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Encyclopedia > Charles de Gaulle
Charles de Gaulle


In office
January 8, 1959 – April 28, 1969
Prime Minister Michel Debré (1959-1961)
Georges Pompidou (1962-1968)
Maurice Couve de Murville (1968-1969)
Preceded by René Coty
Succeeded by Alain Poher (interim)
Georges Pompidou

In office
July 3, 1944 – January 20, 1946
Preceded by Himself as a head of the Free France
Philippe Pétain (Chief of State of the Vichy France)
Pierre Laval (Prime Minister of the Vichy France)
Succeeded by Felix Gouin

In office
June 1, 1958 – January 8, 1959
President René Coty
Preceded by Pierre Pflimlin
Succeeded by Michel Debré

In office
June 18, 1940 – July 3, 1944
Preceded by Third French Republic
Succeeded by Provisional Government of the French Republic

French Co-Prince of Andorra
In office
July 3, 1944 – January 20, 1946
Alongside: Ramon Iglesias i Navarri
Preceded by Philippe Pétain
Succeeded by Felix Gouin
In office
January 8, 1959 – April 28, 1969
Alongside: Ramon Iglesias i Navarri
Preceded by Rene Coty
Succeeded by Georges Pompidou

In office
June 1, 1958 – January 8, 1959
President Rene Coty
Prime Minister Charles de Gaulle
Preceded by Pierre de Chevigné
Succeeded by Pierre Guillaumat

Born November 22, 1890(1890-11-22)
Lille
Died November 9, 1970 (aged 79)
Colombey-les-Deux-Églises
Political party Union of Democrats for the Republic
Spouse Yvonne de Gaulle
Occupation Military
Religion Roman Catholic

