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Encyclopedia > Charm quark
Composition: Charm Quark Elementary particle Fermion Quark Second Glashow, Iliopoulos, Maiani, 1970 Burton Richter et al. and Samuel C. C. Ting et al., 1974 1.3 GeV/c2 +2/3 e ½
 Flavour in particle physics v • d • e Flavour quantum numbers: Lepton number: L Baryon number: B Strangeness: S Charm: C Bottomness: B' Topness: T Isospin: Iz or I Weak isospin: Tz Electric charge: Q Combinations: In particle physics, an elementary particle or fundamental particle is a particle not known to have substructure; that is, it is not made up of smaller particles. ... In particle physics, fermions are particles with half-integer spin, such as protons and electrons. ... The six flavours of quarks and their most likely decay modes. ... In particle physics, a generation is a division of the elementary particles. ... Sheldon Glashow at Harvard University Professor Sheldon Lee Glashow (born December 5, 1932) is an American physicist. ... John Iliopoulos, a Greek physicist born in 1940, was the first person to present the Standard Model of particle physics in a single report. ... Luciano Maiani is an Italian physicist best known for his prediction of the charm quark with Glashow and Iliopoulos. ... 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday. ... Burton Richter (Born March 22, 1931) is a Nobel Prize-winning American physicist. ... Samuel Chao Chung Ting (丁肇中 pinyin: Dīng Zhàozhōng; Wade-Giles: Ting¹ Chao⁴-chung¹) (born January 27, 1936) is a Michigan-born Chinese American physicist who received the Nobel Prize in 1976 for the discovery of the subatomic J particle with Burton Richter. ... The invariant mass or intrinsic mass or proper mass or rest mass or just mass is a measurement or calculation of the mass of an object that is the same for all frames of reference. ... A GEV (or Ground Effect Vehicle) is vehicle that takes advantage of the aerodynamic principle of ground effect (or Wing-in-ground). ... A line showing the speed of light on a scale model of Earth and the Moon The speed of light in a vacuum is an important physical constant denoted by the letter c for constant or the Latin word celeritas meaning swiftness.[1] It is the speed of all electromagnetic... The elementary charge (symbol e or sometimes q) is the electric charge carried by a single proton, or equivalently, the negative of the electric charge carried by a single electron. ... The elementary charge (symbol e or sometimes q) is the electric charge carried by a single proton, or equivalently, the negative of the electric charge carried by a single electron. ... In physics, spin refers to the angular momentum intrinsic to a body, as opposed to orbital angular momentum, which is the motion of its center of mass about an external point. ... Flavour (or flavor) is a quantum number of elementary particles related to their weak interactions. ... Thousands of particles explode from the collision point of two relativistic (100 GeV per ion) gold ions in the STAR detector of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. ... A quantum number is a number used to parametrise certain properties of particles or other systems in quantum mechanics. ... In high energy physics, the lepton number is the number of leptons minus the number of antileptons. ... In particle physics, the baryon number is an approximate conserved quantum number. ... In particle physics, strangeness, denoted as , is a property of particles, expressed as a quantum number for describing decay of particles in strong and electro-magnetic reactions, which occur in a short period of time. ... The bottom quark is a third-generation quark with a charge of -(1/3)e. ... The top quark is the third-generation up-type quark with a charge of +(2/3)e. ... Isospin (isotopic spin, isobaric spin) is a physical quantity which is mathematically analogous to spin. ... The weak isospin in theoretical physics parallels the idea of the isospin under the strong interaction, but applied under the weak interaction. ... Electric charge is a fundamental conserved property of some subatomic particles, which determines their electromagnetic interaction. ... Hypercharge: Y Y=B+S+C+B'+T Weak hypercharge: YW YW=2(Q-Tz) YW=B−L Related topics: In particle physics, the hypercharge (represented by Y) is the sum of the baryon number B and the flavor charges: strangeness S, charm C, bottomness and topness T, although the last one can be omitted given the extremely short life of the top quark (it decays to other quarks before... Weak hypercharge is twice the difference between the electrical charge and the weak isospin. ... In high energy physics, Bâˆ’L (pronounced bee minus ell) is the baryon number minus the lepton number. ...

