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Encyclopedia > Chemical Weapons Convention
Chemical Weapons Convention
Opened for signature January 13, 1993 in Paris
Entered into force April 29, 1997
Conditions for entry into force Ratification by 50 states and the convening of a Preparatory Commission
Parties 181 (as of Oct. 2006)


The Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) is an arms control agreement which outlaws the production, stockpiling and use of chemical weapons. Its full name is the Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, Stockpiling and Use of Chemical Weapons and on their Destruction. John Hancocks signature is one of the most prominent on the United States Declaration of Independence. ... January 13 is the 13th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and marked the Beginning of the International Decade to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination (1993-2003). ... Coming into force refers to the date on which a legislation, or part of legislation, becomes a law. ... April 29 is the 119th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (120th in leap years). ... 1997 (MCMXCVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A party is a person or group of persons that compose a single entity which can be identified as one for the purposes of the law. ... Arms control is a broad term alluding to a range of political concepts and aims. ... Chemical warfare is warfare (and associated military operations) using the toxic properties of chemical substances to kill, injure or incapacitate an enemy. ...


The current agreement is administered by the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW), which is an independent organization and often mistaken as being a department within the United Nations. The Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) is an agency of the United Nations. ... The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. ...

Contents

Administration

Signed in 1993 and entered into force on April 29, 1997 the convention augments the Geneva Protocol of 1925 for chemical weapons and includes extensive verification measures such as on-site inspections. It does not, however, cover biological weapons. The convention is administered by the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW), which conducts inspection of military and industrial plants in all of the member nations as well as working with stockpile countries. 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and marked the Beginning of the International Decade to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination (1993-2003). ... April 29 is the 119th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (120th in leap years). ... 1997 (MCMXCVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Protocol for the Prohibition of the Use in War of Asphyxiating, Poisonous or other Gases, and of Bacteriological Methods of Warfare, usually called the Geneva Protocol, is a treaty prohibiting the use of chemical and biological weapons. ... 1925 (MCMXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ... Biological warfare, also known as germ warfare, is the use of any organism (bacteria, virus or other disease_causing organism) or toxin found in nature, as a weapon of war. ... The Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) is an agency of the United Nations. ...


Controlled Substances

The convention distinguishes three classes of controlled substance[1], chemicals which can either be used as weapons themselves or used in the manufacture of weapons. The classification is based on the quantities of the substance produced commercially for legitimate purposes. Each class is split into Part A, which are chemicals that can be used directly as weapons, and Part B which are chemicals useful in the manufacture of chemical weapons.

  • Schedule 1 chemicals have few, or no uses outside of chemical weapons. These may be produced or used for research, medical, pharmaceutical or chemical weapon defence testing purposes but production above 100 grams per year must be declared to the OPCW. A country is limited to possessing a maximum of 1 tonne of these materials. Examples are mustard and nerve agents, and substances which are solely used as precursor chemicals in their manufacture. A few of these chemicals have very small scale non-military applications, for example minute quantities of nitrogen mustard are used to treat certain cancers.
  • Schedule 2 chemicals have legitimate small-scale applications. Manufacture must be declared and there are restrictions on export to countries which are not CWC signatories. An example is thiodiglycol which can be used in the manufacture of mustard agents, but is also used as a solvent in inks.
  • Schedule 3 chemicals have large-scale uses apart from chemical weapons. Plants which manufacture of more than 30 tonnes per year must be declared and can be inspected, and there are restrictions on export to countries which are not CWC signatories. Examples of these substances are phosgene, which has been used as a chemical weapon but which is also a precursor in the manufacture of many legitimate organic compounds and triethanolamine, used in the manufacture of nitrogen mustard but also commonly used in toiletries and detergents.