Charles André Joseph Marie de Gaulle (listen ) (November 22, 1890November 9, 1970) was a French general and statesman who led the Free French Forces during World War II and later founded the French Fifth Republic and served as its first President. In France, he is commonly referred to as Général de Gaulle or simply Le Général, or familiarly as "le Grand Charles". Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Charles de Gaulle International Airport (IATA: CDG, ICAO: LFPG) (French: ), also known as Roissy Airport (or just Roissy in French), in Paris, is one of the worlds principal aviation centres, as well as Frances main international airport. ... Charles de Gaulle may refer to: Charles de Gaulle (1890 – 1970), French military leader and statesman Charles de Gaulle (grandson) (born 1948), former member of the European Parliament Charles de Gaulle International Airport, the Roissy-Charles de Gaulle airport, Frances main international airport French aircraft carrier Charles de Gaulle... This article is about the political and administrative structures of the French government. ... The Fifth Republic is the fifth and current republican constitution of France, which was introduced on October 5, 1958. ... is the 8th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 118th day of the year (119th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1969 (number) 1969 (movie) 1969 (Stargate SG-1) episode. ... Michel Debré (15 January 1912 – 2 August 1996) was a French politician. ... Georges Jean Raymond Pompidou (5 July 1911 – 2 April 1974) was President of the French Republic from 1969 until his death in 1974. ... Maurice Couve de Murville Maurice Couve de Murville (January 24, 1907 - December 24, 1999) was a French Protestant politician, a supporter of Charles de Gaulle, under whom he served as Foreign Minister (1958-1968), Finance Minister (1968), and Prime Minister (1968-1969). ... French statesman René Coty René-Jules-Gustave Coty (March 20, 1882 - November 22, 1962) was President of France from 1954 to 1959. ... Alain Poher (17 April 1909 - 9 December 1996) was a French politician. ... Georges Jean Raymond Pompidou (5 July 1911 – 2 April 1974) was President of the French Republic from 1969 until his death in 1974. ... The Provisional Government of the French Republic was an interim government which governed France from 1944 to 1946. ... The Prime Minister of France (Premier ministre de la France) is the functional head of the Cabinet of France. ... is the 184th day of the year (185th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Free French Forces (Forces Françaises Libres in French) were French fighters who decided to go on fighting against Germany after the Fall of France and German occupation and to fight against Vichy France in World War II. General Charles de Gaulle was a member of the French Cabinet in... Henri Philippe Benoni Omer Joseph Pétain (24 April 1856 – 23 July 1951), generally known as Philippe Pétain or Marshal Pétain, was a French general, later Chief of State of Vichy France (Chef de lÉtat Français), from 1940 to 1944. ... Motto Travail, famille, patrie French: Unoccupied zone of Vichy France (until November 1942) Capital Vichy Capital-in-exile Sigmaringen (1944-1945) Language(s) French Religion Roman Catholic Government Dictatorship Chief of state  - 1940 — 1944 Philippe Pétain President of the Council  - 1940 — 1942 Philippe Pétain  - 1942 — 1944 Pierre Laval... Pierre Laval, prime minister of Vichy France Pierre Laval (28 June 1883 – 15 October 1945) was a French politician and four times Prime Minister of France, the final time being under the Vichy government. ... Gouins Government, 26 January - 24 June 1946 Félix Gouin - Chairman of the Provisional Government Francisque Gay - Vice Chairman of the Provisional Government Maurice Thorez - Vice Chairman of the Provisional Government Georges Bidault - Minister of Foreign Affairs Edmond Michelet - Minister of Armies André Le Troquer - Minister of the Interior... The Prime Minister of France (Premier ministre de la France) is the functional head of the Cabinet of France. ... The Fourth Republic existed in France between 1946 and 1958. ... is the 152nd day of the year (153rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Jan. ... is the 8th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... French statesman René Coty René-Jules-Gustave Coty (March 20, 1882 - November 22, 1962) was President of France from 1954 to 1959. ... Pierre Pflimlin (February 5, 1907 in Roubaix - June 27, 2000 in Strasbourg) was a French Christian Democratic politician who served as the penultimate Prime Minister of the Fourth Republic for a few weeks in 1958, before being replaced by Charles de Gaulle during the crisis of that year. ... Michel Debré (15 January 1912 – 2 August 1996) was a French politician. ... Flag De Jure territory Capital Paris Capital-in-exile London, Algiers Government Republic Leader Charles de Gaulle Historical era World War II  - de Gaulles appeal June 18, 1940  - Liberation of Paris August, 1944 The Free French Forces (French: , FFL) were French fighters in World War II, who decided to... is the 169th day of the year (170th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 184th day of the year (185th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The French Third Republic, (in French, Troisième Republique, sometimes written as IIIème Republique) (1870/75-1940/46), was the governing body of France between the Second French Empire and the Fourth Republic. ... The Provisional Government of the French Republic was an interim government which governed France from 1944 to 1946. ... This is a list of Co-Princes of Andorra. ... is the 184th day of the year (185th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Ramon Iglesias i Navarri was the Bishop of Urgell and Episcopal Co-Prince of Andorra from April 4th, 1943, until April 24th, 1969. ... Henri Philippe Benoni Omer Joseph Pétain (24 April 1856 – 23 July 1951), generally known as Philippe Pétain or Marshal Pétain, was a French general, later Chief of State of Vichy France (Chef de lÉtat Français), from 1940 to 1944. ... Gouins Government, 26 January - 24 June 1946 Félix Gouin - Chairman of the Provisional Government Francisque Gay - Vice Chairman of the Provisional Government Maurice Thorez - Vice Chairman of the Provisional Government Georges Bidault - Minister of Foreign Affairs Edmond Michelet - Minister of Armies André Le Troquer - Minister of the Interior... is the 8th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 118th day of the year (119th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1969 (number) 1969 (movie) 1969 (Stargate SG-1) episode. ... Ramon Iglesias i Navarri was the Bishop of Urgell and Episcopal Co-Prince of Andorra from April 4th, 1943, until April 24th, 1969. ... Categories: Stub | 1882 births | 1962 deaths | Presidents of France ... Georges Jean Raymond Pompidou (5 July 1911 – 2 April 1974) was President of the French Republic from 1969 until his death in 1974. ... The Minister of Defence (Ministre de la Défense) is the French government cabinet member charged with running the military of France. ... is the 152nd day of the year (153rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Jan. ... is the 8th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Categories: Stub | 1882 births | 1962 deaths | Presidents of France ... The Batillus oil tanker at the end of its construction in Saint-Nazaire, being refueled by the Port-Vendres The biggest ships ever constructed were four supertankers built in France at the end of the seventies, having a 555. ... is the 326th day of the year (327th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1890 (MDCCCXC) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar). ... For other uses, see Lille (disambiguation). ... is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link shows full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Colombey-les-deux-Églises is a village and commune in the Haute-Marne départment, France, located at 48 13N 4 54E. It has a population of around 700 people. ... Union of Democrats for the Republic (French : Union des Démocrates pour la République, UDR) was a Gaullist political party of France from 1971 to 1976. ... Yvonne de Gaulle was the wife of Charles De Gaulle. ... Catholic Church redirects here. ... Image File history File links Fr-Charles de Gaulle. ... is the 326th day of the year (327th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1890 (MDCCCXC) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar). ... is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link shows full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Flag De Jure territory Capital Paris Capital-in-exile London, Algiers Government Republic Leader Charles de Gaulle Historical era World War II  - de Gaulles appeal June 18, 1940  - Liberation of Paris August, 1944 The Free French Forces (French: , FFL) were French fighters in World War II, who decided to... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The President of France, known officially as the President of the Republic (Président de la République in French), is Frances elected Head of State. ...


