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Encyclopedia > Chemical engineering
Chemical engineers design, construct and operate plants

Chemical engineering is the branch of engineering that deals with the application of physical science (e.g. chemistry and physics), with mathematics, to the process of converting raw materials or chemicals into more useful or valuable forms. As well as producing useful materials, chemical engineering is also concerned with pioneering valuable new materials and techniques, an important form of research and development. A person employed in this field is called a chemical engineer. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1609x2120, 552 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Distillation Fractional distillation Fractionating column User talk:Shanel Reflux Continuous distillation User talk:Randfan/Super Desk Metadata This... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1609x2120, 552 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Distillation Fractional distillation Fractionating column User talk:Shanel Reflux Continuous distillation User talk:Randfan/Super Desk Metadata This... Engineering is the discipline of acquiring and applying knowledge of design, analysis, and/or construction of works for practical purposes. ... == Headline text ==cant there be some kind of picture somewhere so i can see by picture???? Physical science is a encompassing term for the branches of natural science, and science, that study non-living systems, in contrast to the biological sciences. ... For other uses, see Chemistry (disambiguation). ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... For other meanings of mathematics or uses of math and maths, see Mathematics (disambiguation) and Math (disambiguation). ... Look up material in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A chemical substance is any material substance used in or obtained by a process in chemistry: A chemical compound is a substance consisting of two or more chemical elements that are chemically combined in fixed proportions. ... The phrase research and development (also R and D or, more often, R&D), according to the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development, refers to creative work undertaken on a systematic basis in order to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of man, culture and society, and the use... In the field of engineering, a chemical engineer is the profession in which one works principally in the chemical industry to convert basic raw materials into a variety of products, and deals with the design and operation of plants and equipment to perform such work. ...


Chemical engineering largely involves the design and maintenance of chemical processes for large-scale manufacture. Chemical engineers in this branch are usually employed under the title of process engineer. The development of the large-scale processes characteristic of industrialized economies is a feat of chemical engineering, not chemistry. Indeed, chemical engineers are responsible for the availability of the modern high-quality materials that are essential for running an industrial economy.

Contents

Chemical Engineering Timeline

In 1824, French physicist Sadi Carnot, in his “On the Motive Power of Fire”, was the first to study the thermodynamics of combustion reactions in steam engines. In the 1850s, German physicist Rudolf Clausius began to apply the principles developed by Carnot to chemicals systems at the atomic to molecular scale.[1] During the years 1873 to 1876 at Yale University, American mathematical physicist Josiah Willard Gibbs, the first to be awarded a Ph.D. in engineering in the U.S., in a series of three papers, developed a mathematical-based, graphical methodology, for the study of chemical systems using the thermodynamics of Clausius. In 1882, German physicist Hermann von Helmholtz, published a founding thermodynamics paper, similar to Gibbs, but with more of an electro-chemical basis, in which he showed that measure of chemical affinity, i.e. the “force” of chemical reactions, is determined by the measure of the free energy of the reaction process. Following these early developments, the new science of chemical engineering began to develop. The following timeline shows some of the key steps in the development of the science of chemical engineering:[2] Chemical engineering as a discipline is a little over a hundred years old. ... Sadi Carnot in the dress uniform of a student of the École polytechnique Nicolas Léonard Sadi Carnot (June 1, 1796 - August 24, 1832) was a French physicist and military engineer who gave the first successful theoretical account of heat engines, now known as the Carnot cycle, thereby laying the... Thermodynamics (from the Greek θερμη, therme, meaning heat and δυναμις, dynamis, meaning power) is a branch of physics that studies the effects of changes in temperature, pressure, and volume on physical systems at the macroscopic scale by analyzing the collective motion of their particles using statistics. ... Combustion or burning is a complex sequence of chemical reactions between a fuel and an oxidant accompanied by the production of heat or both heat and light in the form of either a glow or flames. ... // The term steam engine may also refer to an entire railroad steam locomotive. ... Rudolf Clausius - physicist and mathematician Rudolf Julius Emanuel Clausius (January 2, 1822 – August 24, 1888), was a German physicist and mathematician. ... Yale redirects here. ... Josiah Willard Gibbs (February 11, 1839 New Haven – April 28, 1903 New Haven) was one of the very first American theoretical physicists and chemists. ... Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand von Helmholtz (August 31, 1821 – September 8, 1894) was a German physician and physicist. ... Chemical affinity results from electronic properties by which dissimilar substances are capable of forming chemical compounds. ... For other uses, see Chemical reaction (disambiguation). ... The thermodynamic free energy is a measure of the amount of mechanical (or other) work that can be extracted from a system, and is helpful in engineering applications. ...