The treaty also deals with carbon compounds called in the treaty Discrete organic chemicals.[2] These are any carbon compounds apart from long chain polymers, oxides, sulfides and metal carbonates. The OPCW must be informed of, and can inspect, any plant producing (or expecting to produce) more than 200 tonnes per year, or 30 tonnes if the chemical contains phosphorus, sulfur or fluorine, unless the plant solely produces explosives or hydrocarbons. This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... The Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) is an agency of the United Nations. ... The sulfur mustards, of which mustard gas is a member, are a class of related cytotoxic, vesicant chemical warfare agents with the ability to form large blisters on exposed skin. ... Nerve agents (also known as nerve gases, though these chemicals are liquid at room temperature) are a class of phosphorus-containing organic chemicals (organophosphates) that disrupt the mechanism by which nerves transfer messages to organs. ... The nitrogen mustards are cytotoxic chemotherapy agents similar to mustard gas. ... Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these cells to invade other tissues, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion, or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis. ... Schedule 2 substances, in the sense of the Chemical Weapons Convention, are either toxic enough to be used as chemical weapons, or precursors of other listed substances. ... Thiodiglycol (bis(2-hydroxyethyl)sulfide) is a viscous, clear to pale-yellow liquid used as a solvent. ... An ink is a liquid containing various pigments and/or dyes used for colouring a surface to render an image or text. ... Schedule 3 substances, in the sense of the Chemical Weapons Convention, are either toxic enough to be used as chemical weapons, or precursors of other listed substances. ... Phosgene (also known as carbonyl chloride, COCl2) is a highly toxic gas or refrigerated liquid that was used as a chemical weapon in World War I. It has no color, but is detectable in air by its odor, which resembles moldy hay. ... Triethanolamine, often abbreviated as TEA, is an organic chemical compound which is both a tertiary amine and a tri-alcohol. ...


Known Stockpiles (of Chemical Weapons)

As of 2005, there were six member countries which had declared stockpiles: 2005 is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Iraq's chemical weapons were destroyed under a United Nations reduction programme after the 1991 Gulf War. Approximately five hundred degraded chemical munitions have been found in Iraq since the 2003 invasion of Iraq, according to a report of the US Ground Intelligence Center.[3] These weapons contained sarin and mustard agents but were so badly corroded that they could not have been used as originally intended.[4] The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. ... Combatants UN Coalition Republic of Iraq Commanders Norman Schwarzkopf Saddam Hussein Strength 883,863 360,000 Casualties 378 dead, 1,000 wounded 25,000 dead, 75,000 wounded The Gulf War (2 August 1990 – 28 February 1991) was a conflict between Iraq and a coalition force of approximately 30 nations... Combatants Coalition Forces: United States United Kingdom South Korea Australia Poland Romania others. ... Sarin, also known by its NATO designation of GB (O-Isopropyl methylphosphonofluoridate) is an extremely toxic substance whose sole application is as a nerve agent. ... The sulfur mustards, of which mustard gas is a member, are a class of related cytotoxic, vesicant chemical warfare agents with the ability to form large blisters on exposed skin. ...


Known Production Facilities (of Chemical Weapons)

Twelve countries declared chemical weapons production facilities:

By March 31 2006, 54 of 64 declared facilities had been destroyed or converted to civilian use.[1]


World Stockpile

The total world declared stockpile of chemical weapons was about 58,939 tons in early 2006. A total of 71,331 tonnes have been declared to OPCW of which about 13,201 tonnes (almost 19%) had been destroyed by March 31, 2006. Several countries that are not members are suspected of having chemical weapons, especially Syria and North Korea while some member states (including Sudan and the People's Republic of China) have been accused by others of failing to disclose their stockpiles.


Timeline

The treaty set up several steps with deadlines toward complete destruction of chemical weapons.

Phase % Reduction Deadline Notes
I 1% April 2000  
II 20% April 2002 Complete destruction of empty munitions, precursor chemicals, filling equipment and weapons systems
III 45% April 2004  
IV 100% April 2007 No extensions permitted past April 2012

Current Progress

By 2006, 19% of known chemical weapons stockpiles had been destroyed worldwide, falling far short of the upcoming 100% goal set for in 2007. Furthermore, only 40% of countries had passed the required legislation to outlaw participation in chemical weapons production. All 64 known weapons production facilities were inactivated or destroyed. Albania, India, and "a state party", which together accounted for three percent of world stockpiles, had destroyed 0%, 39% and 29%, respectively, of their weapons and were considered to be on track to meet the April 2007 deadline for total destruction.


