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Encyclopedia > Charlotte Corday
Charlotte Corday by Paul Jacques Aimé Baudry, painted 1860: Under the Second Empire, Marat was seen as a revolutionary monster and Corday as a heroine of France, represented in the wall-map.

Charlotte Corday (July 27, 1768July 17, 1793), more fully Marie Anne Charlotte de Corday d'Armont, was the assassin of Jean-Paul Marat. Download high resolution version (1039x1400, 470 KB)Charlotte Corday by Paul Jacques Aimé Baudry (1828-1886), painted 1858 This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Download high resolution version (1039x1400, 470 KB)Charlotte Corday by Paul Jacques Aimé Baudry (1828-1886), painted 1858 This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... The Torment of a Vestale, 1848, Oil Paul-Jacques-Aimé Baudry (November 7th 1828, La Roche-sur-Yon (Vende) - January 17th 1886, Paris) was a French painter. ... The neutrality of this article is disputed. ... July 27 is the 208th day (209th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 157 days remaining. ... 1768 was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... July 17 is the 198th day of the year (199th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1793 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Jack Ruby murdered the assassin, Lee Harvey Oswald, in a very public manner. ... Jean-Paul Marat Jean-Paul Marat (May 24, 1743 – July 13, 1793), was a Swiss-born French scientist and physician who made much of his career in the United Kingdom, but is best known as an activist in the French Revolution. ...

Contents

Biography

Born in Saint-Saturnin-des-Ligneries, part of today's commune of Écorches in the Orne département, Normandy, France, Corday was a member of an aristocratic but poor family. She was a descendant of the French dramatist Pierre Corneille on her mother's side. The commune is the lowest level of administrative division in the French Republic. ... Orne is a département in the northwest of France named after the Orne River. ... The départements (or departments) are administrative units of France and many former French colonies, roughly analogous to English counties. ... Flag of Normandy Normandy (in French: Normandie, and in Norman: Normaundie) is a geographical region in northern France. ... Pierre Corneille (June 6, 1606–October 1, 1684) was a French tragedian tragedian who was one of the three great 17th Century French dramatists, along with Molière and Racine. ...


She was educated at the Abbaye aux Dames, a convent in Caen, Normandy. She remained there until 1791 when the convent was closed. She approved of the French Revolution in its early stages, and remained an enthusiastic supporter of the Girondists. Caen (pronounced /kɑ̃/) is a commune of northwestern France. ... Flag of Normandy Normandy (in French: Normandie, and in Norman: Normaundie) is a geographical region in northern France. ... 1791 (MDCCXCI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 11-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... The Girondists (in French Girondins, and sometimes Brissotins), were a political faction in France within the Legislative Assembly and the National Convention during the French Revolution. ...


Marat, her future victim, was a member of the radical Jacobin faction which would later initiate the Reign of Terror, which followed the early stages of the Revolution. He was a journalist, exerting power through his newspaper, The Friend of the People, L'Ami du peuple. It has been suggested that Jacobin/Sandbox be merged into this article or section. ... The Reign of Terror (September 5, 1793 – July 28, 1794) or simply The Terror (French: la Terreur) was a period of about eleven months during the French Revolution when struggles between rival factions led to mutual radicalization which took on a violent character with mass executions by guillotine. ... LAmi du Peuple (The Friend of the People) was a newspaper written by Jean-Paul Marat during the French Revolution. ...


Marat's assassination

Corday's decision to kill Marat was stimulated by her repugnance for the September Massacres, for which she held Marat responsible. The September Massacres were a wave of mob violence which took place in Paris in late summer 1792, during the French Revolution. ...


