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Encyclopedia > Chechnya
Chechen Republic (English)
Чеченская Республика (Russian)
Нохчийн Республика (Chechen)

Location of the Chechen Republic in Russia
Coat of Arms Flag

Coat of arms of Chechnya

Flag of Chechnya
Anthem: Anthem of the Chechen Republic
Capital Grozny
Established January 11, 1991
Political status
Federal district
Economic region
Republic
Southern
North Caucasus
Code 20
Area
Area
- Rank
15,300 km²
77th
Population (as of the 2002 Census)
Population
- Rank
- Density
- Urban
- Rural
1,103,686 inhabitants
49th
72.1 inhab. / km²
33.8%
66.2%
Official languages Russian, Chechen
Government
President Ramzan Kadyrov
Chairman of the Government Odes Baysultanov
Legislative body Parliament
Constitution Constitution of the Chechen Republic
Official website
http://chechnya.gov.ru/
Chechnya Portal

The Chechen Republic (IPA: /ˈʧɛʧɨn rɪˈpʌblɨk/; Russian: Чече́нская Респу́блика, Chechenskaya Respublika; Chechen: Нохчийн Республика, Noxçiyn Respublika), or, informally, Chechnya (/ˈʧɛʧniːə/; Russian: Чечня́; Chechen: Нохчийчоь, Noxçiyçö), sometimes referred to as Ichkeria, Chechnia, Chechenia or Noxçiyn, is a federal subject of Russia. It is located in the Northern Caucasus mountains, in the Southern Federal District. It borders Stavropol Krai to the northwest, the republic of Dagestan to the northeast and east, Georgia to the south, and the republics of Ingushetia and North Ossetia to the west. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Heraldry in its most general sense encompasses all matters relating to the duties and responsibilities of officers of arms. ... For other uses, see Flag (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Coat_of_Chechnya. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Chechnya. ... Chechen Republic flag since 2004 The flag of Chechnya is a rectangle with sides in the ratio 2:3, the same ratio as the flag of the Russian Federation. ... A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that is evoking and eulogising the history, traditions and struggles of its people, recognised either by a countrys government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people. ... Anthem of the Chechen Republic was the national anthem of the separatist Chechen Republic of Ichkeria. ... For other uses of Grozny, see Grozny (disambiguation). ... is the 11th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... Russia is a federation which consists of 86 subjects[1]. These subjects are of equal federal rights in the sense that they have equal representation—two delegates each—in the Federation Council (upper house of the Russian parliament). ... All of the federal subjects of Russia are grouped into seven federal districts (Russian: , sing. ... Russia is divided into eleven economic regions (Russian: экономические районы, sing. ... The Russian Federation is divided into 88 federal subjects (constituent units), 21 of which are republics. ... Southern Federal District (Russian: Ю́жный федера́льный о́круг; tr. ... North Caucasus economic region (Russian: ; tr. ... This article is about the physical quantity. ... Here is a list of the 88 federal subjects of Russia in order of size. ... Square kilometre (U.S. spelling: square kilometer), symbol km², is a decimal multiple of SI unit of surface area square metre, one of the SI derived units. ... Russian Census of 2002 (Russian: ) was the first census of Russian Federation carried out on October 9, 2002. ... Here is a list of the 85* federal subjects of Russia in order of population according to the 2002 Census. ... The Chechen language has about 1,200,000 speakers, most of whom live in Russia. ... Chechnyas last de facto Presidental elections were held in 1997. ... This article or section needs copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone and/or spelling. ... A legislature is a type of representative deliberative assembly with the power to adopt laws. ... A website (alternatively, Web site or web site) is a collection of Web pages, images, videos and other digital assets that is hosted on one or several Web server(s), usually accessible via the Internet, cell phone or a LAN. A Web page is a document, typically written in HTML... Image File history File links Flag_of_Chechnya. ... The Chechen language has about 1,200,000 speakers, most of whom live in Russia. ... The Chechen language has about 1,200,000 speakers, most of whom live in Russia. ... Official language Chechen Capital Grozny President Abdul-Khalim Sadulayev Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % water Ranked 107th  99,274 km²  0. ... Russia is a federation which consists of 86 subjects[1]. These subjects are of equal federal rights in the sense that they have equal representation—two delegates each—in the Federation Council (upper house of the Russian parliament). ... Southern Federal District (Northern Caucasus) is one of the seven federal districts of Russia. ... Southern Federal District (Russian: Ю́жный федера́льный о́круг; tr. ... Stavropol Krai (Russian: ) is a federal subject of Russia (a krai). ... The Republic of Dagestan IPA: (Russian: ; Avar: , ), older spelling Daghestan, is a federal subject of the Russian Federation (a republic). ... The Russian Federation is divided into 88 federal subjects (constituent units), 21 of which are republics. ... The Republic of Ingushetia (Russian: ; Ingush: ГӀалгӀай Мохк) is a federal subject of Russia. ... The Republic of North Ossetia-Alania (Russian: Респу́блика Се́верная Осе́тия-Ала́ния; Ossetic: Цæгат Иры&#1089...


During the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, the Chechen-Ingush ASSR was split into the Republic of Ingushetia which wanted to remain part of Russia and the Chechen Republic of Ichkeria which sought independence. Following the First Chechen War with Russia, which included a mass exodus of non-Chechen minorities,[1] the republic gained a de facto sovereignty, although only the Afghan Taliban government recognised it in January 2000.[2] Russian federal control was restored after the Second Chechen War. Since then there has been a systematic reconstruction and rebuilding process, though unrest remains an issue. The rise of Gorbachev Although reform stalled between 1964–1982, the generational shift gave new momentum for reform. ... Chechen-Ingush Aautonomous Soviet Socialist Rrepublic, or Chechen-Ingush ASSR (Russian: ) was an autonomous republic within Russian SFSR. Its capital was Grozny. ... The Republic of Ingushetia (Russian: ; Ingush: ГӀалгӀай Мохк) is a federal subject of Russia. ... Official language Chechen Capital Grozny (Dzhokharabad, after 1996) President Doku Umarov Independence  â€“ Declared  â€“ Recognition From Russia  â€“ November 1, 1991  â€“ Georgian Republic National anthem Death or Freedom The Chechen Republic of Ichkeria IPA: (Нохчийн Республика Нохчийчоь) is the unrecognized secessionist government of Chechnya. ... Combatants Russian Federation Chechen Republic of Ichkeria Commanders Pavel Grachev Anatoly Kulikov Konstantin Pulikovsky Anatoliy Romanov Vyacheslav Tikhomirov Gennady Troshev Dzhokhar Dudayev  â€  Aslan Maskhadov Strength (December 11, 1994) Up to 50,000 soldiers and Interior Ministry (MVD) (December 11, 1994) 3,000 to 15,000[1] Casualties Military: At least... The Taliban (Pashto: , also anglicized as Taleban) are a Sunni Muslim Pashtun movement that ruled most of Afghanistan from 1995 until 2001, when their leaders were removed from power by a cooperative military effort between the United States, United Kingdom and the Northern Alliance. ... Combatants Russian Federation Pro-Russian Chechens Republic of Ichkeria Caucasian insurgents and foreign fighters Commanders Vladimir Putin Akhmad Kadyrov† Ramzan Kadyrov Aslan Maskhadov† Abdul Halim Sadulayev† Doku Umarov Shamil Basayev† Strength At least 93,000 in Chechnya in 1999. ...


