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Encyclopedia > Chartres
Chartres

Distant view of Chartres
Location
Longitude 01° 29' 21" E
Latitude 48° 26' 50" N
Administration
Country France
Region Centre
Department Eure-et-Loir
(préfecture)
Arrondissement Chartres
Canton Chief town of 3 cantons
Intercommunality Chartres Métropole
Mayor Jean-Pierre Gorges (UMP)
(2001-2008)
Statistics
Altitude 121 m–161 m
(avg. 142 m)
Land area¹ 16.85 km²
Population²
(1999)
40,361
 - Density (1999) 2,395/km²
Miscellaneous
INSEE/Postal code 28085/ 28000
¹ French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km² (0.386 mi² or 247 acres) and river estuaries.
² Population sans doubles comptes: single count of residents of multiple communes (e.g. students and military personnel).
France

Chartres is a town and commune of France, préfecture (capital) of the Eure-et-Loir département. It is located 96 km southwest of Paris in central France. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1056x614, 159 KB) Cathedral of Chartres File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Chartres ... Longitude, sometimes denoted by the Greek letter λ (lambda),[1][2] describes the location of a place on Earth east or west of a north-south line called the Prime Meridian. ... Latitude, usually denoted symbolically by the Greek letter φ, gives the location of a place on Earth north or south of the Equator. ... This is an alphabetical list of countries of the world, including both internationally recognized and generally unrecognized independent states, inhabited dependent territories, as well as areas of special sovereignty. ... France is divided into 26 régions, further subdivided into départements. ... Capital Orléans Land area¹ 39,151 km² Regional President Michel Sapin (PS) (1998 to 2000, and since 2004) Population  - Jan. ... The départements (or departments) are administrative units of France, roughly analogous to British counties and are now grouped into 22 metropolitan and four overseas régions. ... Eure-et-Loir is a French département, named after the Eure and Loir rivers. ... In France, a préfecture is the capital city of a département. ... The 100 French départements are divided into 342 arrondissements. ... The arrondissement of Chartres is an arrondissement of France, located in the Eure-et-Loir département, of the Centre région. ... The canton is an administrative division of France. ... The commune is an administrative division of France. ... A mayor (from the Latin māior, meaning larger, greater) is the modern title of the highest ranking municipal officer. ... The Union for a Popular Movement (Union pour un Mouvement Populaire, UMP), initially named the Union for the Presidential Majority (Union pour la Majorité Présidentielle), is the main French conservative political party. ... This article is about the year 2001. ... 2008 (MMVIII) will be a leap year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1999 (MCMXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday, and was designated the International Year of Older Persons by the United Nations. ... INSEE is the French abbreviation for the French National Institute for Statistics and Economic Studies (French: Institut National de la Statistique et des Études Économiques). ... Postal codes were introduced in France in 1972, when La Poste introduced automated sorting. ... Estuaries and coastal waters are among the most productive ecosystems on Earth, providing ecological, economic, cultural, and aesthetic benefits. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_France. ... The commune is the lowest level of administrative division in the French Republic. ... In France, a préfecture is the capital city of a département. ... Eure-et-Loir is a French département, named after the Eure and Loir rivers. ... The départements (or departments) are administrative units of France and many former French colonies, roughly analogous to English counties. ... City flag City coat of arms Motto: Fluctuat nec mergitur (Latin: Tossed by the waves, she does not sink) Paris Eiffel tower as seen from the esplanade du Trocadéro. ...

Contents

Geography

Chartres is built on the left bank of the Eure River, on a hill crowned by its famous cathedral, the spires of which are a landmark in the surrounding country. To the south-east stretches the fruitful plain of Beauce, the "granary of France", of which the town is the commercial centre. The Eure River is a river in northern France. ... Beauce is an historical region in northern France, located between the Seine and Loire rivers. ...


History

Chartres was one of the principal towns of the Carnutes, and by the Romans was called Autricum, from the river Autura (Eure), and afterwards civitas Carnutum. It was burnt by the Normans in 858, and unsuccessfully besieged by them in 911. The Carnutes (Latin Carnuti), a powerful Celtic people in the heart of independent Gaul, dwelled in a particularly extensive territory between the Sequana (Seine) and the Liger (Loire) rivers. ... Norman conquests in red. ... Events Patriarch Ignatius is imprisoned and (December 25) deposed to be succeeded by patriarch Photius I. Louis the German invades West Francia, hoping to secure Aquitaine from his brother Charles the Bald, but fails. ... Events Autumn - Charles the Simple argees to the Treaty of St. ...


