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Encyclopedia > Cheating

Cheating is defined as an act of lying, deception, fraud, trickery, imposture, or imposition. Cheating characteristically is employed to create an unfair advantage, usually in one's own interest, and often at the expense of others.[1] Cheating implies the breaking of rules. The term "cheating" is less applicable to the breaking of laws, as illegal activities are referred to by specific legal terminology such as fraud or corruption. Cheating is a primordial economic act: getting more for less, often used when referring to marital infidelity. Look up cheat in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the animal. ... For other uses, see Law (disambiguation). ... Marriage is an interpersonal relationship with governmental, social, or religious recognition, usually intimate and sexual, and often created as a contract, or through civil process. ... Look up infidelity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Contents

Sport

Further information: Doping (sport)

Another venue where cheating has occurred is in sport. An implicit agreement exists among participants that they will play by the rules and eschew unfair measures to win. Cheaters violate the spirit and/or the letter of the rules of competition. Examples include Ben Johnson's disqualification for doping in the 1988 Summer Olympics or the admissions of steroid use by former professional baseball players after they have retired, such as José Canseco[2] and Ken Caminiti.[3] In sports, doping refers to the use of performance-enhancing drugs, particularly those that are forbidden by the organizations that regulate competitions. ... Benjamin Sinclair Ben Johnson CM (born December 30, 1961) is a Canadian former sprinter who enjoyed a high-profile career during much of the 1980s and won 2 Olympic Bronze medals. ... Johnson winning the 100 m final The 1988 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XXIV Olympiad, were held in 1988 in Seoul, South Korea. ... This article is about the chemical family of steroids. ... José Canseco y Capas, Jr. ... Kenneth Gene Caminiti (April 21, 1963 – October 10, 2004) was an American third baseman in Major League Baseball. ...


Cheating refers to more than using illegal substances. Perhaps the most famous example of cheating in professional sport took place in the 1986 FIFA World Cup when Diego Maradona used his hand to punch the ball into the back of the net past the England goalkeeper Peter Shilton.[4] Using the hand or arm by anyone other than a goalkeeper is illegal according to the rules of soccer. The 1986 FIFA World Cup, the 13th staging of the FIFA World Cup, was held in Mexico from May 31 to June 29. ... Diego Armando Maradona (born October 30, 1960) is an Argentine former footballer. ... Maradona left, Shilton right The Hand of God goal (Spanish: Mano de Dios) was scored by Diego Maradona in the quarter-final match of the 1986 FIFA World Cup between England and Argentina, played on 22 June 1986 in Mexico Citys Estadio Azteca. ... First international  Scotland 0 - 0 England (Partick, Scotland; 30 November 1872) Biggest win  Ireland 0 - 13 England (Belfast, Ireland; 18 February 1882) Biggest defeat  Hungary 7 - 1 England (Budapest, Hungary; 23 May 1954) World Cup Appearances 12 (First in 1950) Best result Winners, 1966 European Championship Appearances 7 (First in... A football goalkeeper leaves the ground to parry a shot on goal In many team sports, a goalkeeper (termed goaltender, netminder, goalie, or keeper in some sports) is a designated player that is charged with directly preventing the opposite team from scoring by defending the goal. ... Peter Leslie Shilton OBE (born Leicester, England, 18 September 1949) was an outstanding goalkeeper who holds the record for playing more games than any other player. ...


Another example of cheating frequently seen in sports is the use of non-regulation (vis-a-vis the rules) equipment. A baseball pitcher putting graphite or Vaseline on the baseball, to make it exit his hand faster is a good example of this. A baseball pitcher delivers the ball to home plate In baseball, the pitcher is the player who throws the baseball from the pitchers mound toward the catcher to begin each play, with the goal of retiring a batter who attempts to either make contact with it or draw a...


Attempting to intentionally injure an opponent is an instance of poor sportsmanship that borders on cheating. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Gambling

Cheating in gambling is practiced to gain an unfair advantage over one's opponents or the casino, usually for monetary gain, but also to win wagers having a non-monetary forfeit. In poker and other card games, the cards can be manipulated by a skilled cheater. In casino settings, cards can be counted to predict when cards of a particular denomination are more likely to be dealt, and casinos regard this as an unfair advantage. Other gambling activities such as roulette and craps can give rise to cheating by the use of rigged equipment like loaded dice or rigged roulette wheels. Caravaggio, The Cardsharps, c. ... For the domestic fireplace tool, see fireplace poker. ... Roulette is a casino and gambling game named after the French word meaning small wheel. In the game a croupier spins a wheel in one direction, then spins a ball in the opposite direction around a tilted circular surface running around the circumference of the wheel. ... Craps (previously known as crabs[1]) is a casino dice game. ...


Gambling on sports events can give opportunities for cheating where a participant in the sport is disadvantaged (e.g. doping of horses) or disadvantages himself (e.g. a boxer "taking a dive") so that the outcome is known to selected gamblers who take advantage of this fact in placing bets.


Strength training

Cheating is also used to refer to movements in strength training that transfer weight from an isolated or fatigued muscle group to a different or fresh muscle group. This allows the cheater to move an initial greater weight (if the cheating continues through an entire training set) or to continue exercising past the point of muscular exhaustion (if the cheating begins part way through the set). As strength training is not a sport, cheating has no rule-based consequences, but can result in injury or a failure to meet training goals. This is because each exercise is designed to target specific muscle groups and if the proper form is not used the weight can be transferred away from the targeted group. However cheating can be beneficial if done correctly, proper instruction will help to avoid injury. Another example was a shocking referee decison during a Scotland-Italy game. Strength training is the use of resistance to muscular contraction to build the strength, endurance and size of skeletal muscles. ...