See "Chechen people" for etymology of the name. In 2006 the former president, Alu Alkhanov, proposed changing the official name of the republic to Noxçiyn (or Nokhchiin) which is a transcription of the name in the Chechen language.[3] // Geography The Chechen people are mainly inhabitants of Chechnya, which is internationally recognized as part of Russia. ... Alu Alkhanov is the president of Russias Chechen Republic. ... Transcription is the conversion into written, typewritten or printed form, of a spoken language source, such as the proceedings of a court hearing. ... The Chechen language has about 1,200,000 speakers, most of whom live in Russia. ...

Contents

Geography

View of a gorge in the Caucasus Mountains in Chechnya
View of a gorge in the Caucasus Mountains in Chechnya

Situated in the eastern part of the North Caucasus, Chechnya is surrounded on nearly all sides by Russian Federal territory. In the west, it borders North Ossetia and Ingushetia, in the north, Stavropol Krai, in the east, Dagestan, and to the south, Georgia. Its capital is Grozny. Image File history File links View of a gorge in the Caucasus Mountains in Chechnya. ... Image File history File links View of a gorge in the Caucasus Mountains in Chechnya. ... The Caucasus Mountains are a mountain system between the Black and Caspian seas in the Caucasus region, usually considered the southeastern limit of Europe. ... North Caucasus in Russia The North Caucasus (sometimes referred to as Ciscaucasia or Ciscaucasus) is the northern part of the Caucasus region between Europe and Asia. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Republic of Ingushetia (Russian: ; Ingush: ГӀалгӀай Мохк) is a federal subject of Russia. ... Stavropol Krai (Russian: ) is a federal subject of Russia (a krai). ... The Republic of Dagestan IPA: (Russian: ; Avar: , ), older spelling Daghestan, is a federal subject of the Russian Federation (a republic). ...

Rivers: The Republic of Dagestan IPA: (Russian: ; Avar: , ), older spelling Daghestan, is a federal subject of the Russian Federation (a republic). ... The Republic of Ingushetia (Russian: ; Ingush: ГӀалгӀай Мохк) is a federal subject of Russia. ... Capital Vladikavkaz Area - total - % water Ranked 84th - 8,000 km² - negligible Population - Total - Density Ranked 68th - est. ... Stavropol Krai (Russian: ) is a federal subject of Russia (a krai). ...

The Terek (Те́рек) is a major river in the Northern Caucasus, flowing through Georgia and Russia into the Caspian Sea. ... Headline text Headline text Headline text Headline text Bold text Headline text Media:Example. ... For other uses, see Argun. ...

Time zone

Chechnya is located in the Moscow Time Zone (MSK/MSD). UTC offset is +0300 (MSK)/+0400 (MSD). Image File history File links RTZ2. ... Time zones of Europe: Light colours indicate countries not observing daylight saving Moscow Time (Russian: ) is the time zone for the city of Moscow, Russia and most of western Russia, including Saint Petersburg, Russia. ... “UTC” redirects here. ...

History

Main article: History of Chechnya

Ancient Christian caves of Vardzia Chechen society has traditionally been organized around many autonomous local clans, called teips. ...

Early history

In classical times the northern slopes of the Caucasus mountains were inhabited by the Circassians on the west and the Avars on the east. In between them, the Zygians occupied Zyx, approximately the area covered by north Ossetia, the Balkar, the Ingush and the Chechen republics today. Chechnya is a region in the Northern Caucasus which has constantly fought against foreign rule beginning with the Ottoman Turks in the 15th century. Eventually the Chechens converted to Islam and tensions began to die down with the Turks; however, conflicts with their Christian neighbours such as Georgians and Cossacks, as well as with the Buddhist Kalmyks intensified. The Russian Terek Cossack Host was established in lowland Chechnya in 1577 by free Cossacks resettled from the Volga to the Terek River. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Caucasus Mountains. ... Circassians is a term derived from the Turkic Cherkess (Çerkes), and is not the self-designation of any people. ... Avars or Caucasian Avars are a modern people of Caucasus, mainly of Dagestan, in which they are the predominant group. ... The Zygii (also known as , Zygoi, Zygi or Zygians) has been described by the ancient Greek intellectual Strabo as a nation to the north of Colchis. ... ZYX was made of of 5 H!P kids including Umeda Erika, Yajima Maimi, Tsugunaga Momoko, Shimizu Saki, and Murakami Megumi, and the leader Mari Yaguchi. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Balkar (малкъар /malqar/) people are a Turkic people of the Caucasus region, thet titular population of Kabardino-Balkaria. ... The Ingush are a people of the northern Caucasus, mostly inhabiting the Russian republic of Ingushetia. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Caucasus Mountains. ... The Ottoman Turks were the ethnic subdivision of the Turkish people who dominated the ruling class of the Ottoman Empire. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... This article needs cleanup. ... Kalmyk (alternatively Kalmuck, Kalmuk, or Kalmyki) is the name given to and later adopted by those Oirats who migrated en masse from Central Asia in the seventeenth century to settle in European Russia [8]. Alone among the peoples of Europe, the Kalmyks national religion is Buddhism. ... Terek Cossack Host (Russian: ) was a Cossack host created in 1577 from free Cossacks resettled from Volga to Terek River. ... For other meanings of the word Volga see Volga (disambiguation) Волга Length 3,690 km Elevation of the source 225 m Average discharge  ? m³/s Area watershed 1. ... The Terek (Те́рек) is a major river in the Northern Caucasus, flowing through Georgia and Russia into the Caspian Sea. ...