  • 1805John Dalton published Atomic Weights, allowing chemical equations to be balanced and the basis for chemical engineering mass balances.
  • 1882 – a course in “Chemical Technology” is offered at University College London
  • 1883Osborne Reynolds defines the dimensionless group for fluid flow, leading to practical scale-up and understanding of flow, heat and mass transfer
  • 1885 – Henry E. Armstrong offers a course in “chemical engineering” at Central College (later Imperial College, London).
  • 1888 – There is a Department of Chemical Engineering at Glasgow and West of Scotland Technical College offering day and evening classes[3].
  • 1888 – Lewis M. Norton starts a new curriculum at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT): Course X, Chemical Engineering
  • 1889 – Rose Polytechnic Institute awards the first bachelor’s of science in chemical engineering in the US.[4]
  • 1891 – MIT awards a bachelor’s of science in chemical engineering to William Page Bryant and six other candidates.
  • 1892 – A bachelor’s program in chemical engineering is established at the University of Pennsylvania.
  • 1901 – George E. Davis produces the Handbook of Chemical Engineering
  • 1905 – the University of Wisconsin awards the first Ph.D. in chemical engineering to Oliver Patterson Watts.
  • 1908 – the American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE) is founded.
  • 1922 – the UK Institution of Chemical Engineers (IChemE) is founded.
  • 1942 – Hilda Derrick, first female student member of the IChemE.[5]

John Dalton John Dalton (September 6, 1766 – July 27, 1844) was an English chemist and physicist, born at Eaglesfield, near Cockermouth in Cumberland. ... Affiliations University of London Russell Group LERU EUA ACU Golden Triangle G5 Website http://www. ... Osborne Reynolds Osborne Reynolds (23 August 1842–21 February 1912) was a British fluid dynamics engineer. ... Royal School of Mines Entrance Imperial College London is a college of the University of London which focuses on science and technology, and is located in South Kensington in London. ... For other uses, see Glasgow (disambiguation). ... “MIT” redirects here. ... Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology (abbreviated RHIT), formerly Rose Polytechnic Institute, is a small, private, non-sectarian college specializing in teaching engineering, mathematics, and science. ... This article is about the private Ivy League university in Philadelphia. ... George E. Davis (1850-1907) is regarded as the founding father of the discipline of Chemical Engineering. ... The American Institute of Chemical Engineers, AIChE, (pronounced AKE ee) was established in 1908, with the purpose of establishing chemical engineers as a profession independent from chemists and mechanical engineers. ... The Institution of Chemical Engineers (IChemE) is a British professional engineering institution founded in 1922. ...

Applications

Chemical engineering is applied in the manufacture of a wide variety of products. The chemical industry proper manufactures inorganic and organic industrial chemicals, ceramics, fuels and petrochemicals, agrochemicals (fertilizers, insecticides, herbicides), plastics and elastomers, oleochemicals, explosives, detergents and detergent products (soap, shampoo, cleaning fluids), fragrances and flavors, additives, dietary supplements and pharmaceuticals. Closely allied or overlapping disciplines include wood processing, food processing, environmental technology, and the engineering of petroleum, glass, paints and other coatings, inks, sealants and adhesives. The chemical industry comprises the companies that produce industrial chemicals. ... A petrochemical is any chemical derived from fossil fuel. ... The term plastics covers a range of synthetic or semi-synthetic organic condensation or polymerization products that can be molded or extruded into objects or films or fibers. ... The term elastomer is often used interchangeably with the term rubber, and is preferred when referring to vulcanisates. ... Wood processing is an engineering discipline comprising the production of forest products, such as pulp and paper, construction materials, and tall oil. ...


Example

To show the difference between laboratory chemistry and industrial chemical engineering, consider a simple one-step reaction between two reagents R1 and R2 to give a product P and waste W. The reaction may be represented R1 + R2 = P + W. A solvent S and possibly a catalyst C may be required, and it may need to be heated to speed the reaction. For other uses, see Solvent (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Catalysis. ...


A specific example would be the synthesis of aspirin by the reaction of salicylic acid (R1) with acetic anhydride (R2) in solvent water (S) and in the presence of catalyst phosphoric acid (C). Aspirin is the product P, and acetic acid (W) is also formed. This article is about the drug. ... Salicylic acid (from the Latin word for the willow tree, Salix, from whose bark it can be obtained) is a beta hydroxy acid (BHA) with the formula C6H4(OH)CO2H, where the OH group is adjacent to the carboxyl group. ... Acetic anhydride, also known as ethanoic anhydride, is one of the simplest of acid anhydrides. ... This article is about orthophosphoric acid. ...


