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Encyclopedia > Charlottetown Accord
Headline on October 27, 1992 Globe and Mail.

The Charlottetown Accord was a package of constitutional amendments, proposed by the Canadian federal and provincial governments in 1992. It was submitted to a public referendum on October 26 of that year, and was defeated. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (395x641, 138 KB) Globe and Mail headline after the result of the Charlottetown Accord on the Canadian Constitution. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (395x641, 138 KB) Globe and Mail headline after the result of the Charlottetown Accord on the Canadian Constitution. ... The Globe and Mail is a large Canadian English language national newspaper based in Toronto. ... 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday. ... National referenda are seldom used in Canada, and have tended to be disasters. ... October 26 is the 299th day of the year (300th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 66 days remaining. ...

Contents

Background

Until 1982, the British North America Act, 1867 and later amendments served as the basis of Canada's constitution. As an act of the British Parliament, however, this left Canada in the anomalous position of having to petition another country's government to amend its own constitution. Since the Statute of Westminster 1931, the British government was willing to relinquish this role, but Canadian federal and provincial governments were unable to agree on a new amending formula. Various unsuccessful attempts were made to patriate the constitution. Notable among these was the Victoria Charter of 1971. The Constitution Act, 1867 (formerly called the British North America Act, 1867, and still known informally as the BNA Act), constitutes a major part of Canadas Constitution. ... The Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is the supreme legislative institution in the United Kingdom and British overseas territories (it alone has parliamentary sovereignty). ... This article is about the Statute of Westminster relating to the British Empire and its dominions. ... The Victoria Charter was a set of proposed amendments to the Constitution of Canada in 1971. ...


In 1981, a round of negotiations led by Prime Minister Pierre Elliott Trudeau reached a patriation agreement that formed the basis of the Constitution Act of 1982. Although this agreement passed into law, augmenting the British North America Acts as the constitution of the land, it was reached over the objections of Quebec Premier René Lévesque, and the Quebec National Assembly refused to approve the amendment. However, the Supreme Court of Canada ruled in the Patriation Reference and the Quebec Veto Reference that neither Quebec nor any other province had a veto to prevent the federal government from petitioning the British Parliament to pass the Canada Act 1982, and that the new constitution applied to all provinces notwithstanding their disagreement. The Prime Minister of Canada (French: Premier ministre du Canada), is the Minister of the Crown who is head of the Government of Canada. ... Name Pierre Elliott Trudeau Number Fifteenth First term April 20, 1968–June 4,1979 Second term March 3, 1980–June 30, 1984 Predecessor Lester Bowles Pearson Successors Joe Clark John Napier Turner Date of birth October 18, 1919 Place of birth Montreal, Quebec Date of death September 28... Patriation is a legal term particularly used in Canada, to describe a process of constitutional change also known as bringing home the constitution. ... The Canada Act 1982 is an Act of Parliament passed by the British Parliament that severed virtually all remaining constitutional and legislative ties between the United Kingdom and Canada. ... Motto: Je me souviens (French: I remember) Capital Quebec City Largest city Montreal Official languages French Government - Lieutenant-Governor Lise Thibault - Premier Jean Charest (PLQ) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 75 - Senate seats 24 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area Ranked 2nd - Total 1,542,056 km² - Water... The Premier of Quebec (in French Premier ministre du Québec, sometimes literally translated to Prime Minister of Quebec) is the first minister for the Canadian province of Quebec. ... René Lévesque (pronounced ) (August 24, 1922 – November 1, 1987) was a reporter, a minister of the government of Quebec, Canada, (1960 – 1966), the founder of the Parti Québécois political party, and 23rd Premier of Quebec (November 25, 1976 – October 3, 1985). ... The Quebec Parliament Building at night The National Assembly is the legislative body of the Canadian province of Quebec. ... The Supreme Court of Canada (French: Cour suprême du Canada) is the highest court of Canada and is the final court of appeal in the Canadian justice system. ... Reference re a Resolution to amend the Constitution, [1981] 1 S.C.R. 753 – also known as the Patriation Reference – is a leading opinion of the Supreme Court of Canada where the Court affirmed the existence of an unwritten dimension to the Constitution and held that constitutional convention did not... Quebec Veto Reference (Reference re Amendment to the Canadian Constitution) [1982] 2 S.C.R. 793 is a leading Supreme Court of Canadas decision on whether the province of Quebec has veto power in the patriation of the Constitution of Canada. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Canada Act 1982 The Canada Act 1982 (1982 c. ...


