. ... Concentration camp inmates during the Holocaust The Holocaust refers to Nazi Germanys systematic genocide ( ethnic cleansing) of various ethnic, religious, national, and secular groups during World War II starting in 1941 and continuing through 1945. ...

Chemical warfare during the Cold War

After World War II, the Allies recovered German artillery shells containing the three German nerve agents of the day (tabun, sarin, and soman) prompting further research into nerve agents by all of the former Allies. Although the threat of global thermonuclear annihilation was foremost in the minds of most during the Cold War, both the Soviet and Western governments put enormous resources into developing chemical and biological weapons. In general, allies are people or groups that have joined an alliance and are working together to achieve some common purpose. ... Tabun or GA (Ethyl N,N-dimethylphosphoramidocyanidate) is an extremely toxic substance that is one of the worlds most dangerous weapons of war. ... If you are looking for the finch, see Serin Sarin or GB (O-Isopropyl methylphosphonofluoridate) is an extrememly toxic substance that is one of the worlds most dangerous weapons of war. ... Soman or GD (O-Pinacolyl methylphosphonofluoridate) is an extrememly toxic substance that is one of the worlds most dangerous weapons of war. ... Nerve agents (also known as nerve gases, though these chemicals are liquid at room temperature) are a class of phosphorus-containing organic chemicals (organophosphates) that inhibit the acetylcholinesterase enzyme in animals. ... At the end of the 20th century, Thermonuclear has came to imply anything which has to do with fusion nuclear reactions which are triggered by particles of thermal energy. ... The Cold War ( 1947- 1991) was the open yet restricted rivalry that developed after World War II between groups of nations practicing different ideologies and political systems. ... Soviet Union - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ...


Developments by the Western governments

In 1952 the U.S. Army patented a process for the "Preparation of Toxic Ricin", publishing a method of producing this powerful toxin. 1952 - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... The Army is the branch of the United States armed forces which has primary responsibility for land-based military operations. ... Castor beans The protein ricin (pronounced rye-sin) is a poison manufactured from the castor bean (Ricinus communis). ... For a list of biologically injurious substances, including toxins and other materials, as well as their effects, see poison. ...


Also in 1952, researchers in Porton Down, England invented the VX nerve agent, but soon abandoned the project. In 1958 the British government traded their VX technology with the United States in exchange for information on thermonuclear weapons; by 1961 the US was producing large amounts of VX, and performing its own nerve agent research. This research produced at least three more agents; the four agents (VE, VG, VM, VX) are collectively known as the "V-Series" class of nerve agents. 1952 - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... Porton Down is a United Kingdom government bio-chemical research facility, famous for its connection with chemical weapons and biological weapons research. ... Royal motto: Dieu et mon droit (French: God and my right) Englands location within the UK Official language English de facto Capital London de facto Largest city London Area  - Total Ranked 1st UK 130,395 km² Population  - Total (2001)  - Density Ranked 1st UK 49,138,831 377/km² Religion... 1. ... 1958 was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, in 1945 lifted nuclear fallout some 18 km (60,000 feet) above the epicenter. ... 1961 (As MAD Magazine pointed out on its first cover for the year) was the first upside-down year - i. ... VE (S-(Diethylamino)ethyl O-ethyl ethylphosphonothioate) is a V-series nerve agent closely related to the better-known VX nerve gas. ... VG (also called Amiton or Tetram) is a V-series nerve agent closely related to the better-known VX nerve gas. ... VM (Phosphonothioic acid, methyl-, S-(2-(diethylamino)ethyl) O-ethyl ester) is a V-series nerve agent closely related to the better-known VX nerve gas. ...


During the 1960s, the U.S. explored the use of anticholinergic deleriant incapacitating agents. One of these agents, assigned the weapon designation BZ, was allegedly used experimentally in the Vietnam War. These allegations inspired the 1990 fictional film Jacob's Ladder. Centuries: 19th century - 20th century - 21st century Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s - 1960s - 1970s 1980s 1990s 2000s 2010s Years: 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 Events and trends The 1960s was a turbulent decade of change around the world. ... The term incapacitating agent is defined by the U.S. Department of Defense as An agent that produces temporary physiological or mental effects, or both, which will render individuals incapable of concerted effort in the performance of their assigned duties. ... 3-quinuclidinyl benzilate (QNB) is an odorless military incapacitating agent. ... 1990 is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Jacobs Ladder DVD Jacobs Ladder is a 1990 thriller film directed by Adrian Lyne based on a screenplay by Bruce Joel Rubin. ...


