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Encyclopedia > Charter School

Charter schools are publicly funded elementary or secondary schools in the United States that have been freed from some of the rules, regulations, and statutes that apply to other public schools in exchange for some type of accountability for producing certain results, which are set forth in each school's charter.[1] Their founders are often teachers, parents, or activists who feel restricted by traditional public schools.[2] State-run charter schools (schools not affiliated with local school districts) are often established by non-profit groups, universities, and some government entities[3]. It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles accessible from a disambiguation page. ... School districts are a form of special-purpose district in the United States (amongst some other places) which serves to operate the local public primary and secondary schools. ... For the community in Florida, see University, Florida. ...

Contents

History

The charter school idea in the United States was originated by Ray Budde[4], a professor at the University of Massachusetts Amherst and embraced by Albert Shanker, President of the American Federation of Teachers, in 1988 when he called for the reform of the public schools by establishing "charter schools" or "schools of choice". At the time, a few schools (which were not called charter schools but embodied some of their principles) already existed, such as H-B Woodlawn. As originally conceived, the ideal model of a charter school was as a legally and financially autonomous public school (without tuition, religious affiliation, or selective student admissions) that would operate much like a private business – free from many state laws and district regulations, and accountable more for student outcomes rather than for processes or inputs (such as Carnegie Units and teacher certification requirements). Albert Shanker (September 14, 1928 - February 22, 1997) was President of the United Federation of Teachers from 1964 to 1984 as well as President of the American Federation of Teachers from 1974 to 1997. ... The American Federation of Teachers or AFT is an American labor union founded in 1916 which represents teachers; paraprofessionals and school-related personnel; local, state and federal employees; higher education faculty and staff; and nurses and other healthcare professionals. ... H-B Woodlawn Program The H-B Woodlawn Program, commonly referred to as H-B, is an alternative all-county public school located in Arlington County, Virginia, United States based on the liberal educational movements of the 1960s and 1970s. ... The term public school has three distinct meanings: In the USA and Canada, elementary or secondary school supported and administered by state and local officials. ...


Minnesota was the first state to pass a charter school law, in 1991. California was second, in 1992. As of 2008, 40 states and the District of Columbia have charter school laws.[5] Capital Saint Paul Largest city Minneapolis Largest metro area Minneapolis-St. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ...


Structure and characteristics

There are two principles which guide charter schools. First is that they will operate as autonomous public schools, through waivers from many of the procedural requirements of district public schools. The second is that charter schools are accountable for student achievement. To date, 11% of the over 4000 charter schools operating in the United States have closed for reasons including academic, financial, and management problems, and occasionally consolidation or district interference.[6]


The rules and structure of charter schools depend on state authorizing legislation, and differ from state to state. A charter school is authorized to function once it has received a charter, a statutorily defined performance contract detailing the school's mission, program, goals, students served, methods of assessment, and ways to measure success. The length of time for which charters are granted varies, but most are granted for 3–5 years. Charter schools are held accountable to their sponsor—a local school board, state education agency, university, or other entity—to produce positive academic results and adhere to the charter contract. While this accountability is one of the key arguments in favor of charters, the United States Department of Education has found that charters are, in practice, not held to higher standards of accountability than traditional public schools.[7] It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles accessible from a disambiguation page. ... A contract is a legally binding exchange of promises or agreement between parties that the law will enforce. ... This article or section should be merged with board of education A school board (or school committee) is an elected council that helps determine educational policy in a small regional area, such as a city, state, or province. ... Plato is credited with the inception of academia: the body of knowledge, its development and transmission across generations. ... The Lyndon Baines Johnson Department of Education Building[1]) , ED headquarters in Washington, DC A construction project to repair and update the building facade at the Department of Education Headquarters building in 2002 resulted in the installation of structures at all of the entrances to protect employees and visitors from...


Chartering authorities

Chartering authorizers, entities which may legally issue charters, differ from state to state, as do the bodies which are legally entitled to apply for and operate under such charters. In some states, like Arkansas, the State Board of Education authorizes charters. In other states, like Maryland, only the local school district may issue charters. States including Arizona and the District of Columbia have created independent charter authorizing bodies to which applicants may apply for a charter. The laws that permit the most charter development, as seen in Minnesota and Michigan, allow for a combination of such authorizers[8]. Charter applicants may include local school districts, institutions of higher education, non-profit corporations, and, in some states, for-profit corporations. Wisconsin, California, Michigan, and Arizona allow for-profit corporations to operate charter schools. This is cause for concern in the opinion of educators who are concerned that for-profit charter schools are inherently flawed, as they divert part of the funding that in a traditional public school would be spent entirely on education to maintain profits. According to the National Education Association, for-profit charter schools rarely outperform traditional public schools, even when the charter receives higher funding.[9] Although the U.S. Department of Education's findings agree with those of the NEA, their study points out the limitations on such studies and the inability to hold constant other important factors, and notes that "study design does not allow us to determine whether or not traditional public schools are more effective than charter schools." .[10] This article is about the U.S. State. ... Official language(s) None (English, de facto) Capital Annapolis Largest city Baltimore Largest metro area Baltimore-Washington Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 42nd  - Total 12,407 sq mi (32,133 km²)  - Width 101 miles (145 km)  - Length 249 miles (400 km)  - % water 21  - Latitude 37° 53′ N to 39° 43′ N... Official language(s) English Spoken language(s) English 74. ... ... Capital Saint Paul Largest city Minneapolis Largest metro area Minneapolis-St. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ...