Personal relationships

With regard to human relationships, couples tend to expect sexual monogamy of each other. If so, then cheating commonly refers to forms of infidelity, particularly adultery.[5]. However, there are other divisions of infidelity, which may be emotional. Cheating by thinking of, touching and talking with the other sex may equally be as damaging to one of the parties. Emotional cheating may be correlated to that of emotional abuse, which to date is treated as seriously in a court of law as physical cheating. With the expansion of understanding of other cultures, there is a wide spectrum of what cheating means. When in a committed relationship, the definition of cheating is based on both parties opinions and both parties may redefine their understanding to match the party at an either lower or higher extreme of this definition. Some couples simply believe that cheating constitutes doing anything, whether verbal or physical, that one would not do in front of their significant other. Faithfulness redirects here. ... Look up infidelity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the act of adultery. ...


Many people consider cheating to be any violation of the mutually agreed-upon rules or boundaries of a relationship, which may or may not include sexual monogamy. For example, in some polyamorous relationships, the concepts of commitment and fidelity do not necessarily hinge on complete sexual or emotional monogamy. Whether polyamorous or monogamous, the boundaries to which people agree vary widely, and sometimes these boundaries evolve within each relationship. Polyamory (from Greek (, literally “multiple”) and Latin (literally “love”)) is the desire, practice, or acceptance of having more than one loving, intimate relationship at a time with the full knowledge and consent of everyone involved. ...


In video games

There are various forms of cheating in video games. In Role Playing Games one of the most popular methods is using "trainer" programs, which usually greatly inflates player's stats/attributes. In Strategy (real-time or turn-based) games, similar programs are often used to maximize player's own resources, or weakening opponents. Cheating in video games is a process whereby a player of a video game creates an advantage beyond the bounds of normal gameplay, usually to make the game easier. ... This article is about traditional role-playing games. ...


Attitudes to cheating vary. On one hand, cheating allows casual players to complete games at much-accelerated speed, and this is especially helpful nowadays as typical RPG games can take well over one-hundred hours to finish. For single-player games, this is largely a matter of taste. On the other hand, as internet-based multilayer games, such as MMORPG games are becoming more and more popular, cheating in those types of games are often prohibited. An image from World of Warcraft, one of the largest commercial MMORPGs as of 2004, based on active subscriptions. ...


Ecological relationships

Main article Cheating (biology).

Between organisms of different species, cheating often refers an individual of a species not upholding its end of a cooperative bargain. For example, nectar robbers are birds and insects that are often related to or mimic pollinating species; however, nectar robbers take nectar from a flower without actually engaging in pollination. Cheating, also known as exploitation, between organisms is a form of parasitism or specialized predation in which an organism engages in what appears to be a mutualistic relationship with another organism, but does not in fact provide any benefit to the other organism. ... For other uses, see Species (disambiguation). ... Bargain could mean some of the following: The process whereby buyer and seller agree the price of goods or services. ... A mimic is any species that has evolved to appear similar to another successful species in order to dupe predators into avoiding the mimic, or dupe prey into approaching the mimic. ... Carpenter bee with pollen collected from Night-blooming cereus Pollination is an important step in the reproduction of seed plants: the transfer of pollen grains (male gametes) to the plant carpel, the structure that contains the ovule (female gamete). ...


References

  • David Callahan. (2004). The Cheating Culture. Harvest Books.
  • Stuart P. Green. (2006). Lying, Cheating, and Stealing: A Moral Theory of White Collar Crime. Oxford University Press.
  • Steven Levitt and Stephen J. Dubner. (2005). Freakonomics: A Rogue Economist Explores the Hidden Side of Everything. William Morrow/HarperCollins. ISBN 0-06-073132-X. 

Steven Levitt Steven Levitt (born May 29, 1967) is prominent American economist best known for his work on crime, in particular on the link between legalized abortion and crime rates. ... Stephen J. Dubner (born 1963) is an American journalist who has written three books and numerous articles. ... The cover of this version of Freakonomics has a picture of what looks like an apple on the outside but is really an orange. ... Sir William Morrow DSO ED was a leading Australian surgeon and specilist in Gastroenterology he also served as president of the Royal Australian College of Physicians. ... HarperCollins is a publishing company owned by News Corporation. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Dictionary.com
  2. ^ Canseco:Steroids made my baseball career possible
  3. ^ Sports Illustrated:Steroids in baseball
  4. ^ Sportsillustrated.cnn.com
  5. ^ Dictionary.com

See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Cheat Chest: Cheats, codes, tips, secrets, walkthroughs for computer and video games. (241 words)
Cheat Chest covers a wide selection of platforms, ranging from early games consoles such as the Colecovision, through to modern systems such as Microsoft's Xbox and the Sony PlayStation 2.
New cheats and tips are being added regularly, so if the game help you are looking for isn't currently listed, please check back in a few days, especially for games that have only just been released.
Usage of Cheat Chest is subject to understanding and acceptance of our privacy policy.
Cheat code - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1334 words)
While normal cheat codes are built into the game by the programmers, unofficial cheat codes can be created by manipulating the contents of memory address for a running game.
Sometimes, though, using cheat codes is necessary, particularly in case of bugs: If a serious game-stopping bug is encountered, a cheat code may be able to bypass it without the need to start the whole game over again from the beginning.
This cheat will generally allow a player to fly and not be able to have contact or interact with walls, floors, objects (including powerups or weapons), and other players, passing through them as if they were a ghost.
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