Between 1967 and 1968, the U.S. decided to dispose of obsolete chemical weapons in an operation called Operation CHASE, which stood for "cut holes and sink 'em." CHASE disposal operations also included several shiploads of conventional munitions. As the name implies, the weapons were put aboard old Liberty ships that were sunk at sea. 1967 was a common year starting on Sunday (the link is to a full 1967 calendar). ... 1968 was a leap year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1968 calendar). ...


In 1969, 23 U.S. servicemen and one U.S. civilian stationed in Okinawa, Japan were exposed to low levels of nerve agent sarin while repainting the depots' buildings. The weapons had been kept secret from Japan, sparking a furor in that country and an international incident. These munitions were moved in 1971 to Johnston Atoll under Operation Red Hat. 1969 was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1969 calendar). ... This article is about the prefecture. ... Official language Japanese Capital Tokyo Largest City Tokyo Emperor Akihito Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 60th 377,835 km² 0. ...


A UN working group began work on chemical disarmament in 1980. On April 4, 1984 U.S. President Ronald Reagan called for an international ban on chemical weapons. U.S. President George H.W. Bush and Soviet Union leader Mikhail Gorbachev signed a bilateral treaty on June 1, 1990 to end chemical weapon production and start destroying each of their nation's stockpiles. The multilateral Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) was signed in 1993 and came into effect in 1997. The United Nations, or UN, is an international organization made up of 191 states established in 1945. ... April 4 is the 94th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (95th in leap years). ... 1984 is a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Order: 41st President Vice President: Dan Quayle Term of office: January 20, 1989 – January 20, 1993 Preceded by: Ronald Reagan Succeeded by: Bill Clinton Date of birth: June 12, 1924 Place of birth: Milton, Massachusetts First Lady: Barbara Pierce Bush Political party: Republican George Herbert Walker Bush, KBE (born June... Soviet Union - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachyov (Gorbachev)  listen? ( Russian: ; pronunciation: mih-kha-ILL ser-GHE-ye-vich gor-bah-CHYOHV) (born March 2, 1931), was leader of the Soviet Union from 1985 until 1991. ... A treaty is a binding agreement under international law concluded by subjects of international law, namely states and international organizations. ... June 1 is the 152nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (153rd in leap years), with 213 days remaining. ... 1990 is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Chemical Weapons Convention is an arms control agreement which outlaws the production, stockpiling and use of chemical weapons. ...


Developments by the Soviet government

Due to the secrecy of the Soviet Union's government, very little information was available about the direction and progress of the Soviet chemical weapons until relatively recently. After the fall of the Soviet Union, a Russian chemist named Vil Mirzayanov published articles that revealed illegal chemical weapons experimentation in Russia. In 1993, Mirzayanov was imprisoned and fired from his job at the State Research Institute of Organic Chemistry and Technology, where he had worked for 26 years. In March of 1994, after a major campaign by U.S. scientists on his behalf, Mirzayanov was released. The Third World and nonalignment in the 1960s Background As colonial empires disappeared, newly independent states that gained nationhood after World War II still found themselves economically dependent on the industrialized, wealthier Western states and caught between the tensions of great-power rivalry. ... The Russian Federation (Russian: Росси́йская Федера́ция, transliteration: Rossiyskaya Federatsiya or Rossijskaja Federacija), or Russia (Russian: Росси́я, transliteration: Rossiya or Rossija), is a country that stretches over a vast expanse of eastern Europe and northern Asia. ... 1993 is a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and marked the Beginning of the International Decade to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination (1993-2003) Events Media:January January 1 - Czechoslovakia divides. ... 1994 was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International year of the Family. ...


