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Encyclopedia > Cheese
This article is part
of the Cuisine series
Preparation techniques and cooking items
Techniques - Utensils
Weights and measures
Ingredients and types of food
Spices and Herbs
Sauces - Soups - Desserts
Cheese - Pasta - Bread - Tea

Other ingredients Image File history File links LinkFA-star. ... Image File history File links Title_Cuisine_2. ... A cuisine (from French cuisine, meaning cooking; culinary art; kitchen; itself from Latin coquina, meaning the same; itself from the Latin verb coquere, meaning to cook) is a specific set of cooking traditions and practices, often associated with a place of origin. ... Cooking is an act of preparing food for yourself and other people to eat. ... This is a list of food preparation utensils, also known as kitchenware. ... // United States measures Note that the measurements in this section are in U.S. customary units. ... Screen shot of Spice OPUS, a fork of Berkeley SPICE SPICE (Simulation Program with Integrated Circuits Emphasis) is a general purpose analog circuit simulator. ... Herbs: basil Herbs (IPA: hə(ɹ)b, or əɹb; see pronunciation differences) are plants grown for culinary, medicinal, or in some cases even spiritual value. ... For the computer protocol, see SAUCE In cooking, a sauce is a liquid or sometimes solid based selection of various ingredients served on or used in the preparation of food. ... Soup is a savoury liquid food that is made by combining ingredients, such as meat, vegetables and beans in stock or hot water, until the flavor is extracted, forming a broth. ... A selection of desserts Dessert is a course that typically comes at the end of a dinner, usually consisting of sweet food but sometimes of a strongly-flavored one, such as some cheeses. ... Percentages are relative to US RDI values for adults. ... Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ... Tea leaves in a Chinese gaiwan. ... A salad of vegetables and cheese. ...

Regional cuisines
Asia - Europe - Caribbean
South Asian - Latin America
Mideast - North America - Africa
Other cuisines...
See also:
Famous chefs - Kitchens - Meals
Wikibooks: Cookbook

Cheese is a solid food made from the milk of cows, goats, sheep, and other mammals. It has historically been the most economically important component of the dairy industry,[citation needed] as it can be stored and transported more easily than fresh milk. Cheese is made by curdling milk using some combination of rennet (or rennet substitutes) and acidification. Bacteria acidify the milk and play a role in defining the texture and flavor of most cheeses. Some cheeses also feature molds, either on the outer rind or throughout. Asian cuisine is a term for the various cuisines of South, East and Southeast Asia and for fusion dishes based on combining them. ... ÊÂòàÈ€ū¹ ² ³ ÁHello ... Caribbean cuisine is a fusion of Spanish, French, African, Amerindian and Indian cuisine. ... South Asian cuisine includes the cuisines of the South Asia. ... See the individual entries for: Argentine cuisine Brazilian cuisine Mexican cuisine South American cuisine . ... The term Middle Eastern cuisine refers to the cuisines of the Middle East. ... North American cuisine is a term used for foods native to or popular in countries of North America. ... Cuisine of Africa reflects indigenous traditions, as well as influences from Arabs, Europeans, and Asians. ... This is a list of famous and notable chefs. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... For the coarsely ground flour, see flour. ... A glass of cows milk Milk is the nutrient fluid produced by the mammary glands of female mammals (including monotremes). ... Binomial name Bos taurus Linnaeus, 1758 Cattle (often called cows in vernacular and contemporary usage, or kye as the Scots plural of cou) are domesticated ungulates, a member of the subfamily Bovinae of the family Bovidae. ... Species See Species and subspecies The goat is a mammal in the genus Capra, which consists of nine species: the Ibex, the West Caucasian Tur, the East Caucasian Tur, the Markhor, and the Wild Goat. ... Binomial name Ovis aries Linnaeus, 1758 The domestic sheep (Ovis aries), the most common species of the sheep genus (Ovis), is a woolly ruminant quadruped which probably descends from the wild mouflon of south-central and south-west Asia. ... Orders Multituberculata (extinct) Palaeoryctoides (extinct) Triconodonta (extinct) Subclass Australosphenida Ausktribosphenida Monotremata Subclass Eutheria (excludes extinct ancestors) Afrosoricida Anagaloidea (extinct) Arctostylopida (extinct) Artiodactyla Carnivora Cetacea Chiroptera Cimolesta (extinct) Cingulata Creodonta (extinct) Condylarthra (extinct) Dermoptera Desmostylia (extinct) Dinocerata (extinct) Embrithopoda (extinct) Hyracoidea Insectivora Lagomorpha Leptictida (extinct) Litopterna (extinct) Macroscelidea Mesonychia (extinct) Notoungulata... Dairy farm near Oxford, New York A dairy is a facility for the extraction and processing of animal milk (mostly from cows, sometimes from buffalo, sheep or goats) and other farm animals, for human consumption. ... Curdled is also the name of a Quentin Tarantino film. ... Rennet is a substance used to coagulate milk, causing it to separate into solids (curds) and liquid (whey). ... Phyla/Divisions Actinobacteria Aquificae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chlamydiae/Verrucomicrobia Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Nitrospirae Omnibacteria Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Bacteria (singular, bacterium) are a major group of living organisms. ... Microscopic photo of the hyphae and spores of Aspergillus fumigatus Moldy bread Moldy nectarines Molds (or moulds) are microscopic multinucleated multicellular fungi made up of hyphae (tube-like structures) which are usually separated from each other by divisions called septa. ...


There are hundreds of types of cheese produced all over the world. Different styles and flavors of cheese are the result of using milk from various mammals or with different butterfat contents, employing particular species of bacteria and molds, and varying the length of aging and other processing treatments. Other factors include animal diet and the addition of flavoring agents such as herbs, spices, or wood smoke. Whether the milk is pasteurized may also affect the flavor. The yellow to red coloring of many cheeses is a result of adding annatto. Cheeses are eaten both on their own and cooked as part of various dishes; most cheeses melt when heated. This is a list of cheeses by place of origin. ... Butterfat or milkfat is the fatty portion of milk. ... Herbs: basil Herbs (IPA: hə(ɹ)b, or əɹb; see pronunciation differences) are plants grown for culinary, medicinal, or in some cases even spiritual value. ... Screen shot of Spice OPUS, a fork of Berkeley SPICE SPICE (Simulation Program with Integrated Circuits Emphasis) is a general purpose analog circuit simulator. ... Wikibooks Cookbook has more about this subject: Smoking Smoking is the process of preserving, cooking, or flavoring food by exposing it to the smoke from burning or smoldering plant materials, most often wood. ... Pasteurization (or pasteurisation) is the process of heating food for the purpose of killing harmful organisms such as bacteria, viruses, protozoa, molds, and yeasts. ... Annatto Annatto is a derivative of the achiote trees of tropical regions of the Americas, used to produce a red food coloring. ...


For a few cheeses, the milk is curdled by adding acids such as vinegar or lemon juice. Most cheeses, however, are acidified to a lesser degree by bacteria, which turn milk sugars into lactic acid, followed by the addition of rennet to complete the curdling. Rennet is an enzyme mixture traditionally obtained from the stomach lining of young cattle, but now also laboratory produced. Vegetarian alternatives to rennet are available; most are produced by fermentation of the fungus Mucor miehei, but others have been extracted from various species of the Cynara thistle family. For other uses, see Acid (disambiguation). ... Vinegar is often infused with spices or herbs—as here, with oregano. ... Binomial name Citrus × limon (L.) Burm. ... Lactose is a disaccharide that consists of β-D-galactose and β-D-glucose molecules bonded through a β1-4 glycosidic linkage. ... Lactic acid (IUPAC systematic name: 2-hydroxypropanoic acid), also known as milk acid, is a chemical compound that plays a role in several biochemical processes. ... Ribbon diagram of the enzyme TIM, surrounded by the space-filling model of the protein. ... Binomial name Bos taurus Linnaeus, 1758 Cattle (often called cows in vernacular and contemporary usage, or kye as the Scots plural of cou) are domesticated ungulates, a member of the subfamily Bovinae of the family Bovidae. ... Divisions Chytridiomycota Zygomycota Glomeromycota Ascomycota Basidiomycota Deuteromycota The fungi (singular fungus) are a kingdom of eukaryotic organisms. ... Species Cynara alba Cynara algarbiensis Cynara auranitica Cynara baetica Cynara cardunculus Cynara cornigera Cynara cyrenaica Cynara humilis Cynara hystrix Cynara scolymus Cynara syriaca Note that this list may include some synonyms Cynara is a genus of about 10 species of thistle-like perennials in the family Asteraceae, originally from the...


The word cheese is derived from the Middle English chese, from the Old English cīese or cēse, itself derived from the Latin caseus. Middle English is the name given by historical linguistics to the diverse forms of the English language spoken between the Norman invasion of 1066 and the mid-to-late 15th century, when the Chancery Standard, a form of London-based English, began to become widespread, a process aided by the... Old English (also called Anglo-Saxon) is an early form of the English language that was spoken in parts of what is now England and southern Scotland between the mid-fifth century and the mid-twelfth century. ... Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ...

Contents

History

Cheese is an ancient food whose origins predate recorded history. There is no conclusive evidence indicating where cheesemaking originated, either in Europe, Central Asia or the Middle East, but the practice had spread within Europe prior to Roman times and had become a sophisticated enterprise by the time the Roman Empire came into being. As Rome's influence receded, distinct local cheesemaking techniques emerged. This diversity reached its peak in the early industrial age and has declined somewhat since then due to mechanization and economic factors. Stonehenge, England, erected by Neolithic peoples ca. ... World map showing Europe A satellite composite image of Europe Europe is one of the seven traditional continents of the Earth. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... World map showing Europe A satellite composite image of Europe Europe is one of the seven traditional continents of the Earth. ... This article or section may contain original research or unverified claims. ... This article or section may contain original research or unverified claims. ... Nickname: The Eternal City Motto: SPQR: Senatus PopulusQue Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 8th century BC Mayor Walter Veltroni Area    - City 1,285 km²  (496. ... Industrialisation (or industrialization) or an industrial revolution (in general, with lowercase letters) is a process of social and economic change whereby a human society is transformed from a pre-industrial to an industrial state . ...