In the laboratory 5 grams of R1 (a solid) are added to 120 ml of water in a flask. 5 ml of R2 (a liquid) are added plus 0.5 ml of phosphoric acid solution, and the flask is heated in a water bath. The contents are agitated by swirling the flask or with a laboratory stirrer and heated under reflux for about an hour.


The material is allowed to cool down and crystals of aspirin are formed, which may be filtered off, and perhaps recrystallized. A good yield would be 5 to 6 grams. The remaining solution is poured down the sink.


Now consider an industrial process in which we replace grams with tonnes.


Firstly suitable storage (say for two weeks of production) must be provided for the raw materials. In this case R1 is a solid and would be put in a storage silo; R2 is a corrosive liquid, combustible and sensitive to water, so would need a closed tank of resistant material. A means of transport to the reactor must be provided, such as a screw conveyor for the solid R1 and a pump and pipes for liquid R2. Chemical engineers would calculate the sizes and power requirements and specify suitable materials. Similar arrangements must be made for the solvent S and the catalyst C. In this case, water is the solvent, but ordinary tap water would not be good enough, so there will be a separate process to clean the water. Bold text This article is about Storage Silos. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Archimedes screw. ... This article is about a mechanical device. ...


The reactor is now to contain 120 tonnes of water and the other ingredients, so cannot be swirled. An agitator must be designed and its power consumption calculated to give the necessary mixing. Heating and cooling are considered free in the laboratory, but not in industry. The chemical engineers must first calculate the amount of heat to be added and removed, then design suitable methods to do this, perhaps by passing steam through an outer jacket of the vessel to heat. They will probably decide to pump the reacted mixture to another vessel with a cooler, then to a filter. The solid will then go to further equipment to dissolve, crystallize and filter again, giving perhaps 5.5 tonnes of aspirin, which will be dried and placed in suitable storage, which must also be designed. (The drying process uses significant amounts of energy.)


However, there is about 125 tonnes of waste which cannot be just poured down the drain. It will contain some unreacted R1 and about 3 tonnes of W, which must be recovered and recycled. (In this case, W can be converted to R2 in another reactor.) The catalyst may be recovered, or made harmless by a chemical reaction before disposal. Thus there will be another set of equipment to save the cost of wasting chemicals and to protect the environment. Solvents other than water are generally recycled by distillation, but water is also re-used and recycled as far as economically feasible. Laboratory distillation set-up: 1: Heat source 2: Still pot 3: Still head 4: Thermometer/Boiling point temperature 5: Condenser 6: Cooling water in 7: Cooling water out 8: Distillate/receiving flask 9: Vacuum/gas inlet 10: Still receiver 11: Heat control 12: Stirrer speed control 13: Stirrer/heat plate...


This process may run as a batch process, where reactors are filled and emptied discharging their contents through the plant upon completion. Alternatively the process may be run as a continuous process, where the reaction precursors are fed through the plant at a fixed rate. The choice of continuous or batch dependent upon a combination of reaction kinetics, the desired amount of product and the economics of the plant's operation and would be decided during the design phase of the plant. Chemical substances in a system may increase or decrease in concentration with time due to chemical reactions. ...


Overview

Chemical engineers are for the most economical process. This means that the entire production chain must be planned and controlled for costs. A chemical engineer can both simplify and complicate "showcase" reactions for an economic advantage. Using a higher pressure or temperature makes several reactions easier; ammonia, for example, is simply produced from its component elements in a high-pressure reactor. On the other hand, reactions with a low yield can be recycled continuously, which would be complex, arduous work if done by hand in the laboratory. It is not unusual to build 6-step, or even 12-step evaporators to reuse the vaporization energy for an economic advantage. In contrast, laboratory chemists evaporate samples in a single step.


The individual processes used by chemical engineers (eg. distillation or filtration) are called unit operations and consist of chemical reaction, mass-, heat- and momentum- transfer operations. Unit operations are grouped together in various configurations for the purpose of chemical synthesis and/or chemical separation. Some processes are a combination of intertwined transport and separation unit operations, (e.g. reactive distillation). Laboratory distillation set-up: 1: Heat source 2: Still pot 3: Still head 4: Thermometer/Boiling point temperature 5: Condenser 6: Cooling water in 7: Cooling water out 8: Distillate/receiving flask 9: Vacuum/gas inlet 10: Still receiver 11: Heat control 12: Stirrer speed control 13: Stirrer/heat plate... Look up filtration in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Ore Extraction unit operations at Quincy Mine, Hancock, MI ca. ... For other uses, see Chemical reaction (disambiguation). ... Mass transfer is the phrase commonly used in engineering for physical processes that involve molecular and convective transport of atoms and molecules within physical systems. ... In thermal physics, heat transfer is the passage of thermal energy from a hot to a colder body. ... Fluid dynamics is the sub-discipline of fluid mechanics dealing with fluids (liquids and gases) in motion. ... In chemistry, chemical synthesis is purposeful execution of chemical reactions in order to get a product, or several products. ... ... Reactive distillation is a process where the chemical reactor is also the still. ...