Among the information related by Vil Mirzayanov was the direction of the Soviet research into nerve agents toward the development of even more toxic agents, which saw most of its success during the mid-1980s. Several highly toxic agents were developed during this period; the only unclassified information regarding these agents is that they are known in the open literature only as "Foliant" agents (named after the program under which they were developed) and by various code designations, such as A-230 and A-232. Events and trends The 1980s marked an abrupt shift towards more conservative lifestyles after the momentous cultural revolutions which took place in the 1960s and 1970s and the definition of the AIDS virus in 1981. ...


According to Mirzayanov, the Soviets also developed agents that were safer to handle, leading to the development of the so-called binary weapons, in which precursors for the nerve agents are mixed in a munition to produce the agent just prior to its use. Because the precursors are generally significantly less hazardous than the agents themselves, this technique makes handling and transporting the munitions a great deal simpler. Additionally, precursors to the agents are usually much easier to stabilize than the agents themselves, so this technique also made it possible to increase the shelf life of the agents a great deal. During the 1980s and 1990s, binary versions of several Soviet agents were developed, and are designated as "Novichok" agents (after the Russian word for "newcomer"). Shelf-life is the length of time that corresponds to a tolerable loss in quality of a processed food. ... Events and trends The 1980s marked an abrupt shift towards more conservative lifestyles after the momentous cultural revolutions which took place in the 1960s and 1970s and the definition of the AIDS virus in 1981. ... Events and trends Technology Explosive growth of the Internet; decrease in the cost of computers and other technology Reduction in size and cost of mobile phones leads to a massive surge in their popularity Year 2000 problem (commonly known as Y2K) Microsoft Windows operating system becomes virtually ubiquitous on IBM... Novichok was developed by the Soviets as allegedly the most deadly binary nerve gas ever made. ...


Chemical warfare in the Iran-Iraq War

The Iran-Iraq War began in 1980 when Iraq attacked Iran. Early in the conflict, Iraq began to employ mustard gas and tabun delivered by bombs dropped from airplanes; approximately 5% of all Iranian casualties are directly attributable to the use of these agents. Iraq and the US government alleged that Iran was also using chemical weapons, but independent sources were unable to confirm these allegations. Iranian troops in the northern front. ... 1980 is a leap year starting on Tuesday. ... The Republic of Iraq is a Middle Eastern country in southwestern Asia encompassing the ancient region of Mesopotamia at the confluence of the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers. ... Iran (Persian: ایران) is a Middle Eastern country located in southwestern Asia. ...


About 100,000 Iranian soldiers were victims of Saddam Hussein's chemical attacks. Many were hit by mustard gas. The official estimate does not include the civilian population contaminated in bordering towns or the children and relatives of veterans, many of whom have developed blood, lung and skin complications, according to the Organization for Veterans. Nerve gas agents killed about 20,000 Iranian soldiers immediately, according to official reports. Of the 80,000 survivors, some 5,000 seek medical treatment regularly and about 1,000 are still hospitalized with severe, chronic conditions. [4] (http://www.nj.com/specialprojects/index.ssf?/specialprojects/mideaststories/me1209.html)[5]  (http://www.thestar.co.za/index.php?fArticleId=39470)[6]  (http://www.commondreams.org/headlines03/0213-05.htm) Saddam Hussein Saddām Hussein ʻAbd al-Majid al-Tikrītī (Often spelt Husayn or Hussain; Arabic صدام حسين عبدالمجيد التكريتي; born April 28, 1937 1) was President of Iraq from 1979 to 2003. ...


Despite the removal of Saddam and his regime by American forces, there is deep resentment and anger in Iran that it was Western companies based in West Germany, France, and the US that helped Iraq develop its chemical weapons arsenal in the first place and that the world did nothing to punish Iraq for its use of chemical weapons throughout the war.