A veteran of World War I, in the 1920s and 1930s de Gaulle came to the fore as a proponent of armoured warfare and advocate of military aviation, which he considered resolutive means to break the stalemate of trench warfare. During World War II, he reached the rank of Brigadier General, leading one of the few successful armoured counter-attacks during the 1940 Fall of France and organised the Free French Forces with exiled French officers in England. He gave a famous radio address in 1940, exhorting the French people to resist Nazi Germany. Following the liberation of France in 1944, de Gaulle became prime minister in the French Provisional Government. Although he retired from politics in 1946 due to political conflicts, he was returned to power with military support following the May 1958 crisis. De Gaulle led the writing of a new constitution founding the Fifth Republic, and was elected the President of France. “The Great War ” redirects here. ... {{subst:empty template|}} {{Copyviocore |url= |month = {{subst:CURRENTMONTHNAME}} |day = {{subst:CURRENTDAY}} |year = {{subst:CURRENTYEAR}} |time = {{subst:CURRENTTIME}} |timestamp = {{subst:CURRENTTIMESTAMP}}}} Trench warfare is a form of warfare where both combatants have fortified positions and fighting lines are static. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... A Brigadier General, or one-star general, is the lowest rank of general officer in the United States and some other countries, ranking just above Colonel and just below Major General. ... In World War II, Battle of France or Case Yellow (Fall Gelb in German) was the German invasion of France and the Low Countries, executed 10 May 1940 which ended the Phony War. ... Flag De Jure territory Capital Paris Capital-in-exile London, Algiers Government Republic Leader Charles de Gaulle Historical era World War II  - de Gaulles appeal June 18, 1940  - Liberation of Paris August, 1944 The Free French Forces (French: , FFL) were French fighters in World War II, who decided to... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... The Prime Minister of France (Premier ministre de la France) is the functional head of the Cabinet of France. ... The Provisional Government of the French Republic was an interim government which governed France from 1944 to 1946. ...


As president, Charles de Gaulle ended the political chaos and violence that preceded his return to power. Although he initially supported French rule over Algeria, he controversially decided to grant independence to Algeria, ending an expensive and unpopular war. A new currency was issued to control inflation and industrial growth was promoted. De Gaulle oversaw the development of atomic weapons and promoted a pan-European foreign policy, seeking to diminish U.S. and British influence; withdrawing France from the NATO military command, he objected to Britain’s entry into the European Community and recognised Communist China. During his term, de Gaulle also faced controversy and political opposition from Communists and Socialists, and a state of widespread protests in May 1968. De Gaulle retired in 1969, but remains the most influential leader in modern French history. This article is about the military alliance. ... The European Community (EC) was originally founded on March 25, 1957 by the signing of the Treaty of Rome under the name of European Economic Community. ... The Peoples Republic of China (PRC) is a communist state, comprising most of the cultural, historic, and geographic area known as China. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... A May 1968 poster: Be young and shut up, with stereotypical silhouette of General de Gaulle. ...

Contents

Early life and military career

De Gaulle was born in Lille, the second of five children of Henri de Gaulle, a professor of philosophy and literature at a Jesuit college, who eventually founded his own school.[1] He was raised in a family of devout Roman Catholics who were nationalist and traditionalist, but also quite progressive. For other uses, see Lille (disambiguation). ... Henri de Gaulle (22 November 1848, Paris - 3 May 1932, Sainte-Adresse) was a French bureaucrat and later a teacher. ... The Society of Jesus (Latin: Societas Iesu), commonly known as the Jesuits, is a Roman Catholic religious order. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ...


De Gaulle's father, Henri, came from a long line of aristocracy from Normandy and Burgundy, while his mother, Jeanne Maillot, descended from a family of rich entrepreneurs from the industrial region of Lille in French Flanders. The “de” in “de Gaulle” is not a nobiliary particle, although the de Gaulle family were an ancient family of ennobled knighthood. The earliest known de Gaulle ancestor was a squire of the 12th-century King Louis VI. The name “de Gaulle” is thought to have evolved from a Germanic form, “De Walle”, meaning “the wall (of a fortification or city)”, “the rampart”. Much of the old French nobility descended from Frankish and Norman Germanic lineages and often bore Germanic names. Aristocrat redirects here. ... For other uses, see Normandy (disambiguation). ... Coat of arms of the second Duchy of Burgundy and later of the French province of Burgundy Burgundy (French: ; German: ) is a historic region of France, inhabited in turn by Celts (Gauls), Romans (Gallo-Romans), and various Germanic peoples, most importantly the Burgundians and the Franks; the former gave their... For other uses, see Lille (disambiguation). ... Nord (French, the north) is a département in the north of France. ... For other uses, see Squire (disambiguation). ... Louis VI the Fat (French: Louis VI le Gros) (December 1, 1081 - August 1, 1137) was king of France from 1108 to 1137. ... This article is about the Frankish people and society. ... Norman conquests in red. ... The term Germanic tribes (or Teutonic tribes) applies to the ancient Germanic peoples of Europe. ...