Three primary physical laws underlying chemical engineering design are conservation of mass, conservation of momentum and conservation of energy. The movement of mass and energy around a chemical process are evaluated using mass balances and energy balances, laws that apply to discrete parts of equipment, unit operations, or an entire plant. In doing so, chemical engineers must also use principles of thermodynamics, reaction kinetics and transport phenomena. The task of performing these balances is now aided by process simulators, which are complex software models (see List of Chemical Process Simulators) that can solve mass and energy balances and usually have built-in modules to simulate a variety of common unit operations. The law of conservation of mass/matter, also known as law of mass/matter conservation (or the Lomonosov-Lavoisier law), states that the mass of a closed system of substances will remain constant, regardless of the processes acting inside the system. ... This article is about momentum in physics. ... Look up conservation of energy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A mass balance (also called a material balance) is an accounting of material entering and leaving a system. ... Energy balance has the following meanings in several fields: In physics, energy balance is a systematic presentation of energy flows and transformations in a system. ... Thermodynamics (from the Greek θερμη, therme, meaning heat and δυναμις, dynamis, meaning power) is a branch of physics that studies the effects of changes in temperature, pressure, and volume on physical systems at the macroscopic scale by analyzing the collective motion of their particles using statistics. ... Chemical substances in a system may increase or decrease in concentration with time due to chemical reactions. ... The first edition of Transport Phenomena was published in 1960, two years after having been preliminarily published under the title Notes on Transport Phenomena based on mimeographed notes prepared for a chemical engineering course taught at the University of Wisconsin during the academic year 1957-1958. ... This is a list of software used to simulate the material and energy balances of chemical processing plants ASCEND Aspen Plus CHEMCAD COCO free-of-charge CAPE-OPEN compliant steady-state simulation environment Design II Dymola EMSO Hysys gPROMS Petro-SIM Pro II ProMax Sim42 SysCAD VMGSim Chemical Engineering Categories...


Modern chemical engineering

The modern discipline of chemical engineering encompasses much more than just process engineering. Chemical engineers are now engaged in the development and production of a diverse range of products, as well as in commodity and specialty chemicals. These products include high performance materials needed for aerospace, automotive, biomedical, electronic, environmental and space and military applications. Examples include ultra-strong fibers, fabrics, adhesives and composites for vehicles, bio-compatible materials for implants and prosthetics, gels for medical applications, pharmaceuticals, and films with special dielectric, optical or spectroscopic properties for opto-electronic devices. Additionally, chemical engineering is often intertwined with biology and biomedical engineering. Many chemical engineers work on biological projects such as understanding biopolymers (proteins) and mapping the human genome. A chemical substance is any material substance used in or obtained by a process in chemistry: A chemical compound is a substance consisting of two or more chemical elements that are chemically combined in fixed proportions. ... Look up aerospace in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Automotive engineering is a branch of Vehicle engineering, incorporating elements of mechanical, electrical, electronic, software and safety engineering as applied to the design, manufacture and operation of automobiles, buses and trucks and their respective engineering subsystems. ... The AbioCor artificial heart, an example of a biomedical engineering application of mechanical engineering with biocompatible materials for Cardiothoracic Surgery using an artificial organ. ... This article is about the engineering discipline. ... Environmental engineering[1][2] is the application of science and engineering principles to improve the environment (air, water, and/or land resources), to provide healthy water, air, and land for human habitation and for other organisms, and to remediate polluted sites. ... It has been suggested that Textile be merged into this article or section. ... An adhesive is a compound that adheres or bonds two items together. ... Biocompatibility is the ability of a material to perform with an appropriate host response in a specific application. ... A United States soldier demonstrates Foosball with two prosthetic limbs In medicine, a prosthesis is an artificial extension that replaces a missing part of the body. ... In optical filters and theatrical lighting a color gel is a transparent or translucent colored panel used to change the color of transmitted light. ... Pharmacology (in Greek: pharmacon is drug, and logos is science) is the study of how chemical substances interfere with living systems. ... A dielectric is a physical model commonly used to describe how an electric field behaves inside a material. ... Animation of the dispersion of light as it travels through a triangular prism. ... For the song by Girls Aloud see Biology (song) Biology studies the variety of life (clockwise from top-left) E. coli, tree fern, gazelle, Goliath beetle Biology (from Greek: βίος, bio, life; and λόγος, logos, speech lit. ... The AbioCor artificial heart, an example of a biomedical engineering application of mechanical engineering with biocompatible materials for Cardiothoracic Surgery using an artificial organ. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... The Human Genome Project (HGP) is an international scientific research project. ...