Demographics

The U.S. Department of Education's 1997 First Year Report, part of a four-year national study on charters, is based on interviews of 225 charter schools in 10 states. Charters tend to be small (fewer than 200 students) and represent primarily new schools, though some schools had converted to charter status. Charter schools often tend to exist in urban locations, rather than rural. This study found enormous variation among states. Charter schools tended to be somewhat more racially diverse, and to enroll slightly fewer students with special needs and limited-English-proficient students than the average schools in their state. [11] The Lyndon Baines Johnson Department of Education Building[1]) , ED headquarters in Washington, DC A construction project to repair and update the building facade at the Department of Education Headquarters building in 2002 resulted in the installation of structures at all of the entrances to protect employees and visitors from...


In 2007, the annual survey produced by the Center for Education Reform, who track charter school development and demographics, found that 54% of charter school students qualified for free or reduced lunches. This qualification is a common proxy for determining how many low-income students a given school enrolls. The same survey found that half of all charter school students fall into categories that are classified as “at risk.”[12]


Funding

Charter school funding is dictated by the state. In many states, charter schools are funded by transferring per-pupil state aid from the school district where the charter school student resides. The Federal Elementary and Secondary Education Act, Part B, Sections 502 - 511 also authorize funding grants for charter schools. Additionally, charter schools may receive funding from private donors or foundations.


In August 2005, a national report of charter school finance undertaken by the Thomas B. Fordam Institute, a pro-charter group, [13] found that across 16 states and the District of Columbia—which collectively enroll 84 percent of the nation’s one million charter school students—charter schools receive about 22 percent less in per-pupil public funding, or $1,800, than the district schools that surround them. For a typical charter school of 250 students, that amounts to about $450,000 per year. The study asserts that the funding gap is wider in most of twenty-seven urban school districts studied, where it amounts to $2,200 per student, and that in cities like San Diego and Atlanta, charters receive 40% less than traditional public schools. The fiscal inequity is most severe in South Carolina, California, Ohio, Georgia, Wisconsin, and Missouri. The report suggests that the primary driver of the district-charter funding gap is charter schools’ lack of access to local and capital funding.


In contrast, an earlier article from the Education Policy Analysis Archives at Arizona State University in August of 2002 suggests that charters in economically depressed areas may receive more funding than the traditional public schools that surround them, placing traditional public schools at a funding disadvantage [14]. Arizona State University (ASU) is a public research institution of higher education and research with campuses located in the Phoenix Metropolitan Area. ...


Locations of charter schools

In the United States

In 1991, Minnesota was the first state to adopt charter school legislation, as an expansion of a longstanding program of public school choice and to stimulate broader system improvements. Since then, the charter school concept has spread to 40 states and the District of Columbia. State laws follow varied sets of key organizing principles based on the Citizens League's recommendations for Minnesota,[15] American Federation of Teachers guidelines, and/or federal charter-school legislation (U.S. Department of Education). Principles govern sponsorship, number of schools, regulatory waivers, degree of fiscal/legal autonomy, and performance expectations. Capital Saint Paul Largest city Minneapolis Largest metro area Minneapolis-St. ... ... The American Federation of Teachers or AFT is an American labor union founded in 1916 which represents teachers; paraprofessionals and school-related personnel; local, state and federal employees; higher education faculty and staff; and nurses and other healthcare professionals. ...


Current laws have been characterized as either "strong" or "weak." "Strong-law" states mandate considerable autonomy from local labor-management agreements and bureaucracy, allow a significant number of charter schools to be authorized by multiple charter-granting agencies, and allocate a level of funding consistent with the statewide per pupil average. According to the Center for Education Reform, a pro-charter group, in 2008 Minnesota, the District of Columbia, Michigan, Arizona, and California had the "strongest" laws in the nation. Mississippi and Iowa are home the nation’s "weakest" laws, according to the same ranking.[16]


The vast majority of charter schools (more than 70 percent) are found in states with the "strongest" laws: Arizona, California, Colorado, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, and North Carolina.[17] Official language(s) English Spoken language(s) English 74. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Official language(s) English Demonym Coloradan Capital Denver Largest city Denver Largest metro area Denver-Aurora Metro Area Area  Ranked 8th in the US  - Total 104,185 sq mi (269,837 km²)  - Width 280 miles (451 km)  - Length 380 miles (612 km)  - % water 0. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Capital Saint Paul Largest city Minneapolis Largest metro area Minneapolis-St. ... Official language(s) English Capital Raleigh Largest city Charlotte Largest metro area Charlotte metro area Area  Ranked 28th  - Total 53,865 sq mi (139,509 km²)  - Width 150 miles (240 km)  - Length 560[1] miles (900 km)  - % water 9. ...


In the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina, over half of the New Orleans schools that are re-opening are doing so as charter schools.[18] This article is about the Atlantic hurricane of 2005. ... New Orleans is the largest city in the state of Louisiana, United States of America. ...