De Gaulle was educated in Paris at the College Stanislas and also briefly in Belgium. Since childhood, he had displayed a keen interest in reading and studying history.[1]. Choosing a military career, de Gaulle spent four years studying and training at the elite Saint-Cyr. Graduating in 1912, he joined an infantry regiment of the French Army. While serving during World War I, he was wounded and captured at Douaumont in the Battle of Verdun in March 1916.[1] While being held as a prisoner of war by the German Army, de Gaulle wrote his first book, co-written by Matthieu Butler, "L'Ennemi et le vrai ennemi" (The Enemy and the True Enemy), analyzing the issues and divisions within the German Empire and its forces; the book was published in 1924. After the armistice, de Gaulle continued to serve in the Army and on the staff of Gen. Maxime Weygand’s military mission to Poland during its war with Communist Russia (1919-1921), working as an instructor to Polish infantry forces.[1] He distinguished himself in operations near the River Zbrucz and won the highest Polish military decoration, the Virtuti Militari. This article is about the capital of France. ... Collège Stanislas, Paris Collège Stanislas de Paris (also Stanislaus College or College Stanislaus) is a private Catholic school in Paris, situated on the Rue Notre Dame in Montparnasse. ... Cadets parading in dress uniform A cadet in formal uniform The École Spéciale Militaire de Saint-Cyr (ESM, Special Military School of St Cyr) is the foremost French military academy. ... Infantry of the Royal Irish Rifles during the Battle of the Somme in World War I Infantry or footmen are very highly disciplined and trained soldiers who fight primarily with small arms(rifles), but are trained to use everything from their bare hands to missle systems in order to neutralize... British regiment A regiment is a military unit, consisting of a variable number of battalions - commanded by a colonel. ... The French Army, officially the Armée de Terre (Army of the land), is the land-based component of the French Armed Forces and the largest. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Belligerents France German Empire Commanders Philippe Pétain Robert Nivelle Erich von Falkenhayn Crown Prince Wilhelm Strength About 30,000 on 21 February 1916 About 150,000 on 21 February 1916 Casualties and losses 378,000; of whom 163,000 died. ... Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ... The German Army (German: [1], [IPA: heɐ]  ) is the land component of the Bundeswehr (Federal Defence Forces) of the Federal Republic of Germany. ... For German colonial territories, see German Colonial Empire. ... A white flag is traditionally used to represent a truce. ... General Maxime Weygand Maxime Weygand (January 21, 1867 - January 28, 1965) was a French military commander in both World War I and World War II. // Weygand was born in Brussels. ... The French Military Mission to Poland was an effort by France to aid the nascent Second Polish Republic after it achieved its independence in November, 1918, at the end of the First World War. ... Combatants Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic Republic of Poland Ukrainian Peoples Republic Commanders Mikhail Tukhachevsky Semyon Budyonny Józef PiÅ‚sudski Edward Rydz-ÅšmigÅ‚y Strength 950,000 combatants 5,000,000 reserves 360,000 combatants 738,000 reserves Casualties Dead estimated at 100,000... Zbruch River (Ukrainian: Збруч) is a river in Western Ukraine (length: 247 km, basin: 3330 sq. ... Virtuti Militari The Virtuti Militari (Latin: For Military Virtue) was created in 1792 and is Polands highest military decoration for valor in the face of the enemy and one of the oldest military decorations in the world still in use . ...