The United States of America completed Phase II, and was granted an extension until December 2007 for the completion of Phase III. Over 80% of the chemical weapons destroyed in the world since the treaty came into force were destroyed in the U.S. Russia completed Phase I and received extensions on the remaining phases. Libya joined the convention a few months prior to this time, and had just commenced activities.


The United States General Accounting Office has announced it does not expect Russia to reach 100% destruction until 2027, and the United States, 2014; both after the treaty's final deadline. The Government Accountability Office (GAO) is the audit, evaluation, and investigative agency of the United States Congress. ...


Financing

Financial support for the Albanian and Libyan stockpile destruction programmes was provided by the United States. Russia received support from a number of nations, including the United States, the United Kingdom, Germany, the Netherlands, Italy and Canada; some $2 billion given by 2004.


See also

Related International Law

Biological Weapons Convention Opened for signature April 10, 1972 at Moscow, Washington and London Entered into force March 26, 1975 Conditions for entry into force ??? Parties ??? The Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production and Stockpiling of Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons and on their Destruction (usually referred to... The United Nations Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons (CCW), concluded at Geneva on October 10, 1980 and entered into force in December 1983, seeks to prohibit or restrict the use of certain conventional weapons which are considered excessively injurious or that have indiscriminate effects. ... The United Nations Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons (CCW), concluded at Geneva on October 10, 1980 and entered into force in December 1983, seeks to prohibit or restrict the use of certain conventional weapons which are considered excessively injurious or that have indiscriminate effects. ... Australia Group is an informal group of countries established in 1985 (after the use of chemical weapons by Iraq in 1984) to help reduce the spread of chemical and biological weapons by monitoring and controlling the spread of technologies required to produce them. ...

Chemical Weapons

Chemical warfare is warfare (and associated military operations) using the toxic properties of chemical substances to kill, injure or incapacitate an enemy. ... Weapon of mass destruction (WMD) is a term used to describe a munition with the capacity to indiscriminately kill large numbers of living beings. ...

Restricted substances

This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... Schedule 2 substances, in the sense of the Chemical Weapons Convention, are either toxic enough to be used as chemical weapons, or precursors of other listed substances. ... Schedule 3 substances, in the sense of the Chemical Weapons Convention, are either toxic enough to be used as chemical weapons, or precursors of other listed substances. ...

References

  • Chemical Weapons Convention: Full Text
  • Chemical Weapons Convention: Ratifying Countries
  • Annex on Chemicals, describing the schedules and the substances on them, OPCW website
  • The Chemical Weapons Convention at a Glance, Arms Control Association
  • Chemical Warfare Chemicals and Precursors, Chemlink Pty Ltd, Australia

Footnotes

  1. ^ Chemical Weapons Convention Treaty: Annex on chemicals
  2. ^ Chemical weapons at Chemlink.com
  3. ^ Hundreds of chemical weapons found in Iraq : US intelligence, breitbart.com, 21 June, 2006
  4. ^ Munitions Found in Iraq Meet WMD Criteria, Military.com, report filed by American Forces Press Service, 29 June 2006
  5. ^ David Charter, Michael Evans and Richard Beeston Phosphorus was used for Fallujah bombs, admits US in The Times November 17, 2005

  Results from FactBites:
 
Chemical Weapons Convention - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (551 words)
The convention is administered by the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW), which conducts inspection of military and industrial plants in all of the member nations as well as working with stockpile countries.
Several countries that are not members are suspected of having chemical weapons, especially Syria and North Korea while some member states (including Sudan and China) have been accused by others of failing to disclose their stockpiles.
Over 80% of the chemical weapons destroyed in the world since the treaty came into force were destroyed in the U.S. Russia completed Phase I and received extensions on the remaining phases.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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