Caucasian Wars

Main article: Caucasian War

In 1783, Russia and the eastern Georgian kingdom of Kartl-Kakheti (which was devastated by Turkish and Persian invasions) signed the Treaty of Georgievsk, according to which Kartl-Kakheti received protection by Russia. In order to secure communications with Georgia and other regions of the Transcaucasia, the Russian Empire began spreading its influence into the Caucasus mountains. The current resistance to Russian rule has its roots in the late 18th century (1785-1791), a period when Russia expanded into territories formerly under the dominion of Turkey and Persia (see also the Russo-Turkish Wars and Russo-Persian War, 1804-13), under Mansur Ushurma—a Chechen Naqshbandi (Sufi) Sheikh—with wavering support from other North Caucasian tribes. Mansur hoped to establish a Transcaucasus Islamic state under shari'a law, but was ultimately unable to do so because of both Russian resistance and opposition from many Chechens (many of whom had not been converted to Islam at the time). Its banner was again picked up by the Avar Imam Shamil, who fought against the Russians from 1834 until 1859. Construction of the Georgian Military Road through disputed territories was a key factor in the eventual Russian success A Scene from the Caucasian War, by Franz Roubaud Russian Invasion of the Caucasus, better known in Russia as the Caucasian War of 1817-1864, was a series of military actions of... The Kingdom of Kartl-Kakheti was created in 1762 by unification of two Eastern Georgian kingdoms, which existed independently since the disintegration of Georgian Kingdom in the 15th century. ... The Treaty of Georgievsk established the protectorate of the Russian Empire on the Kingdom of Kartl-Kakheti (in the eastern Georgia) and an alliance between the two countries in 1783. ... For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... The Russo-Turkish Wars were a series of eleven wars fought between the Russian Empire and the Turkish-ruled Ottoman Empire during the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries. ... Russo-Persian War in 1804-13 was first of two wars fought between Persia and Imperial Russia In 1779, following the death of Mohammad Karim Khan Zand, the Zand dynasty ruler of southern Persia, Agha Mohammad Khan (reigned 1779-97), a leader of the Turkmen Qajar tribe, set out to... Sheikh Mansur was a Chechen shepherd who lead the Chechens against Catherine the Greats imperialist expansion into the Caucasus during the 18th century. ... Naqshbandi (Naqshbandiyya) is one of the major Sufi orders (tariqa) of Islam. ... Sufism (Arabic تصوف taṣawwuf) is a system of esoteric philosophy commonly associated with Islam. ... The Transcaucasus is a region covering the majority of Caucasus mountain range. ... Sharia ( Arabic شريعة also Sharia, Shariah or Syariah) is traditional Islamic law. ... Avars or Caucasian Avars are a modern people of Caucasus, mainly of Dagestan, in which they are the predominant group. ... Imam Shamil Imam Shamil (1797 – March 1871) was an Avar political and religious leader of the Muslim tribes of the Northern Caucasus. ...


Soviet rule

Chechen rebellion would characteristically flame up whenever the Russian state faced a period of internal uncertainty. Rebellions occurred during the Russo-Turkish War, the Russian Revolution of 1905, the Russian Revolution of 1917, Russian Civil War (see Mountainous Republic of the Northern Caucasus), and Collectivization. Under Soviet rule, Chechnya was combined with Ingushetia to form the autonomous republic of Chechen-Ingushetia in the late 1930s. Look up rebellion in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Combatants Russia, Romania Ottoman Empire The Russo-Turkish War of 1877–1878 had its origins in the Russian goal of gaining access to the Mediterranean Sea and liberating the Orthodox Christian Slavic peoples of the Balkan Peninsula (Bulgarians, Serbians) from the Islamic-ruled Ottoman Empire. ... ‹ The template below (Expand) is being considered for deletion. ... The Russian Revolution of 1917 was a series of political and social upheavals in Russia, involving first the overthrow of the tsarist autocracy, and then the overthrow of the liberal and moderate-socialist Provisional Government, resulting in the establishment of Soviet power under the control of the Bolshevik party. ... Combatants Local Soviet powers led by Russian SFSR and Red Army Far Eastern Republic Chinese Volunteers White Movement Allied Intervention: Japan Czechoslovakia Greece  United States  Canada Serbia Romania  Turkey UK  France Foreign volunteers: Polish Italian Local nationalist movements, national states, and decentralist movements  German Empire  Mongolia Warlords Commanders Vladimir Lenin... Flag Capital Temir-Khan-Shura Language(s) Chechen, Ingush, Ossetic, Dagestani languages Government Republic Historical era Interwar period  - Independence March, 1917  - Incorporated by the Soviet Union June, 1920 Currency Ruble The Mountainous Republic of the Northern Caucasus (MRNC; also known as the Mountain Republic or the Republic of the Mountaineers... Collective farming is an organizational unit in agriculture in which peasants are not paid wages, but rather receive a share of the farms net output. ... The Republic of Ingushetia (Russian: ; Ingush: ГӀалгӀай Мохк) is a federal subject of Russia. ... Look up autonomy, autonomous in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Chechen-Ingush Aautonomous Soviet Socialist Rrepublic, or Chechen-Ingush ASSR (Russian: ) was an autonomous republic within Russian SFSR. Its capital was Grozny. ...


The Chechens, though, again rose up against Soviet rule during the 1940s (see 1940-1944 Chechnya insurgency), resulting in the deportation of the entire ethnic Chechen and Ingush populations to the Kazakh SSR (later Kazakhstan) and Siberia in 1944 near the end of the World War II (see Population transfer in the Soviet Union).[4][5] Stalin and others argued this was punishment to the Chechens for providing assistance to the German forces; although the German front never made it to the border of Chechnya, an active guerrilla movement threatened to undermine the Soviet defenses of the Caucasus (noted writer Valentin Pikul claims that while the city of Grozny was being prepared for a siege in 1942, all of the air bombers stationed on the Caucasian front had to be re-directed towards quelling the Chechen insurrection instead of fighting Germans at the siege of Stalingrad). Chechen-Ingushetia was abolished and the Chechens were allowed to return to their homeland after 1956 during de-Stalinization, which occurred under Nikita Khrushchev. Combatants Chechen, Ingush and other mountaineer rebels German parachutists Soviet Union (NKVD) Commanders Hasan Israilov Mairbek Sheripov Lavrenty Beria Strength 5,000 (November 1941) 6,540-18,000 (February 1943)[1] Several dozen Germans [2][3] 110,000 (Operation Lentil) Casualties At least 4,368 killed (combatants)[2] 12,000... Deportation is the expelling of someone from a country. ... State motto: Барлық елдердің пролетарлары, бірігіңдер! (Workers of the world, unite!) Official language None. ... This article is about Siberia as a whole. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Not by Their Own Will. ... Iosif (usually anglicized as Joseph) Vissarionovich Stalin (Russian: Иосиф Виссарионович Сталин), original name Ioseb Jughashvili (Georgian: იოსებ ჯუღაშვი&#4314... “Guerrilla” redirects here. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Caucasus Mountains. ... Valentin Savvich Pikul (July 13, 1928 - July 16, 1990) was a popular and prolific Russian historical novelist of Latvian heritage. ... Insurrection could refer to: * in a general sense, it means Rebellion * it is also a title of a Star Trek film, see Star Trek: Insurrection ... Combatants Germany Romania Italy Hungary Soviet Union Commanders Adolf Hitler Friedrich Paulus # Erich von Manstein Hermann Hoth Petre Dumitrescu Constantin Constantinescu Italo Garibaldi Gusztav Jany Vasiliy Chuikov Aleksandr Vasilyevskiy Georgiy Zhukov Semyon Timoshenko Konstantin Rokossovskiy Rodion Malinovskiy Andrei Yeremenko Strength Army Group B: German Sixth Army # German Fourth Panzer Army... De-Stalinization and the Khrushchev era For further details, see Nikita Khrushchev After Stalin had died in March 1953, he was succeeded by Nikita Khrushchev as First Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party and Georgi Malenkov as Premier of the Soviet Union. ... Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev (Russian: , Nikita Sergeevič Chruščiov; IPA: , in English, , or , occasionally ); surname more accurately romanized as Khrushchyov[1]; April 17 [O.S. April 5] 1894[2]–September 11, 1971) was the chief director of the Soviet Union after the death of Joseph Stalin. ...


