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Encyclopedia > Chelmno

Chełmno is a town in northern Poland with 22,000 inhabitants (1995) and the historical capitol of Chelmno Land also known as Kulmland.


Situated in the Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodship (since 1999), previously in Torun Voivodship (1975-1998), near the Vistula river. Kujavian-Pomeranian voivodship since 1999 The Kujavian-Pomeranian Voivodship (in Polish województwo kujawsko-pomorskie) is an administrative region or voivodship in central-northern Poland. ... Torun Voivodship (Polish: województwo toruńskie) was a unit of administrative division and local government in Poland in years 1975-1998, superseded by Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodship. ... Vistula river basin Vistula ( Polish Wisła, German Weichsel) is the longest river in Poland. ...


It is not related to Chełmno concentration camp, which was located near a village with a similar name, Chełmno nad Nerem. The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ...

Contents

History

The first written mention about Chełmno is known from a document allegedly issued in 1065 by Polish duke Boleslaus I of Poland for the Benedictine Monastery in Mogilno. In 1226 Prince Konrad of Mazovia brought Teutonic Knights to Chełmno Land. In 1233 Chełmno was granted the location privilege called "Chełmno rights" (renewed in 1251), the model system for over 200 Polish towns. The town of Chelmno together Chelmno Land was part of the Teutonic Knights' state until 1466, when after Thirteen Years' War Chełmno was incorporated back into Poland and made the capital of Chelmno Voivodship. In 1772, following partitions of Poland, Chełmno became part of the Kingdom of Prussia. At these times the city was part of the Hanseatic League. Between 1807 and 1815 Chełmno was part of Duchy of Warsaw. Chełmno was recovered by Poland in 1920. Events December 28 - Westminster Abbey is consecrated. ... Reign From 992 until 1025 Coronation On April 18, 1025 in Gniezno Cathedral, Poland Royal House Piast Coat of Arms Orzeł Piastowski Parents Mieszko I Dubrawka Consorts Rikdaga Judith Enmilda Oda Children with Judith Bezprym with Enmilda Regelina Mieszko II Lambert Otton with Oda Matylda Date of Birth 966/ 967... A Benedictine is a person who follows the Rule of Saint Benedict, whether belonging to the Roman Catholic Church, or to one of the Anglican or Protestant churches. ... Mogilno is a town in central Poland, situated in the Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodship (since 1999), previously in Bydgoszcz Voivodship (1975-1998). ... Events Carmelite Order approved by Pope Honorius III Frederick II calls Imperial Diet of Cremona Births Deaths October 3 Saint Francis of Assisi founder of the Franciscan Order and patron Saint of animals and the environment Canonized by Pope Gregory IX in 1228 November 8 King Louis VIII of France... Teutonic Knights, charging into battle. ... Events Fortress of Kalan built. ... Events First Shepherds Crusade Births Deaths Monarchs/Presidents Aragon - James I King of Aragon and count of Barcelona (reigned from 1213 to 1276) Castile - Ferdinand III, the Saint King of Castile and Leon (reigned from 1217 to 1252) Categories: 1251 ... Chelmno Land or Culmland (Polish: Ziemia Chełmińska, German: Kulmerland, Kulmer Land, Culmerland or Culmer Land) is the traditional name for a district around the city of Chełmno, in north-western Poland. ... The Thirteen Years War (also called the War of the Cities) started out as an uprising by Prussian cities and the local nobility with the goal of gaining independence from the Teutonic Knights. ... The Chełmno Voivodship (Polish: Województwo Chełmińskie) was a unit of administrative division and local government in the Kingdom of Poland since 1454/1466 till the partitions in 1772/1795. ... 1772 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... The Kingdom of Prussia existed from 1701 until 1918, and from 1871 was the leading kingdom of the German Empire, comprising in its last form almost two-thirds of the area of the Empire. ... The foundations of the Hanseatic League (German: Hanse), an alliance of trading cities that for a time in the later Middle Ages and the Early Modern period maintained a trade monopoly over most of Northern Europe and the Baltic, can be seen as early as the 12th century, with the... 1807 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... 1815 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Location Official languages Polish Established church Roman Catholic Capital Warsaw Largest City Warsaw Head of state Duke of Warsaw Area about 158,000 km² Population about 3 million Existed 1807 - 1814 The Duchy of Warsaw (Polish: Księstwo Warszawskie, Latin: Ducatus Varsoviae, French: Duche de Varsovie) was a Polish state established... 1920 is a leap year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar) Events January January 7 - Forces of Russian White admiral Kolchak surrender in Krasnoyarsk. ...


Historical names

  • Kulm, officially used under Teutonic/Prussian/German rules.

Monuments

Chełmno has well preserved medieval center, with five Gothic churches and beautiful Renaissance town hall in the middle of the market square. Gothic architecture characterizes any of the styles of European architecture, particularly associated with cathedrals and other churches, in use throughout Europe during the high and late medieval period, from the 12th century onwards. ... A church building is a building used in Christian worship. ... By Region: Italian Renaissance Northern Renaissance -French Renaissance -German Renaissance -English Renaissance The Renaissance was an influential cultural movement which brought about a period of scientific revolution and artistic transformation, at the dawn of modern European history. ...

  • Gothic churches:
    • church of St Mary, former main parochial church of town, built 1280-1320
    • church of St Jacob, former franciscans church, from 14th c., rebuild in 19 c.
    • church of St Peter and Paul, former dominicans church, from 13-14th c. rebuild in 18 and 19th c.
    • church of St Johns, former benedictines and cictercians church, with monastery, built 1290-1330
    • church of Holy Ghost, from 1280-90
  • Town Hall, which oldest part comes from end of 13th c., rebuilt in manneristic style (under Italian influence) in 1567-1572
  • city walls which surround whole city, preserved almost as a whole, with watch towers and Grudziądzka Gate

Events Eric II crowned king of Norway Births Deaths August 22 - Pope Nicholas III November 15 - German philosopher Categories: 1280 ... Events January 20 - Duke Wladyslaw Lokietek becomes king of Poland April 6 - The Scots reaffirm their independence by signing the Declaration of Arbroath. ... Events King Edward I of England banishes all Jews from Britain. ... Events The Bulgars under Michael III are beaten by the Serbs at Velbuzhd, and large parts of Bulgaria fall to Serbia. ... Events Eric II crowned king of Norway Births Deaths August 22 - Pope Nicholas III November 15 - German philosopher Categories: 1280 ... Mannerism is the usual English term for an approach to all the arts, particularly painting but not exclusive to it, a reaction to the High Renaissance, emerging after the Sack of Rome in 1527 shook Renaissance confidence, humanism and rationality to their foundations, and even Religion had split apart. ... Events The Duke of Alva arrives in the Netherlands with Spanish forces to suppress unrest there. ... Events January 16 - The Duke of Norfolk is tried for treason for his part in the Ridolfi plot to restore Catholicism in England. ...

External link

  • Chełmno Town on a map of Poland (http://www.pilot.pl/index.php3?z_city_id=335&lang=en)

 
 

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