Outside the United States

Overall, charter schools have had much less support outside the U.S., although many of the choices provided by charter schools have long existed elsewhere under different names.


New Zealand

Well before American charter schools, New Zealand went far further in granting power to individual schools by abolishing all regional school boards and making each public school independent, with local parent and teacher involvement in decision making.[19] Although not called charter schools, each school does have a charter under which it operates with a board of trustees and has a high degree of autonomy. The main difference, though, is that since all schools have the same status, individual schools don't all have the uniqueness typical of a charter school. Education in New Zealand is nominally free for all primary, intermediate and secondary schooling. ...


While since 1989 there is also provision for Designated Special Character schools, thus far only two have been created. (These are not to be confused with 'state integrated' schools -- mostly Catholic,[20] and formerly private -- that are 'integrated' into the public school system, while retaining their proprietor -- which are required to have a 'special character' in their integration agreement with the Crown that would be preserved by the school's continuance.) The New Zealand Education Act of 1989 allows the Minister to establish special character schools - Section 155 for kura kaupapa Mäori where the principal language of instruction is te reo Mäori, and Section 156 Designated Special Character schools. ...


England and Wales

The United Kingdom established grant-maintained schools in England and Wales in 1988. They allowed individual schools that were independent of the local school authority. When they were abolished in 1998, most turned into foundation schools, which are under their local district authority but still have a high degree of autonomy. In England and Wales, a grant-maintained school is a state school that opted out under local control as allowed for by the provisions of the Education Reform Act 1988. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... This article is about the country. ... In England and Wales, a foundation school is a type of school which enjoys a degree of independence from the local education authority. ...


Canada

About three years after charter schools were introduced in the U.S., the Canadian province of Alberta allowed charter schools beginning in 1994. Two years later, ABC Charter Public School (now Westmount Charter School) formed. Alberta charter schools have much in common with their U.S. counterparts. As of 2005 there are only about a dozen charter schools in the province, compared with over 50 school boards, with the largest one alone having over 200 schools. The idea of charter schools initially sparked great debate and is still controversial, but has had limited impact. No other province in Canada has yet followed Alberta's lead. For other uses, see Alberta (disambiguation). ... Alberta charter schools are a special type of public schools, which have a greater degree of autonomy than a normal school, to allow them to offer programs that are significantly different than regular public schools operated by district school boards. ...


Chile

Chile has a long history of private subsidized schooling, akin to charter schooling in the United States. Before the 1980's, most private subsidized schools were religious and owned by churches or other private parties, but they received support from the central government. In the 1980's, the dictatorial government of Augusto Pinochet promoted neoliberal reforms in the country, and adopted a competitive voucher system in education. These vouchers could be used in public schools or private subsidized schools (which can be run for profit). After this reform, the number of private subsidized schools, many of them secular, grew from 18.5% of schools in 1980 to 32.7% of schools in 2001.[21] Events and trends The 1980s marked an abrupt shift towards more conservative lifestyles after the momentous cultural revolutions which took place in the 1960s and 1970s and the definition of the AIDS virus in 1981. ... Augusto José Ramón Pinochet Ugarte[1] (November 25, 1915 – December 10, 2006) was President of Chile from 1974 to 1990, and was the President of the military junta from 1973 to 1981. ... The term neoliberalism is used to describe a political-economic philosophy that had major implications for government policies beginning in the 1970s – and increasingly prominent since 1980 – that de-emphasizes or rejects positive government intervention in the economy, focusing instead on achieving progress and even social justice by encouraging free... A voucher is a certificate which is worth a certain monetary value and which may only be spent for specific reasons or on specific goods. ...


Evaluations of Charter Schools

One obvious question charter schools face is whether they actually improve educational outcomes, which is their claimed intent. In the interest of testing this assertion, a number of researchers and organizations have examined educational outcomes for students who attend charter schools.


American Federation of Teachers study

A study performed by the American Federation of Teachers, which opposes charter schools, found that students attending charter schools tied to school boards do not fare any better or worse statistically than students attending public schools on reading and math scores.[22] This study was conducted as part of the National Assessment of Educational Progress in 2003.[23] The study included a sample of 6000 4th grade pupils and was the first national comparison of test scores among children in charter schools and regular public schools. Rod Paige, the U.S. Secretary of Education, issued a statement saying (among other things) that, "according to the authors of the data the Times cites, differences between charter and regular public schools in achievement test scores vanish when examined by race or ethnicity."[24] Additionally, a number of prominent research experts called into question the usefulness of the findings and the interpretation of the data in an advertisement funded by a pro-charter group.[25] Harvard economist Caroline Hoxby also criticized the report and the sample data, saying "An analysis of charter schools that is statistically meaningful requires larger numbers of students."[26] Fourth grade is a year of education in the United States and other countries four years after kindergarten (usually 9-10 years old. ... Roderick Raynor Rod Paige (born June 17, 1933), served as the 7th United States Secretary of Education from 2001 to 2005. ... ... Caroline Minter Hoxby is a labor economist whose research focuses on issues in education. ...