The Russification policies towards Chechens continued after 1956, with Russian language proficiency required in many aspects of life and for advancement in the Soviet system. Russification is an adoption of the Russian language or some other Russian attribute (whether voluntarily or not) by non-Russian communities. ... Russian ( , transliteration: , ) is the most geographically widespread language of Eurasia and the most widely spoken of the Slavic languages. ...


Recent events

With the impending collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, an independence movement, initially known as the Chechen National Congress was formed. This movement was ultimately opposed by Boris Yeltsin's Russian Federation, which argued, first, that Chechnya had not been an independent entity within the Soviet Union—as the Baltic, Central Asian, and other Caucasian States had—but was a part of the Russian Soviet Federal Socialist Republic and hence did not have a right under the Soviet constitution to secede; second, that other republics of Russia, such as Tatarstan, would join the Chechens and secede from the Russian Federation if they were granted that right; and third, that Chechnya was at a major chokepoint in the oil infrastructure of the country and hence would hurt the country's economy and control of oil resources. “Yeltsin” redirects here. ... State motto: Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! (Workers of the world, unite!) Official language None (Russian in practice) Capital Moscow Chairman of the Supreme... The Russian Federation is divided into 88 federal subjects (constituent units), 21 of which are republics. ... Republic of Tatarstan (Russian: ; Tatar Cyrillic: Татарстан Республикасы, Latin: Tatarstan Respublikası) is a federal subject of the Russian Federation (a republic). ...


In the ensuing decade, the territory has been locked in an ongoing struggle between various factions, usually fighting unconventionally and the forgoing position as held by the several successive Russian governments through the current administration. Various demographic factors including religious ones have continued to keep the area in a near constant state of war.


First Chechen War

Main article: First Chechen War

The First Chechen War occurred when Russian forces attempted to stop Chechnya from seceding in a two year period lasting from 1994 to 1996. Despite overwhelming manpower, weaponry and air support, the Russian forces were unable to establish effective control over the mountainous area due to many successful Chechen guerrilla raids. Widespread demoralization of the Russian forces in the area prompted Russian President Boris Yeltsin to declare a ceasefire in 1996 and sign a peace treaty a year later. Combatants Russian Federation Chechen Republic of Ichkeria Commanders Pavel Grachev Anatoly Kulikov Konstantin Pulikovsky Anatoliy Romanov Vyacheslav Tikhomirov Gennady Troshev Dzhokhar Dudayev  â€  Aslan Maskhadov Strength (December 11, 1994) Up to 50,000 soldiers and Interior Ministry (MVD) (December 11, 1994) 3,000 to 15,000[1] Casualties Military: At least... Close air support (often abbreviated CAS) is the use of military aircraft in a ground attack role against targets in close proximity to friendly troops, in support of ground combat operations. ... // Geography The Chechen people are mainly inhabitants of Chechnya, which is internationally recognized as part of Russia. ... “Guerrilla” redirects here. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... List of Presidents of Russia Boris Yeltsin1 (July 10, 1991 – December 31, 1999) two terms. ... A ceasefire is a temporary stoppage of a war or any armed conflict, where each side of the conflict agrees with the other to suspend aggressive actions. ... A peace treaty is an agreement (a peace treaty) between two hostile parties, usually countries or governments, that formally ends a war or armed conflict. ...


The war was disastrous for both sides. Conservative casualty estimates give figures of 7,500 Russian military dead, 4,000 Chechen combatants dead, and no fewer than 35,000 civilian deaths—a minimum total of 46,500 dead. Others have cited figures in the range 80,000 to 100,000.[6] A combatant (also referred to as an enemy combatant) is a soldier or guerrilla member who is waging war. ... In times of armed conflict a civilian is any person who is not a combatant. ...


Second Chechen War

Main article: Second Chechen War

In August 1999, Shamil Basayev began an unsuccessful incursion into the neighbouring Russian republic of Dagestan (see Dagestan War). In September the following year a series of apartment bombings took place in several Russian cities, including Moscow. In response, after a prolonged air campaign of retaliatory strikes against the Ichkerian regime (who was officially seen as the culprit of both the bombings and the incursion) a ground offensive began in October 1999. Much better organised and planned than the first Chechen War, the Russian Federal forces were able to quickly re-establish control over most regions and after the re-capture of Grozny in February 2000, the Ichkerian regime fell apart, although a prolonged guerrilla activity in the southern mountainous regions continues, despite becoming increasingly sporadic. Nonetheless Russia was successful in installing a pro-Moscow Chechen regime, and eliminating the most prominent separatist leaders including former President Aslan Maskhadov and terrorist leader Shamil Basayev. Combatants Russian Federation Pro-Russian Chechens Republic of Ichkeria Caucasian insurgents and foreign fighters Commanders Vladimir Putin Akhmad Kadyrov† Ramzan Kadyrov Aslan Maskhadov† Abdul Halim Sadulayev† Doku Umarov Shamil Basayev† Strength At least 93,000 in Chechnya in 1999. ... This article is about the year. ... Shamil Basayev in Dagestan, 1999 Shamil Salmanovich Basayev (Russian: Шамиль Салманович Басаев) (January 14, 1965 – July 10, 2006) was a Vice-President of the internationally unrecognized separatist government of the Chechen Republic of Ichkeria, Islamist guerrilla leader, self-admitted terrorist and a national hero for many Chechens. ... The Republic of Dagestan IPA: (Russian: ; Avar: , ), older spelling Daghestan, is a federal subject of the Russian Federation (a republic). ... Combatants Russian Federation Daghestani militia Chechen rebels Shura of Dagestan Commanders Viktor Kazantsev Shamil Basayev Ibn al-Khattab Strength 17,000 unknown Casualties At least 279 dead and 987 wounded 2,500 dead The Dagestan War (in Russia called by the name Chechen invasion of Dagestan) began when Chechnya-based... The Russian apartment bombings were a series of bombings in Russia that killed nearly 300 people and led the country into the Second Chechen War. ... Official language Chechen Capital Grozny President Abdul-Khalim Sadulayev Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % water Ranked 107th  99,274 km²  0. ... CULPRIT, properly the prisoner at the bar, one accused of a crime; so used, generally, of one guilty of an offence. ... For other uses of Grozny, see Grozny (disambiguation). ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ... Shamil Basayev in Dagestan, 1999 Shamil Salmanovich Basayev (Russian: Шамиль Салманович Басаев) (January 14, 1965 – July 10, 2006) was a Vice-President of the internationally unrecognized separatist government of the Chechen Republic of Ichkeria, Islamist guerrilla leader, self-admitted terrorist and a national hero for many Chechens. ...