Brian Mulroney defeated Trudeau's successor, John Turner, in the 1984 Federal Election and was determined to succeed where Trudeau had failed, by reaching an agreement that would allow Quebec to sanction the Constitution. Led by Mulroney, the federal and provincial governments signed the Meech Lake Accord in 1987. However, when the 1990 deadline for ratification was reached, two provincial legislatures, Manitoba and Newfoundland, had not ratified the agreement, and thus it was defeated. This defeat, in turn, led to a resurgence in the Quebec sovereignty movement. {{Infobox Prime Minister | name=The Rt. ... John Turner, PC, CC, QC, MA, BCL, LLD (born June 7, 1929) was the seventeenth Prime Minister of Canada from June 30, 1984 to September 17, 1984. ... The Canadian federal election of 1984 was called on July 4, 1984, and held on September 4 of that year. ... The Meech Lake Accord was a set of failed amendments to the Constitution of Canada negotiated in 1987 by Prime Minister Brian Mulroney and the provincial premiers, including Robert Bourassa, premier of Quebec. ... Motto: Gloriosus et Liber (Latin: Glorious and free) Capital Winnipeg Largest city Winnipeg Official languages English and French, per mandate of the Constitution Act 1982 Government - Lieutenant-Governor John Harvard - Premier Gary Doer (NDP) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 14 - Senate seats 6 Confederation July 15, 1870 (5th... For other uses, see Newfoundland (disambiguation). ... The Quebec sovereignty movement is a political movement aimed at attaining independent statehood (sovereignty) for the Canadian province of Quebec. ...


In the next two years, the future of Quebec dominated the national agenda. The Quebec government set up the Allaire Committee and the Bélanger-Campeau Committee to discuss Quebec's future inside or outside of Canada. The federal government struck the Beaudoin-Edwards Committee and the Spicer Commission to find ways to resolve English Canada's concerns. Former Prime Minister Joe Clark was appointed Minister of Constitutional Affairs, and was responsible for pulling all of this together to forge a new constitutional agreement. Charles Joseph Joe Clark, PC, CC, AOE, MA, LLD (born June 5, 1939) was the sixteenth prime minister of Canada, from June 4, 1979, to March 3, 1980. ... The Minister of Constitutional Affairs was the Canadian cabinet minister responsible for constitutional affairs. ...


On August 28, 1992, after intensive negotiations in Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island, the federal, provincial and territorial governments, and representatives from the Assembly of First Nations, the Native Council of Canada, the Inuit Tapirisat of Canada and the Métis National Council, came to the agreement known as the "Charlottetown Accord". August 28 is the 240th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (241st in leap years), with 125 days remaining. ... 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday. ... Motto: Template:Unhide = CUNABULA FOEDERIS (Birthplace of Confederation) Location City Information Established: 1764 Area: 44. ... The Assembly of First Nations (AFN) is a body of Aboriginal leaders in Canada. ... The Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami (ᐃᓄᐃᑦ ᑕᐱᕇᑦ ᑲᓇᑕᒥ) is an organization in Canada that represents over 40,000 Inuit. ... The Métis National Council is the national representative of the Métis people in Canada. ...


The Accord

The Charlottetown Accord attempted to resolve long-standing disputes around the division of powers between federal and provincial jurisdiction. It provided for exclusive provincial jurisdiction over forestry, mining and other natural resources, and cultural policy. The federal government, however, would have retained jurisdiction over national cultural bodies such as the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation and the National Film Board. The accord also required the federal and provincial governments to harmonize policy in areas such as telecommunications, labour development and training, regional development and immigration. The Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC), a Canadian crown corporation, is the country’s national public radio and television broadcaster. ... The National Film Board of Canada (usually National Film Board or NFB) is a Canadian public filmmaking organization established to produce and distribute films that inform Canadians and promote Canada around the world. ...