Shortly before war ended in 1988, the Iraqi Kurdish village of Halabja was exposed to multiple chemical agents, killing about 5,000 of the town's 50,000 residents. After the incident, traces of mustard gas, and the nerve agents sarin, tabun and VX were discovered. While it appears that Iraqi government forces are to blame, some debate continues over the question of whether Iraq was really the responsible party, and whether this was a deliberate or accidental act. (see Halabja poison gas attack). 1988 is a leap year starting on a Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Kurds are one of the Iranian peoples and speak Kurdish, a north-Western Iranian language related to Persian. ... Halabja is a town in Iraq, located about 150 miles northeast of Baghdad and 8-10 miles from the Iranian border. ... The Halabja poison gas attack was an incident on 15 March-19 March 1988 during a major battle in the Iran-Iraq war when chemical weapons were used, allegedly by Iraqi government forces, to kill a number of people in the Iraqi Kurdish town of Halabja (population 80,000). ...


During the Persian Gulf War in 1991, Coalition forces began a ground war in Iraq. Despite the fact that they did possess chemical weapons, Iraq did not use any chemical agents against coalition forces. The commander of the Allied Forces, Gen. H. Norman Schwarzkopf, suggested this may have been due to Iraqi fear of retaliation with nuclear weapons. See also: 2003 invasion of Iraq and Gulf War (disambiguation) C Company, 1st Battalion, The Staffordshire Regiment, 1st UK Armoured Division The Persian Gulf War was a conflict between Iraq and a coalition force of 34 nations led by the United States. ... 1991 is a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Herbert Norman Schwarzkopf Jr. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 km (11 mi) above the epicenter. ...


Chemical weapons and terrorism

For many terrorist organizations, chemical weapons might be considered an ideal choice for a mode of attack, if they are available: they are cheap, relatively accessible, and easy to transport. A skilled chemist can readily synthesize most chemical agents if the precursors are available. Terrorism refers to the use of violence for the purpose of achieving a political, religious, or ideological goal. ...


Some political commentators dispute the practicality of chemical and biological weapons as tools of terrorism, however, stating that the effective use of such weapons is much more difficult then the use of conventional explosives, and that they are more useful in the fear that they generate. [7] (http://books.guardian.co.uk/reviews/politicsphilosophyandsociety/0,,577053,00.html)


The earliest successful use of chemical agents in a non-combat setting was in 1946, motivated by a desire to obtain revenge on Germans for the Holocaust. Three members of a Jewish group calling themselves Dahm Y'Israel Nokeam ("Avenging Israel's Blood") hid in a bakery in the Stalag 13 prison camp near Nuremberg, Germany, where several thousand SS troops were being detained. The three applied an arsenic-containing mixture to loaves of bread, sickening more than 2000 prisoners, of whom more than 200 required hospitalization. 1946 was a common year starting on Tuesday. ... Concentration camp inmates during the Holocaust The Holocaust refers to Nazi Germanys systematic genocide ( ethnic cleansing) of various ethnic, religious, national, and secular groups during World War II starting in 1941 and continuing through 1945. ... The word Jew ( Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination of these attributes. ... This article is about the city in Germany. ... SS or ss or Ss may be: The Schutzstaffel, a Nazi paramilitary force Steamship (SS) (ship prefix) The United States Secret Service A submarine not powered by nuclear energy (SS) (United States Navy designator), see SSN A Soviet/Russian surface-to-surface missile, as listed by NATO reporting name Shortstop...


In July of 1974, a group calling themselves the Aliens of America successfully firebombed the houses of a judge, two police commissioners, and one of the commissioner’s cars, burned down two apartment buildings, and bombed the Pan Am Terminal of Los Angeles International Airport, killing three people and injuring eight. The organization, which turned out to be a single resident alien named Muharem Kurbegovic, claimed to have developed and possessed a supply of sarin, as well as 4 unique nerve agents named AA1, AA2, AA3, and AA4S. Although no agents were found at the time he was arrested in August of 1974, he had reportedly acquired "all but one" of the ingredients required to produce a nerve agent. A search of his apartment turned up a variety of materials, including precursors for phosgene, and a drum containing 25 pounds of sodium cyanide [8] (http://msnbc.msn.com/id/3070093). 1974 is a common year starting on Tuesday (click on link for calendar). ... Pan American World Airways (Pan Am) was the United States principal international airline from the 1930s until its collapse in 1991, and was credited with many innovations that shaped the international airline industry. ... Los Angeles International Airport (IATA Airport Code: LAX, ICAO Airport Code: KLAX), is the primary airport serving Los Angeles, California. ... Phosgene (also known as carbonyl chloride, C O Cl2) is a highly toxic gas or refrigerated liquid that was used as a chemical weapon in World War I. It has no color, but is detectable in air by its odor, which resembles moldy hay. ... Sodium cyanide is a highly toxic chemical compound, also known as sodium salt of hydrocyanic acid and cyanogran. ...