Politics

Since 1990, the Chechen Republic has had legal, military, and civil conflicts involving separatist movements and pro-Russian authorities. Today, Chechnya is a relatively stable federal republic, although there is still some separatist movement there. Its regional constitution entered into effect on April 2, 2003 after an all-Chechen referendum was held on March 23, 2003. The independent observers alleged that the officially reported voter turnout seemed to be much higher than the reality.[7] Some Chechens are or were controlled by regional teips, or clans, despite the existence of pro- and anti-Russian political structures. Year 1990 (MCMXC) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar). ... The Federal Republic of Germany and its sixteen Bundesländer (federal states) A federal republic is a federation of states with a republican form of government. ... is the 92nd day of the year (93rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 82nd day of the year (83rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Teip (pronounced TAPE) is the name of a film and commercial production company located in Stavanger, Norway. ...

Chechnya and Caucasus map
Chechnya and Caucasus map

The motivations of the Russian and Chechens in these conflicts are complicated. Principally, Russia's stake in Chechnya relates to the fear that if Chechnya becomes independent, even more territories will break away from Russia, leading to its disintegration. Economic interests are another factor, as is a long standing conflict between Russia and Chechnya. File links The following pages link to this file: Chechnya Second Chechen War Ichkeria User:Kbh3rd/Images Categories: Caucasus maps ... File links The following pages link to this file: Chechnya Second Chechen War Ichkeria User:Kbh3rd/Images Categories: Caucasus maps ...


There are different groups within Chechnya fighting the Russians who have different political, economic and/or ideological motivations for doing so. Some of these derive from hatred and a desire for the revenge of past Russian military and political action in the region. Most notably the forced relocation in the 1940s of the entire population to Siberia, resulting in the estimated death of a quarter of the population. The combination of motives demonstrates the cycle of violence and hatred that often fuels regional conflicts of this nature, as well as a military culture that makes much of the population willing to engage in military struggle under the command of one leader. Unemployment and poverty are also factors in the prolonged conflict.


Regional Russian government

The former separatist religious leader (mufti) Akhmad Kadyrov, looked upon as a traitor by many separatists, was elected president with 83% of the vote in an internationally monitored election on October 5, 2003. Incidents of ballot stuffing and voter intimidation by Russian soldiers and the exclusion of separatist parties from the polls were subsequently reported by the OSCE monitors. On May 9, 2004, Kadyrov was assassinated in Grozny football stadium by a landmine explosion that was planted beneath a VIP stage and detonated during a parade, and Sergey Abramov was appointed to the position of acting prime minister after the incident. However, since 2005 Ramzan Kadyrov (son of Akhmad Kadyrov) has been caretaker prime minister, and in 2007 was appointed a new president. Many allege he is the wealthiest and most powerful man in the republic, with control over a large private militia referred to as the Kadyrovtsy. The militia – which began as his father's security force – has been accused of killings and kidnappings by human rights organizations such as Human Rights Watch. // Russian President Vladimir Putin established direct rule of Chechnya in May 2000. ... Akhmat Abdulkhamidovich Kadyrov (Russian: Ахмат Абдулхамидович Кадыров (August 23, 1951 – May 9, 2004) was the president of the Chechen Republic (elected on October 5, 2003). ... For other uses, see 5th October (Serbia). ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) is an international organization for security. ... is the 129th day of the year (130th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... “Minefield” redirects here. ... Sergei Abramov with Ramzan Kadyrov. ... This article or section needs copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone and/or spelling. ... Kadyrovtsy is a term used by the population of Chechnya – as well as members of the groups themselves - for members of the former so-called Security Service of the President of the Chechen Republic, headed by Ramzan Kadyrov, current prime minister of the republic. ... Human Rights Watch Banner Human Rights Watch is a United States-based international non-government organization that conducts research and advocacy on human rights. ...


Separatist government

In addition to the Russian regional government, there is a separatist Ichkeria government that is not currently recognized by any state (although members have been given political asylum in European and Arab countries, as well as the United States). The separatist government was recognised by Georgia (when Georgian President was Zviad Gamsakhurdia and Chechen President was Dzhokhar Dudaev). In 1999 the Taliban government of Afghanistan recognized independent Chechnya and opened an embassy in Kabul on 16 January 2000; recognition ceased with the fall of the Taliban in 2001. The president of this government was Aslan Maskhadov, the Foreign Minister was Ilyas Akhmadov, who was the spokesman for Maskhadov. Aslan Maskhadov had been elected in an internationally monitored election in 1997 for 4 years, which took place after signing a peace agreement with Russia. In 2001 he issued a decree prolonging his office for one additional year; he was unable to participate in the 2003 presidential election, since separatist parties were barred by the Russian government, and Maskhadov faced accusations of terrorist offences in Russia. Maskhadov left Grozny and moved to the separatist-controlled areas of the south at the onset of the Second Chechen War. Maskhadov was unable to influence a number of warlords who retain effective control over Chechen territory, and his power was diminished as a result. Russian forces killed Maskhadov on March 8, 2005, and the assassination of Maskhadov was widely criticized since it left no legitimate Chechen separatist leader to conduct peace talks with. Akhmed Zakayev, Deputy Prime Minister and a Foreign Minister under Maskhadov, was appointed shortly after the 1997 election and is currently living under asylum in England. He and others chose Abdul Khalim Saidullayev, a relatively unknown Islamic judge who was previously the host of an Islamic program on Chechen television, to replace Maskhadov following his death. On June 17, 2006, it was reported that Russian special forces killed Abdul Khalim Saidullayev in a raid in a Chechen town Argun. The successor of Saidullayev became Doku Umarov. Zviad Konstantines dze Gamsakhurdia[1] (Georgian: ზვიად კონსტანტინეს ძე გამსახურდია, IPA: ) (March 31, 1939 — December 31, 1993) was a dissident, scientist and writer, who became the first democratically elected President of the Republic of Georgia in the post-Soviet era. ... Dzhokhar Dudaev and his son Dzhokhar Dudaev and his family Dzhokhar Musayevich Dudayev (Chechen Latin: Dzoxar Dudayev; Cyrillic: Джоха́р Муса́евич Дуда́ев, 15 April 1944 – 21 April 1996) was a Soviet Air Force general and a Chechen leader, the first president of the Chechen Republic of Ichkeria, an unrecognized breakaway state in the North... The Taliban (Pashto: , also anglicized as Taleban) are a Sunni Muslim Pashtun movement that ruled most of Afghanistan from 1995 until 2001, when their leaders were removed from power by a cooperative military effort between the United States, United Kingdom and the Northern Alliance. ... is the 16th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ... Aslan Maskhadov Aslan Aliyevich Maskhadov (Russian: Аслан Алиевич Масхадов) (September 21, 1951 – March 8, 2005) was a leader of the separatist movement in the southern Russian republic of Chechnya. ... Ilyas Akhmadov Ilyas Khamzatovich Akhmadov (Ильяс Хамзатович Ахмадов) served as foreign minister of Chechnya before its reabsorption into Russia in the Second Chechen War. ... Combatants Russian Federation Pro-Russian Chechens Republic of Ichkeria Caucasian insurgents and foreign fighters Commanders Vladimir Putin Akhmad Kadyrov† Ramzan Kadyrov Aslan Maskhadov† Abdul Halim Sadulayev† Doku Umarov Shamil Basayev† Strength At least 93,000 in Chechnya in 1999. ... is the 67th day of the year (68th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Vanessa Redgrave and Akhmed Zakayev Akhmed Zakayev (Ахмед Закаев; born April 26, 1956) is the Foreign Minister of Chechen republic government-in-exile, appointed by the President Aslan Maskhadov shortly after his 1997 election, and again in 2006 by Abdul Halim Sadulayev. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Sheikh Abdul-Halim (Шейх Абдул-Халим) (born 1967) was designated by Aslan Maskhadov to be his successor as president of the self-proclaimed Chechen Republic of Ichkeria. ... is the 168th day of the year (169th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Shaykh Doku Khamatovich Umarov (Chechen: Умаран Хамади кант Докка, Russian Доку Хаматович Умаров) (b. ...