After 1791, Charlotte lived quietly with her cousin, Mme Le Coustellier de Bretteville-Gouville in Caen. On 9 July 1793, Charlotte left her cousin, carrying a copy of Plutarch's Parallel Lives under her arm, and took the diligence for Paris, where she took a room at the Hôtel de Providence. She bought a dinner knife at the Palais-Royal, and wrote her Adresse aux Français amis des lois et de la paix ("Speech to the French who are Friends of Law and Peace") which explained the act she was about to commit. She went to Marat before noon on 13 July, offering to inform him about a planned Girondist uprising in Caen. She was turned away, but on a second attempt that evening, Marat admitted her into his presence. He conducted most of his affairs from a bathtub because of a debilitating skin condition. July 9 is the 190th day of the year (191st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 175 days remaining. ... 1793 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Mestrius Plutarchus (Greek: Πλούταρχος; 46 - 127), better known in English as Plutarch, was a Greek historian, biographer, essayist, and Middle Platonist. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Plutarch in Greek Plutarchs Lives of the Noble Greeks and Romans is a series of biographies of famous men, arranged in tandem to illuminate their common moral virtues or failings. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Gardens of the Palais-Royal: The illustration, from an 1863 guide to Paris, enlarges the apparent scale. ... July 13 is the 194th day of the year (195th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A bathtub A bathtub (AmE) or bath (BrE) is a plumbing fixture used for bathing. ...


Marat copied down the names of the Girondists as Corday dictated them to him. She pulled the knife from her scarf and plunged it into his chest, piercing his lung, aorta and left ventricle.[citations needed] He called out, À moi, ma chère amie! ("Help me, my dear friend!") and died. Human respiratory system The lungs flank the heart and great vessels in the chest cavity. ... The aorta (generally pronounced or ay-orta) is the largest artery in the human body, originating from the left ventricle of the heart and bringing oxygenated blood to all parts of the body in the systemic circulation. ... In the heart, a ventricle is a chamber which collects blood from an atrium (another heart chamber) and pumps it out of the heart. ...

The Death of Marat by David, painted 1793

This is the moment memorialized by Jacques-Louis David's painting (illustration, left). The iconic pose of Marat dead in his bath has been reviewed from a different angle in Baudry's painting of 1860, both literally and interpretively: Corday, rather than Marat, has been made the hero of the action. Download high resolution version (1001x1287, 138 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1001x1287, 138 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The Death of Marat is a 1793 painting in the Neoclassicism style by Jacques-Louis David, and is one of the most famous images of the French Revolution. ... Jacques-Louis David (August 30, 1748 – December 29, 1825) was a highly influential French painter in the Neoclassical style, considered to be the prominent painter of the era. ... Jacques-Louis David (August 30, 1748 – December 29, 1825) was a highly influential French painter in the Neoclassical style, considered to be the prominent painter of the era. ...


A political cover-up was attempted prior to the trial; Claude François Chauveau-Lagarde, who previously had represented Marie Antoinette, was appointed as defence for Charlotte Corday. The president of the Tribunal ordered him to enter a plea of insanity on his client's behalf, in order to remove any notion of patriotic idealism from the act. Chauveau-Lagarde, who more than understood Corday's actions, although unable to disobey the Tribunal made a mockery of it with a well-honed piece of equivocal verbiage. Already one of the most respected lawyers in Paris, Claude François Chauveau-Lagarde (Chartres 1756 – Paris 1841) came into the public spotlight in the early stages of the French Revolution. ... Marie-Antoinette, Queen of France and Archduchess of Austria (born November 1755 – executed 16 October 1793) Daughter of Maria Theresa of Austria, wife of Louis XVI and mother of Louis XVII. She was guillotined at the height of the French Revolution. ...


At trial, Corday testified that she had carried out the assassination alone, saying "I killed one man to save 100,000." It was likely a reference to Maximilien Robespierre's words before the execution of King Louis XVI. Four days after Marat was killed, on July 17, 1793, Corday was executed under the guillotine. Immediately upon decapitation, one of the executioner's assistants — a man hired for the day named Legros — lifted her head from the basket and slapped it on the cheek. Witnesses report an expression of "unequivocal indignation" on her face when her cheek was slapped. This slap was considered an unacceptable breach of guillotine etiquette, and Legros was imprisoned for 3 months because of his outburst[1]. Anonymous Portrait of Maximilien Robespierre c. ... Maximilien François Marie Isidore de Robespierre, (May 6, 1758–July 28, 1794), known also to his contemporaries as the Incorruptible, is one of the best known of the leaders of the French Revolution. ... July 17 is the 198th day of the year (199th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1793 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... The Maiden, an older Scottish design. ... The Maiden, an older Scottish design. ...