Cheese has served as a hedge against famine and is a good travel food. It is valuable for its portability, long life, and high content of fat, protein, calcium, and phosphorus. Cheese is lighter-weight, more compact, and has a longer shelf life than the milk from which it is made. Cheesemakers can place themselves near the center of a dairy region and benefit from fresher milk, lower milk prices, and lower shipping costs. The substantial storage life of cheese lets a cheesemaker sell when prices are high or when money is needed. For other uses, see Fat (disambiguation). ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... General Name, Symbol, Number calcium, Ca, 20 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, Period, Block 2, 4, s Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 40. ... General Name, Symbol, Number phosphorus, P, 15 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 15, 3, p Appearance waxy white/ red/ black/ colorless Atomic mass 30. ... Cheesemaker - a person who cooks milk and specified ingredients to make cheese, according to formula. ...


Origins

The exact origins of cheesemaking are debated or unknown, and estimates range from around 8000 BCE (when sheep were domesticated) to around 3000 BCE. Credit for the discovery most likely goes to nomadic Turkic tribes in Central Asia, around the same time that they developed yogurt, or to people in the Middle East. A common tale about the discovery of cheese tells of an Arab nomad carrying milk across the desert in a container made from an animal's stomach, only to discover the milk had been separated into curd and whey by the rennet from the stomach. The Common Era (CE or C.E.), sometimes known as the Current Era or Christian Era, is the period of measured time beginning with the year 1 (the traditional birthdate of Jesus) to the present. ... Species See text. ... Dogs and sheep were among the first animals to be domesticated. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... This is the disambiguation page for the terms Turk, Turkey, Turkic, and Turkish. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... Yoghurt Yoghurt or yogurt, less commonly yoghourt or yogourt, is a dairy product produced by bacterial fermentation of milk. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... The Arabs (Arabic: عرب) are a heterogeneous ethnic group who are predominantly speakers of the Arabic language, mainly found throughout the Middle East and North Africa. ... Curd is a dairy product obtained by curdling (coagulating) milk with rennet or an edible acidic substance such as lemon juice or vinegar and then draining off the liquid portion (called whey). ... Whey or milk plasma is the liquid remaining after milk has been curdled and strained; it is a by-product of the manufacture of cheese or casein and has several commercial uses. ...


Folktales aside, cheese likely began as a way of preserving soured and curdled milk through pressing and salting, with rennet introduced later— perhaps when someone noticed that cheese made in an animal stomach produced more solid and better-textured curds. The earliest archaeological evidence of cheesemaking has been found in Egyptian tomb murals, dating to about 2300 BCE. The earliest cheeses would likely have been quite sour and salty, similar in texture to rustic cottage cheese or feta. Archaeology or sometimes in American English archeology (from the Greek words αρχαίος = ancient and λόγος = word/speech) is the study of human cultures through the recovery, documentation and analysis of material remains, including architecture, artefacts, biofacts, human remains, and landscapes. ... A tub of cottage cheese Cottage cheese is a cheese curd product with a mild flavor. ... Country of origin Greece Region, town N/A Source of milk Goat, sheep or cow Pasteurized Depends on variety Texture Depends on variety Aging time min. ...


From the Middle East, basic cheesemaking found its way into Europe, where cooler climates meant less aggressive salting was needed for preservation. With moderate salt and acidity, the cheese became a suitable environment for a variety of beneficial microbes and molds, which are what give aged cheeses their pronounced and interesting flavors. World map showing Europe A satellite composite image of Europe Europe is one of the seven traditional continents of the Earth. ... A microorganism or microbe is an organism that is so small that it is microscopic (invisible to the naked eye). ...


Ancient Greece/ Rome

Ancient Greek mythology credited Aristaeus with the discovery of cheese. Homer's Odyssey (8th century BCE) describes the Cyclops making and storing sheep's and goats' milk cheese. From Samuel Butler's translation: A minor god in Greek mythology, Aristaeus or Aristaios was the son of Apollo and the huntress Cyrene, who despised spinning and other womanly arts but spent her days hunting. ... Homer (Greek Hómēros) was a legendary early Greek poet and aoidos (singer) traditionally credited with the composition of the Iliad and the Odyssey. ... Odysseus and Nausicaä - by Charles Gleyre The Odyssey (Greek: , Odusseia) is one of the two major ancient Greek epic poems attributed to the poet Homer. ... (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) Events and trends Ruins of the training grounds at Olympia, Greece. ... Polyphemus the Cyclops. ... Samuel Butler Samuel Butler (December 4, 1835 - June 18, 1902) was a British writer best known for his satire Erewhon. ...

We soon reached his cave, but he was out shepherding, so we went inside and took stock of all that we could see. His cheese-racks were loaded with cheeses, and he had more lambs and kids than his pens could hold...
When he had so done he sat down and milked his ewes and goats, all in due course, and then let each of them have her own young. He curdled half the milk and set it aside in wicker strainers.

By Roman times, cheese was an everyday food and cheesemaking a mature art, not very different from what it is today. Columella's De Re Rustica (circa 65 CE) details a cheesemaking process involving rennet coagulation, pressing of the curd, salting, and aging. Pliny's Natural History (77 CE) devotes a chapter (XI, 97) to describing the diversity of cheeses enjoyed by Romans of the early Empire. He stated that the best cheeses came from the villages near N?mes, but did not keep long and had to be eaten fresh. Cheeses of the Alps and Apennines were as remarkable for their variety then as now. A Ligurian cheese was noted for being made mostly from sheep's milk, and some cheeses produced nearby were stated to weigh as much as a thousand pounds each. Goats' milk cheese was a recent taste in Rome, improved over the "medicinal taste" of Gaul's similar cheeses by smoking. Of cheeses from overseas, Pliny preferred those of Bithynia in Asia Minor. A wickerwork scratching post A wicker balloon basket capable of holding 16 passengers. ... This article or section may contain original research or unverified claims. ... Lucius Junius Moderatus Columella (Gades in Hispania Baetica, 4 AD - ca. ... Pliny the Elder: an imaginative 19c portrait. ... Naturalis Historia Pliny the Elders Natural History is an encyclopedia written by Pliny the Elder. ... The Roman Empire is the name given to both the imperial domain developed by the city-state of Rome and also the corresponding phase of that civilization, characterized by an autocratic form of government. ... The West face of the Petit Dru above the Chamonix valley near the Mer de Glace. ... This is about the terrestrial mountain range. ... The Ligures (Ligurians) were an ancient people who gave their name to Liguria, which once stretched from Northern Italy into southern Gaul. ... Map of Gaul circa 58 BC For Gaul after the Roman conquest, see Roman Gaul Gaul (Latin Gallia) was the name given, in ancient times, to the region of Western Europe comprising present-day northern Italy, France, Belgium, western Switzerland and the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the... Wikibooks Cookbook has more about this subject: Smoking Smoking is the process of preserving, cooking, or flavoring food by exposing it to the smoke from burning or smoldering plant materials, most often wood. ... Bithynia was an ancient region, kingdom and Roman province in the northwest of Asia Minor, adjoining the Propontis, the Thracian Bosporus and the Euxine (today Black Sea). ...


Post-classical Europe

Rome spread a uniform set of cheesemaking techniques throughout much of Europe, and introduced cheesemaking to areas without a previous history of it. As Rome declined and long-distance trade collapsed, cheese in Europe diversified further, with various locales developing their own distinctive cheesemaking traditions and products. France and Italy are the nations with the most diversity in locally made cheeses— today with approximately 400 each. (A French proverb holds there is a different French cheese for every day of the year, and Charles de Gaulle once asked "how can you govern a country in which there are 246 kinds of cheese?"[1]) Still, the advancement of the cheese art in Europe was slow during the centuries after Rome's fall. Many of the cheeses we know best today were first recorded in the late Middle Ages or after— cheeses like cheddar around 1500 CE, Parmesan in 1597, Gouda in 1697, and Camembert in 1791.[2] Charles André Joseph Marie de Gaulle ( ) (22 November 1890 – 9 November 1970), in France commonly referred to as Général de Gaulle, was a French military leader and statesman. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... Country of origin England Region, town Somerset, Cheddar Source of milk Cows Pasteurized Frequently Texture hard/semi-hard Aging time 3-30 months depending on variety Certification No Cheddar cheese is a pale yellow, sharp-tasting cheese originally made in the English village of Cheddar, in Somerset. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Parmigiano_Reggiano. ... Country of origin The Netherlands Region, town South Holland, Gouda Source of milk Cows Pasteurized Yes Texture semi-hard Aging time 4-18 months Certification  ?? Gouda is a yellowish Dutch cheese named after the city of Gouda. ... Country of origin France Region, town Normandy, Camembert Source of milk Cows Pasteurized Normally no Texture Soft-ripened Aging time at least 3 weeks Certification Camembert de Normandie AOC 1983, PDO 1992 Camembert is a soft, creamy French cheese. ...


In 1546, John Heywood wrote in Proverbes that "the moon is made of a greene cheese." (Greene refers here not to the color, as many now think, but to being new or unaged.)[3] Variations on this sentiment were long repeated. Although some people assumed that this was a serious belief in the era before space exploration, it is more likely that Heywood was indulging in nonsense. John Heywood (1497-1580) was an English writer known for his plays, poems, and collection of proverbs. ... Astronaut Buzz Aldrin on the surface of the Moon. ... See Wikipedia:Nonsense for the usage of Nonsense in Wikipedia. ...