Human rights

Human Rights Watch reports that pro-Moscow Chechen forces under the effective command of President Ramzan Kadyrov, as well as federal police personnel used torture to get information about separatist forces. "If you are detained in Chechnya, you face a real and immediate risk of torture. And there is little chance that your torturer will be held accountable.", said Holly Cartner, Director Europe and Central Asia division of HRW|[8] Human Rights Watch Banner Human Rights Watch is a United States-based international non-government organization that conducts research and advocacy on human rights. ... This article or section needs copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone and/or spelling. ... Human Rights Watch Banner Human Rights Watch is a United States-based international non-government organization that conducts research and advocacy on human rights. ...


Human rights groups criticized the conduct of the 2005 parliamentary elections as unfairly influenced by the central Russian government and military.[9]


The Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre reports that after hundreds of thousands of people fled their homes after inter-ethnic and separatist conflicts in Chechnya in 1994 and 1999, more than 150,000 people still remain displaced in Russia more than a decade after the beginning of armed conflict.[10]


Administrative divisions

. ...

Demographics and Religion

Main article: Chechen people

According to the 2004 estimates, the population of Chechnya is approximately 1.1 million. As per 2002 Census, Chechens at 1,031,647 make up 93.5% of the republic's population. Other groups include Russians (40,645, or 3.7%), Kumyks (8,883, or 0.8%), Ingush (2,914 or 0.3%) and a host of smaller groups, each accounting for less than 0.5% of the total population. Birth rate was 25.41 in 2004. (25.7 in Achkhoi Martan, 19.8 in Groznyy, 17.5 in Kurchaloi,28.3 in Urus Martan and 11.1 in Vedeno) // Geography The Chechen people are mainly inhabitants of Chechnya, which is internationally recognized as part of Russia. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Russian Census of 2002 (Russian: ) was the first census of Russian Federation carried out on October 9, 2002. ... // Geography The Chechen people are mainly inhabitants of Chechnya, which is internationally recognized as part of Russia. ... Flag of the Kumyks Kumyks are a Turkic people occupying the Kumyk plateau in north Dagestan and south Terek, and the lands bordering the Caspian Sea. ... The Ingush are a people of the northern Caucasus, mostly inhabiting the Russian republic of Ingushetia. ...


Most Chechens are Sunni Muslim, the country having converted to that religion between the 16th and the 19th centuries. At the end of the Soviet era, ethnic Russians comprised about 23% of the population (269,000 in 1989). Due to widespread lawlessness and crime under the government of Dzhokhar Dudayev most non-Chechens (and many Chechens as well) fled the country during the 1990s.[11][12] Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... Dzhokhar Dudayev and his son (killed few days after the invasion of Chechnya) Dzhokhar Dudayev and his family Dzhokhar Musayevich Dudayev (Chechen: ; Cyrillic: Дудин Муса кант Жовхар, Russian: Джохар Мусаевич Дудаев) (February 1944 – April 21, 1996) was a Soviet Air Force general and a Chechen leader, the first President of the Chechen Republic of Ichkeria, an unrecognized...


The languages used in the Republic are Chechen and Russian. Chechen belongs to the Vaynakh or North-central Caucasian linguistic family, which also includes Ingush and Batsb. Some scholars place it in a wider Iberian-Caucasian super-family. The Chechen language has about 1,200,000 speakers, most of whom live in Russia. ... The North Central Caucasian languages (also Nakh languages or Vaynakh languages) are a family of languages spoken mostly in Russia (Chechnya and Ingushetia) and Georgia. ... Ingush language is a language spoken by approximately 230,315 people (1989) across a region covering Ingushetia, Chechnya, Uzbekistan and Russia. ... Bats, or Batsi, Batsbi, Batsb, Batsaw, is the language of a the Bats people, a Caucasian minority group, and is part of the Nakh family of Caucasian languages. ... The term Ibero-Caucasian (or Iberian-Caucasian) was proposed by Georgian linguist Arnold Chikobava for the union of the four language families that are specific to the Caucasus area, namely South Caucasian, also called Georgian or Kartvelian; Northwest Caucasian, also called Abkhaz/Adygh or Circassian; North-central Caucasian or Vaynakh. ...


Chechnya has one of the youngest populations in the generally aging Russian Federation; in the early 1990s, it was among the few regions experiencing natural population growth.

  • Population: 1,103,686 (2002) - numbers are disputed
    • Urban: 373,177 (33.8%)
    • Rural: 730,509 (66.2%)
    • Male: 532,724 (48.3%)
    • Female: 570,962 (51.7%)
  • Average age: 22.7 years
    • Urban: 22.8 years
    • Rural: 22.7 years
    • Male: 21.6 years
    • Female: 23.9 years
  • Number of households: 195,304 (with 1,069,600 people)
    • Urban: 65,741 (with 365,577 people)
    • Rural: 129,563 (with 704,023 people)
  • Vital statistics (2005)
    • Births: 28,652 (birth rate 24.9)
    • Deaths: 5,857 (death rate 5.1)

For the first half of 2007, the birth rate was 26.4 [5]

census 1926 census 1939 census 2002
Chechens 293,190 (72.0%) 360,598 (64.4%) 1,031,647 (93.5%)
Russians 77,274 (19.0%) 157,621 (28.1%) 40,645 (3.7%)
Kumyks 2,217 (0.5%) 3,305 (0.6%) 8,883 (0.8%)
Ingushes 154 (0.0%) 4,336 (0.8%) 2,914 (0.3%)
Others 34,112 (8.4%) 34,088 (6.1%) 19,597 (1.8%)

Overall, Chechnya is predominantly Muslim. Most of whom who follow either the Shafi'i, or the Hanafi, or the Maliki schools of jurisprudence. The Shafi'i school of jurisprudence has a long tradition among the Chechens,[13][14] and thus it remains the most practiced.[15] // Geography The Chechen people are mainly inhabitants of Chechnya, which is internationally recognized as part of Russia. ... Flag of the Kumyks Kumyks are a Turkic people occupying the Kumyk plateau in north Dagestan and south Terek, and the lands bordering the Caspian Sea. ... The Ingush are a people of the northern Caucasus, mostly inhabiting the Russian republic of Ingushetia. ... The Šāfiˤī madhab (Arabic: شافعي) is one of the four schools of fiqh, or religious law, within Sunni Islam. ... The Hanafi (Arabic حنفي) school is the oldest of the four schools of thought (Madhhabs) or jurisprudence (Fiqh) within Sunni Islam. ... This page deals with Islamic thought. ...


