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Encyclopedia > Chechen language
Chechen (Нохчийн мотт, Noxçiyn mott)
Spoken in: Russia 
Region: autonomous republic of Chechnya
Total speakers: 944,600
Language family: Caucasian (geographical convention)
 North (disputed)
  Northeast
   Veinakh (Chechen-Ingush)
    Chechen 
Official status
Official language of: Chechnya (autonomous republic of Russia)
Regulated by: no official regulation
Language codes
ISO 639-1: ce
ISO 639-2: che
ISO/DIS 639-3: che 

The Chechen language has about 1,200,000 speakers, most of whom live in Russia. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Current distribution of Human Language Families Most languages are known to belong to language families. ... The languages of the Caucasus are a large and extremely varied array of languages spoken by more than ten million people in the Caucasus region of Eastern Europe and Western Asia, between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea. ... North Caucasian languages is a blanket term for two distinct, but possibly related, phyla of languages spoken in the north Caucasus and in Turkey. ... The Northeast Caucasian languages, also called East Caucasian, Caspian, or Dagestan, are a family of languages spoken mostly in Dagestan, Northern Azerbaijan and Georgia. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... ISO 639-1 is the first part of the ISO 639 international-standard language-code family. ... ISO 639-2:1998 Codes for the representation of names of languages — Part 2: Alpha-3 code Twenty-two of the languages have two three-letter codes: a code for bibliographic use (ISO 639-2/B) a code for terminological use (ISO 639-2/T). ... ISO 639-3 is in process of development as an international standard for language codes. ... The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is a system of phonetic notation devised by linguists to accurately and uniquely represent each of the wide variety of sounds (phones or phonemes) used in spoken human language. ... Phonetics (from the Greek word φωνή, phone = sound/voice) is the study of sounds (voice). ... Technical note: Due to technical limitations, some web browsers may not display some special characters in this article. ... This is a concise version of the International Phonetic Alphabet for English sounds. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...

Contents


Classification

The Chechen language is one of the languages of the Caucasus. Linguistically, it is a Northeast Caucasian language with partial mutual intelligibility with the Ingush language and intermediary dialects. The languages of the Caucasus are a large and extremely varied array of languages spoken by more than ten million people in the Caucasus region of Eastern Europe and Western Asia, between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea. ... The Northeast Caucasian languages, also called East Caucasian, Caspian, or Dagestan, are a family of languages spoken mostly in Dagestan, Northern Azerbaijan and Georgia. ... Ingush language is a language spoken by approximately 230,315 people (1989) across a region covering Ingushetia, Chechnya, Uzbekistan and Russia. ...


Languages indigenous to the Caucasus are not members of any language families spoken elsewhere in the world.


Geographic distribution

Chechen is spoken by about 950,000, in Chechnya and (due to the Chechen diaspora) Middle East countries, especially Jordan. A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ...


Official status

Chechen is an official language of Chechnya, an autonomous republic of Russia. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... In its final decades of its existence, the Soviet Union consisted of 15 Soviet Socialist Republics (SSR), often called simply Soviet republics. ...


Dialects

There are a number of Chechen dialects:

  • Ploskost
  • Itumkala (Shatoi)
  • Melkhin
  • Kistin
  • Cheberloi
  • Akkin (Aux)

Sounds

Some characteristics of Chechen include its wealth of consonants and sounds similar to Arabic or Native American languages, a large vowel system resembling Swedish or German, several grammatical genders, and a complex phrase structure. Arabic (; , less formally, ) is the largest member of the Semitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family (classification: South Central Semitic) and is closely related to Hebrew and Aramaic. ... Native American languages are the indigenous languages of the Americas, spoken by Native Americans from the southern tip of South America to Alaska and Greenland. ... In linguistics, grammatical genders, also called noun classes, are classes of nouns reflected in the behavior of associated words; every noun must belong to one of the classes and there should be very few which belong to several classes at once. ...


The Chechen language has (like most indigenous languages of the Caucasus) a large number of consonants: about 31 (depending on the dialect and the analysis), more than for most languages of Europe. Unlike most other languages of the Caucasus, it also has an extensive inventory of vowels and diphthongs: about 27 (depending on dialect and analysis), similar in number and phonetics to the vowel systems of the Scandinavian languages, German, and Finnish. None of the spelling systems used for Chechen so far have distinguished the vowels with complete accuracy. The North Germanic languages (also Scandinavian languages or Nordic languages) is a branch of the Germanic languages spoken in Scandinavia, parts of Finland and on the Faroe Islands and Iceland. ...