Caroline Hoxby studies

A 2000 paper by Caroline Hoxby found that charter school students do better than public school students, although this advantage was found only "among white non-Hispanics, males, and students who have a parent with at least a high school degree".[27] This paper was the subject of controversy in 2005 when Princeton assistant professor Jesse Rothstein was unable to replicate her results. Hoxby released a follow up paper in 2004 with Jonah Rockoff, Assistant Professor of Economics and Finance at the Columbia Graduate School of Business, claiming to have again found that charter school students do better than public school students.[26] This second study compared charter school students "to the schools that their students would most likely otherwise attend: the nearest regular public school with a similar racial composition."[26] It reported that the students in charter schools performed better in both math and reading. It also reported that the longer the charter school had been in operation, the more favorably its students compared. Hoxby's methodology in this study has also been criticized, arguing that Hoxby's "assessment of school outcomes is based on the share of students who are proficient at reading or math but not the average test score of the students. That’s like knowing the poverty rate but not the average income of a community -- useful but incomplete."[28] The study has also been criticized for its representivity as the study is only of students in Chicago.[29] Caroline Minter Hoxby is a labor economist whose research focuses on issues in education. ...


Meta-analyses

A report issued by a pro-charter school group,[30] released in July 2005 and updated in October 2006, looks at twenty-six studies that make some attempt to look at change over time in charter school student or school performance. Twelve of these find that overall gains in charter schools were larger than other public schools; four find charter schools’ gains higher in certain significant categories of schools, such as elementary schools, high schools, or schools serving at risk students; six find comparable gains in charter and traditional public schools; and, four find that charter schools’ overall gains lagged behind. The study also looks at whether individual charter schools improve their performance with age (e.g. after overcoming start-up challenges). Of these, five of seven studies find that as charter schools mature, they improve. The other two find no significant differences between older and younger charter schools.


A more recent meta-analysis conducted at Vanderbilt University indicates that solid conclusions cannot be drawn from the existing studies, due to their methodological shortcomings and conflicting results, and proposes standards for future meta-analyses.[31]


National Center for Education Statistics study

A study released on August 22, 2006 by the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) found that students in charter schools performed several points worse than students in traditional public schools in both reading and math on the National Assessment of Educational Progress test.[32] Proponents consider this the best study as they believe by incorporating basic demographic, regional, or school characteristics simultaneously it "...has shown conclusively, through rigorous, replicated, and representative research, whether charter schools boost student achievement...", while they say that in the AFT study "...estimates of differences between charter schools and traditional public schools are overstated.".[29] Critics of this study argue that its demographic controls are highly unreliable, as percentage of students receiving free lunches does not correlate well to poverty levels, and some charter schools don't offer free lunches at all, skewing their apparent demographics towards higher income levels than actually occur.[33] The National Center for Education Statistics (NCES), as part of the U.S. Department of Education, collects, analyzes, and publishes statistics on education and public school district finance information in the United States; conducts studies on international comparisons of education statistics; and provides leadership in developing and promoting the use...


United States Department of Education Study

In its Evaluation of the Public Charter Schools Program: Final Report, the U.S. Department of Education found that, in the five case study states, charter schools were out-performed by traditional public schools in meeting state performance standards. The study did not state definitively that this was due to the effectiveness of the schools, noting that some other factor could be causing the charter's comparatively low performance [10]


Policy and practice

As more states start charter schools, there is increasing speculation about upcoming legislation. In an innovation-diffusion study surveying education policy experts in fifty states, Michael Mintrom and Sandra Vergari (1997) found that charter legislation is more likely considered in states with poor test scores, Republican legislative control, and proximity to other states with charter schools. Legislative enthusiasm, gubernatorial support, interactions with national authorities, and use of permissive charter-law models increase the chances for adopting what they consider stronger laws. He feels union support and restrictive models lead to adoption of what he considers weaker laws.


The threat of vouchers, wavering support for public education, and bipartisan support for charters has led some unions to start charters themselves. Several AFT chapters, such as those in Houston and Dallas, have themselves started charters. The National Education Association has allocated $1.5 million to help members start charter schools. Proponents claim that charters offer teachers a brand of empowerment, employee ownership, and governance that might be enhanced by union assistance (Nathan). The American Federation of Teachers or AFT is an American labor union founded in 1916 which represents teachers; paraprofessionals and school-related personnel; local, state and federal employees; higher education faculty and staff; and nurses and other healthcare professionals. ... The National Education Association (NEA) is the largest labor union in the United States, representing many of the countrys teachers along with other school personnel. ...


Over two dozen private management companies are scrambling to increase their 10 percent share of a "more hospitable and entrepreneurial market" (Stecklow 1997). Boston-based Advantage Schools Inc., a corporation specializing in for-profit schooling, has contracted to run charter schools in New Jersey, Arizona, and North Carolina. The Education Development Corporation was planning in the summer of 1997 to manage nine nonsectarian charter schools in Michigan, using cost-effective measures employed in Christian schools. For-Profit Schools are educational institutions that are run by private, profit-seeking companies or organizations. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... A Christian school is a school run on Christian principles or by a Christian organisation. ...


Professor Frank Smith, of Teachers College, Columbia University, sees the charter-school movement as a chance to involve entire communities in redesigning all schools and converting them to "client-centered, learning cultures" (1997). He favors the Advocacy Center Design process used by state-appointed Superintendent Laval Wilson to transform four failing New Jersey schools. Building stronger communities via newly designed institutions may prove more productive than charters' typical "free-the-teacher-and-parent" approach. Teachers College, Columbia University (sometimes referred to simply as Teachers College; also referred to as Teachers College of Columbia University or the Columbia University Graduate School of Education) is a top ranked graduate school of education in the United States. ...