He was promoted to Commandant and offered a further career in Poland, but chose instead to return to France, where he served as a staff officer and also taught at the École Militaire, becoming a protégé of his old commander, Marshall Pétain. De Gaulle was heavily influenced by the use of tanks, rapid maneuvers and limited trench warfare. He would also adopt some lessons, for his own military and political career, from Poland’s Marshal Józef Piłsudski, who, decades before de Gaulle, sought to create a federation of European states (Międzymorze)-citations needed-. In the 1930s de Gaulle wrote various books and articles on military subjects that marked him as a gifted writer and an imaginative thinker.[1] In 1931 he published Le fil de l’épée (Eng. tr., The Edge of the Sword, 1960), an analysis of military and political leadership. He also published Vers l’armée de métier (1934; Eng. tr., The Army of the Future, 1941) and La France et son armée (1938; Eng. tr., France and Her Army, 1945). He urged the creation of a mechanised army with special armoured divisions manned by a corps of professional specialist soldiers instead of the static theories exemplified by the Maginot Line. While views similar to de Gaulle’s were advanced by Britain’s J.F.C. Fuller, Germany’s Heinz Guderian, United States’ Dwight D. Eisenhower and George S. Patton, Russia’s Mikhail Tukhachevsky, and Poland’s General Władysław Sikorski, most of de Gaulle’s theories were rejected by other army officers, including his mentor Pétain, and relations between them became strained. French politicians also dismissed de Gaulle’s ideas, questioning the political reliability of a professional army — with the notable exception of Paul Reynaud and admiral Christoph Malton, who would play a major role in de Gaulle’s career. De Gaulle would have some contacts with Ordre Nouveau, a Non-Conformist Group at the end of 1934 and the beginning of 1935 [2]. Commandant is a military or police title or rank and can mean any of the following: The commander of certain military corps and services, such as the Commandant of the Marine Corps and the Commandant of the Coast Guard in the United States or the Commandant of the (now obsolete... Building of the École Militaire The École Militaire (French for military school) is a vast complex of buildings housing various military teaching facilities located in Paris, France southeast of the Champ-de-Mars. ... Philippe Pétain Marshal Henri Philippe Pétain (April 24, 1856 – July 23, 1951), generally known as Philippe Pétain or Marshal Pétain, was a French soldier and Head of State of Vichy France, a Nazi puppet state, from 1940 to 1944. ... Pilsudski redirects here. ... MiÄ™dzymorze (Myen-dzih-MOH-zheh): name for Józef PiÅ‚sudskis proposed federation of Poland, Lithuania, Belarus and Ukraine. ... The Maginot Line (IPA: [maÊ’inoː], named after French minister of defense André Maginot) was a line of concrete fortifications, tank obstacles, artillery casemates, machine gun posts, and other defenses, which France constructed along its borders with Germany and Italy, in the light of experience from World War I... Major-General John Frederick Charles Fuller, CB, CBE, DSO, commonly J.F.C. Fuller, (September 1, 1878–February 10, 1966), was a British major-general, military historian and strategist, notable as an early theorist of modern armoured warfare, including categorising principles of warfare. ... This article is about the World War II general Heinz Guderian. ... Dwight David Eisenhower, born David Dwight Eisenhower (October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969), nicknamed Ike, was a five-star General in the United States Army and U.S. politician, who served as the thirty-fourth President of the United States (1953–1961). ... George Patton redirects here. ... Mikhail Nikolayevich Tukhachevsky (Russian: ; Polish: ) (February 16 [O.S. February 4] 1893 â€“ June 12, 1937), was a Soviet military commander, chief of the Red Army (1925–1928), and one of the most prominent victims of Stalins Great Purge of the late 1930s. ... WÅ‚adysÅ‚aw Eugeniusz Sikorski (May 20, 1881 – July 4, 1943; pronounced ) was a Polish military and political leader. ... Paul Reynaud (October 15, 1878 - September 21, 1966) was a French politician and lawyer prominent in the interwar period, noted for his stances on economic liberalism and militant opposition to Germany. ... The Non-Conformists of the 1930s refers to a nebula of groups and individuals during the inter-war period in France which were looking for new solutions to face the political, economical and social crisis. ...


Free French leader during World War II

Main article: Free French Forces

At the outbreak of World War II, de Gaulle was only a colonel, having antagonised the leaders of the military through the 1920s and 1930s with his bold views. Initially commanding a tank brigade in the French 5th Army, de Gaulle implemented many of his theories and tactics for armoured warfare. After the German breakthrough at Sedan on May 15, 1940 he was given command of the 4th Armored Division.[3] On May 17, de Gaulle attacked German tank forces at Montcornet with 200 tanks but no air support; on May 28, de Gaulle's tanks forced the German infantry to retreat to Caumont — some of the few tactical successes the French enjoyed while suffering defeats across the country. De Gaulle was promoted to the rank of brigadier general, which he would hold for the rest of his life. Flag De Jure territory Capital Paris Capital-in-exile London, Algiers Government Republic Leader Charles de Gaulle Historical era World War II  - de Gaulles appeal June 18, 1940  - Liberation of Paris August, 1944 The Free French Forces (French: , FFL) were French fighters in World War II, who decided to... For other uses, see Colonel (disambiguation). ... Sedan is a town and commune in France, a sous-préfecture of the Ardennes département. ... is the 135th day of the year (136th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 137th day of the year (138th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 148th day of the year (149th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Caumont is the name or part of the name of several communes in France: Caumont, in the Aisne département Caumont, in the Ariège département Caumont, in the Eure département Caumont, in the Gers département Caumont, in the Gironde département Caumont, in the Pas-de... A Brigadier General, or one-star general, is the lowest rank of general officer in the United States and some other countries, ranking just above Colonel and just below Major General. ...