Modern era

Until its modern spread along with European culture, cheese was nearly unheard of in oriental cultures, uninvented in the pre-columbian Americas, and of only limited use in sub-mediterranean Africa, mainly being widespread and popular only in Europe and areas influenced strongly by its cultures. But with the spread, first of European imperialism, and later of Euro-American culture and food, cheese has gradually become known and increasingly popular worldwide, though still rarely considered a part of local ethnic cuisine.

St Pat Goat's Milk Cheese
St Pat Goat's Milk Cheese

The first factory for the industrial production of cheese opened in Switzerland in 1815, but it was in the United States where large-scale production first found real success. Credit usually goes to Jesse Williams, a dairy farmer from Rome, New York, who in 1851 started making cheese in an assembly-line fashion using the milk from neighboring farms. Within decades hundreds of such dairy associations existed. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x768, 132 KB)St Pat Goats Milk Cheese. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x768, 132 KB)St Pat Goats Milk Cheese. ... Rome is a city located in Oneida County, New York. ... Official language(s) English de facto Capital Albany Largest city New York City Area  Ranked 27th  - Total 54,520 sq mi (141,205 km²)  - Width 285 miles (455 km)  - Length 330 miles (530 km)  - % water 13. ... 1913 Ford Model T assembly line. ...


The 1860s saw the beginnings of mass-produced rennet, and by the turn of the century scientists were producing pure microbial cultures. Before then, bacteria in cheesemaking had come from the environment or from recycling an earlier batch's whey; the pure cultures meant a more standardized cheese could be produced.


Factory-made cheese overtook traditional cheesemaking in the World War II era, and factories have been the source of most cheese in America and Europe ever since. Today, Americans buy more processed cheese than "real", factory-made or not.[4] Combatants Major Allied powers: United Kingdom Soviet Union United States Republic of China and others Major Axis powers: Nazi Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Harry Truman Chiang Kai-Shek Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tojo Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead... Processed cheese slices individually wrapped in plastic Processed cheese (or process cheese) is a food product made from regular cheese and other unfermented dairy ingredients, plus emulsifiers, extra salt, and food colorings. ...


World production and consumption

Worldwide, cheese is a major agricultural product. According to the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations, over 18 million metric tons of cheese were produced worldwide in 2004. This is more than the yearly production of coffee beans, tea leaves, cocoa beans and tobacco combined. The largest producer of cheese is the United States, accounting for 30 percent of world production, followed by Germany and France. FAO emblem With its headquarters in Rome, the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations programs seek to raise levels of nutrition and standard of living; to improve the production, processing, marketing, and distribution of food and agricultural products; to promote rural development; and, by these means, to... The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, and social equity. ... A tonne (also called metric ton) is a non-SI unit of mass, accepted for use with SI, defined as: 1 tonne = 103 kg (= 106 g). ... A cup of coffee // Coffee is a popular beverage prepared from the roasted seeds – commonly referred to as beans – of the coffee plant. ... Tea leaves in a Chinese gaiwan. ... Cocoa beans in a cacao pod Cocoa is the dried and partially fermented fatty seed of the cacao tree from which chocolate is made. ... Species Nicotiana acuminata Nicotiana alata Nicotiana attenuata Nicotiana benthamiana Nicotiana clevelandii Nicotiana excelsior Nicotiana forgetiana Nicotiana glauca Nicotiana glutinosa Nicotiana langsdorffii Nicotiana longiflora Nicotiana obtusifolia Nicotiana paniculata Nicotiana plumbagifolia Nicotiana quadrivalvis Nicotiana repanda Nicotiana rustica Nicotianasuaveolens Nicotiana sylvestris Nicotiana tabacum Nicotiana tomentosa Ref: ITIS 30562 as of August 26, 2005...

Top Cheese Producers - 2004
(1,000 Metric Tons)[5]
Flag of United States United States 4,327
Flag of Germany Germany 1,929
Flag of France France 1,827
Flag of Italy Italy 1,102
Flag of Netherlands Netherlands 672
 Poland 535
Flag of Brazil Brazil 470
Flag of Egypt Egypt 450
Flag of Australia Australia 373
Flag of Argentina Argentina 370

The biggest exporter of cheese, by monetary value, is France; the second, Germany (although it is first by quantity). Among the top ten exporters, only Ireland, New Zealand, the Netherlands and Australia have a cheese production that is mainly export oriented: respectively 95 percent, 90 percent, 72 percent, and 65 percent of their cheese production is exported.[6] Only 30 percent of French production, the world's largest exporter, is exported. The United States, the biggest world producer of cheese, is a marginal exporter, as most of its production is for the domestic market. Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_States. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_France. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Netherlands. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Poland_(bordered). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Brazil. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Egypt. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Australia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Argentina. ...

Top Cheese Exporters (Whole Cow Milk only) - 2004
(value in '000 US $)[7]
Flag of France France 2,658,441
Flag of Germany Germany 2,416,973
Flag of Netherlands Netherlands 2,099,353
Flag of Italy Italy 1,253,580
Flag of Denmark Denmark 1,122,761
Flag of Australia Australia 643,575
Flag of New Zealand New Zealand 631,963
 Belgium 567,590
Flag of Republic of Ireland Ireland 445,240
Flag of United Kingdom United Kingdom 374,156

Germany is the largest importer of cheese. UK and Italy are the second- and third-largest importers.[8] Image File history File links Flag_of_France. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Netherlands. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Denmark. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Australia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_New_Zealand. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Belgium_(civil). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Ireland. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ...

Top Cheese Consumers - 2003
(kilograms per person)[9]
Flag of Greece Greece 27.3
Flag of France France 24
Flag of Italy Italy 22.9
Flag of Switzerland Switzerland 20.6
Flag of Germany Germany 20.2
Flag of Netherlands Netherlands 19.9
Flag of Austria Austria 19.5
Flag of Sweden Sweden 17.9

Greece is the world's largest (per capita) consumer of cheese, with 27.3 kg eaten by the average Greek. (Feta accounts for three-quarters of this consumption.) France is the second biggest consumer of cheese, with 24 kg by inhabitant. Emmental (used mainly as a cooking ingredient) and Camembert are the most common cheeses in France[10] Italy is the third biggest consumer by person with 22.9 kg. In the U.S., the consumption of cheese is quickly increasing and has nearly tripled between 1970 and 2003. The consumption per person has reached, in 2003, 14.1 kg (31 pounds). Mozzarella is America's favorite cheese and accounts for nearly a third of its consumption. [11] Image File history File links Flag_of_Greece. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_France. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Switzerland. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Netherlands. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Austria. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Sweden. ... Per capita is a Latin phrase meaning for each head. ... Country of origin Greece Region, town N/A Source of milk Goat, sheep or cow Pasteurized Depends on variety Texture Depends on variety Aging time min. ... The Emmental is a valley and a landscape in the swiss canton of Bern. ... Country of origin France Region, town Normandy, Camembert Source of milk Cows Pasteurized Normally no Texture Soft-ripened Aging time at least 3 weeks Certification Camembert de Normandie AOC 1983, PDO 1992 Camembert is a soft, creamy French cheese. ... Country of origin Italy Region, town Campania and elsewhere Source of milk Cow or Water buffalo Pasteurized Yes and No Texture Semi-soft Aging time None Certification no, Stg and Dop 1996[1] Mozzarella is a generic term for the several kinds of Italian fresh cheese that are made using...


Cultural attitudes

A cheese seller in a French market
A cheese seller in a French market

Cheese is rarely found in East Asian dishes, as dairy products in general are rare. However, East Asian sentiment against cheese is not universal. Cheese made from yaks' (chhurpi) or mares' milk is common on the Asian steppes; the national dish of Bhutan, ema datsi, is made from homemade cheese and hot peppers; and cheese is used in India, where paneer curries are popular. Even in China, cheese consumption is increasing, with annual sales more than doubling from 1996 to 2003 (to a still small 30 million U.S. dollars a year).[12] Certain kinds of Chinese preserved bean curd are sometimes misleadingly referred to in English as "Chinese cheese", due to their texture and strong flavor. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1200x800, 685 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Cheese ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1200x800, 685 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Cheese ... Asian cuisine is a term for the various cuisines of South, East and Southeast Asia and for fusion dishes based on combining them. ... Dairy products are generally defined as foodstuffs produced from milk. ... Binomial name Bos grunniens Linnaeus, 1766 Subspecies Bos grunniens grunniens Bos grunniens mutus The yak (Bos grunniens) is a long-haired humped domestic bovine found in Tibet and throughout the Himalayan region of south central Asia, as well as in Mongolia. ... 13 year old Peruvian Paso mare A broodmare and foal In English, a mare (an old Germanic word) is a female horse; the word is also an etymological root of marshal (originally marescalcus horse servant). Mares are considered easier to handle than males, which are called stallions or after castration... A steppe in Western Kazakhstan in early spring In physical geography, a steppe (Russian: - step, Ukrainian: - step, Kazakh: - dala), pronounced in English as step, is a plain without trees (apart from those near rivers and lakes); it is similar to a prairie, although a prairie is generally considered as being... Paneer (, from Persian پنير sometimes spelled Panir or Paner), is the most common Indian form of cheese. ... An Indian chicken curry A curry is any of a variety of distinctively spiced dishes, best-known in Indian, Thai and other South Asian cuisines, but curry has been adopted into all of the mainstream cuisines of the Asia-Pacific area. ... ISO 4217 Code USD User(s) the United States, the British Virgin Islands, East Timor, Ecuador, El Salvador, the Marshall Islands, Micronesia, Palau, Panama, Turks and Caicos Islands, and the insular areas of the United States Inflation 3. ... Doufu/tofu, or bean curd, is a food made by coagulating soy milk with calcium sulfate (gypsum), nigari (a sea_salt derived compound rich in magnesium chloride), or other agents, and then pressing into blocks, similar to the way China in the second century BC, during the Japan in the Nara...