The federal power of reservation, under which the provincial lieutenant governor could refer a bill passed by a provincial legislature to the federal government for assent or refusal, would have been abolished, and the federal power of disallowance, under which the federal government could overrule a provincial law that had already been signed into law, would have been severely limited. In Canadian constitutional law, disallowance and reservation are constitutional powers to reject any bill passed by Parliament or any legislature in Canada on the authority of the Imperial Parliament. They were also used by the federal government to veto provincial laws. ... A Lieutenant Governor is a government official who is the subordinate or deputy of a Governor or Governor-General. ... In Canadian constitutional law, disallowance and reservation are constitutional powers to reject any bill passed by Parliament or any legislature in Canada on the authority of the Imperial Parliament. They were also used by the federal government to veto provincial laws. ...


Federal spending authority would also have been subject to stricter controls. Canadian governments have often struck agreements under which the federal government would partially or fully fund programs (Medicare, social programs, etc.) which otherwise would fall within areas of provincial jurisdiction. The federal government has typically attached conditions on this financing arrangement to ensure minimum national standards. The Charlottetown Accord would have guaranteed federal funding for such programs, severely limiting the federal government's authority in these departments.


The accord proposed a social charter to promote such objectives as health care, welfare, education, environmental protection and collective bargaining. It also proposed the elimination of barriers to the free flow of goods, services, labour and capital, and other provisions related to employment, standard of living and development among the provinces. Health care or healthcare is the prevention, treatment, and management of illness and the preservation of mental and physical well-being through the services offered by the medical, nursing, and allied health professions. ... ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A Collective agreement is a labor contract between an employer and one or more unions. ... For the album by the Kaiser Chiefs see Employment (album) Employment is a contract between two parties, one being the employer and the other being the employee. ... The Standard of living refers to the quality and quantity of goods and services available to people and the way these services and goods are distributed within a population. ...


The accord also contained the "Canada Clause", which sought to codify the values that define the nature of the Canadian character. These values included egalitarianism, diversity, and the recognition of Quebec as a distinct society within Canada. Aboriginal self-government was approved in principle, but to permit further negotiations on the form it would take, there would have been a hiatus of three years before the concept was recognized in the courts. Egalitarianism (derived from the French word égal, meaning equal or level) is the moral doctrine that people should be treated as equals, in some respect. ... Distinct society (in French la société distincte) was a political neologism used during a constitutional debate in Canada, in the second half of the 1980s and in the early 1990s. ...


Perhaps most important, however, the accord also proposed a number of institutional changes that would radically reshape the face of Canadian politics. For example, the composition and the appointment process for the Supreme Court of Canada were to be constitutionally entrenched. Although convention has been that three of the nine Supreme Court justices must be from Quebec due to Quebec's use of civil law rather than English common law, this has never been constitutionally mandated. The Supreme Court of Canada (French: Cour suprême du Canada) is the highest court of Canada and is the final court of appeal in the Canadian justice system. ... Civil law or continental law is the predominant system of law in the world. ... This article concerns the common-law legal system, as contrasted with the civil law legal system; for other meanings of the term, within the field of law, see common law (disambiguation). ...


The Canadian Senate would have been reformed, although the proposed reform fell short of the "triple-E" (equal, elected and effective) Senate demanded by the western provinces. The accord allowed senators to be elected either in a general election, or by the provincial legislatures. Six would be assigned for every province, 1 for each territory, and future seats would be determined for First Nations voters. However, the powers of the Senate were reduced, and on matters relating to francophone culture and language, passage of a bill would require a "double majority" -- a majority in the Senate as a whole and a majority of francophone senators. The Senate of Canada (French: Le Sénat du Canada) is a component of the Parliament of Canada, along with the Sovereign (represented by the Governor General) and the House of Commons. ...


Changes were also proposed for the House of Commons. Following a redistribution, the number of seats in the House would have always increased, and it would have codified that a province could not have fewer seats than any other province with a smaller population. Following the "equalization" of the Senate, the House's seat distribution would also be based more so on population than previously. However, Quebec would have never been allotted less than one-quarter of all the seats in the House.