President Bush's No Child Left Behind Act also promotes charter schools. It is as yet unclear whether recent test results will affect the enacting of future legislation. A Pennsylvania legislator who voted to create charter schools, State Rep. Mark B. Cohen of Philadelphia, said that "Charter schools offer increased flexibility to parents and administrators, but at a cost of reduced job security to school personnel. The evidence to date shows that the higher turnover of staff undermines school performance more than it enhances it, and that the problems of urban education are far too great for enhanced managerial authority to solve in the absence of far greater resources of staff, technology, and state of the art buildings." President Bush signing the bipartisan No Child Left Behind Act at Hamilton H.S. in Hamilton, Ohio. ...


Charter school popularity

Some members of the public are dissatisfied with educational quality and school district bureaucracies.[34] Today's charter-school initiatives are rooted in the educational reforms of the 1980s and 1990s, from state mandates to improve instruction, to school-based management, school restructuring, and private/public-choice initiatives. The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      This article is about the sociological concept. ...


The charter approach uses market principles while insisting that schools be nonsectarian and democratic. Many people, such as former President Bill Clinton, see charter schools, with their emphasis on autonomy and accountability, as a workable political compromise and an alternative to vouchers. Others, such as President George W. Bush, see charter schools as a way to improve schools without antagonizing the teachers' union. Bush has made charter schools a major part of his No Child Left Behind Act. A recent report by the AFT, a noted charter-school opponent, has shown charter schools not faring as well as public schools on state administered standardized testing,[35] though the report has been heavily criticized.[36][37] Other charter school opponents have examined the competing claims and suggest that most students in charter schools perform the same or worse than their traditional public school counterparts on standardized tests.[38] William Jefferson Bill Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III[1] on August 19, 1946) was the 42nd President of the United States, serving from 1993 to 2001. ... An education voucher, commonly called a school voucher, is a certificate by which parents are given the ability to pay for the education of their children at a school of their choice, rather than the public school to which they were assigned. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the forty-third and current President of the United States of America, originally inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... The National Education Association (NEA) is the largest labor union in the United States, representing many of the countrys teachers along with other school personnel. ... President Bush signing the bipartisan No Child Left Behind Act at Hamilton H.S. in Hamilton, Ohio. ... The American Federation of Teachers or AFT is an American labor union founded in 1916 which represents teachers; paraprofessionals and school-related personnel; local, state and federal employees; higher education faculty and staff; and nurses and other healthcare professionals. ...


Debate over funding

Nearly all charter schools face implementation obstacles, but newly created schools are most vulnerable. Some charter advocates claim that new charters tend to be plagued by resource limitations, particularly inadequate startup funds. Yet a few charter schools also attract large amounts of interest and money from private foundations such as the Gates Foundation, the Walton Family Foundation and the Broad Foundation.


Although charter advocates recommend the schools control all per-pupil funds, charter advocates claim that their schools rarely receive as much funding as other public schools. In reality, this is not necessarily the case in the complex world of school funding. Charter schools in California were guaranteed a set amount of district funding that in some districts amounted to $800 per student per year more than non-charter (traditional public schools) received until a new law was passed that took effect in fall 2006. Charter advocates claim that their schools generally lack access to funding for facilities and special program funds distributed on a district basis.[39] Sometimes private businesses and foundations, such as the Ameritech Corporation in Michigan and the Annenburg Fund in California, provide support.[34] Congress and the President allocated $80 million to support charter-school activities in fiscal year 1998, up from $51 million in 1997.


Charters sometimes face opposition from local boards, state education agencies, and unions.[35] Many educators are concerned that charter schools might siphon off badly needed funds for regular schools, as well as students. In addition, public-school advocates assert that charter schools are designed to compete with public schools in a destructive and harmful manner rather than work in harmony with them. The American Federation of Teachers urges that charter schools adopt high standards, hire only certified teachers, and maintain teachers' collective-bargaining rights.


Criticism of charter schools

Difficulties with accountability

The basic concept of charter schools is that they exercise increased autonomy in return for greater accountability. They are meant to be accountable for both academic results and fiscal practices to several groups, including the sponsor that grants them, the parents who choose them, and the public that funds them. Fiscal municipality in Huesca, Spain The term fiscal refers to government debt, expenditures and revenues, or to finance (particularly financial revenue) in general. ...


Charter schools can theoretically be closed for failing to meet the terms set forth in their charter, but in practice, this can be difficult, divisive and controversial. One example was the 2003 revocation of the charter for a school called Urban Pioneer in the San Francisco Unified School District, which first came under scrutiny when two students died on a school wilderness outing.[40] An auditor's report found that the school was in financial disarray[41] and posted the lowest test scores of any school in the district except those serving entirely non-English-speakers.[42] It was also accused of academic fraud, graduating students with far fewer than the required credits.[40] There is also the case of California Charter Academy, where a publicly funded but privately run chain of 60 charter schools became insolvent in August 2004, despite a budget of $100 million dollars, which left thousands of children without a school to attend.[29] However, in Connecticut a large proportion of poorly-performing charter schools have been closed.[43] SFUSD logo The San Francisco Unified School District is a public school district in San Francisco, California. ...