The once strong Russian minority in Chechnya, mostly Terek Cossacks, are predominately Russian Orthodox, although presently only one church exists in Grozny. Terek Cossack Host (Russian: ) was a cossack host created in 1577 from free Cossacks resettled from Volga to Terek River. ... The Russian Orthodox Church (Русская Православная церковь) is that body of Christians who are united under the Patriarch of Moscow, who in turn is in communion with...


Economy

During the war, the Chechen economy fell apart. Gross domestic product, if reliably calculable, would be only a fraction of the prewar level. Problems with the Chechen economy had an effect on the federal Russian economy - a number of financial crimes during the 1990s were committed using Chechen financial organizations. Chechnya has the highest ratio within Russian Federation of financial operations made in US Dollars to operations in Russian Roubles. There are many counterfeit US Dollars printed there. In 1994, the separatists planned to introduce a new currency, the Nahar, but that did not happen due to Russian troops re-taking Chechnya in the Second Chechen War.[citations needed] As an effect of the war, approximately 80% of the economic potential of Chechnya was destroyed. Much of the money spent by the Russian federal government to rebuild Chechnya has been wasted. According to the Russian government, over $2 billion were spent on the reconstruction of the Chechen economy since 2000. However, according to the Russian central economic control agency (Schyotnaya Palata), not more than $350 million were spent as intended.[citations needed] That being said, the economic situation in Chechnya has improved considerably since 2000. According to the New York Times, major efforts to rebuild Grozny have been made, and improvements in the political situation have led some officials to consider setting up a tourism industry-though there are claims that construction workers are being irregularly paid and that poor people have been displaced. This article is about GDP in the context of economics. ... For the band, see 1990s (band). ... The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States. ... 1998 Russian Federation one rouble coin. ... For other uses, see Counterfeit (disambiguation). ... The Nahar is the name of the currency that Chechen separatists planned for Chechen Republic of Ichkeria. ... Combatants Russian Federation Pro-Russian Chechens Republic of Ichkeria Caucasian insurgents and foreign fighters Commanders Vladimir Putin Akhmad Kadyrov† Ramzan Kadyrov Aslan Maskhadov† Abdul Halim Sadulayev† Doku Umarov Shamil Basayev† Strength At least 93,000 in Chechnya in 1999. ...


Telephone

There is only one cell phone company currently working in Chechnya.


See also

This is a list of currently active autonomist and secessionist movements around the world. ... Scene from the failed Québecois rebellion against British rule in 1837. ... There have been two Chechen Wars: First Chechen War (1994–1996) Second Chechen War (1999–) 1991-1994 In September, 1991, militants of Nationally Congress of Chechen People (NCChP) have taken control over Chechnya (they have seized republics parliament and killed chief of the PCUS of Grozny, Vitali Kutsenko). ... // Geography The Chechen people are mainly inhabitants of Chechnya, which is internationally recognized as part of Russia. ... Ethno-Linguistic groups in the Caucasus region This article deals with the various ethnic groups inhabiting the Caucasus region. ... Native musical instruments: The pondur is the oldest of musical instruments of the Chechens, comprising of three chords and a wooden casing. ... Anna Stepanovna Politkovskaya (Russian: ; 30 August 1958 – 7 October 2006) was a Russian journalist and human rights activist well known for her opposition to the Chechen conflict and the Putin administration. ... Chris Giannou (1958-) is a Macedonian-Canadian war surgeon and chief surgeon for the International Committee of the Red Cross. ... The Republic of North Ossetia in Russia Terrorist attacks of the Second Chechen War Kaspiysk bombing - Moscow hostage crisis – Stavropol bombing - Red Square bombing - Moscow metro bombing - Aircraft bombings – Beslan hostage crisis The Beslan school hostage crisis (also referred to as the Beslan school siege or Beslan Massacre) began when... Combatants Russian Federation Pro-Russian Chechens Republic of Ichkeria Caucasian insurgents and foreign fighters Commanders Vladimir Putin Akhmad Kadyrov† Ramzan Kadyrov Aslan Maskhadov† Abdul Halim Sadulayev† Doku Umarov Shamil Basayev† Strength At least 93,000 in Chechnya in 1999. ... Aslan Maskhadov Aslan Aliyevich Maskhadov (Russian: Аслан Алиевич Масхадов) (September 21, 1951 – March 8, 2005) was a leader of the separatist movement in the southern Russian republic of Chechnya. ... Shamil Basayev in Dagestan, 1999 Shamil Salmanovich Basayev (Russian: Шамиль Салманович Басаев) (January 14, 1965 – July 10, 2006) was a Vice-President of the internationally unrecognized separatist government of the Chechen Republic of Ichkeria, Islamist guerrilla leader, self-admitted terrorist and a national hero for many Chechens. ... This article or section needs copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone and/or spelling. ... Akhmat Abdulkhamidovich Kadyrov (Russian: Ахмат Абдулхамидович Кадыров (August 23, 1951 – May 9, 2004) was the president of the Chechen Republic (elected on October 5, 2003). ... Ibn al-Khattab (ابن الخطاب), more commonly known as Amir Khattab (also transliterated as Emir Khattab and Ameer Khattab), and also known as Habib Abdul Rahman, was a warlord, terrorist organizer, and financier working with Chechen rebels in the First Chechen War and the Second Chechen War. ... This article or section needs copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone and/or spelling. ... This article or section cites very few or no references or sources. ... Combatants Russian security forces Mostly local Islamic militants Commanders N/A Ilias Gorchkhanov (killed) Strength several thousand 80 - 300 Casualties at least 33 at least 41 The October 2005 Nalchik attack was a raid by a large group of militants on Nalchik, in the Kabardino-Balkar Republic of southern Russia... Female terrorists of the Beslan school hostage crisis, 2004 Shahidka (female shahid), sometimes called Black Widow, is a term for a Chechen female suicide bombers, who made themselves known at the Moscow theater hostage crisis of October 2002. ...