Strict followers of the dietary laws of Judaism and Islam must avoid cheeses made with rennet from animals not slaughtered in a manner adhering to kosher or halal[13] laws. Both faiths allow cheese made with vegetable-based rennet or with rennet made from animals that were processed in a kosher or halal manner. Many less-orthodox Jews also believe that rennet undergoes enough processing to change its nature entirely, and do not consider it to ever violate kosher law. (See Cheese and kashrut.) As cheese is a dairy food under kosher rules it cannot be eaten in the same meal with any meat. Judaism is the religion of the Jewish people. ... Islam (Arabic:  ) is a monotheistic religion based upon the Quran, its principal scripture, whose followers, known as Muslims (مسلم), believe God (Arabic: الله ) sent through revelations to Muhammad. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Many vegetarians avoid any cheese made from animal-based rennet. Most widely available vegetarian cheeses are made using rennet produced by fermentation of the fungus Mucor miehei. Vegans and other dairy-avoiding vegetarians do not eat real cheese at all, but some vegetable-based substitute cheeses (usually soy-based) are available. Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Vegetarianism For plant-eating, non-human animals, see Herbivore. ... Divisions Chytridiomycota Zygomycota Glomeromycota Ascomycota Basidiomycota Deuteromycota The fungi (singular fungus) are a kingdom of eukaryotic organisms. ... Hens kept in cramped conditions — the avoidance of animal suffering is the primary motivation of people who become vegans A vegan is a person who avoids the ingestion or use of animal products. ... Binomial name Glycine max (L.) Merr. ...


Even in cultures with long cheese traditions, it is not unusual to find people who perceive cheese — especially pungent-smelling or mold-bearing varieties such as Limburger or Roquefort — as unappetizing, unpalatable, or disgusting. Food-science writer Harold McGee proposes that cheese is such an acquired taste because it is produced through a process of controlled spoilage and many of the odor and flavor molecules in an aged cheese are the same found in rotten foods. McGee notes "An aversion to the odor of decay has the obvious biological value of steering us away from possible food poisoning, so it's no wonder that an animal food that gives off whiffs of shoes and soil and the stable takes some getting used to."[14] Limburger is an aged cheese made from cows milk. ... Country of origin France Region, town region surrounding Roquefort-sur-Soulzon Source of milk Ewe Pasteurized No Texture Semi-hard Aging time 3 months Certification AOC 1925 Roquefort is a flavorful ewes-milk blue cheese from the south of France, and one of the most famous of all French... Harold McGee writes about the chemistry, techniques and history of food and cooking and is the author of two books that explain kitchen science in an approachable manner. ... Rotting fruit Decomposition is a phenomenon common in the sciences of biology and chemistry. ...


Types of cheese

Main article: List of cheeses

No one categorization scheme can capture all the diversity of the world's cheeses. Some common systems used are: This is a list of cheeses by place of origin. ...

  • Length of aging.
  • Texture (hard or soft); this is correlated to the moisture content: the more moist a cheese, the softer. This classification is common in the US, but is inaccurate: many types of cheese are made in softer or firmer variations.
  • Methods of making: pressed or unpressed curd, heated or unheated curd, mold growth, etc.
  • Fat content.
  • Kind of milk (cow's milk, goat's milk cheese, etc.)
A cheese platter with many types of cheese.
A cheese platter with many types of cheese.

Download high resolution version (960x576, 69 KB) A cheese platter. ... Download high resolution version (960x576, 69 KB) A cheese platter. ...

Fresh Cheeses

For these simplest cheeses, milk is curdled and drained, with little other processing. Examples include cottage cheese, Romanian Caş, Neufchâtel (the model for American-style cream cheese), and fresh goat's milk chèvre. Such cheeses are soft and spreadable, with a mild taste. Fresh cheeses without additional preservatives can spoil in a matter of days. A tub of cottage cheese Cottage cheese is a cheese curd product with a mild flavor. ... Romanian CaÅŸ <c ah sh> Is a traditional fresh cheese made out of cow or sheep milk. ... Neufchâtel is a semi-soft French cheese from the Normandy region of France. ... Country of origin United States Region, town Source of milk Cow milk Pasteurized Texture Aging time none Certification Cream cheese is a soft, mild-tasting, white cheese that contains at least 28% fat and is sold in brick form or in a small, tub-like container. ... Goats Cheese Chèvre cheese is cheese made from goats milk (chèvre is French for goat). ... A preservative is a natural or synthetic chemical that is added to products such as foods, pharmaceuticals, paints, biological samples, etc. ...


Whey cheeses are fresh cheeses made from the whey discarded while producing other cheeses. Provencal Brousse, Corsican Brocciu, Italian Ricotta, Romanian Urda and Norwegian Geitost are examples. Brocciu is mostly eaten fresh, and is as such a major ingredient in Corsican cuisine, but it can be aged too. Whey or milk plasma is the liquid remaining after milk has been curdled and strained; it is a by-product of the manufacture of cheese or casein and has several commercial uses. ... Brocciu is one of a few available cheeses produced from ewes milk. ... Ricotta cheese is an Italian cheese made from the whey which results when making cheeses such as mozzarella or provolone. ... Urda <uh r dh ah> Urda is a traditional fresh cheese obtained as a byproduct in the manufacture of the caÅŸ fresh cheese. ... Gudbrandsdalsost Geitost is usually sliced very thinly using a metal cheese slicer. ... Brocciu is one of a few available cheeses produced from ewes milk. ...


Traditional Mozzarella also falls into the fresh cheese category. Fresh curds are stretched and kneaded in hot water to form a ball of Mozzarella, which in southern Italy is usually eaten within a few hours of being made. Other firm fresh cheeses include paneer and queso fresco. Country of origin Italy Region, town Campania and elsewhere Source of milk Cow or Water buffalo Pasteurized Yes and No Texture Semi-soft Aging time None Certification no, Stg and Dop 1996[1] Mozzarella is a generic term for the several kinds of Italian fresh cheese that are made using... Paneer (, from Persian پنير sometimes spelled Panir or Paner), is the most common Indian form of cheese. ... Queso blanco is a soft, unaged white cheese. ...


Texture

A Gouda cheese market
A Gouda cheese market

Categorizing cheeses by firmness is a common but inexact practice. The lines between "soft", "semi-soft", "semi-hard", and "hard" are arbitrary, and many types of cheese are made in softer or firmer variations. Harder cheeses have a lower moisture content than softer cheeses. They are generally packed into molds under more pressure and aged for a longer time. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (820x568, 130 KB) Goudse kaasmarkt op donderdagochtend 2004 ; Gouda cheese market in the city of Gouda ; Photo taken from nl: and cropped, Photographer nl:Gebruiker:Johi File links The following pages link to this file: Cheese ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (820x568, 130 KB) Goudse kaasmarkt op donderdagochtend 2004 ; Gouda cheese market in the city of Gouda ; Photo taken from nl: and cropped, Photographer nl:Gebruiker:Johi File links The following pages link to this file: Cheese ... Goudas 15th Century Town Hall Flag of Gouda Goudas Cheese Market Gouda (population 71,797 in 2004) is a city in the western Netherlands, in the province of South Holland. ...


The familiar cheddar is one of a family of semi-hard or hard cheeses (including Cheshire and Gloucester) whose curd is cut, gently heated, piled, and stirred before being pressed into forms. Colby and Monterey Jack are similar but milder cheeses; their curd is rinsed before it is pressed, washing away some acidity and calcium. A similar curd-washing takes place when making the Dutch cheeses Edam and Gouda. Country of origin England Region, town Somerset, Cheddar Source of milk Cows Pasteurized Frequently Texture hard/semi-hard Aging time 3-30 months depending on variety Certification No Cheddar cheese is a pale yellow, sharp-tasting cheese originally made in the English village of Cheddar, in Somerset. ... Country of origin England Region, town Cheshire Source of milk Cows Pasteurized Frequently Texture hard crumbly Aging time 4-8 weeks depending on variety Certification No Cheshire [] (IPA) cheese is a dense and crumbly cheese produced in Cheshire, England, and the neighbouring counties of Denbighshire, Flintshire, Staffordshire, and Shropshire. ... Double Gloucester cheese is a cheese created using a mixture of morning and evening milk, hence the name, Double Gloucester. ... Colby cheese was developed in Colby, Wisconsin, in 1885, by Joseph F. Steinwand. ... Wikibooks Cookbook has a recipe for Monterey Jack Monterey Jack is a type of semi-hard cheese using pasteurised cows’ milk. ... General Name, Symbol, Number calcium, Ca, 20 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, Period, Block 2, 4, s Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 40. ... Country of origin The Netherlands Region, town Edam-Volendam, Edam Source of milk Cows Pasteurized Yes Texture Semi-hard Aging time up to 10 months Certification No Edamer cheese is a Dutch cheese that is traditionally sold as spheres with pale yellow interior and a coat of red or yellow... Country of origin The Netherlands Region, town South Holland, Gouda Source of milk Cows Pasteurized Yes Texture semi-hard Aging time 4-18 months Certification  ?? Gouda is a yellowish Dutch cheese named after the city of Gouda. ...


Swiss-style cheeses like Emmental and Gruyère are generally quite firm. The same bacteria that give Emmental its holes contribute to their aromatic and sharp flavors. The hardest cheeses — "grating cheeses" such as Parmesan, Pecorino, and Romano — are quite firmly packed into large forms and aged for months or years. Country of origin Switzerland Region, town Berne, Emme Source of milk Cows Pasteurized Traditionally, no Texture semi-hard Aging time 3-12 months depending on variety Certification No Emmental, Emmentaler, Emmenthal, or Emmental cheese is a Swiss cheese. ... Country of origin Switzerland Region, town Canton of Fribourg, Gruyères Source of milk Cows Pasteurized No Texture cooked, pressed, hard Aging time 5-12 months Certification Swiss AOC 2001 Gruyère is a hard yellow cheese made from cows milk, named after the town of Gruyères in... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Parmigiano_Reggiano. ... Pecorino Romano cheese Pecorino is the name of a variety of hard Italian cheeses made from sheeps milk. ... Romano cheese is a type of cheese that is known for being very hard, salty and sharp. ...