The first successful use of chemical agents by terrorists against a general civilian population was on March 20, 1995. Aum Shinrikyo, an apocalyptic group based in Japan that believed it necessary to destroy the planet, released sarin into the Tokyo subway system killing 12 and injuring over 5000. The group had attempted biological and chemical attacks on at least 10 prior occasions, but managed to affect only cult members. The group did manage to successfully release sarin outside an apartment building in Matsumoto in June 1994; this use was directed at a few specific individuals living in the building and was not an attack on the general population. March 20 is the 79th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (80th in Leap years). ... 1995 was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Aum Shinrikyo (also spelled Om Shin Rikyo) was a Buddhist religious group based in Japan. ... Official language Japanese Capital Tokyo Largest City Tokyo Emperor Akihito Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 60th 377,835 km² 0. ... The Sarin gas attack on the Tokyo subway, usually referred to in the Japanese media as the 地下鉄サリン事件 (chikatetsu sarin jiken subway sarin incident) was an act of domestic terrorism perpetrated by a group of members of AUM Shinrikyo on March 20, 1995. ... 1994 was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International year of the Family. ...


In 2001, after carrying out the attacks in New York City on September 11, the organization Al Qaeda announced that they were looking to acquire radiological, biological and chemical weapons. This threat was lent a great deal of credibility when a large archive of videotapes was obtained by the cable television network CNN in August of 2002 showing, among other things, the killing of three dogs by an apparent nerve agent. 2001 is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The September 11, 2001 attacks were a series of coordinated terrorist attacks carried out in the United States on September 11, 2001. ... September 11 is the 254th day of the year (255th in leap years). ... Al-Qaeda ( Arabic: القاعدة, the foundation or the base) is the name given to a worldwide network of militant Islamist organizations. ... CNN or Cable News Network is a cable television network that was founded in 1980 by Ted Turner & Reese Schonfeld [1][2](although he currently is not recognized in CNNs official history). ... 2002 is a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Songs

This page is about the band; see Kennedy family for the political dynasty, or The Kennedy Curse, which inspired the name Dead Kennedys The Dead Kennedys, from San Francisco, California are widely considered to be one of the greatest punk rock bands of all time. ... This article is about the Thrash metal band. ... Skinny Puppy (left to right, cEvin Key, Nivek Ogre, Dwane R. Goettel), Circa 1986 Skinny Puppy is an industrial band, formed in 1982 by cEvin Key (Kevin Crompton) Nivek Ogre (Kevin Ogilvie) and engineer/producer Dave Rave Ogilvie, adding keyboardist Wilhelm Schroeder (aka Bill Leeb) for their debut LP, Bites...

See also

Area denial weapons are used to prevent an adversary occupying or traversing an area of land. ... Biological warfare, also known as germ warfare, is the use of any organism ( bacteria, virus or other disease-causing organism) or toxin found in nature, as a weapon of war. ... The Chemical Weapons Convention is an arms control agreement which outlaws the production, stockpiling and use of chemical weapons. ... The Lachine Canal, in Montreal, is badly polluted Pollution is the release of harmful environmental contaminants, or the substances so released. ... A stink bomb is a device designed to create an unpleasant smell. ... Categories: Stub ... Weapons of Mass Destruction is also the name of rapper Xzibits 2004 album. ...

References


  Results from FactBites:
 
Chemical warfare - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (6119 words)
Chemical warfare is warfare (and associated military operations) using the toxic properties of chemical substances to kill, injure or incapacitate the enemy.
Chemical warfare is different from the use of conventional weapons or nuclear weapons because the destructive effects of chemical weapons are not primarily due to any explosive force.
Chemical weapons have been used for millennia in the form of poisoned arrows, but evidence can be found for the existence of more advanced forms of chemical weapons in ancient and classical times.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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