She was promptly autopsied, and announced to have been found a virgin. The body was disposed of in a trench along with other victims of the guillotine; it is uncertain whether the head was interred with her, or retained as a curiosity. It has been suggested[citation needed] that the skull of Corday remained in the possession of the Bonaparte family and their descendents (via the royal marriage of Marie Bonaparte) throughout the twentieth century.


The assassination did not stop the Jacobins or the Terror: Marat became a martyr, and busts of Marat replaced crucifixes and religious statues that were no longer welcome under the new regime. The anti-female stance of many revolutionary leaders was increased by Corday's actions. The Revolution now turned with full force on Marie Antoinette, the king's imprisoned widow. It has been suggested that Selective assassination be merged into this article or section. ... The Crucifix, a cross with corpus, a symbol used in Catholicism in contrast with some other Christian communions, which use only a cross. ... Misogyny (GA , RP ) is hatred or strong prejudice against women. ... Marie-Antoinette, Queen of France and Archduchess of Austria (born November 1755 – executed 16 October 1793) Daughter of Maria Theresa of Austria, wife of Louis XVI and mother of Louis XVII. She was guillotined at the height of the French Revolution. ...


Cultural references

In Peter Weiss's Marat/Sade, the assassination of Marat is presented as a play, written by the Marquis de Sade, to be performed by inmates of the asylum at Charenton, for the public. Peter Weiss (November 8, 1916 - May 10, 1982) was a German writer, painter and artist. ... The Persecution and Assassination of Jean-Paul Marat as Performed by the Inmates of the Asylum of Charenton Under the Direction of the Marquis de Sade, published in 1963, is a play by Peter Weiss, directed both on stage and screen by Peter Brook. ... Portrait of the Marquis de Sade by Charles-Amédée-Philippe van Loo (c. ...


American dramatist Sarah Pogson Smith (1774-1870) also memorialized Corday in her verse drama The Female Enthusiast: A Tragedy in Five Acts (1807). A minor character in P.G. Wodehouse's Jeeves series is named after Charlotte Corday. Called English literatures performing flea, P. G. Wodehouse, pictured in 1904, became famous for his complex plots, ingenious wordplay, and prolific output. ... Jeeves, here portrayed by Stephen Fry in ITVs Jeeves and Wooster series, is P.G. Wodehouses most famous character. ...


"Charlotte Corday" is a song on folk singer Al Stewart's 1993 album Famous Last Words. Co-written by Tori Amos, it is about Corday's ghost returning to seek forgiveness. Because the real Corday showed no remorse for the assassination of Marat, the piece is ambiguous, and might be interpreted as illustrating Corday's sorrow for the brutal persecution of the Girondists that resulted from Marat's death. Alastair Ian Stewart, commonly known as Al Stewart (born in Glasgow, Scotland on September 5, 1945) is a British singer-songwriter and musician. ... This article or section contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Girondists (in French Girondins, and sometimes Brissotins), comprised a political faction in France within the Legislative Assembly and the National Convention during the French Revolution. ...


Charlotte Corday is a character in Katherine Neville's book debut "The Eight". She is a nun from Caen and meets with fictional, lead character Mireille in 1793 in Paris. The two women look much alike, and Mireille is the one who kills Marat. But she gives Charlotte Corday's name instead. Charlotte Corday gets arrested for the murder.


Notes

  1. ^ François Mignet, History of the French Revolution from 1789 to 1814, (1824).

François Auguste Alexis Mignet (May 8, 1796 - March 24, 1884) was a French historian. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
  • Images of Charlotte Corday and of places related to her life

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... The Wikimedia Commons (also called Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ...

Further reading

  • Charlotte Corday, L’Adresse aux Français amis des lois et de la paix ("Address to French lovers of the laws and of peace").
  • Stanley Loomis, Paris in the Terror. 1964: J. B. Lippincott.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Charlotte Corday - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (635 words)
Charlotte Corday by Paul Jacques Aimé Baudry, painted 1860: Under the Second Empire, Marat was seen as a revolutionary monster and Corday as a heroine of France, represented in the wall-map.
She was initially turned away, but on a second attempt on 13 July Marat admitted her into his presence (he conducted most of his affairs from a bathtub because of a debilitating skin condition).
At trial, Corday testified that she had carried out the assassination alone, saying "I killed one man to save 100,000." It was likely a reference to Maximilien Robespierre's words before the execution of King Louis XVI.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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