Methods

Use of mold

Soft-ripened cheeses such as Brie and Camembert are made by allowing white Penicillium candida or P. camemberti mold to grow on the outside of a soft cheese for a few days or weeks. The mold forms a white crust and contributes to the smooth, runny, or gooey textures and more intense flavors of these aged cheeses. Goats' milk cheeses are often treated in a similar manner, sometimes with white molds (Chèvre-Boîte) and sometimes with blue. Country of origin France Region, town Seine-et-Marne Source of milk Cows Pasteurized By law in the US and Australia, no in most of Europe Texture Soft-ripened Aging time at least 4 weeks Certification AOC for both Brie de Meaux and Brie de Melun Brie is a soft... Country of origin France Region, town Normandy, Camembert Source of milk Cows Pasteurized Normally no Texture Soft-ripened Aging time at least 3 weeks Certification Camembert de Normandie AOC 1983, PDO 1992 Camembert is a soft, creamy French cheese. ... This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... We dont have an article called Penicillium camemberti Start this article Search for Penicillium camemberti in. ...


Blue-mold cheeses like Roquefort, Gorgonzola, and Stilton are produced by inoculating loosely pressed curds with Penicillium roqueforti or Penicillium glaucum molds. The mold grows within the cheese as it ages. These cheeses have distinct blue veins and, often, assertive flavors. Their texture can be soft or firm. Country of origin France Region, town region surrounding Roquefort-sur-Soulzon Source of milk Ewe Pasteurized No Texture Semi-hard Aging time 3 months Certification AOC 1925 Roquefort is a flavorful ewes-milk blue cheese from the south of France, and one of the most famous of all French... Country of origin Italy Region, town Gorgonzola Source of milk Cow Pasteurized Yes Texture soft, crumbly Aging time 3–4 months Certification Italy: DOC from 1955; EU: PDO from 1996[1] Gorgonzola is a blue-veined Italian cheese, made from unskimmed cows milk. ... Country of origin England Region, town Derbyshire, Leicestershire, and Nottinghamshire Source of milk Cows Pasteurized Yes Texture semi-soft, crumbly Aging time 9 weeks minimum Certification PDO Stilton is a cheese of England. ... Penicillium roqueforti is a common saprophytic fungus, that is widespread in nature and can be isolated from soil, decaying organic substances and plant parts. ... Binomial name Penicillium notatum Westling Penicillium glaucum is a mold which is used in the making of many types of cheese including the french Bleu cheeses, Fourme dAmbert, Gorgonzola, and Stilton. ...


Washing

Washed-rind cheeses are periodically bathed in a saltwater brine as they age, making their surfaces amenable to a class of bacteria (the reddish-orange "smear bacteria") which impart pungent odors and distinctive flavors. Washed-rind cheeses can be soft (Limburger), semi-hard (Munster), or hard (Appenzeller). Brine is water saturated or nearly saturated with salt. ... Limburger is an aged cheese made from cows milk. ... Country of origin France Region, town Haut-Rhin, Munster Source of milk Cows Pasteurized No Texture Soft washed-rind Aging time 5 weeks to 3 months Certification AOC 1969 Munster Fermier is a cheese that comes from the Alsace region in France dating back to approximately the seventh century. ... Appenzeller cheese is a hard cows-milk cheese produced in the Appenzell region of northeast Switzerland. ...


Processed cheese is made from traditional cheese and emulsifying salts, often with the addition of milk, more salt, preservatives, and food coloring. It is inexpensive, consistent, and melts smoothly. This is the most-consumed category of cheese in the United States. The most familiar processed cheese may be pre-sliced mild yellow American Cheese or Velveeta. Many other varieties exist, including Easy Cheese, a Kraft Foods brand sold in a spray can. Processed cheese slices individually wrapped in plastic Processed cheese (or process cheese) is a food product made from regular cheese and other unfermented dairy ingredients, plus emulsifiers, extra salt, and food colorings. ... A preservative is a natural or synthetic chemical that is added to products such as foods, pharmaceuticals, paints, biological samples, etc. ... Food coloring spreading on a soap bubble A food coloring is any substance that is added to food to change its color. ... A box of Velveeta Cheese Velveeta is a brandname of processed cheese first made in 1918 by Swiss immigrant Emil Frey of the Monroe Cheese Company in Monroe, New York. ... Easy Cheese is the trademark for a processed cheese product distributed by Kraft Foods, also referred to as aerosol cheese or spray cheese. ... Kraft Foods Inc. ...


Health and nutrition

Cheese selection on market stand in Basel, Switzerland.
Cheese selection on market stand in Basel, Switzerland.

In general, cheese supplies a great deal of calcium, protein, and phosphorus. A 30 gram (one ounce) serving of cheddar cheese contains about seven grams of protein and 200 milligrams of calcium. Nutritionally, cheese is essentially concentrated milk: it takes about 200 grams (seven ounces) of milk to provide that much protein, and 150 grams to equal the calcium.[15] Cheese for sale at a market in Basle, Switzerland. ... Cheese for sale at a market in Basle, Switzerland. ... Basel (British English traditionally: Basle and more recently Basel , German: Basel , French: Bâle , Italian: Basilea ) is Switzerlands third most populous city (166,563 inhabitants (2004); 690,000 inhabitants in the conurbation stretching across the immediate cantonal and national boundaries made Basel Switzerlands second-largest urban area as... General Name, Symbol, Number calcium, Ca, 20 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, Period, Block 2, 4, s Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 40. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... General Name, Symbol, Number phosphorus, P, 15 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 15, 3, p Appearance waxy white/ red/ black/ colorless Atomic mass 30. ...


Cheese shares milk's nutritional disadvantages as well. The Center for Science in the Public Interest describes cheese as America's number one source of saturated fat, adding that the average American ate 30 pounds (13.6 kg) of cheese in the year 2000, up from 11 pounds (5 kg) in 1970.[16] Their recommendation is to limit full-fat cheese consumption to two ounces (60 grams) a week. Whether cheese's highly saturated fat actually leads to an increased risk of heart disease is called into question when considering France and Greece, which lead the world in cheese eating (more than 14 ounces (400 grams) a week per person, or over 45 pounds (20 kg) a year) yet have relatively low rates of heart disease.[17] This seeming discrepancy is called the French Paradox; the higher rates of consumption of red wine in these countries is often invoked as at least a partial explanation. // Mission The Center for Science in the Public Interest (CSPI) is an American not-for-profit corporation that focuses on issues relating to foods and the food services industry. ... Saturated fat is fat that consists of triglycerides containing only saturated fatty acids. ... The French paradox refers to the fact that people in France suffer relatively low incidence of coronary heart disease, despite their diet being rich in saturated fats. ... This article is about the beverage. ...


A number of food safety agencies around the world have warned of the risks of raw-milk cheeses. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration states that soft raw-milk cheeses can cause "serious infectious diseases including listeriosis, brucellosis, salmonellosis and tuberculosis".[18] It is U.S. law since 1944 that all raw-milk cheeses (including imports since 1951) must be aged at least 60 days. Australia has a wide ban on raw-milk cheeses as well, though in recent years exceptions have been made for Swiss Gruyère, Emmental and Sbrinz, and for French Roquefort.[19] Some say these worries are overblown, pointing out that pasteurization of the milk used to make cheese does not ensure its safety in any case.[20] This is supported by statistics showing that in Europe (where young raw-milk cheeses are still legal in some countries), most cheese-related food poisoning incidents were traced to pasteurized cheeses. Pregnant women may face an additional risk from cheese; the U.S. Centers for Disease Control has warned pregnant women against eating soft-ripened cheeses and blue-veined cheeses, due to the listeria risk to the unborn baby.[21] The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is an agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services and is responsible for regulating food (humans and animal), dietary supplements, drugs (human and animal), cosmetics, medical devices (human and animal) and radiation emitting devices (including non-medical devices), biologics, and... Salmonellosis is an infection with Salmonella bacteria. ... Tuberculosis (abbreviated as TB for Tubercle Bacillus) is a common and deadly infectious disease caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which most commonly affects the lungs (pulmonary TB) but can also affect the central nervous system, lymphatic system, circulatory system, genitourinary system, bones and joints. ... Country of origin Switzerland Region, town Canton of Fribourg, Gruyères Source of milk Cows Pasteurized No Texture cooked, pressed, hard Aging time 5-12 months Certification Swiss AOC 2001 Gruyère is a hard yellow cheese made from cows milk, named after the town of Gruyères in... Country of origin Switzerland Region, town Berne, Emme Source of milk Cows Pasteurized Traditionally, no Texture semi-hard Aging time 3-12 months depending on variety Certification No Emmental, Emmentaler, Emmenthal, or Emmental cheese is a Swiss cheese. ... Sbrinz is a very hard cheese produced in central Switzerland. ... Country of origin France Region, town region surrounding Roquefort-sur-Soulzon Source of milk Ewe Pasteurized No Texture Semi-hard Aging time 3 months Certification AOC 1925 Roquefort is a flavorful ewes-milk blue cheese from the south of France, and one of the most famous of all French... Pasteurization (or pasteurisation) is the process of heating food for the purpose of killing harmful organisms such as bacteria, viruses, protozoa, molds, and yeasts. ... Foodborne illness or food poisoning is caused by consuming food contaminated with pathogenic bacteria, toxins, viruses, prions or parasites. ... The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta, Georgia, is recognized as the leading United States agency for protecting the public health and safety of people. ... Species Listeria monocytogenes Listeria ivanovii Listeria innocua Listeria welshimeri Listeria seegligeri Listeria grayi Listeria innocua Listeria is a bacterial genus containing six species. ...


Some studies claim to show that cheeses including Cheddar, Mozzarella, Swiss and American can help to prevent tooth decay.[22] Several mechanisms for this protection have been proposed: Types of teeth Molars are used for grinding up foods Carnassials are used for slicing food. ...