Distribution of funds

Additional concerns arise when, as in Michigan, charter schools are run for profit. Many educators[attribution needed] worry that education will suffer when funding is split between profit and educational spending, rather than going completely toward educational spending as is done in traditional public schools. Studies have already shown many instances of charter schools cutting programs or refusing to educate students with special needs so as to maintain profitability.[44] Charter schools in Michigan, where for-profit charter schools are common, have performed at a lower level than their traditional public school counterparts.[43]


Racial integration

In an article written for the journal Contexts, Linda A. Renzulli, an assistant professor in the Department of Sociology at the University of Georgia, and Vincent J. Roscigno, coeditor of the American Sociological Review, use Linda's own research as well as research by Amy Stuart Wells, Professor of Sociology and Education and the Coordinator of Policy Studies at Teachers College at Columbia University, to state that Charter Schools actually increase segregation, which is contrary to what they are supposed to do.[29] UGA Main Library The University of Georgia (UGA) is the largest institution of higher learning in the U.S. state of Georgia. ... The American Sociological Review is the flagship journal of the American Sociological Association (ASA). ... Teachers College, Columbia University (sometimes referred to simply as Teachers College; also referred to as Teachers College of Columbia University or the Columbia University Graduate School of Education) is a top ranked graduate school of education in the United States. ...