The charm quark is a second-generation quark with a charge of +(2/3)e. It is the third most massive of the quarks, at 1.3 GeV (a bit more than the mass of the proton). It was predicted in 1970 by Sheldon Glashow, John Iliopoulos, and Luciano Maiani, and first observed in November 1974, with the simultaneous discovery of the J/ψ charm particle at SLAC (Stanford Linear Accererator Center) by a group led by Burton Richter and at BNL (Brookhaven National Laboratory) by a group led by Samuel C. C. Ting. The particle was named J by the BNL group and ψ by the SLAC group; when the naming controversy could not be resolved, the compromise J/ψ was adopted. CPT-symmetry is a fundamental symmetry of physical laws under transformations that involve the inversions of charge, parity and time simultaneously. ... In the standard model of particle physics the Cabibbo Kobayashi Maskawa matrix (CKM matrix, sometimes earlier called KM matrix) is a unitary matrix which contains information on the strength of flavour changing weak decays. ... CP is the product of two symmetries: C for charge conjugation, which transforms a particle into its antiparticle, and P for parity, which creates the mirror image of a physical system. ... A phenomenon is said to be chiral if it is not identical to its mirror image (see Chirality (mathematics)). The spin of a particle may be used to define a handedness for that particle. ... The six flavours of quarks and their most likely decay modes. ... The elementary charge (symbol e or sometimes q) is the electric charge carried by a single proton, or equivalently, the negative of the electric charge carried by a single electron. ... A GEV (or Ground Effect Vehicle) is vehicle that takes advantage of the aerodynamic principle of ground effect (or Wing-in-ground). ... In physics, the proton (Greek proton = first) is a subatomic particle with an electric charge of one positive fundamental unit (1. ... Sheldon Glashow at Harvard University Professor Sheldon Lee Glashow (born December 5, 1932) is an American physicist. ... John Iliopoulos, a Greek physicist born in 1940, was the first person to present the Standard Model of particle physics in a single report. ... Luciano Maiani is an Italian physicist best known for his prediction of the charm quark with Glashow and Iliopoulos. ... The J/Ïˆ is a subatomic particle, namely a flavor-neutral meson consisting of a charm quark and a charm anti-quark. ... The Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) is a United States Department of Energy National Laboratory operated by Stanford University under the programmatic direction of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science. ... Burton Richter (Born March 22, 1931) is a Nobel Prize-winning American physicist. ... â‰  Aerial view of Brookhaven National Laboratory. ... Samuel Chao Chung Ting (&#19969;&#32903;&#20013; pinyin: D&#299;ng Zhàozh&#333;ng; Wade-Giles: Ting¹ Chao&#8308;-chung¹) (born January 27, 1936) is a Michigan-born Chinese American physicist who received the Nobel Prize in 1976 for the discovery of the subatomic J particle with Burton Richter. ... For other uses, see Psi. ... The J/Ïˆ is a subatomic particle, namely a flavor-neutral meson consisting of a charm quark and a charm anti-quark. ...

$C = N_c - N_{overline{c}}$

Some of the hadrons containing charm quarks include: In particle physics, a hadron is a subatomic particle which experiences the strong nuclear force. ...

• D mesons contain a charm quark (or its antiparticle) and an up or down quark.
• Ds mesons contain a charm quark and a strange quark.
• There are many charmonium states, for example the J/ψ particle. These consist of a charm quark and its antiparticle.
• Charmed baryons have been observed, and are named in analogy with strange baryons (e.g. Λc+).
v  d  e
Particles in physics
Elementary particles (Quarks, Leptons, Gauge bosons, Ghosts)
 Quarks : u · d · s · c · b · t Leptons : e · μ · τ · νe · νμ · ντ Gauge bosons : γ · g · W± · Z0
Composite particles ( Baryons, Mesons, Hyperons)
 Baryons/Hyperons : p · n · Δ · Λ · Σ · Ξ · Ω Mesons : π · K · ρ · J/ψ · Υ
Quasiparticles
Phonon · Exciton · Plasmon · Polariton · Polaron · Magnon
Hypothetical particles
Higgs boson · Graviton · Tetraquark · Pentaquark · Goldstone boson · Neutralino · Tachyon

Results from FactBites:

 Quark - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2032 words) The masses of the heavy charm and bottom quarks are obtained from the masses of hadrons containing a single heavy quark (and one light antiquark or two light quarks) and from the analysis of quarkonia. The charm quark was postulated by Sheldon Glashow, Iliopoulos and Maiani in 1973 to prevent unphysical flavour changes in weak decays which would otherwise occur in the standard model. The existence of a third generation of quarks was predicted by Kobayashi and Maskawa who realized that the observed violation of CP symmetry by neutral kaons could not be accommodated into the Standard Model with two generations of quarks.
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