During the Middle Ages it was the chief town of the district of Beauce, and gave its name to a countship which was held by the counts of Blois and Champagne and afterwards by the house of Chatillon, a member of which in 1286 sold it to the crown. It was raised to the rank of a duchy in 1528 by Francis I. After the time of Louis XIV the title of duke of Chartres was hereditary in the family of Orleans. Francis I (François Ier in French) (September 12, 1494 – March 31, 1547), called the Father and Restorer of Letters (le Père et Restaurateur des Lettres), was crowned King of France in 1515 in the cathedral at Reims and reigned until 1547. ... Sun King redirects here. ... For many centuries the House of Orleans was one of the most important noble families in France, with the Duc dOrléans traditionally being very close to the king. ...


In 1417 it fell into the hands of the English, from whom it was recovered in 1432. It became seat of a Duchy in 1528. During the Wars of Religion, it was attacked unsuccessfully by the Protestants in 1568, and was taken in 1591 by Henry IV, who was crowned there three years afterwards. Events Antipope Benedict XIII is deposed, and Pope Martin V is elected. ... Events June 1 - Battle of San Romano - Florence defeats Siena foundation of Université de Caen In the end of the Hook and Cod wars, Jacqueline, Countess of Hainaut and Holland is forced by Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy, to abdicate all her estates in his favour; end of Hainaut... Events June 19 - Battle of Landriano - A French army in Italy under Marshal St. ... The French Wars of Religion were a series of conflicts fought between the Catholic League and the Huguenots from the middle of the sixteenth century to the Edict of Nantes in 1598. ... Events March 23 - Peace of Longjumeau ends the Second War of Religion in France. ... Events June - Capture of Zutphen by the Dutch under Maurice of Nassau. ... Henry IV (French: Henri IV; December 13, 1553 – May 14, 1610), was the first monarch of the Bourbon dynasty in France. ...


In the Franco-Prussian War it was seized by the Germans on October 2, 1870, and continued during the rest of the Campaign an important centre of operations. Combatants Second French Empire North German Confederation allied with south German states (later German Empire) Commanders Napoleon III Helmuth von Moltke Strength 500,000[] 550,000[] Casualties 150,000 dead or wounded 284,000 captured 350,000 civilian [] 100,000 dead or wounded 200,000 civilian [] The Franco-Prussian War... October 2 is the 275th day (276th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 90 days remaining. ... 1870 (MDCCCLXX) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ...


The city suffered heavy damage by bombing in the course of World War II. Combatants Major Allied powers: United Kingdom France Soviet Union United States Republic of China and others Major Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Winston Churchill Charles de Gaulle Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Chiang Kai-Shek Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tojo Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian...


Main sights

Cathedrals and churches

Cathedral of Chartres.
Cathedral of Chartres.
Cathedral of Chartres, western spires.

The town is best known for the Cathedral of Chartres (French: Cathédrale Notre-Dame de Chartres), widely considered to be the finest gothic cathedral in France. Its historical and cultural importance is recognized by its inclusion on the UNESCO list of World Heritage Sites. ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1200x1600, 425 KB) Front view of the cathedral at Chartres, France I attest that I am the copyright holder for this image and I release it for use under the Creative Commons 2. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1200x1600, 425 KB) Front view of the cathedral at Chartres, France I attest that I am the copyright holder for this image and I release it for use under the Creative Commons 2. ... Download high resolution version (589x886, 75 KB)Cathedral of Chartres, western spires File links The following pages link to this file: 1260 Cathedral of Chartres Categories: User-created public domain images ... Download high resolution version (589x886, 75 KB)Cathedral of Chartres, western spires File links The following pages link to this file: 1260 Cathedral of Chartres Categories: User-created public domain images ... Cathedral of Chartres The Cathedral of Chartres (Cathedral of Our Lady of Chartres, French: Cathédrale Notre-Dame de Chartres), located in Chartres, about 50 miles (80 km) from Paris, is considered one of the finest examples in all France of the Gothic style of architecture. ... UNESCO logo UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ... Elabana Falls is in Lamington National Park, part of the Central Eastern Rainforest Reserves World Heritage site in Queensland, Australia. ...


The abbey church of St Pierre[1], dating chiefly from the 13th century, contains, besides some fine stained glass, twelve representations of the apostles in enamel, executed about 1547 by Léonard Limosin. Of the other churches of Chartres also noteworthy are St Aignan (13th, 16th and 17th centuries) and St Martin-au-Val (12th century).


The surrounding city financed the stained glass windows.


Museums

  • Musée des Beaux-Arts, fine arts museum (located near the Cathedral of Chartres) housed in the former Episcopal palace.
  • Le Grenier de l'Histoire Musée, history museum specializing in military uniforms and accoutrements.
  • Le Centre International du Vitrail, a workshop-museum and cultural center devoted to stained glass art.
  • Muséum de sciences naturelles et de la préhistoire, Natural Science and Prehistory Museum
  • Conservatoire du Machinisme et des Pratiques Agricoles, an agricultural musuem

Strictly speaking, stained glass is glass that has been painted with silver stain and then fired. ...