The accord formally institutionalized the federal/provincial/territorial consultative process, and allowed for Aboriginal inclusion in certain circumstances. It also increased the number of matters in the existing constitutional amending formula that required unanimous consent. In Canada a First Ministers conference is a meeting between of the provincial and territorial premiers and the Prime Minister. ...


See the full text of the Charlottetown Accord for more details.


The referendum

Unlike the Meech Lake Accord, the Charlottetown Accord's ratification process provided for a national referendum. Three provinces -- British Columbia, Alberta and Quebec -- had recently passed legislation requiring that constitutional amendments be submitted to a public referendum. As well, Quebec premier Robert Bourassa had pledged, contingent on the results of the Charlottetown negotiations, to hold a referendum that year on either Quebec independence or a new constitutional agreement. Motto: Splendor Sine Occasu (Latin: Splendour without diminishment) Capital Victoria Largest city Vancouver Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor Iona Campagnolo - Premier Gordon Campbell (BC Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 36 - Senate seats 6 Confederation July 20, 1871 (6th province) Area Ranked 4th - Total 944,735 km... Motto: Fortis et liber(Latin) Strong and free Capital Edmonton Largest city Calgary Official languages English (see below) Government - Lieutenant-Governor Norman Kwong - Premier Ed Stelmach (PC) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 28 - Senate seats 6 Confederation September 1, 1905 (split from Northwest Territories) (8th [province]) Area Ranked... A portrait of Robert Bourassa, taken during his second term as premier of Quebec (1985–1994). ...


The impetus for a federal referendum came from the many complaints about the Meech Lake process, and how many claimed it was a backdoor negotiation for the future of the country. Mulroney decided to go with the referendum, against Joe Clark's advice. British Columbia and Alberta agreed to participate in the federal referendum, but Quebec opted to conduct its own separate vote. (For that reason, Quebecers "temporarily" living outside the province could have two votes, since they were enumerated to the voters' list based on federal rules, but people relatively new to Quebec could not vote at all because they had not established residency.)


The accord had to be approved not only by a majority of voters nationally, but also by a majority of voters in each province. If it failed in just one province, the accord would not pass.


Support

The campaign saw an alignment of groups in support of the new amendments. The Tories, the Liberals, and the New Democratic Party supported the accord. First Nations groups endorsed it as did some women's groups and business leaders. All ten provincial premiers supported it. In the English media, almost all opinion pieces were in favour. The campaign began with the accord popular across English Canada, with a statistical dead heat in Quebec. All three major party leaders travelled the country supporting the accord while large amounts of money were spent on pro-accord advertising. While many advocates of the accord acknowledged that it was a compromise and had many flaws, they also felt that without it the country would break apart. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Liberal Party of Canada (French: ), colloquially known as the Grits (originally Clear Grits), is a Canadian federal political party. ... The New Democratic Party (NDP; Nouveau Parti démocratique in French) is a political party in Canada with a progressive social democratic philosophy that contests elections at both the federal and provincial levels. ... First Nations is a term of ethnicity used in Canada. ...


Opposition

The most important opponent of the accord was probably former Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau. In a piece first published in Maclean's Magazine, he argued that the accord meant the end of Canada and was the disintegration of the federal government. He would later grant an interview at a Montreal Chinese restaurant, "La Maison du Egg Roll", where he would deliver a powerful speech, arguing that "This mess deserves a 'no'." One of Trudeau's chief allies, Deborah Coyne, would lead a feminist crusade against the accord. For other uses, see Pierre Elliott Trudeau (disambiguation). ... Macleans is Canadas leading weekly news magazine. ... Nickname: Motto: Concordia Salus (salvation through harmony) Coordinates: Country Canada Province Quebec Founded 1642 Established 1832 Government  - Mayor Gérald Tremblay Area [1][2][3]  - City 365. ... Deborah Coyne, LLD , MPhil is a Canadian constitutional lawyer, professor and author. ... Feminism is a social theory and political movement primarily informed and motivated by the experience of women. ...