Related fields and topics

Today, the field of chemical engineering is a diverse one, covering areas from biotechnology and nanotechnology to mineral processing. The structure of insulin Biotechnology is technology based on biology, especially when used in agriculture, food science, and medicine. ... Buckminsterfullerene C60, also known as the buckyball, is the simplest of the carbon structures known as fullerenes. ... Mineral processing, otherwise known as mineral dressing, is the practice of beneficiating valuable minerals from their ores. ...

Unser Nachbar hat ein neues Auto. ... The AbioCor artificial heart, an example of a biomedical engineering application of mechanical engineering with biocompatible materials for Cardiothoracic Surgery using an artificial organ. ... Molecular engineering is any means of manufacturing molecules. ... The structure of insulin Biotechnology is technology based on biology, especially when used in agriculture, food science, and medicine. ... This article is about ceramic materials. ... Chemical process modelling is a computer modeling technique used in chemical engineering process design. ... This article is considered orphaned, since there are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... In chemical engineering, chemical reactors are vessels designed to contain chemical reactions. ... A computer simulation of high velocity air flow around the Space Shuttle during re-entry. ... Distillation Design provides complete coverage of the design of industrial distillation columns for the petroleum refining, chemical and petrochemical plants, natural gas processing, pharmaceutical, food and alcohol distilling industries. ... English chemists John Daniell (left) and Michael Faraday (right), both credited to be founders of electrochemistry as known today. ... Environmental engineering[1][2] is the application of science and engineering principles to improve the environment (air, water, and/or land resources), to provide healthy water, air, and land for human habitation and for other organisms, and to remediate polluted sites. ... Fluid dynamics is the sub-discipline of fluid mechanics dealing with fluids (liquids and gases) in motion. ... In thermal physics, heat transfer is the passage of thermal energy from a hot to a colder body. ... Mass transfer is the phrase commonly used in engineering for physical processes that involve molecular and convective transport of atoms and molecules within physical systems. ... The Materials Science Tetrahedron, which often also includes Characterization at the center Materials science or Materials Engineering is an interdisciplinary field involving the properties of matter and its applications to various areas of science and engineering. ... Glass microfluidic devices from Syrris and Dolomite Microfluidics deals with the behavior, precise control and manipulation of microliter and nanoliter volumes of fluids. ... Mineral processing, otherwise known as mineral dressing, is the practice of beneficiating valuable minerals from their ores. ... Buckminsterfullerene C60, also known as the buckyball, is the simplest of the carbon structures known as fullerenes. ... This article is about the natural environment. ... A polymer (from Greek: πολυ, polu, many; and μέρος, meros, part) is a substance composed of molecules with large molecular mass composed of repeating structural units, or monomers, connected by covalent chemical bonds. ... Process control is a statistics and engineering discipline that deals with architectures, mechanisms, and algorithms for controlling the output of a specific process. ... Process design is the design of processes for desired physical and/or chemical transformation of materials. ... Pulp and Paper is the name of the largest United States-based trade magazine for the pulp and paper industry. ... NASAs Glenn Research Center cleanroom. ... In chemistry and chemical engineering, a separation process is a process that transforms a mixture of substances into two or more compositionally-distinct products. ... ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Laboratory distillation set-up: 1: Heat source 2: Still pot 3: Still head 4: Thermometer/Boiling point temperature 5: Condenser 6: Cooling water in 7: Cooling water out 8: Distillate/receiving flask 9: Vacuum/gas inlet 10: Still receiver 11: Heat control 12: Stirrer speed control 13: Stirrer/heat plate... Membrane operation or membrane process is considered like an unit operation in chemical engineering. ... Thermodynamics (from the Greek θερμη, therme, meaning heat and δυναμις, dynamis, meaning power) is a branch of physics that studies the effects of changes in temperature, pressure, and volume on physical systems at the macroscopic scale by analyzing the collective motion of their particles using statistics. ... The first edition of Transport Phenomena was published in 1960, two years after having been preliminarily published under the title Notes on Transport Phenomena based on mimeographed notes prepared for a chemical engineering course taught at the University of Wisconsin during the academic year 1957-1958. ... Unit operation is the basic principle of chemical engineering. ... Unit Operations of Chemical Engineering was first published in 1956 and is one of the oldest chemical engineering textbooks still in widespread use. ...