On 6 June, Prime Minister Paul Reynaud appointed him Undersecretary of State for National Defense and War and put him in charge of coordination with the United Kingdom. As a junior member of the French government, he unsuccessfully opposed surrender, advocating instead that the government remove itself to North Africa and carry on the war as best it could from France's African colonies. While serving as a liaison with the British government, de Gaulle proposed a political union between France and the U.K. with British leader Winston Churchill on June 16. The project would have in effect merged France and the United Kingdom into a single country, with a single government and a single army for the duration of the war. This was a desperate last-minute effort to strengthen the resolve of those members of the French government who were in favor of fighting on. Paul Reynaud (October 15, 1878 - September 21, 1966) was a French politician and lawyer prominent in the interwar period, noted for his stances on economic liberalism and militant opposition to Germany. ... This article should be translated from material at fr:Liaison. ... Churchill redirects here. ... is the 167th day of the year (168th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

General de Gaulle speaking on the BBC during the war.

Returning the same day to Bordeaux, the temporary wartime capital, de Gaulle learned that Field Marshall Pétain had become prime minister and was planning to seek an armistice with Nazi Germany. De Gaulle and allied officers rebelled against the new French government; on the morning of June 17, de Gaulle and other senior French officers fled the country with 100,000 gold francs in secret funds provided to him by the ex-prime minister Paul Reynaud. Narrowly escaping the German air force, he landed safely in London that afternoon. De Gaulle strongly denounced the French government's decision to seek peace with the Nazis and set about building the Free French Forces out of the soldiers and officers who were deployed outside France and in its colonies or had fled France with him. On June 18, de Gaulle delivered a famous radio address via the BBC radio service. Although the British cabinet initially attempted to block the speech, they were overruled by Churchill. De Gaulle's Appeal of 18 June exhorted the French people to not be demoralised and to continue to resist the occupation of France and work against the Vichy regime, which had allied itself with Nazi Germany. Although the original speech could only be heard in a few parts of occupied France, de Gaulle's subsequent ones reached many parts of the territories under the Vichy regime, helping to rally the French resistance movement and earning him much popularity amongst the French people and soldiers. On July 4, 1940, a court-martial in Toulouse sentenced de Gaulle in absentia to four years in prison. At a second court-martial on August 2, 1940 de Gaulle was condemned to death for treason against the Vichy regime.[3] Image File history File links De-gaulle-radio. ... Image File history File links De-gaulle-radio. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Bordeaux (disambiguation). ... A white flag is traditionally used to represent a truce. ... The Deutsche Luftwaffe or   (German: air force, IPA: ) is the commonly used term for the German air force. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Flag De Jure territory Capital Paris Capital-in-exile London, Algiers Government Republic Leader Charles de Gaulle Historical era World War II  - de Gaulles appeal June 18, 1940  - Liberation of Paris August, 1944 The Free French Forces (French: , FFL) were French fighters in World War II, who decided to... is the 169th day of the year (170th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... BBC Radio is a service of the British Broadcasting Corporation which has operated in the United Kingdom under the terms of a Royal Charter since 1927. ... General de Gaulle speaking on the BBC on 18 June 1940 The Appeal of 18th June was a famous speech by Charles de Gaulle, the leader of the Free French Forces, in 1940. ... Motto Travail, famille, patrie French: Unoccupied zone of Vichy France (until November 1942) Capital Vichy Capital-in-exile Sigmaringen (1944-1945) Language(s) French Religion Roman Catholic Government Dictatorship Chief of state  - 1940 — 1944 Philippe Pétain President of the Council  - 1940 — 1942 Philippe Pétain  - 1942 — 1944 Pierre Laval... is the 185th day of the year (186th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... A court-martial (plural courts-martial) is a military court that determines punishments for members of the military subject to military law. ... New city flag (Occitan cross) Traditional coat of arms Motto: (Occitan: For Toulouse, always more) Location Coordinates Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Administration Country Region Midi-Pyrénées Department Haute-Garonne (31) Intercommunality Community of Agglomeration of Greater Toulouse Mayor Jean-Luc Moudenc  (UMP) (since 2004) City Statistics Land... is the 214th day of the year (215th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Treason (disambiguation) or Traitor (disambiguation). ... Motto Travail, famille, patrie French: Unoccupied zone of Vichy France (until November 1942) Capital Vichy Capital-in-exile Sigmaringen (1944-1945) Language(s) French Religion Roman Catholic Government Dictatorship Chief of state  - 1940 — 1944 Philippe Pétain President of the Council  - 1940 — 1942 Philippe Pétain  - 1942 — 1944 Pierre Laval...