The No side was a smaller collection of groups. Preston Manning's fledgling, western-based Reform Party battled the accord in the West with the slogan, "KNOw More", opposing "distinct society" and arguing that Senate reform did not go far enough. Quebec sovereignists, Lucien Bouchard's Bloc Québécois and the provincial Parti Québécois led by Jacques Parizeau, were strongly opposed as they believed it did not give Quebec enough powers. Ernest Preston Manning (born June 10, 1942, in Edmonton, Alberta), is a right-wing populist Canadian politician. ... The Reform Party of Canada was a Canadian federal political party founded in 1987. ... Lucien Bouchard, PC , B.Sc , LL.B (born December 22, 1938 in Saint-Coeur-de-Marie, Quebec, Canada) is a Quebec lawyer, diplomat and politician. ... The Bloc Québécois is a centre-left federal political party in Canada that is devoted to the promotion of sovereignty for Quebec. ... The Parti Québécois (PQ) is a political party that advocates national sovereignty for the Canadian province of Quebec and secession from Canada, as well as social democratic policies and has traditionally had support from the labour movement. ... Jacques Parizeau, (born August 9, 1930) is an economist and noted Quebec sovereigntist who served as Premier of Quebec, Canada, from September 26, 1994 to January 29, 1996. ...


The campaign

As the campaign progressed, the accord steadily became less and less popular. This is often credited to much of the electorate finding at least some part of the lengthy accord with which they disagreed. It is also closely connected to the extreme unpopularity of Brian Mulroney in 1992, and to the nation's general antipathy towards the constitutional debates.


Mulroney was already deeply unpopular with Canadian voters who perceived him as arrogant, and made a number of mistakes in the referendum campaign. Most famously, he referred to persons against the Accord as "Enemies of Canada," and while speaking about the dangers of voting against the agreement in Sherbrooke, he ripped a piece of paper in half with a dramatic flourish to represent the historic gains for Quebec that would be threatened if the accord failed. This came to be regarded as one of the defining images of his tenure as Prime Minister, with many voters seeing overtones of belligerence and intimidation. Many voters, in fact, misinterpreted the action as a reference to the potential breakup of the country. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Sherbrooke (2006 population: 147,427) is a city in south-eastern Quebec, Canada, the only major city in the Eastern Townships. ...


Many critics, especially those in the West, argued that the Accord was essentially a document created by the nation's elites to codify their vision of what Canada "should" be. BC broadcaster Rafe Mair gained national fame and notoriety by arguing that the accord represented an attempt to permanently cement Canada's power base in the Quebec-Ontario bloc at the expense of fast-growing, wealthy provinces like Alberta and British Columbia that were challenging its authority. To proponents of such beliefs, opposing the accord became portrayed as campaign of grassroots activism against the interests of the powerful. Rafe Mair is a former Canadian politician and a current radio personality in British Columbia, Canada. ... A grassroots political movement is one driven by the constituents of a community. ...


In Quebec, a tape featuring two bureaucrats saying that Bourassa had "caved" in negotiations was played on a radio station. Further undermining the "Yes" vote in Quebec was when British Columbia's Constitutional Affairs minister Moe Sihota, responding to Mair's comments, said that Bourassa had been "outgunned" in the discussions. The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Bureaucracy is a concept in sociology and political science referring to the way that the administrative execution and enforcement of legal rules are socially organized. ... Munmohan Singh Moe Sihota is a former Canadian politician. ...


Results

Therefore, on October 26, 1992, two referenda (the Quebec government's referendum in Quebec, and the federal government's referendum in all other provinces and territories) were put to the people. October 26 is the 299th day of the year (300th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 66 days remaining. ... 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday. ...


The question:

Do you agree that the Constitution of Canada should be renewed on the basis of the agreement reached on August 28, 1992?