Notes

  1. ^ Charter Schools. National Education Association. Retrieved on 2008-01-21.
  2. ^ Research Center: Charter Schools. Education Week (2004-09-10). Retrieved on 2008-01-01.
  3. ^ Eskenazi, Stuart. "Learning Curves", 1999-07-22. Retrieved on 2008-01-21. 
  4. ^ [1]
  5. ^ "State Statistics Chart", The Center for Education Reform http://www.edreform.com/index.cfm?fuseAction=stateStatChart&psectionid=15&cSectionID=44
  6. ^ http://www.edreform.com/_upload/cer_charter_survey.pdf
  7. ^ Executive Summary-Evaluation of the Public Charter Schools Program: Final Report
  8. ^ http://www.edreform.com/index.cfm?fuseAction=document&documentID=2804&sectionID=74&NEWSYEAR=2008
  9. ^ National Education Association (1998-07-08). For-Profit Management of Public Schools. CorpWatch. Retrieved on 2008-01-21.
  10. ^ a b Executive Summary-Evaluation of the Public Charter Schools Program: Final Report
  11. ^ U.S. Department of Education. A Study on Charter Schools: First Year Report. Washington, D.C.: Author, 1997. 74 pages. http://eric.uoregon.edu/search_find/ericdb/detail.php?AC=ED409620
  12. ^ http://www.edreform.com/_upload/cer_charter_survey.pdf
  13. ^ Charter School Funding: Inequity’s Next Frontier. Thomas B. Fordam Institute (August 2005). Retrieved on 2008-01-21.
  14. ^ EPAA Vol. 10 No. 34 Sugarman: Charter School Funding
  15. ^ Rollwagen, John; Donn McLellan; School Structure Committee (1988-11-17). Chartered Schools = Choices for Educators + Quality for All Students (PDF). Citizens League. Retrieved on 2008-01-21.
  16. ^ "Charter Laws Graded and Ranked State By State", The Center for Education Reform http://www.edreform.com/index.cfm?fuseAction=document&documentID=2804&sectionID=34&NEWSYEAR=2008
  17. ^ Charter School Laws Across the States. Center for Education Reform (2004). Retrieved on 2008-01-21.
  18. ^ Carrns, Ann (2006-08-24). Charting a New Course: After Katrina, New Orleans's Troubled Educational System Banks on Charter Schools. The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved on 2008-01-21.
  19. ^ Ladner, Matthew (2001-10-01). School Choice, Kiwi-Style: When New Zealand Abolished School Boards. Frontier Centre for Public Policy. Retrieved on 2008-01-21.
  20. ^ Catholic Schools: A Heritage to be proud of ... (PDF). New Zealand Catholic Education Office (2005). Retrieved on 2008-01-21.
  21. ^ Larrañaga, Osvaldo. "COMPETENCIA Y PARTICIPACIÓN PRIVADA: LA EXPERIENCIA CHILENA EN EDUCACIÓN". Estudios Públicos.
  22. ^ Nelson, F. Howard; Rosenberg, Bella, and Nancy Van Meter. "Charter School Achievement on the 2003 National Assessment of Educational Progress". American Federation of Teachers.
  23. ^ Institute of Education Sciences (December 2004). America's Charter Schools: Results From the NAEP 2003 Pilot Study (PDF). United States Department of Education. Retrieved on 2008-01-21.
  24. ^ U.S. Department of Education (2004-08-17). "Paige Issues Statement Regarding New York Times Article on Charter Schools". Press release. Retrieved on 2008-01-21.
  25. ^ Charter School Evaluation Reported by The New York Times Fails to Meet Professional Standards. Center for Education Reform (August 2004). Retrieved on 2008-01-21.
  26. ^ a b c Hoxby, Caroline M.. "Achievement in Charter Schools and Regular Public Schools in the United States: Understanding the Differences" (PDF). Harvard University and the National Bureau of Economic Research. Retrieved on 2008-01-21.
  27. ^ Hoxby, Caroline M. (2000). "Does Competition among Public Schools Benefit Students and Taxpayers?". American Economic Review. 
  28. ^ Schoolhouse Schlock: Conservatives flip-flop on standards for charter school research. The American Prospect (2004-09-23). Retrieved on 2008-01-21.
  29. ^ a b c d Renzulli, Linda A.; Roscigno, Vincent J. (Winter 2007). "charter schools and the public good". Contexts 6 (1): 31-36. Retrieved on 2008-01-03. 
  30. ^ Hassel, Bryan C.; Michelle Godard Terrell (October 2006). Charter School Achievement: What We Know. National Alliance for Public Charter Schools. Retrieved on 2008-01-03.
  31. ^ Berends, Mark; Caroline Watral, Bettie Teasley, and Anna Nicotera (2006). Charter School Effects on Achievement: Where We Are and Where We're Going (PDF). National Center on School Choice. Retrieved on 2008-01-03.
  32. ^ National Center for Education Statistics. "A Closer Look at Charter Schools Using Hierarchical Linear Modeling" (PDF). U.S. Government Printing Office. Retrieved on 2008-01-21.
  33. ^ Center for Education Reform (2006-08-21). "No Free Lunch - Study Wrongly Discredits Charter Success: Flawed Research by National Center for Education Statistics Should be Viewed with Great Skepticism". Press release. Retrieved on 2008-01-21.
  34. ^ a b Jenkins, John; Jeffrey L. Dow (April 1996). "A Primer on Charter Schools". International Journal of Educational Reform 5 (2): 224-27. Retrieved on 2008-01-21. 
  35. ^ a b . "Charter Schools: Do They Measure Up?". American Federation of Teachers.
  36. ^ Howell, William G.; Paul E. Peterson and Martin R. West (2004-08-18). Dog Eats AFT Homework: A teachers union's dishonest study of charter schools.. Retrieved on 2008-01-21.
  37. ^ Maranto, Robert (August/September 2002). "AFT Charter School "Study" Lobbying, not Research". NCSC News 1 (7). National Charter School Clearinghouse. Retrieved on 2008-01-21. 
  38. ^ Carnoy, Martin; Rebecca Jacobsen, Lawrence Mishel, and Richard Rothstein (2005-04-30). The Charter School Dust-Up: Examining the Evidence on Enrollment and Achievement. Teacher College Press. ISBN 978-0807746158. 
  39. ^ Bierlein, Louann; Bateman, Mark (April 1996). "Charter Schools v. the Status Quo: Which Will Succeed?". International Journal of Educational Reform 5 (2): 159-68. Retrieved on 2008-01-21. 
  40. ^ a b Delgado, Ray. "District suspends wilderness trips: School could lose charter if safety lapses found", San Francisco Chronicle, 2003-03-07. Retrieved on 2008-01-21. 
  41. ^ Schevit, Tanya. "Audit finds faults in charter school: Board set to vote on troubled Urban Pioneer", 2003-08-26. Retrieved on 2008-01-21. 
  42. ^ 2003 Academic Performance Index (API) Base Report: School Report: Urban Pioneer Experiential. California Department of Education (2004-06-14). Retrieved on 2008-01-21.
  43. ^ a b Miron, Gary (April 2005). Strong Charter School Laws are Those That Result in Positive Outcomes (PDF). Western Michigan University. Retrieved on 2008-01-03.
  44. ^ Symonds, William C.; Ann Therese Palmer, Dave Lindorff, and Jessica McCann (2000-02-07). "For-Profit Schools: They're spreading fast. Can private companies do a better job of educating America's kids?". Business Week. Retrieved on 2006-12-20. 

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Caroline Minter Hoxby is a labor economist whose research focuses on issues in education. ... The American Prospect is a monthly magazine which focuses on US politics and public policy. ... 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The National Center for Education Statistics (NCES), as part of the U.S. Department of Education, collects, analyzes, and publishes statistics on education and public school district finance information in the United States; conducts studies on international comparisons of education statistics; and provides leadership in developing and promoting the use... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 21st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 233rd day of the year (234th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For information on Wikipedia press releases, see Wikipedia:Press releases. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 21st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 21st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 230th day of the year (231st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 21st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 21st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 120th day of the year (121st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 21st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Todays San Francisco Chronicle was founded in 1865 as The Daily Dramatic Chronicle by teenage brothers Charles de Young and Michael H. de Young. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 66th day of the year (67th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 21st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 238th day of the year (239th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 21st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 165th day of the year (166th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 21st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... is the 38th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... BusinessWeek is a business magazine published by McGraw-Hill. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 354th day of the year (355th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

  • Budde, Ray (September 1996). "The Evolution of the Charter Concept". Phi Delta Kappan 78 (1): 72-73. 
  • Herbst, Jurgen (2006). School Choice and School Governance: A Historical Study of the United States and Germany. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. 
  • Mintrom, Michael; Sandra Vergari (1997-03-24). Political Factors Shaping Charter School Laws.
  • Nathan, Joe (1996). Charter Schools: Creating Hope and Opportunity for American Education. San Francisco: Jossey Bass. 
  • Smith, Frank L. (August 1997). "Guidance for the Charter Bound". The School Administrator 54 (7): 18-22. 
  • Charter Schools. Eric Digest. The original Wikipedia article listed here is based on the text at this public domain site.
  • Swan, Betsy (2007-02-27). Testimony before the Joint Committees of Edcation and Finance, "Changes to the Charter School Act (CSA)" 9-20. League of Women Voters New York State.