See also

Chemistry Portal
Engineering Portal

Image File history File links Nuvola_apps_edu_science. ... Image File history File links Portal. ... The American Institute of Chemical Engineers, AIChE, (pronounced AKE ee) was established in 1908, with the purpose of establishing chemical engineers as a profession independent from chemists and mechanical engineers. ... In the field of engineering, a chemical engineer is the profession in which one works principally in the chemical industry to convert basic raw materials into a variety of products, and deals with the design and operation of plants and equipment to perform such work. ... ECE is IChemE’s new online journal, launched in May 2006 at ACHEMA. With a remit to publish education research papers, resource reviews and teaching and learning notes, ECE is targeted at chemical engineering academics and educators, discussing the ongoing changes and development in chemical engineering education. ... This is a list of notable chemical engineers, people who studied or practiced chemical engineering. ... This is the list of chemical engineering societies in the world. ... Process design is the design of processes for desired physical and/or chemical transformation of materials. ... This is a list of software used to simulate the material and energy balances of chemical processing plants ASCEND Aspen Plus CHEMCAD COCO free-of-charge CAPE-OPEN compliant steady-state simulation environment Design II Dymola EMSO Hysys gPROMS Petro-SIM Pro II ProMax Sim42 SysCAD VMGSim Chemical Engineering Categories...

References

  1. ^ Mechanical Theory of Heat – Nine Memoirs on the development of concept of "Entropy" by Rudolf Clausius [1850-1865]
  2. ^ History of Chemical Engineering – at North Carolina State University (and in general).
  3. ^ Glasgow Herald July 18, 1888 and September 5, 1888
  4. ^ 2007 Indiana Economic Development Corporation Life Sciences Report
  5. ^ Colin Duvall and Sean F, Johnston Scaling Up: The Institution of Chemical Engineers and the Rise of a New Profession Kluwer Academic Publishers (2000)

Further reading

  • Kister, Henry Z. (1992). Distillation Design, 1st Edition, McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-07-034909-6. 
  • Green, Don W. and Perry, Robert H. (deceased) (1997). Perry's Chemical Engineers' Handbook, 7th Edition, McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-07-049841-5. 
  • Bird, R.B., Stewart, W.E. and Lightfoot, E.N. (August 2001). Transport Phenomena, Second Edition, John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 0-471-41077-2. 
  • McCabe, W., Smith, J. and Harriott, P. (2004). Unit Operations of Chemical Engineering, 7th Edition, McGraw Hill. ISBN 0-07-284823-5. 
  • Seader, J. D., and Henley, Ernest J. (1998). Separation Process Principles. New York: Wiley. ISBN 0-471-58626-9. 
  • Chopey, Nicholas P. (2004). Handbook of Chemical Engineering Calculations, 3rdEdition, McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0071362622. 
  • Himmelbau, David M. (1996). Basic Principles and Calculations in Chemical Engineering, 6th Edition, Prentice-Hall. ISBN 0133057984. 
  • Editors: Jacqueline I. Kroschwitz and Arza Seidel (2004). Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology, 5th Edition, Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Interscience. ISBN 0-471-48810-0. 
  • King, C.J. (1980). Separation Processes. McGraw Hill. ISBN 0-07-034612-7. 
  • Coulson J. M. ; Richardson J. F. ; Backhurst J. R. ; Harker J. H. (1991). Chemical engineering. Volume 2 : Particle technology and separation processes. Pergamon Press - New York. xxvi+968pp. 
  • Levenspiel, O.: The Chemical Reactor Omnibook, Osu, Oregon, 1993

Distillation Design provides complete coverage of the design of industrial distillation columns for the petroleum refining, chemical and petrochemical plants, natural gas processing, pharmaceutical, food and alcohol distilling industries. ... Perrys Chemical Engineers Handbook was first published in 1934 and the seventh edition was published in 1997. ... The first edition of Transport Phenomena was published in 1960, two years after having been preliminarily published under the title Notes on Transport Phenomena based on mimeographed notes prepared for a chemical engineering course taught at the University of Wisconsin during the academic year 1957-1958. ... Unit Operations of Chemical Engineering was first published in 1956 and is one of the oldest chemical engineering textbooks still in widespread use. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ...