The results:

Province Yes No Voter Turnout
Newfoundland 63.2 36.8 53.3
Nova Scotia 48.8 51.2 67.8
Prince Edward Island 73.9 26.1 70.5
New Brunswick 61.8 38.2 72.2
Quebec [1] 43.3 56.7 82.8
Ontario 50.1 49.9 71.9
Manitoba 38.4 61.6 70.6
Saskatchewan 44.7 55.3 68.7
Alberta 39.8 60.2 72.6
British Columbia 31.7 68.3 76.7
Northwest Territories 61.3 38.7 70.4
Yukon 43.7 56.3 70.0
Federal Totals 45.7 54.3 71.8


CBC Television news reported the result with the words "The Charlottetown Accord is DOA: Dead on arrival." For other uses, see Newfoundland (disambiguation). ... Motto: Munit Haec et Altera Vincit(Latin) One defends and the other conquers BC AB SK MB ON QC NB PE NS NL YT NT NU Capital Halifax Largest city Halifax Regional Municipality Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor Mayann E. Francis - Premier Rodney MacDonald (PC) Federal representation in Canadian... Motto: Parva Sub Ingenti (Latin: The Small Protected By The Great) Capital Charlottetown Largest city Charlottetown Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor Barbara Oliver Hagerman - Premier Pat Binns (PC) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 4 - Senate seats 4 Confederation July 1, 1873 (7th) Area Ranked 13th - Total 5... Motto: Spem reduxit (Hope restored) BC AB SK MB ON QC NB PE NS NL YT NT NU Capital Fredericton Largest city Saint John Official languages English, French (the only constitutionally bilingual province in the country) Government - Lieutenant-Governor Herménégilde Chiasson - Premier Shawn Graham (Liberal) Federal representation in... Motto: Je me souviens (French: I remember) Capital Quebec City Largest city Montreal Official languages French Government - Lieutenant-Governor Lise Thibault - Premier Jean Charest (PLQ) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 75 - Senate seats 24 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area Ranked 2nd - Total 1,542,056 km² - Water... Motto: Ut Incepit Fidelis Sic Permanet (Latin: Loyal she began, loyal she remains) Capital Toronto Largest city Toronto Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor James K. Bartleman - Premier Dalton McGuinty (Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 106 - Senate seats 24 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area Ranked 4th... Motto: Gloriosus et Liber (Latin: Glorious and free) Capital Winnipeg Largest city Winnipeg Official languages English and French, per mandate of the Constitution Act 1982 Government - Lieutenant-Governor John Harvard - Premier Gary Doer (NDP) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 14 - Senate seats 6 Confederation July 15, 1870 (5th... Motto: Multis E Gentibus Vires (Latin: From many peoples strength) Capital Regina Largest city Saskatoon Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor Gordon Barnhart - Premier Lorne Calvert (NDP) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 14 - Senate seats 6 Confederation September 1, 1905 (Split from NWT) (9th (province)) Area Ranked 7th... Motto: Fortis et liber(Latin) Strong and free Capital Edmonton Largest city Calgary Official languages English (see below) Government - Lieutenant-Governor Norman Kwong - Premier Ed Stelmach (PC) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 28 - Senate seats 6 Confederation September 1, 1905 (split from Northwest Territories) (8th [province]) Area Ranked... Motto: Splendor Sine Occasu (Latin: Splendour without diminishment) Capital Victoria Largest city Vancouver Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor Iona Campagnolo - Premier Gordon Campbell (BC Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 36 - Senate seats 6 Confederation July 20, 1871 (6th province) Area Ranked 4th - Total 944,735 km... Motto: none Capital Yellowknife Largest city Yellowknife Official languages Chipewyan, Cree, English, French, Gwich’in, Inuinnaqtun, Inuktitut, Inuvialuktun, North Slavey, South Slavey, Tłįchǫ [1] Government - Commissioner Tony Whitford - Premier Joe Handley (Consensus government (no party affiliations)) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 1 - Senate seats 1 Confederation 1870... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... CBC Television is the primary English language television service of the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. ... Dead on arrival or DOA is a notation that a patient was brought to a hospital and immediately pronounced dead by a physician. ...


[1] Quebec's results were tabulated by the Directeur général des élections du Québec, not by the federal Chief Electoral Officer as in other provinces.