Others

The Eure River, which at this point divides into three branches, is crossed by several bridges, some of them ancient, and is fringed in places by remains of the old fortifications, of which the Porte Guillaume (14th century), a gateway flanked by towers, is the most complete specimen. The steep, narrow streets of the old town contrast with the wide, shady boulevards which encircle it and divide it from the suburbs. The Cbs St Jean, a pleasant park, lies to the north-west, and squares and open spaces are numerous.


The hotel de ville, a building of the 17th century, containing a museum and library, an older hotel de ville of the 13th century, and several medieval and Renaissance houses, are of interest. There is a statue of General F. S. Marceau-Desgraviers (b. 1769), a native of the town.

  • La Maison Picassiette, a house decorated inside and out with mosaics of chards of broken china and pottery

Economy

Chartres is one of the most important market town in the region of Beauce (known as "the granary of France"). Beauce is an historical region in northern France, located between the Seine and Loire rivers. ...


The game-pies and other delicacies of Chartres are well known, and the industries also include flour-milling, brewing, distilling, iron-founding, leather manufacture, perfumes, dyeing, and the manufacture of electronic equipments, car accessories, stained glass, billiard requisites and hosiery.


Miscellaneous

The town is the seat of a bishop, a prefecture, a court of assizes, and has tribunals of first instance and of commerce, a chamber of commerce, training colleges, a high school for boys, a communal college for girls, and a branch of the Bank of France.


Pilgrimages

Chartres has been a site of Christian pilgrimage since the Middle Ages. The poet Charles Péguy (1873-1914) revived the pilgrimage route between Paris and Chartres before the First World War. After the war, some students carried on the pilgrimage in his memory. Since the 1980s, the association Notre-Dame de Chrétienté (http://www.nd-chretiente.com), with offices in Versailles, has organized the annual 100-km pilgrimage on foot from the cathedral of Notre-Dame de Paris to the cathedral of Notre-Dame de Chartres. About 15,000 pilgrims, mostly young families from all over France, participate every year.


Bishops

Notable bishops of Chartres:

Fulbert of Chartres (born between 952 and 962; died 10 April 1028), scholar, teacher, and bishop of Chartres (1007-1028). ... Ivo (Yves) (born about 1040; died 1117) was bishop of Chartres from 1090-1117 and an important ecclesiastical figure and canon lawyer during the Investiture Crisis. ... John of Salisbury (c. ... Jan Cornelisz Vermeyen (1500-1559): Portrait of Erard de la Marck Erard de la Marck (May 31, 1472 - March 18, 1538) was prince-bishop of Liège from 1506 till 1538. ... February 20 - Orkney and Shetland are returned by Norway to Scotland, due to a defaulted dowry payment Possible discovery of Bacalao (possibly Newfoundland, North America) by João Vaz Corte-Real. ... Events Treaty of Nagyvarad. ...

Births

Chartres was the birthplace of:

Fulcher of Chartres (born around 1059 in or near Chartres) was a chronicler of the First Crusade. ... Events Anselm of Canterbury settles at the Benedictine monastery of Le Bec in Normandy. ... Combatants Christendom, Catholicism West European Christians Turkish people Muslims/Arabs The First Crusade was launched in 1095 by Pope Urban II with the stated goal of capturing the sacred city of Jerusalem and the Holy Land from Muslims. ... Philippe Desportes (1546 - October 5, 1606), French poet, was born at Chartres. ... // Events Spanish conquest of Yucatan Peace between England and France Foundation of Trinity College, Cambridge by Henry VIII of England Katharina von Bora flees to Magdeburg Science Architecture Michelangelo Buonarroti is made chief architect of St. ... Events January 27 - The trial of Guy Fawkes and other conspirators begins ending in their execution on January 31 May 17 - Supporters of Vasili Shusky invade the Kremlin and kill Premier Dmitri December 26 - Shakespeares King Lear performed in court Storm buries a village of St Ismails near... A poet is someone who writes poetry. ... Mathurin Regnier (born December 21, 1573 in Chartres, France; died October 22, 1613 in Rouen) was a French satirist. ... Year 1573 was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... Events January - Galileo observes Neptune, but mistakes it for a star and so is not credited with its discovery. ... List of satirists below - writers, cartoonists and others known for their involvement in satire - humourous social criticism. ... André Félibien (May 1619 - 11 June 1695), sieur des Avaux et de Javercy was a French architect and historiographer. ... Events May 13 - Dutch statesman Johan van Oldenbarnevelt is executed in The Hague after having been accused of treason. ... Events January 27 - Change of emperor of the Ottoman Empire from Ahmed II to Mustafa II (1695-1703) July 17 - The Bank of Scotland is founded by an Act of Parliament of the old Scottish Parliament. ... Architect at his drawing board, 1893 An Ciara Danille Bowers is a person who is involved in the planning, designing and oversight of a buildings construction. ... Historiography is writing about rather than of history. ... Pierre Nicole (1625 - November 16, 1695), one of the most distinguished of the French Jansenists, was the son of a provincial barrister, and was born at Chartres. ... Philippe de Courcillon, Marquis de Dangeau (born September 21, 1638 in Chartres; died September 9, 1720) was a French officer. ... Events March 29 - Swedish colonists establish first settlement in Delaware, called New Sweden. ... // Events January 6 - The Committee of Inquiry on the South Sea Bubble publishes its findings February 11 - Sweden and Prussia sign the (2nd Treaty of Stockholm) declaring peace. ... An officer is a member of a military or naval service who holds a position of responsibility. ... The Académie française In the French educational system an académie The Académie française, or French Academy, is the pre-eminent French learned body on matters pertaining to the French language. ... Antoine François Desrues (1744 - 1777), French poisoner]], was born at Chartres, of humble parents. ... // Events The third French and Indian War, known as King Georges War, breaks out at Port Royal, Nova Scotia The First Saudi State founded by Mohammed Ibn Saud Prague occupied by Prussian armies Ongoing events War of the Austrian Succession (1740-1748) Births January 10 - Thomas Mifflin, fifth President... Year 1777 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... The skull and crossbones symbol traditionally used to label a poisonous substance. ... Jacques Pierre Brissot. ... 1754 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... 1793 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... The Girondists (in French Girondins, and sometimes Brissotins), comprised a political faction in France within the Legislative Assembly and the National Convention during the French Revolution. ... The French Revolution (1789–1799) was a vital period in the history of France and Europe as a whole. ... Jérôme Pétion de Villeneuve Jérôme Pétion de Villeneuve (1756 - 1794) was a French writer and politician. ... 1756 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... 1794 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... François Séverin Marceau-Desgraviers François Séverin Marceau-Desgraviers (March 1, 1769 - September 21, 1796), French general, was born at Chartres. ... 1769 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... 1796 was a leap year starting on Friday. ... Achille Guénée (1809 - 1880) was a French lawyer and entomologist. ... 1809 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... 1880 (MDCCCLXXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Entomology is the scientific study of insects. ... Pierre-Jules Hetzel. ... 1814 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... 1886 (MDCCCLXXXVI) is a common year starting on Friday (click on link to calendar) // Events January 18 - Modern field hockey is born with the formation of The Hockey Association in England. ... Jacqueline de Worms Romilly (born March 26, 1913) is a French philologist Biography Born in Chartres in 1913, she studied at lycée Molière where she was lauréate of the Concours général de latin and second prize in Greek in 1930, the first year when girls... Year 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... Philology is the study of ancient texts and languages. ... Nicolas Jean-Christophe Escudé (born April 3, 1976 in Chartres) is a former professional tennis player from France, who turned professional in 1995. ... 1976 (MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ... Tennis balls This article is about the sport, tennis. ...

References

December 26 is the 360th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, 361st in leap years. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 26 is the 360th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, 361st in leap years. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Encyclopædia Britannica, the 11th edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Chartres

  Results from FactBites:
 
Chartres (2301 words)
In the Middle Ages, as the population of Chartres increased, the town walls were extended towards the valley.
In 1793, destructive assaults due to the French Revolution, led to the desecration of the Virgin's Tunic, and the burning of the 16th century statue of the Virgin Mary in front of the Church.
At Chartres, such grisaille windows were often combined with colored glass as in the story of St. Apollinaris, where the grisaille at the bottom of the window was inserted in 1328, replacing older panels.
Cathédrale Notre Dame at Chartres (1525 words)
Chartres’ history as a holy place has legendary roots in the pre-Christian era, when Druids, the Celtic priests of Britain and Gaul, held sacred rites in natural settings like the forest groves and underground grottoes that once lay at Chartres.
Chartres’ medieval architects, masons, glaziers and sculptors created a sacred shrine that continues to move pilgrims today, whether they are traditional Christians, spiritual seekers who connect with the site’s Druidic roots, or those devoted to great art and architecture.
Chartres Cathedral, however, is suffering the effects of old age: Eight hundred years of exposure to weather, pollution and human use have caused tremendous damage.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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