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Encyclopedia > Charleston, SC in the Civil War
The ruins of Mills House and nearby buildings, Charleston A shell-damaged carriage and the remains of a brick chimney in the foreground. 1865.
The ruins of Mills House and nearby buildings, Charleston A shell-damaged carriage and the remains of a brick chimney in the foreground. 1865.
Ruins seen from the Circular Church, Charleston, South Carolina, 1865.
Ruins seen from the Circular Church, Charleston, South Carolina, 1865.

Charleston, South Carolina, was a hotbed of secession at the start of the American Civil War and an important port city for the fledgling Confederate States of America. The first shots of the Civil War were fired at a Federal ship entering Charleston Harbor. Later, the bombardment of Fort Sumter triggered a massive call for Federal troops to put down the rebellion. Download high resolution version (1537x998, 374 KB)The ruins of Mills House and nearby buildings, Charleston, South Carolina A shell-damaged carriage and the remains of a brick chimney in the foreground. ... Download high resolution version (1537x998, 374 KB)The ruins of Mills House and nearby buildings, Charleston, South Carolina A shell-damaged carriage and the remains of a brick chimney in the foreground. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1476x1038, 393 KB)Ruins seen from the Circular Church, Charleston, South Carolina, 1865. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1476x1038, 393 KB)Ruins seen from the Circular Church, Charleston, South Carolina, 1865. ... Nickname: The Holy City, The Palmetto City, Chucktown Motto: Aedes Mores Juraque Curat (She cares for her temples, customs, and rights) Location of Charleston in South Carolina. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert Edward Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties Killed in action: 110,000 Total dead: 360,000 Wounded: 275,200 Killed in action: 93,000 Total dead: 258... Motto: Deo Vindice (Latin: With God As Our Vindicator) Anthem: God Save the South (unofficial) Dixie (popular) The Bonnie Blue Flag (popular) Capital Montgomery, Alabama (February 4, 1861–May 29, 1861) Richmond, Virginia (May 29, 1861–April 2, 1865) Danville, Virginia (April 3–April 10, 1865) Largest city New Orleans... Fort Sumter, located in Charleston, South Carolina, harbor, was named after General Thomas Sumter. ...

Contents


Early war years

Charleston ranked as the 22nd largest city in the United States according to the 1860 census, with a population of 40,522. Long feared as a target for foreign invasion, the harbor was ringed with a series of forts, bastions, and floating batteries to protect it from an enemy fleet.


On December 20, 1860, the South Carolina General Assembly made the state the first to ever secede from the Union. They asserted that one of the causes was the election to the presidency of a man "whose opinions and purposes are hostile to slavery". December 20 is the 354th day of the year (355th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1860 is the leap year starting on Sunday. ... Official language(s) English Capital Charleston(1670-1789) Columbia(1790-present) Largest city Columbia Largest metro area Greenville-Spartanburg-Anderson Area  Ranked 40th  - Total 34,726 sq mi (82,965 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 260 miles (420 km)  - % water 6  - Latitude 32°430N to 35... Map of the division of the states during the Civil War. ...


On January 9, 1861, Citadel cadets fired the first shots of the American Civil War when they opened fire on the Union ship Star of the West entering Charleston's harbor. On April 12, 1861, shore batteries under the command of General Pierre G. T. Beauregard opened fire on the Union-held Fort Sumter in the harbor. After a 34-hour bombardment, Major Robert Anderson surrendered the fort. Cadets from the Citadel, South Carolina's military institute, continued to aid the Confederate army by helping drill recruits, manufacture ammunition, protect arms depots, and guard Union prisoners. January 9 is the 9th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1861 is a common year starting on Tuesday. ... The Citadel, The Military College of South Carolina, is a state-supported, comprehensive college with 14 academic departments divided into five schools offering 20 majors and 23 minors. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert Edward Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties Killed in action: 110,000 Total dead: 360,000 Wounded: 275,200 Killed in action: 93,000 Total dead: 258... April 12 is the 102nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (103rd in leap years). ... 1861 is a common year starting on Tuesday. ... Pierre Gustave Toutant de Beauregard Pierre Gustave Toutant de Beauregard (BO-rih-gahrd) (May 28, 1818 – February 20, 1893), best known as a general for the Confederate States of America during the American Civil War, was also a writer, civil servant, and inventor. ... Fort Sumter, located in Charleston, South Carolina, harbor, was named after General Thomas Sumter. ... Major Robert Anderson Robert Anderson (June 14, 1805 – October 26, 1871) was a Union Army officer in the American Civil War, known for his command of Fort Sumter at the start of the war. ...


Later war years

As many Southern port cities has been closed off by the Union blockade, Charleston became an important center for blockade running. Repeated attempts by the U.S. Navy to take Charleston and/or batter its defenses into the ground proved fruitless, and the city resisted occupation for the majority of the war. The Union blockade refers to the naval actions between 1861 and 1865, during the American Civil War, in which the United States Navy maintained a massive effort on the Atlantic and Gulf Coast of the Confederate States of America designed to prevent the passage of trade goods, supplies, and arms... The United States Navy (USN) is the branch of the United States armed forces responsible for naval operations. ...


Charleston Harbor was the site of the first successful submarine warfare on February 17, 1864, when the H.L. Hunley made a daring night attack on the USS Housatonic.[1]. February 17 is the 48th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1864 (MDCCCLXIV) was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ...


In 1865, Union troops finally moved into the city, and took control of many sites such as the United States Arsenal (which the Confederate army had seized at the outbreak of the war). 1865 (MDCCCLXV) is a common year starting on Sunday. ...


After the eventual defeat of the Confederacy, Federal forces remained in Charleston during the city's reconstruction.


References

  • Rosen, Robert. A Short History of Charleston. University of South Carolina Press, March, 1997. ISBN 1570031975.

March is the third month of the year in the Gregorian Calendar and one of seven Gregorian months with the length of 31 days. ... 1997 (MCMXCVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Notes

  1. ^ U.S. Navy history website
U.S. cities in the Civil War
North: Cleveland - New York City - Romney, WV - Washington, D.C.
Border states: Louisville - St. Louis
South: Atlanta - Charleston - Mobile - Nashville - New Orleans - Richmond - Wilmington

 
 

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