Grammar

Chechen also presents interesting challenges for lexicography, as creating new words in the language relies on fixation of whole phrases rather than adding to the end of existing words or combining existing words. It can be difficult to decide which phrases belong in the dictionary.


Vocabulary

Native Chechen words are few in number (not more than 3000). There are many borrowings from Russian, Turkic languages (mostly from Kumyk), Arabic, as well as some from Persian, Alanian (Ossetic), and Georgian. Chechen and Ingush scholars have found links to the ancient cuneiform languages Hurrian and Urartian. Kumyk (also Qumuq, Kumuk, Kumuklar, and Kumyki) is a Turkic language, spoken by about 200 thousands speakers (the Kumyks) in the Dagestan republic of Russian Federation. ... Arabic (; , less formally, ) is the largest member of the Semitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family (classification: South Central Semitic) and is closely related to Hebrew and Aramaic. ... Persian (known variously as: فارسی Fârsi, local name in Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan, پارسی Pârsi, older, local name still used by some speakers, Tajik, a Central Asian dialect, or Dari, another local name in Tajikistan and Afghanistan) is a language spoken in Iran, Tajikistan, Afghanistan, Uzbekistan, Bahrain, Iraq, Azerbaijan, Armenia... The Alans, Alani, Alauni or Halani were an Iranian nomadic group among the Sarmatian people, warlike nomadic pastoralists of mixed backgrounds, who spoke an Iranian language and shared, in a broad sense, a common culture. ... Ossetic or Ossetian (in Ossetic: , Iron ăvzag) is an Iranian language spoken in Ossetia, a region on the slopes of the Caucasus mountains on the borders of Russia and Georgia. ... The Ingush are a people of the northern Caucasus, mostly inhabiting the Russian republic of Ingushetia. ... The cuneiform script is one of the earliest known forms of written expression. ... Hurrian is a conventional name for the language of the Hurrians, a people who entered northern Mesopotamia around 2300 BC and had mostly vanished by 1000 BC. // Language interrelations Hurrian is an agglutinative language which belongs to neither the Semitic nor the Indo-European language families. ... Urartian is the conventional name for the language spoken by the inhabitants of the ancient kingdom of Urartu in Northeast Anatolia (present Turkey), in the region of Lake Van. ...


History

The Chechen literary language was created after the October Revolution, and the Latin alphabet began to be used instead of Arabic for Chechen writing in the mid-1920s. In 1938, the Cyrillic alphabet was adopted. With the declaration of the Chechen republic in 1992, some Chechen speakers returned to the Latin alphabet. The Chechen diaspora in Jordan, Turkey and Syria is fluent but generally not literate in Chechen except for individuals who have made efforts to learn the writing system, and of course the Cyrillic alphabet is not generally known in these countries. The October Revolution, also known as the Bolshevik Revolution, was the second phase of the Russian Revolution of 1917, the first having been instigated by the events around the February Revolution. ... The Latin alphabet, also called the Roman alphabet, is the most widely used alphabetic writing system in the world today. ... It has been suggested that Roaring Twenties be merged into this article or section. ... 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Cyrillic alphabet (or azbuka, from the old name of the first two letters) is an alphabet used to write six natural Slavic languages (Belarusian, Bulgarian, Macedonian, Russian, Serbian, and Ukrainian) and many other languages of the former Soviet Union, Asia and Eastern Europe. ... 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday. ...


External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Chechen people - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (688 words)
Chechens constitute the largest native ethnic group originating in the North Caucasus region.
Chechen belongs to the family of Nakh languages (North-Central Caucasian Languages).
Chechen society is structured around 130 Teip, or clans.
Chechen language - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (466 words)
Chechen is an official language of Chechnya, an autonomous republic of Russia.
The Chechen diaspora in Jordan, Turkey and Syria is fluent but generally not literate in Chechen except for individuals who have made efforts to learn the writing system, and of course the Cyrillic alphabet is not generally known in these countries.
Indigenous Language of the Caucasus (Chechen), grammatical sketch of Chechen language
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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