For the band, see 1997 (band). ... is the 83rd day of the year (84th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 58th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

See also

In the U.S. system of education, a magnet school is a public school which offers innovative courses, specialized training, etc. ...

External links

Image File history File links Broom_icon. ...

Articles and papers

The Mississippi Teacher Corps (MTC) is a two-year teaching program that recruits college graduates to teach in critical-need areas of Mississippi, specifically in the Mississippi Delta and Jackson, Mississippi. ...

Organizations

Students in Rome, Italy. ... A primary school in Český Těšín, Poland Primary education is the first stage of compulsory education. ... Secondary education - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Students attend a lecture at a tertiary institution. ... Free education is a policy stance in politics that ensures education for its citizens up to a certain level. ... A free school is a decentralized network in which skills, information, and knowledge are shared without hierarchy and the institutional environment of formal schooling. ... For the film of this title, see Private School (film). ... The term public school has three distinct meanings: In the USA and Canada, elementary or secondary school supported and administered by state and local officials. ... An independent school is a school which is not dependent upon national or local government for financing its operation and is instead operated by tuition charges, gifts, and perhaps the investment yield of an endowment. ... An independent school in the United Kingdom is a school relying, for all of its funding, upon private sources, so almost invariably charging school fees. ... A day school is an institution where children are given educational instruction only during the day and after which children return to their homes. ... In education, the phrase alternative school, sometimes referred to as a minischool, or special school, is any public or private school having a special curriculum, especially an elementary or secondary school offering a more flexible program of study than a traditional school. ... A parochial school (or faith school) is a type of private school which engages in religious education in addition to conventional education. ... A boarding school is a usually fee-charging school where some or all pupils not only study, but also live during term time, with their fellow students and possibly teachers. ... In the U.S. system of education, a magnet school is a public school which offers innovative courses, specialized training, etc. ... A virtual school is simply a school where students of all ages can do their coursework online. ... Compulsory education is education which children are required by law to receive and governments to provide. ... A comprehensive school is a secondary school that does not select children on the basis of academic attainment or aptitude. ... A vocational school, providing vocational education and also as referred to as a trade school or career college, and school is operated for the express purpose of giving its students the skills needed to perform a certain job or jobs. ... A university-preparatory school or college-preparatory school (usually abbreviated to preparatory school, college prep school, or prep school) is a private secondary school designed to prepare a student for higher education. ... A grammar school is a school that may, depending on regional usage as exemplified below, provide either secondary education or, a much less common usage, primary education (also known as elementary). Grammar schools trace their origins back to medieval Europe, as schools in which university preparatory subjects, such as Latin... For other uses, see High school (disambiguation). ... Secondary school is a term used to describe an institution where the final stage of compulsory schooling, known as secondary education, takes place. ... Middle school (also known as intermediate school or junior high school) covers a period of education that straddles primary/elementary education and secondary education, serving as a bridge between the two. ... A primary school in Český Těšín, Czech Republic. ... Primary or elementary education is the first years of formal, structured education that occurs during childhood. ... A university-preparatory school or college-preparatory school (usually abbreviated to preparatory school, college prep school, or prep school) is a private secondary school designed to prepare a student for higher education. ... A vocational school, providing vocational education and also as referred to as a trade school or career college, and school is operated for the express purpose of giving its students the skills needed to perform a certain job or jobs. ... A gymnasium (pronounced with or, in Swedish, as opposed to ) is a type of school providing secondary education in some parts of Europe, comparable to English Grammar Schools and U.S. High Schools. ... For other uses, see College (disambiguation). ... For the community in Florida, see University, Florida. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
The Charter School Dust-Up: Examining the evidence on enrollment and achievement (3088 words)
We suggest that to the extent charter schools rely on this mechanism of accountability, it should not be surprising that their average academic performance does not surpass that of regular public schools, for two reasons.
A potentially encouraging result from the charter school dust-up of 2004 is that the policy community may now be better able to reach consensus on what standards are appropriate for judging evidence of educational effectiveness, not only of charter schools but of regular public schools in the nation, in states, and in districts.
First, we often refer to the group of charter school advocates who have been most outspoken in their insistence that, regardless of good data, charter school performance must be superior to that of regular public schools.
NEA: Charter Schools (974 words)
Local school boards should have the authority to grant or deny charter applications; the process should be open to the public, and applicants should have the right to appeal to a state agency decisions to deny or revoke a charter.
Charter schools should be subject to the same public sector labor relations statutes as traditional public schools, and charter school employees should have the same collective bargaining rights as their counterparts in traditional public schools.
However, because charter schools promise to improve student achievement as a condition of relief from some of the rules and regulations that apply to traditional public schools, it is appropriate to evaluate their effectiveness.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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