  • The calcium, protein, and phosphorus in cheese may act to protect tooth enamel.
  • Cheese increases saliva flow, washing away acids and sugars.
  • Cheese may have an antibacterial effect in the mouth.

Cheese is often avoided by those who are lactose intolerant, but ripened cheeses like Cheddar contain only about 5% of the lactose found in whole milk, and aged cheeses contain almost none.[23] Some people suffer reactions to amines found in cheese, particularly histamine and tyramine. Some aged cheeses contain significant concentrations of these amines, which can trigger symptoms mimicking an allergic reaction: headaches, rashes, and blood pressure elevations. Tooth enamel is the hardest and most highly mineralized substance of the body , and with dentin, cementum, and dental pulp is one of the four major parts of the tooth. ... Country of origin England Region, town Somerset, Cheddar Source of milk Cows Pasteurized Frequently Texture hard/semi-hard Aging time 3-30 months depending on variety Certification No Cheddar cheese is a pale yellow, sharp-tasting cheese originally made in the English village of Cheddar, in Somerset. ... Lactose is a disaccharide that consists of β-D-galactose and β-D-glucose molecules bonded through a β1-4 glycosidic linkage. ... A glass of cows milk Milk is the nutrient fluid produced by the mammary glands of female mammals (including monotremes). ... Ammonia Amines are organic compounds containing nitrogen as the key atom in the amine functional group. ... Histamine is a biogenic amine chemical involved in local immune responses as well as regulating physiological function in the gut and acting as a neurotransmitter. ... Tyramine (4-hydroxy-phenethylamine) is a monoamine compound derived from the amino acid tyrosine. ... Pancreatitus can be caused by an Allergic Reaction to a food. ... A headache (medically known as cephalalgia, sometimes spelled as cephalgia) is a condition of pain in the head; sometimes neck or upper back pain may also be interpreted as a headache. ... A typical rash A rash is a change in the skin which affects its appearance or texture. ... A sphygmomanometer, a device used for measuring blood pressure. ...


It should also perhaps be noted that under certain scientifically controlled dietery studies, people whose diets which particularly consisted of the high intake of dairy foods had shown that obesity had prevailed at a higher rate than of those persons whose diets consisted of only vegetable based fats.


Making cheese

Curdling

The only strictly required step in making any sort of cheese is separating the milk into solid curds and liquid whey. Usually this is done by acidifying the milk and adding rennet. The acidification is accomplished directly by the addition of an acid like vinegar in a few cases (paneer, queso fresco), but usually starter bacteria are employed instead. These starter bacteria convert milk sugars into lactic acid. The same bacteria (and the enzymes they produce) also play a large role in the eventual flavor of aged cheeses. Most cheeses are made with starter bacteria from the Lactococci, Lactobacilli, or Streptococci families. Swiss starter cultures also include Propionibacter shermani, which produces carbon dioxide gas bubbles during aging, giving Swiss cheese or Emmental its holes. Curd is a dairy product obtained by curdling (coagulating) milk with rennet or an edible acidic substance such as lemon juice or vinegar and then draining off the liquid portion (called whey). ... Whey or milk plasma is the liquid remaining after milk has been curdled and strained; it is a by-product of the manufacture of cheese or casein and has several commercial uses. ... Rennet is a substance used to coagulate milk, causing it to separate into solids (curds) and liquid (whey). ... Vinegar is often infused with spices or herbs—as here, with oregano. ... Paneer (, from Persian پنير sometimes spelled Panir or Paner), is the most common Indian form of cheese. ... Queso blanco is a soft, unaged white cheese. ... Subgroups Actinobacteria Aquificae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chlamydiae/Verrucomicrobia Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are microscopic, unicellular organisms. ... Lactose is the sugar making up around 2-8% of the solids in milk. ... Lactic acid (IUPAC systematic name: 2-hydroxypropanoic acid), also known as milk acid, is a chemical compound that plays a role in several biochemical processes. ... Lactococci is a bacteria used in Cheese production, as a starter bacteria. ... Species L. acidophilus L. bulgaricus L. plantarum L.reuteri etc. ... Species S. pneumoniae S. pyogenes S. viridans Streptococcus is a genus of spherical, Gram-positive bacteria of the phylum Firmicutes. ... Propionibacter shermani is a form of bacteria used in the production of cheese. ... Cubes of Swiss cheese Swiss cheese is the generic name, in the United States, Canada and Australia, for several related varieties of cheese, all of which resemble the Swiss Emmentaler. ... Country of origin Switzerland Region, town Berne, Emme Source of milk Cows Pasteurized Traditionally, no Texture semi-hard Aging time 3-12 months depending on variety Certification No Emmental, Emmentaler, Emmenthal, or Emmental cheese is a Swiss cheese. ...


Some fresh cheeses are curdled only by acidity, but most cheeses also use rennet. Rennet sets the cheese into a strong and rubbery gel compared to the fragile curds produced by acidic coagulation alone. It also allows curdling at a lower acidity—important because flavor-making bacteria are inhibited in high-acidity environments. In general, softer, smaller, fresher cheeses are curdled with a greater proportion of acid to rennet than harder, larger, longer-aged varieties. Rennet is a substance used to coagulate milk, causing it to separate into solids (curds) and liquid (whey). ... A gel (from the lat. ...


Curd processing

During industrial production of Emmental cheese, the as-yet-undrained curd is broken up by rotating mixers.
During industrial production of Emmental cheese, the as-yet-undrained curd is broken up by rotating mixers.

At this point, the cheese has set into a very moist gel. Some soft cheeses are now essentially complete: they are drained, salted, and packaged. For most of the rest, the curd is cut into small cubes. This allows water to drain from the individual pieces of curd. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (3456x2304, 1373 KB) Production of cheese. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (3456x2304, 1373 KB) Production of cheese. ... Country of origin Switzerland Region, town Berne, Emme Source of milk Cows Pasteurized Traditionally, no Texture semi-hard Aging time 3-12 months depending on variety Certification No Emmental, Emmentaler, Emmenthal, or Emmental cheese is a Swiss cheese. ...


Some hard cheeses are then heated to temperatures in the range of 35°C–55°C (100°F–130°F). This forces more whey from the cut curd. It also changes the taste of the finished cheese, affecting both the bacterial culture and the milk chemistry. Cheeses that are heated to the higher temperatures are usually made with thermophilic starter bacteria which survive this step—either lactobacilli or streptococci. Thermophiles produce some of the bright colors of Grand Prismatic Spring, Yellowstone National Park A thermophile is an organism &#8211; a type of extremophile &#8211; which thrives at relatively high temperatures, up to about 60 °C. Many thermophiles are archaea. ... Species L. acidophilus L. bulgaricus L. plantarum L.reuteri etc. ... Streptococcus salivarius is a streptococcus bacteria used to produce yogurt and some cheeses. ...


Salt has a number of roles in cheese besides adding a salty flavor. It preserves cheese from spoiling, draws moisture from the curd, and firms up a cheese’s texture in an interaction with its proteins. Some cheeses are salted from the outside with dry salt or brine washes. Most cheeses have the salt mixed directly into the curds. This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ...


A number of other techniques can be employed to influence the cheese's final texture and flavor. Some examples:

  • Stretching: (Mozzarella, Provolone) The curd is stretched and kneaded in hot water, developing a stringy, fibrous body.
  • Cheddaring: (Cheddar, other English cheeses) The cut curd is repeatedly piled up, pushing more moisture away. The curd is also mixed (or milled) for a long period of time, taking the sharp edges off the cut curd pieces and influencing the final product's texture.
  • Washing: (Edam, Gouda, Colby) The curd is washed in warm water, lowering its acidity and making for a milder-tasting cheese.

Most cheeses achieve their final shape when the curds are pressed into a mold or form. The harder the cheese, the more pressure is applied. The pressure drives out moisture — the molds are designed to allow water to escape — and unifies the curds into a single solid body. Country of origin Italy Region, town Campania and elsewhere Source of milk Cow or Water buffalo Pasteurized Yes and No Texture Semi-soft Aging time None Certification no, Stg and Dop 1996[1] Mozzarella is a generic term for the several kinds of Italian fresh cheese that are made using... Country of origin Italy Region, town Southern Italy Source of milk Cows Pasteurized Depends on variety Texture Semi-hard Aging time at least 4 months Certification Provolone Val Padana: D.O.: 9 April 1963 PDO: 6 December 1966 Provolone is an Italian cheese that originated in southern Italy, where it... Country of origin England Region, town Somerset, Cheddar Source of milk Cows Pasteurized Frequently Texture hard/semi-hard Aging time 3-30 months depending on variety Certification No Cheddar cheese is a pale yellow, sharp-tasting cheese originally made in the English village of Cheddar, in Somerset. ... Country of origin The Netherlands Region, town Edam-Volendam, Edam Source of milk Cows Pasteurized Yes Texture Semi-hard Aging time up to 10 months Certification No Edamer cheese is a Dutch cheese that is traditionally sold as spheres with pale yellow interior and a coat of red or yellow... Country of origin The Netherlands Region, town South Holland, Gouda Source of milk Cows Pasteurized Yes Texture semi-hard Aging time 4-18 months Certification  ?? Gouda is a yellowish Dutch cheese named after the city of Gouda. ... Colby cheese was developed in Colby, Wisconsin, in 1885, by Joseph F. Steinwand. ...


Aging

A newborn cheese is usually salty yet bland in flavor and, for harder varieties, rubbery in texture. These qualities are sometimes enjoyed—cheese curds are eaten on their own—but usually cheeses are left to rest under carefully controlled conditions. This aging period (also called ripening, or, from the French, affinage) can last from a few days to several years. As a cheese ages, microbes and enzymes transform its texture and intensify its flavor. This transformation is largely a result of the breakdown of casein proteins and milkfat into a complex mix of amino acids, amines, and fatty acids. A bowl of Wisconsin cheese curds Cheese curds are the fresh curds of cheddar cheese. ... Casein is the predominant phosphoprotein found in fresh milk and also in cheese. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... Butterfat or milkfat is the fatty portion of milk. ... The general structure of an amino acid molecule, with the amine group on the left and the carboxyl group on the right. ... The general structure of an amine Amines are organic compounds and a type of functional group that contain nitrogen as the key atom. ... In chemistry, especially biochemistry, a fatty acid is a carboxylic acid often with a long unbranched aliphatic tail (chain), which is either saturated or unsaturated. ...