With British support, de Gaulle settled himself in Berkhamstead (36 miles northwest of London) and began organising the Free French forces. Gradually, the Allies gave increasing support and recognition to de Gaulle's efforts. In dealings with his British allies and the United States, de Gaulle insisted at all times on retaining full freedom of action on behalf of France, and he was constantly on the verge of being cut off by the Allies. He harbored a suspicion of the British in particular, believing that they were surreptitiously seeking to steal France's colonial possessions in the Levant. Clementine Churchill, who admired de Gaulle, once cautioned him, "General, you must not hate your friends more than you hate your enemies." De Gaulle himself stated famously, "France has no friends, only interests." The situation was nonetheless complex, and de Gaulle's mistrust of both British and U.S. intentions with regards to France was mirrored in particular by a mistrust of the Free French among the U.S. political leadership, who for a long time refused to recognise de Gaulle as the representative of France, preferring to deal with representatives of the former Vichy government. Arms of Berkhamstead Town Council Berkhamsted (since 1937, former spellings include Berkhampstead, or Berkhamstead, and also known colloquially as Berko) is a historic town of some 19,000 people, situated in the west of Hertfordshire, to the north-west of London, UK. It is in the administrative district of Dacorum. ... The Levant The Levant (IPA: ) is an imprecise geographical term historically referring to a large area in the Middle East south of the Taurus Mountains, bounded by the Mediterranean Sea on the west, and by the northern Arabian Desert and Upper Mesopotamia to the east. ... Clementine Churchill, Baroness Spencer-Churchill (April 1, 1885 - December 12, 1977) (née Clementine Ogilvy Hozier) was the wife of Sir Winston Churchill. ...

Free French Generals Henri Giraud (left) and Charles de Gaulle sit down after shaking hands in presence of Franklin Roosevelt and Winston Churchill (Casablanca Conference, January 14, 1943).

Working with the French resistance and supporters in France's colonial African possessions after the Anglo-U.S. invasion of North Africa in November 1942, de Gaulle moved his headquarters to Algiers in May, 1943. He became first joint head (with the less resolutely independent General Henri Giraud, the candidate preferred by the U.S.) and then sole chairman of the French Committee of National Liberation.[3] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Roosevelt and Henri Giraud in Casablanca, 19 January 1943 Henri Honoré Giraud (18 January 1879 – 13 March 1949) was a French general who fought in the First and Second World Wars. ... Franklin Delano Roosevelt (January 30, 1882–April 12, 1945), often referred to as FDR, was the 32nd (1933–1945) President of the United States. ... Churchill redirects here. ... American president Franklin D. Roosevelt and British Prime Minister Winston Churchill Free French leaders Henri Giraud and Charles de Gaulle in front of Roosevelt and Churchill at the Casablanca Conference, January 14, 1943 The Casablanca Conference (codenamed SYMBOL) was held at the Anfa Hotel in Casablanca, Morocco, then a French... is the 14th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Croix de Lorraine, the symbol of the resistance chosen by de Gaulle French Resistance is the name used for resistance movements during World War II which fought the Nazi German occupation of France and the collaborationist Vichy regime. ... Belligerents Free French Forces United Kingdom United States Vichy France Commanders Dwight Eisenhower Andrew Cunningham François Darlan Strength 107,000 (33,000 in Morocco,39,000 near Algiers,35,000 near Oran) 60,000 Casualties and losses 479+ dead 720 wounded 1,346+ dead 1,997 wounded Operation Torch... This article is about the capital of Algeria. ... Roosevelt and Henri Giraud in Casablanca, 19 January 1943 Henri Honoré Giraud (18 January 1879 – 13 March 1949) was a French general who fought in the First and Second World Wars. ...