External links

The Open Directory Project (ODP), also known as dmoz (from , its original domain name), is a multilingual open content directory of World Wide Web links owned by Netscape that is constructed and maintained by a community of volunteer editors. ... By the mid 20th century humans had achieved a mastery of technology sufficient to leave the surface of the Earth for the first time and explore space. ... For the song by 311, see Grassroots Applied science is the exact science of applying knowledge from one or more natural scientific fields to practical problems. ... AI redirects here. ... Ceramic engineering is the technology of manufacturing and usage of ceramic materials. ... A processors core Computing is a very broad topic that has become pandemic to modern uses of technology. ... This article is about the engineering discipline. ... Energy storage is the storing of some form of energy that can be drawn upon at a later time to perform some useful operation. ... Engineering physics (EP) is an academic degree, usually at the level of Bachelor of Science. ... Environmental technology or green technology is the application of the environmental sciences to conserve the natural environment and resources, and by curbing the negative impacts of human involvement. ... The Materials Science Tetrahedron, which often also includes Characterization at the center Materials science or Materials Engineering is an interdisciplinary field involving the properties of matter and its applications to various areas of science and engineering. ... Microtechnology is technology with features near one micrometre (one millionth of a metre, or 10-6 metre, or 1μm). ... Buckminsterfullerene C60, also known as the buckyball, is the simplest of the carbon structures known as fullerenes. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Optical engineering is the field of study which focuses on applications of optics. ... Zoography, also known as descriptive zoology, is the applied science of describing animals and their habitats. ... The ASCII codes for the word Wikipedia represented in binary, the numeral system most commonly used for encoding computer information. ... The know-how that goes into a given medium. ... Graphic redirects here. ... Music Technology is a term that refers to all forms of technology involved with the musical arts, in particular the use of electronic devices and computer software to facilitate playback, recording, composition, storage, performance, search and retrieval. ... Speech recognition (in many contexts also known as automatic speech recognition, computer speech recognition or erroneously as voice recognition) is the process of converting a speech signal to a sequence of words in the form of digital data, by means of an algorithm implemented as a computer program. ... Visual technology is the engineering discipline dealing with visual representation. ... For other uses, see Construction (disambiguation). ... Computational finance (also known as financial engineering) is a cross-disciplinary field which relies on mathematical finance, numerical methods and computer simulations to make trading, hedging and investment decisions, as well as facilitating the risk management of those decisions. ... Manufacturing (from Latin manu factura, making by hand) is the use of tools and labor to make things for use or sale. ... This article is about devices that perform tasks. ... This article is about mineral extractions. ... Business informatics (BI) is a discipline combining information technology (IT) – or informatics – with management concepts. ... Ammunition, often referred to as ammo, is a generic term meaning (the assembly of) a projectile and its propellant. ... For other uses, see Bomb (disambiguation). ... This article is about the video game. ... This article lists military technology items, devices and methods. ... Marine Engineers are the officers of a ship which operate and maintain the propulsion and electrical generation systems onboard a ship. ... For other uses, see Home (disambiguation). ... This article is about the use of technology in education delivery. ... A major appliance is a large machine which accomplishes some routine housekeeping task, which includes purposes such as cooking, food preservation, or cleaning, whether in a household, institutional, commercial or industrial setting. ... Domestic technology is the incorporation of applied science into the home. ... The food technology room at Marling School in Stroud, Gloucestershire. ... Engineering is the discipline of acquiring and applying knowledge of design, analysis, and/or construction of works for practical purposes. ... Aerospace engineering is the branch of engineering that concerns aircraft, spacecraft, and related topics. ... An architectural engineer applies the skills of many engineering disciplines to the design, construction, operation, maintenance, and renovation of buildings while paying attention to their impacts on the surrounding environment. ... Audio engineering is a part of audio science dealing with the recording and reproduction of sound through mechanical and electronic means. ... Biological engineering (a. ... Unser Nachbar hat ein neues Auto. ... The AbioCor artificial heart, an example of a biomedical engineering application of mechanical engineering with biocompatible materials for Cardiothoracic Surgery using an artificial organ. ... Broadcast engineering is the field of electrical engineering, and now to some extent radio and television broadcasting. ... Ceramic engineering is the technology of manufacturing and usage of ceramic materials. ... The Falkirk Wheel in Scotland. ... Computer engineering (also called electronic and computer engineering) is a discipline that combines elements of both electrical engineering and computer science. ... Construction engineering concerns the planning and management of the construction of structures such as highways, bridges, airports, railroads, buildings, dams, and reservoirs. ... Cryogenics is a branch of physics (or engineering) that studies the production of