Vacherin du Haut-Doubs cheese, a French cheese with a white Penicillium mold rind.
Vacherin du Haut-Doubs cheese, a French cheese with a white Penicillium mold rind.

Some cheeses have additional bacteria or molds intentionally introduced to them before or during aging. In traditional cheesemaking, these microbes might be already present in the air of the aging room; they are simply allowed to settle and grow on the stored cheeses. More often today, prepared cultures are used, giving more consistent results and putting fewer constraints on the environment where the cheese ages. ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (822x517, 58 KB) Vacherin du Haut-Doubs cheese, France. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (822x517, 58 KB) Vacherin du Haut-Doubs cheese, France. ... Microscopic photo of the hyphae and spores of Aspergillus fumigatus Moldy bread Moldy nectarines Molds (or moulds) are microscopic multinucleated multicellular fungi made up of hyphae (tube-like structures) which are usually separated from each other by divisions called septa. ...


For the blue cheeses (Roquefort, Stilton, Gorgonzola), Penicillium mold is introduced to the curd before molding. During aging, the blue molds (P. roqueforti or P. glaucum ) grow in the small fissures in the cheese, imparting a sharp flavor and aroma. The same molds are also grown on the surface of some aged goat cheeses. The soft cheeses Brie and Camembert, among others, get a surface growth of other Penicillium species, white-colored P. candidum or P. camemberti. The surface mold contributes to the interior texture and flavor of these small cheeses. Bleu cheese, or blue cheese is a general classification of cows milk, sheeps milk and/or goats milk cheeses that has had Penicillium cultures added so that the final product is spotted or veined throughout with blue or blue-green mould. ... Country of origin France Region, town region surrounding Roquefort-sur-Soulzon Source of milk Ewe Pasteurized No Texture Semi-hard Aging time 3 months Certification AOC 1925 Roquefort is a flavorful ewes-milk blue cheese from the south of France, and one of the most famous of all French... Country of origin England Region, town Derbyshire, Leicestershire, and Nottinghamshire Source of milk Cows Pasteurized Yes Texture semi-soft, crumbly Aging time 9 weeks minimum Certification PDO Stilton is a cheese of England. ... Country of origin Italy Region, town Gorgonzola Source of milk Cow Pasteurized Yes Texture soft, crumbly Aging time 3–4 months Certification Italy: DOC from 1955; EU: PDO from 1996[1] Gorgonzola is a blue-veined Italian cheese, made from unskimmed cows milk. ... Species Penicillium notatum Penicillium glaucum Penicillium candida Penicillium roqueforti Penicillium marneffei Penicillium bilaiae Penicillium, commonly known as bread mold, is a genus of fungus that includes: Penicillium notatum, which produces the penicillin antibiotic. ... Penicillium roqueforti is a common saprophytic fungus, that is widespread in nature and can be isolated from soil, decaying organic substances and plant parts. ... Binomial name Penicillium notatum Westling Penicillium glaucum is a mold which is used in the making of many types of cheese including the french Bleu cheeses, Fourme dAmbert, Gorgonzola, and Stilton. ... Cheese is a solid food made from the curdled milk of various animals—most commonly cows but sometimes goats, sheep, reindeer, and water buffalo. ... Country of origin France Region, town Seine-et-Marne Source of milk Cows Pasteurized By law in the US and Australia, no in most of Europe Texture Soft-ripened Aging time at least 4 weeks Certification AOC for both Brie de Meaux and Brie de Melun Brie is a soft... Country of origin France Region, town Normandy, Camembert Source of milk Cows Pasteurized Normally no Texture Soft-ripened Aging time at least 3 weeks Certification Camembert de Normandie AOC 1983, PDO 1992 Camembert is a soft, creamy French cheese. ... This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... We dont have an article called Penicillium camemberti Start this article Search for Penicillium camemberti in. ...


Some cheeses are periodically washed in a saltwater brine during their ripening. Not only does the brine carry flavors into the cheese (it might be seasoned with spices or wine), but the salty environment may nurture the growth of the Brevibacterium linens bacteria, which can impart a very pronounced odor (Limburger) and interesting flavor. The same bacteria can also have some impact on cheeses that are simply ripened in humid conditions, like Camembert. Large populations of these "smear bacteria" show up as a sticky orange-red layer on some brine-washed cheeses. Brine is water saturated or nearly saturated with salt. ... Screen shot of Spice OPUS, a fork of Berkeley SPICE SPICE (Simulation Program with Integrated Circuits Emphasis) is a general purpose analog circuit simulator. ... Wine is an alcoholic beverage produced by the fermentation of the juice of fruits, usually grapes. ... Limburger is an aged cheese made from cows milk. ... Humidity is the quantity of moisture in the air. ... Country of origin France Region, town Normandy, Camembert Source of milk Cows Pasteurized Normally no Texture Soft-ripened Aging time at least 3 weeks Certification Camembert de Normandie AOC 1983, PDO 1992 Camembert is a soft, creamy French cheese. ...


Eating and cooking

At refrigerator temperatures, the fat in a piece of cheese is as hard as unsoftened butter, and its protein structure is stiff as well. Flavor and odor compounds are less easily liberated when cold. For improvements in flavor and texture, it is widely advised that cheeses be allowed to warm up to room temperature before eating. If the cheese is further warmed, to 26–32°C (80–90°F), the fats will begin to to "sweat out" as they go beyond soft to fully liquid.[24] It has been suggested that Freezer be merged into this article or section. ... Butter is commonly sold in sticks (pictured) or small blocks, and frequently served with the use of a butter knife. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ...


At higher temperatures, most cheeses melt. Rennet-curdled cheeses have a gel-like protein matrix that is broken down by heat. When enough protein bonds are broken, the cheese itself turns from a solid to a viscous liquid. Soft, high-moisture cheeses will melt at around 55°C (130°F), while hard, low-moisture cheeses such as Parmesan remain solid until they reach about 82°C (180°F).[25] Acid-set cheeses, including halloumi, paneer, some whey cheeses and many varieties of fresh goat cheese, have a protein structure that remains intact at high temperatures. When cooked, these cheeses just get firmer as water evaporates. A gel (from the lat. ... Halloumi (Χαλλούμι) (also sometimes transcribed as halumi or haloumi) is a cheese indigenous to Cyprus. ... Paneer (, from Persian پنير sometimes spelled Panir or Paner), is the most common Indian form of cheese. ... Cheese is a solid food made from the curdled milk of various animals—most commonly cows but sometimes goats, sheep, reindeer, and water buffalo. ...


Some cheeses, like raclette, melt smoothly; many tend to become stringy or suffer from a separation of their fats. Many of these can be coaxed into melting smoothly in the presence of acids or starch. Fondue, with wine providing the acidity, is a good example of a smoothly-melted cheese dish.[26] Elastic stringiness is a quality that is sometimes enjoyed, in dishes including pizza and Welsh rabbit. Even a melted cheese eventually turns solid again, after enough moisture is cooked off. As its temperature continues to rise, cheese will brown and eventually burn. Country of origin Switzerland, France Region, town Valais, Savoie, Franche-Comté, Brittany Source of milk Cows Pasteurized No Texture uncooked, semi-firm, pressed Aging time 3-6 months Certification AOC 2003 Raclette is both a type of cheese and a fondue-like dish featuring the cheese. ... Starch(CAS# 9005-25-8) is a complex carbohydrate which is insoluble in water; it is used by plants as a way to store excess glucose. ... A fondue set Fondue refers to several French Swiss communal dishes shared at the table in an earthenware pot (caquelon) over a small burner (réchaud). The term fondue comes from the French fondre (to melt), referring to the fact that the contents of the pot are kept in a... A pepperoni pizza Pizza (IPA pronunciation: ) or Pizza Pie, is the name of an oven-baked, flat, usually round bread covered with tomato sauce with optional toppings. ... Welsh rabbit – or rarebit – is a traditional British snack dish, also known as toasted cheese. ... BBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIiiiCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEe Category: ...


Cheese in language

Throughout the history of the English language, the word cheese has been chese (in Middle English) and cīese or cēse (in Old English). Similar words are shared by other West Germanic languagesFrisian tsiis, Dutch kaas, German Käse, Old High German chāsi — all of which probably come from the reconstructed West-Germanic root *kasjus, which in turn is an early borrowing from Latin. The Latin word caseus — from which are derived the Spanish queso, Portuguese queijo,Malay/Indonesian Language keju, Romanian caş and Italian cacio — and the Celtic root which gives the Irish cáis and the Welsh caws are also related. This whole group of words is probably derived from the proto-Indo-European root *kwat-, which means "to ferment, become sour". The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Middle English is the name given by historical linguistics to the diverse forms of the English language spoken between the Norman invasion of 1066 and the mid-to-late 15th century, when the Chancery Standard, a form of London-based English, began to become widespread, a process aided by the... Note: This page contains phonetic information presented in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) using Unicode. ... The Germanic languages in Europe are divided into North (blue) and West Germanic (green and orange) Languages  Low Saxon-Low Franconian (Dutch)  High German (standard German, Schwyzerdütsch)  Insular Anglo-Frisian (English, Scots)  Continental Anglo-Frisian (Frisian)  East North Germanic (Danish, BokmÃ¥l Norwegian, Swedish)  West North Germanic (Nynorsk Norwegian... Frisian (Frysk) is a Germanic group of closely related languages, spoken by about half a million members of an ethnic group living on the southern fringes of the North Sea in the Netherlands and Germany. ... The term Old High German (OHG, German: Althochdeutsch) refers to the earliest stage of the German language and it conventionally covers the period from around 500 to 1050. ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ... // Headline text Bold text Not to be confused with the Malayalam language, spoken in India. ... The Celtic languages are the languages descended from Proto-Celtic, or Common Celtic, spoken by ancient and modern Celts alike. ... Welsh redirects here, and this article describes the Welsh language. ... The Proto-Indo-European language (PIE) is the hypothetical common ancestor of the Indo-European languages, believed to have been spoken around 4000 BC in Central Asia (according to the Kurgan hypothesis) or millennia before that in Anatolia (according to the Anatolian hypothesis). ...