Further reading

  • Khassan Baiev. The Oath: A Surgeon Under Fire. ISBN 0-8027-1404-8
  • Vyacheslav Mironov. Ya byl na etoy voyne. (I was in this war) Biblion - Russkaya Kniga, 2001. Partial translation available online [6]
  • Matthew Evangelista, The Chechen Wars: Will Russia Go the Way of the Soviet Union?. ISBN 0-8157-2499-3.
  • Roy Conrad. A few days... Available online [7]
  • Olga Oliker, Russia's Chechen Wars 1994 - 2000: Lessons from Urban Combat. ISBN 0-8330-2998-3. (A strategic and tactical analysis of the Chechen Wars.)
  • Charlotta Gall & Thomas de Waal. Chechnya: A Small Victorious War. ISBN 0-330-35075-7
  • Paul J., Ph. D. Murphy. The Wolves of Islam: Russia and the Faces of Chechen Terror. ISBN 1-57488-830-7
  • Anatol Lieven. Chechnya : Tombstone of Russian Power ISBN 0-300-07881-1
  • John B Dunlop. Russia Confronts Chechnya: Roots of a Separatist Conflict ISBN 0-521-63619-1
  • Paul Khlebnikov. Razgovor s varvarom (Interview with a barbarian). ISBN 5-89935-057-1. Available online in full [8]
  • Marie Benningsen Broxup. The North Caucasus Barrier: The Russian Advance Towards the Muslim World. ISBN 1-85065-069-1
  • Anna Politkovskaya. A Small Corner of Hell: Dispatches from Chechnya ISBN 0-226-67432-0
  • Chris Bird. "To Catch a Tartar: Notes from the Caucasus" [ISBN 0-7195-6506-5]
  • Carlotta Gall, Thomas de Waal, Chechnya: Calamity in the Caucasus [ISBN 0-8147-3132-5]
  • Yvonne Bornstein and Mark Ribowsky, "Eleven Days of Hell: My True Story Of Kidnapping, Terror, Torture And Historic FBI & KGB Rescue" AuthorHouse, 2004. ISBN 1-4184-9302-3.
  • Ali Khan, The Chechen Terror: The Play within the Play
  • Hunter Hammer and Heaven, Journeys to Three World's Gone Mad, by Robert Young Pelton (ISBN 1-58574-416-6)

Scott Anderson. The Man Who Tried to Save the World. ISBN 0-385-48666-9


References

  1. ^ [1] Chechnya Advocacy Network. Refugees and Diaspora
  2. ^ The Jamestown Foundation. The Taliban formally recognizes Chechnya. Retrieved on 2007-01-23.
  3. ^ BBC News. New name for Chechnya suggested. Retrieved on 2007-01-23.
  4. ^ Kavkazcenter.com. European Parliament recognizes deportation of Chechens as act of genocide. Retrieved on 2007-01-23.
  5. ^ Remembering Stalin's deportations
  6. ^ Wood, Tony, New Left Review. The case for Chechnya. Retrieved on 2007-01-23.
  7. ^ ISHR Germany. Some thoughts about the referendum in Chechnya. Retrieved on 2007-01-23.
  8. ^ Human Rights Watch:Chechnya: Research Shows Widespread and Systematic Use of Torture
  9. ^ Chechnya Holds Parliamentary Vote, Morning Edition, NPR, 28 November 2005.
  10. ^ Government efforts help only some IDPs rebuild their lives, IDMC, 13 August 2007
  11. ^ Sokolov-Mitrich, Dmitryi. "Забытый геноцид". Izvestia. Retrieved on July 17, 2002.
  12. ^ Chechnya Advocacy Network. Refugees and Diaspora
  13. ^ [2] Chechnya, Wahhabism and the invasion of Dagestan
  14. ^ [3] Djihad in the Northern Caucus Ch3
  15. ^ [4] Chechnya Weekly -- Volume 7, Issue 34 (September 8, 2006)

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 23rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 23rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 23rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 23rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 23rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Human Rights Watch Banner Human Rights Watch is a United States-based international non-government organization that conducts research and advocacy on human rights. ... is the 198th day of the year (199th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ...

External links

Image File history File links Broom_icon. ...

Maps and geography of Chechnya

Human rights in Chechnya

  • Chechnya, let's break the silence Txetxènia, trenquem ms. bryan el silenci - In Catalan and Spanish
  • Chechnya - freedom Crime, War, Freedom for Chechnya
  • Internal Displacement in the Russian Federation Country page by the Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre with a special focus on Chechnya and North Ossetia

Catalan IPA: (català IPA: or []) is a Romance language, the national language of Andorra, and a co-official language in the Spanish autonomous communities of Balearic Islands, Catalonia and Valencia , and in the city of LAlguer in the Italian island of Sardinia. ...

Western and independent Russian websites

Memorial (Russian: Мемориал) is an international historical and civil rights society that operates in a number of post-USSR states with the following missions stated in its charter: To promote mature civil society and democracy based on the rule of law and thus to prevent a return to totalitarianism; To assist... The Jamestown Foundation (founded 1984) is an American think tank whose mission is to inform and educate policy makers about events and trends which are current strategic importance to the United States. ...

Separatist and pro-separatist websites

The Kavkaz Center is an Internet publication that claims to be a Chechen independent international Islamic internet agency. It was founded in March 1999 in the city of Grozny, by the National Center for Strategic Research and Political Technologies, headed by Movladi Udugov, former Minister for Information of the Chechen...

Federalist websites

  • Official site of the government of Chechen republic (Russian)
  • Free Chechnya site (English)
  • Chechnya.ru (Russian)

Russian military websites

  • Some war veterans' memoirs ("Art Of War" project)
  • War in Chechnya 1999
  • Russian Air Force in Chechnya

Articles

  • Chechnya - freedom Crime, War, Freedom for Chechnya
  • Russia's Splitting Headache - A Brief History Of Chechnya
  • PINR - Chechnya: Russia's Second Afghanistan
  • CBC.ca News Indepth: Chechnya
  • The PACE report on the Chechnya political situation
  • Washington Post: Is there no solution to the nine-year-old Chechen bloodbath?
  • Chechen struggle ignored
  • The Rise and Fall of the Chechen Independence Movement
  • CSRC: The Caspian: Comminatory Crosscurrents, Oil and geopolitics
  • Significant excerpts are available online for free at the Rand
  • Chechen Death Toll claimed to be 160,000 by Chechen Authorities (in Russian)
  • Chechnya Advocacy Network (in English)
  • ISN Security Watch: Moscow's North Caucasus Quagmire
  • Dossier: Chechen Security Forces 2000 – 2006
  • Beginning of the Chechen War (translation of grani.ru article)
  • The attack on the ICRC hospital in Novye Atagi
  • 10 years ago Russian special forces killed Chechnya's self-proclaimed president, Dzhokhar Dudayev "Moscow News"
  • Almanac "Chechenian Phenomenon" in English and Russian, articles about the First Chechen war and its immediate aftermath
  • Snipers, poverty and poor roads, but is this the next tourist haven?, by Tom Parfitt, The Guardian, September 29, 2007

The Guardian is a British newspaper owned by the Guardian Media Group. ... is the 272nd day of the year (273rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ...

Currency

  • Chechnya Paper Money
  • Two views of Grozny: 2006, author unknown, *2007, by Wischnewetzkaja Julia.
  • 2007 photos of Chechen schools, by Wischnewetzkaja Julia.
  • Chechen Photo Gallery
  • Views of Chechnya, 1930

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Encyclopedia4U - Chechnya - Encyclopedia Article (1891 words)
Currently, most of Chechnya is controlled by the federal military, who have installed a government of pro-federal Chechens into local government offices.
He was brought to trial in late 2002 on charges of murder and abduction, after being accused of raping and strangling Heda Kungayeva, an 18 year old Chechen girl whom Budanov claims was a separatist sniper.
At about 2:30 PM local time on December 27, 2002, two car bombs were driven at high speed into the Grozny headquarters of Chechnya's federal-backed government in an apparent suicide attack, killing at least 61 people, injuring at least 76, and destroying the Chechen government administrative building.
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