very low temperatures (below –150 °C, –238 °F or 123 K) and the behavior of materials at those temperatures. ... Electrical Engineers design power systems… … and complex electronic circuits. ... Electronic discipline that deals with the behavior and effects of electrons (as in electron tubes and transistors) and with electronic devices, systems, or equipment. ... Environmental engineering[1][2] is the application of science and engineering principles to improve the environment (air, water, and/or land resources), to provide healthy water, air, and land for human habitation and for other organisms, and to remediate polluted sites. ... Materials engineering is a discipline related to materials science which focusses on materials design, processing techniques (casting, rolling, welding, ion implantation, crystal growth, thin film deposition, sintering, glassblowing, etc. ... Mechanical Engineering is an engineering discipline that involves the application of principles of physics for analysis, design, manufacturing, and maintenance of mechanical systems. ... Mechatronics is the synergistic combination of mechanical engineering (mecha for mechanisms, i. ... Metallurgical engineering- Designing, creating, or producing metals by various methods, for various applications, from metallic elements described on the Chemical Periodic Table of the Elements. ... Mining Engineering is a field that involves many of the other engineering disciplines as applied to extracting and processing minerals from a naturally occurring environment. ... Steamer New York in c. ... Nuclear engineering is the practical application of the breakdown of atomic nuclei and/or other sub-atomic physics, based on the principles of nuclear physics. ... Optical engineering is the field of study which focuses on applications of optics. ... Petroleum engineering is involved in the exploration and production activities of petroleum as an upstream end of the energy sector. ... Software engineering (SE) is the application of a systematic, disciplined, quantifiable approach to the development, operation, and maintenance of software. ... Structural engineering is a field of engineering that deals with the design of structural systems with the purpose of supporting and resisting various loads. ... Systems engineering techniques are used in complex projects: from spacecrafts to chip design, from robotics to creating large software products to building bridges, Systems engineering uses a host of tools that include modeling & simulation, requirements analysis, and scheduling to manage complexity Systems Engineering (SE) is an interdisciplinary approach and means... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Tissue engineering is the use of a combination of cells, engineering and materials methods, and suitable biochemical and physio-chemical factors to improve or replace biological functions. ... For other uses, see Safety (disambiguation). ... The AbioCor artificial heart, an example of a biomedical engineering application of mechanical engineering with biocompatible materials for Cardiothoracic Surgery using an artificial organ. ... Map of the human X chromosome (from the NCBI website). ... The structure of insulin Biotechnology is technology based on biology, especially when used in agriculture, food science, and medicine. ... Cheminformatics (also known as chemoinformatics and chemical informatics) is the use of computer and informational techniques, applied to a range of problems in the field of chemistry. ... Fire protection engineering (also known as fire engineering or fire safety engineering) is the application of science and engineering principles to protect people and their environments from the destructive effects of fire and smoke. ... Health Sciences are the group of disciplines of applied science dealing with human and animal health. ... The Nutrition Facts table indicates the amounts of nutrients which experts recommend you limit or consume in adequate amounts. ... Pharmacology (in Greek: pharmakon (φάρμακον) meaning drug, and lego (λέγω) to tell (about)) is the study of how drugs interact with living organisms to produce a change in function. ... Safety engineering is an applied science strongly related to systems engineering and the subset System Safety Engineering. ... Sanitary engineering is the application of scientific or mathematical principles with to the field of sanitation, especially in regards to its affect on public health. ... Look up aerospace in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Aerospace engineering is the branch of engineering that concerns aircraft, spacecraft, and related topics. ... The Engine room of Argonaute, a French supply vessel. ... Space technology is a term that is often treated as a category. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Chemical engineering - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (790 words)
Chemical engineering is the branch of engineering that deals with the application of physical science (in particular chemistry and physics) and mathematics to the process of converting raw materials or chemicals into more useful or valuable forms.
As well as producing useful materials, chemical engineering is also concerned with pioneering valuable new materials and techniques; an important form of research and development.
Chemical engineers are now engaged in the development and production of a diverse range of products, as well as in commodity and specialty chemicals.
Chemical engineering - Facts, Information, and Encyclopedia Reference article (586 words)
Chemical engineering is the application of science, in particular chemistry, along with mathematics and economics to the process of converting raw materials or chemicals into more useful or valuable forms.
Chemical Engineering largely involves the design and maintenance of chemical processes for large-scale manufacture.
Not all real processes, such as reactive distillation, are simple unit operations, but consist of intertwined transport and separation processes.
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