When the Romans began to make hard cheeses for their legionaries' supplies, a new word started to be used: formaticum, from caseus formatus, or "molded cheese". It is from this word that we get the French fromage, Italian formaggio, Catalan formatge, Breton fourmaj and Provençal furmo. Cheese itself is occasionally employed in a sense that means "molded" or "formed". Head cheese uses the word in this sense. Catalan in Europe Catalan IPA: (català ) is a Romance language, the official language of Andorra and co-official in the Spanish autonomous communities of Balearic Islands, Valencia (under the name Valencian) and Catalonia. ... Breton (Breton: Brezhoneg) is a Celtic language spoken by some of the inhabitants of Brittany (Breizh) and Loire-Atlantique (historically part of Brittany) in France. ... Provençal (Provençau in Provençal language) is one of several dialects spoken by a minority of people in southern France and other areas of France and Italy. ... Head cheese is in fact not a cheese, but rather a terrine made of meat taken from the head of a calf or pig (sometimes a sheep or cow) that would not otherwise be considered appealing. ...


In modern English slang, something "cheesy" is kitsch, cheap, inauthentic, or of poor quality. One can also be "cheesed off"— unhappy or annoyed. Such negative connotations might derive from a ripe cheese's sometimes-unpleasant odor. Almost certainly the odor explains the use of "cutting the cheese" as a euphemism for flatulence, and the term "cheesy feet" to mean feet which smell. A more upbeat slang use is seen in "the big cheese", an expression referring to the most important person in a group, the "big shot" or "head honcho". This use of the word probably derived not from the word cheese, but from the Persian or Hindi word chiz, meaning a thing.[27] Slang is the use of highly informal words and expressions that are not considered standard in the speakers dialect or language. ... Kitsch is a German term that has been used to categorize art that is considered an inferior copy of an existing style. ... A euphemism is an expression intended by the speaker to be less offensive, disturbing, or troubling to the listener than the word or phrase it replaces, or in the case of doublespeak to make it less troublesome for the speaker. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with fart. ... A human foot - Enlarge to view legend The foot is a biological structure found in many animals that is used for locomotion. ... Persian, (local name: FārsÄ« or PārsÄ«), is an Indo-European language spoken in Iran, Afghanistan, Tajikistan and by minorities in Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Georgia, Southern Russia, neighboring countries, and elsewhere. ... Hindi (हिन्दी) is a language spoken mainly in North and Central India. ...


A more whimsical bit of American and Canadian slang refers to school buses as "cheese wagons", a reference to school bus yellow. Subjects of photographs are often encouraged to "say cheese!", as the word "cheese" contains the phoneme /i/, a long vowel which requires the lips to be stretched in the appearance of a smile.[28] People from Wisconsin and the Netherlands, both centers of cheese production, have been called cheeseheads. This nickname has been embraced by Wisconsin sports fans — especially fans of the Green Bay Packers or Wisconsin Badgers — who are now seen in the stands sporting plastic or foam hats in the shape of giant cheese wedges. The school bus yellow paint was shining brightly on this new 1973 Wayne Lifeguard school bus won in a national contest for safety ideas. ... A photograph (often shortened to photo) is an image created by focusing light onto material having a light-sensitive coating. ... This page is a candidate to be copied to Wiktionary. ... In human language, a phoneme is a set of phones (speech sounds or sign elements) that are cognitively equivalent. ... Vowels Near-close Close-mid Mid Open-mid Near-open Open Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a rounded vowel. ... In linguistics, vowel length is the duration of a vowel sound. ... A natural smile without teeth showing A natural smile with teeth showing A female smiling In physiology, a smile is a facial expression formed by flexing muscles most notably near both ends of the mouth, but also around the eyes. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Cheesehead is a nickname (sometimes used derogatorily) referring to a person from either Wisconsin or the Netherlands, referring to the large volume of cheese production in those locales. ... City Green Bay, Wisconsin Team colors Dark Green, Gold, and White Head Coach Mike McCarthy Owner 111,967 stockholders Chairman Bob Harlan General manager Ted Thompson Fight song Go! You Packers! Go! League/Conference affiliations Independent (1919-1920) National Football League (1921–present) Western Division (1933-1949) National Conference (1950... The University of Wisconsin-Madison is a public research university located in Madison, Wisconsin. ...


References

  1. ^ Quoted in Newsweek, October 1, 1962 according to The Columbia Dictionary of Quotations (Columbia University Press, 1993 ISBN 0-231-07194-9 p 345). Numbers besides 246 are often cited in very similar quotes; whether these are misquotes or whether de Gaulle repeated the same quote with different numbers is unclear.
  2. ^ Smith, John H. (1995). Cheesemaking in Scotland - A History. The Scottish Dairy Association. ISBN 0-9525323-0-1.. Full text, Chapter with cheese timetable.
  3. ^ Cecil Adams (1999). Straight Dope: How did the moon=green cheese myth start?. Retrieved October 15, 2005.
  4. ^ McGee, Harold (2004). On Food and Cooking (Revised Edition). Scribner. ISBN 0-684-80001-2. p 54. "In the United States, the market for process cheese [...] is now larger than the market for 'natural' cheese, which itself is almost exclusively factory-made."
  5. ^ United States Department of Agriculture for the US and non European countries [1]and Eurostat for European countries [2]
  6. ^ Sources: FAO and Eurostat.
  7. ^ UN Food & Agriculture Organisation (FAO)[3]
  8. ^ Source FAO[4]
  9. ^ CNIEL[5]
  10. ^ Cidilait, Le fromage [6]
  11. ^ Source USDA [7]
  12. ^ Rebecca Buckman (2003). "Let Then Eat Cheese". Far Eastern Economic Review 166 n. 49: 41. Full text
  13. ^ Toronto Public Health. Frequently Asked Questions about Halal Foods. Retrieved October 15, 2005.
  14. ^ McGee p 58, "Why Some People Can't Stand Cheese."
  15. ^ Nutritional data from CNN Interactive. Retrieved October 20, 2004.
  16. ^ Center for Science in the Public Interest (2001). Don't Say Cheese. Retrieved October 15, 2005.
  17. ^ McGee, p 67. McGee supports both this contention and that more food poisonings in Europe are caused by pasteurized cheeses than raw-milk.
  18. ^ FDA Warns About Soft Cheese Health Risk. Retrieved October 15, 2005.
  19. ^ Chris Mercer (2005). Australia lifts Roquefort cheese safety ban. Retrieved October 22, 2005.
  20. ^ Janet Fletcher. The Myths About Raw-Milk Cheese. Retrieved October 15, 2005.
  21. ^ Listeria and pregnancy, from the American Pregnancy Association. Retrieved 28 February 2006.
  22. ^ National Dairy Council. Specific Health Benefits of Cheese. Retrieved October 15, 2005.
  23. ^ Lactose Intolerance FAQs from the American Dairy Association. Retrieved October 15, 2005.
  24. ^ McGee, p. 63.
  25. ^ McGee, p. 64.
  26. ^ McGee, p. 66.
  27. ^ Michael Quinion (2000). World Wide Words: Big Cheese. Retrieved October 15, 2005.
  28. ^ Straight Dope Staff Report (2005). Why do photographers ask you to say "cheese"?. Retrieved October 15, 2005.
  • Jenkins, Steven (1996). Cheese Primer. Workman Publishing Company. ISBN 0-89480-762-5.
  • McGee, Harold (2004). On Food and Cooking (Revised Edition). Scribner. ISBN 0-684-80001-2. pp 51-63, "Cheese"
  • James Mellgren (2003). 2003 Specialty Cheese Manual, Part II: Knowing the Family of Cheese. Retrieved October 12, 2005.

The Newsweek logo Newsweek is a weekly news magazine published in New York City and distributed throughout the United States and internationally. ... The U.S. Department of Agriculture, also called the Agriculture Department, or USDA, is a Cabinet department of the United States Federal Government. ... The Statistical Office of the European Communities (Eurostat) is the statistical arm of the European Commission, producing data for the European Union and promoting harmonisation of statistical methods across the member states. ... FAO emblem With its headquarters in Rome, the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that works to raise levels of nutrition and standards of living; to improve the production, processing, marketing, and distribution of food and agricultural products; to promote rural development; and...

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  Results from FactBites:
 
Cheese - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (5000 words)
Cheese made from yaks' (chhurpi) or mares' milk is common on the Asian steppes; the national dish of Bhutan, ema datsi, is made from homemade cheese and hot peppers; and cheese is used in India, where paneer curries are popular.
Washed-rind cheeses are periodically bathed in a saltwater brine as they age, making their surfaces amenable to a class of bacteria (the reddish-orange "smear bacteria") which impart pungent odors and distinctive flavors.
Cheeses that are heated to the higher temperatures are usually made with thermophilic starter bacteria which survive this step—either lactobacilli or streptococci.
The Vegetarian Society UK - Information Sheet - Cheese & Rennet (1123 words)
Cheese is made by coagulating milk to give curds which are then separated from the liquid, whey, after which they can be processed and matured to produce a wide variety of cheeses.
Processed cheeses are either made with trimmings that are left over from the manufacture of other cheeses, or from dried milk powder.
Cheese is a good source of protein, calcium, zinc, and vitamin B12.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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