The aftermath

The impact of the referendum caused the Canadian Press to label it the Canadian Newsmaker of the Year, an honour that usually goes to individual people. CBC.ca claimed that this was the first time that the "country's newsrooms have selected a symbol instead of a specific person," which would be done again in 2006.[1] The Canadian Press (CP) is a Canadian news agency established in 1917 as a vehicle to permit Canadian newspapers of the day to exchange their news and information. ... A Canadian Newsmaker of the Year has been voted every year since 1946 by the Canadian Press. ... The Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC), a Canadian crown corporation, is the countrys national radio and television broadcaster. ...


Many thought, from a perspective favouring national unity, that the result given was probably the next-best result to the Accord passing: since both Quebec and English Canada rejected it, there really was not a fundamental disagreement as there was with Meech Lake. A division in the Quebec Liberal Party over the accord would bring former Liberal youth committee president Mario Dumont to form the Action démocratique du Québec in 1994. The Parti libéral du Québec (Liberal Party of Quebec, although it refers to itself in English as the Québec Liberal Party), or PLQ, is a liberal political party in the Canadian province of Quebec. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Action démocratique du Québec (ADQ) is a provincial populist fiscally right-of-center political party in Quebec, Canada. ... 1994 (MCMXCIV) was a common year starting on Saturday the Gregorian calendar, and was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by United Nations. ...


Probably the biggest result of the referendum, however, was the effect of most of Canada's population voting against an agreement by every First Minister and most other political groups. This stinging rebuke against the "political class" in Canada was a preview of things to come: on October 25, 1993, a year less a day after the Charlottetown referendum, the Progressive Conservatives under new leader Kim Campbell were reduced to a mere two seats in the federal election, replaced in many ridings by the Reform Party and the Bloc Québécois. October 25 is the 298th day of the year (299th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and marked the Beginning of the International Decade to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination (1993-2003). ... Avril Phaedra Douglas Campbell, PC, QC, LL.B, LL.D (h. ... Popular vote map with bar graphs showing seat totals in the provinces and territories. ...


One of the Accord's reforms dealing specifically with New Brunswick was successfully enacted in 1993 as section 16.1 of the Charter of Rights.[2] Section Sixteen One of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms is the newest section of the Charter. ...


The 1995 referendum on Quebec sovereignty was defeated by a narrow margin. In the late 1990s and early 2000s, several matters relating to the status of Quebec have been pursued through Parliament (e.g. the Clarity Act) or through intergovernmental agreements. As of early 2007, however, there have been no further attempts to resolve the status of Quebec through a formal constitutional process. Bill on the referendum and eventual declaration of independence. ... The Clarity Act (known as Bill C-20 before it became law) is legislation of Canadas federal parliament that established the conditions under which the Government of Canada would enter into negotiations that might lead to secession following such a vote by one of the provinces. ...


References

  1. ^ CBC.ca, "'Canadian Soldier' voted 2006 Newsmaker," Yahoo! Canada News, December 25, 2006, URL accessed 4 January 2007.
  2. ^ Russell, Peter. Constitutional Odyssey, 2nd ed. (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1993), p. 231.

Yahoo! Inc. ...

External sources

  • History of Quebec and Canada Resource Centre: A clip of Brian Mulroney speaking after the defeat of the Accord


Constitution of Canada
v  d  e
Constitution Act, 1867
Division of powers | Peace, order and good government | Criminal law power | Trade and Commerce clause | Works and Undertakings | Property and civil rights | Disallowance and reservation

Canada Act 1982
Constitution Act, 1982
Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms | Aboriginal Rights clause | Amending formula

List of Canadian constitutional documents

History of the Constitution
Royal Proclamation of 1763 | Quebec Act | Constitutional Act of 1791 | Act of Union 1840 | British North America Acts | Statute of Westminster 1931
Constitutional debate
Fulton-Favreau formula | Victoria Charter | Meech Lake Accord | Charlottetown Accord | Calgary Declaration | Other unsuccessful amendments
Interpretation of the Constitution
Pith and substance | Double aspect | Paramountcy | Living tree | Implied Bill of Rights | Dialogue principle | Interjurisdictional immunity

  Results from FactBites:
 
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This should be embodied in a political accord.
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The Accord defines the Metis for the purpose of the Metis Nation Accord and commits governments to enumerate and register the Metis Nation.
Charlottetown - Search Results - MSN Encarta (83 words)
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