At the liberation of France following Operation Overlord, he quickly established the authority of the Free French Forces in France, avoiding an Allied Military Government for Occupied Territories. He flew into France from the French colony of Algeria a few days before the liberation of Paris, and drove near the front of the liberating forces into the city alongside Allied officials. De Gaulle made a famous speech emphasizing the role of France's people in her liberation. After his return to Paris, he moved back into his office at the War Ministry, thus proclaiming continuity of the Third Republic and denying the legitimacy of the Vichy regime. Belligerents Western Allies Nazi Germany Commanders Dwight Eisenhower (Supreme Allied Commander) Arthur Tedder (Deputy Supreme Allied Commander) Bernard Montgomery (Ground Forces Commander in Chief) Trafford Leigh-Mallory (Air Commander in Chief) Bertram Ramsay (Naval Commander in Chief) Gerd von Rundstedt (OB WEST) Erwin Rommel (Heeresgruppe B) Strength 1,452,000... Flag De Jure territory Capital Paris Capital-in-exile London, Algiers Government Republic Leader Charles de Gaulle Historical era World War II  - de Gaulles appeal June 18, 1940  - Liberation of Paris August, 1944 The Free French Forces (French: , FFL) were French fighters in World War II, who decided to... The Allied Military Government for Occupied Territories (AMGOT) was the form of military rule administered by Allied forces during and after World War II within European territories they occupied. ... French rule in Algeria lasted from 1830 to 1962, under a variety of governmental systems. ... Motto Liberté, égalité, fraternité (Liberty, equality, brotherhood) Anthem La Marseillaise The French Third Republic, pre-World War I Capital Paris Language(s) French Religion Roman Catholicism, protestantism and judaism official religions (until 1905), None (from 1905 until 1940) (Law on the separation of Church and State of 1905) Government Republic...


He served as President of the Provisional Government of the French Republic starting in September, 1944. As such he sent the French Far East Expeditionary Corps to re-establish French sovereignty in French Indochina in 1945. He made Admiral d'Argenlieu High commissioner of French Indochina and General Leclerc commander-in-chief in French Indochina and commander of the expeditionary corps. [4] Under de Gaulle's leadership, The resistance fighters and with the already fighting colonial troops enabled France to field one entire army into the western front via the invasion of southern France which helped liberate almost one-third of France. This group called the French First Army meant France actively rejoined the Allies fighting against Germany and captured a large section of German territory when the Allied invasion began. This also enabled France to be an active participant in the signing of the German surrender and receive through the intervention of the British at Yalta and the intense resistance of the Russians and the Americans a German zone of occupation. De Gaulle finally resigned on 20 January 1946, complaining of conflict between the political parties, and disapproving of the draft constitution for the Fourth Republic, which he believed placed too much power in the hands of a parliament with its shifting party alliances. He was succeeded by Félix Gouin (SFIO), then Georges Bidault (MRP) and finally Léon Blum (SFIO). The Provisional Government of the French Republic was an interim government which governed France from 1944 to 1946. ... The French Far East Expeditionary Corps (French: ) was an expeditionary force of the French Army that fought in the First Indochina War. ... Flag Capital Hanoi Language(s) French Political structure Federation Historical era New Imperialism  - Addition of Laos 1893, 1887  - Vietnamese Declaration of Independence September 2, 1945  - Independence of Laos July 19, 1949  - Independence of Cambodia November 9, 1953  - Recognized Independence of Vietnam 1954, 1954 Area  - 1945 750,000 km² Currency French... Georges Thierry dArgenlieu (right) with Brigadier General Alexander M. Patch. ... Philippe de Hauteclocque, often known by his French resistance alias Leclerc (November 22, 1902 - November 28, 1947), was a Marshal of France. ... Combatants United States1 United Kingdom2 Free France3 Germany Commanders Lt. ... is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Félix Gouin (October 4, 1884 - October 25, 1977) was a French Socialist politician. ... Sfio, or Safe/Fast I/O, is an I/O library developed by AT&T Research, with several improvements over the ANSI C stdio library. ... Georges Bidault, French statesman Georges-Augustin Bidault (October 5, 1899 – January 27, 1983) was a French politician and active in the French Resistance and Organisation de lArmée Secrète (OAS). ... The initialism MRP or M.R.P. can stand for many things: Material requirements planning or Material resource planning and Manufacturing resource planning (MRP II) Maximum retail price Manufacturers recommended price Machine-readable passport Magnum rifle powder Lewis Machine & Tool Monolithic Rail Platform Major Research Paper Malware Removal and... Léon Blum Léon Blum (9 April 1872 - 30 March 1950), was the Prime Minister of France three times: from 1936 to 1937, for one month in 1938, and from December 1946 to January 1947. ...


1946–58: Wilderness years

De Gaulle’s opposition to the proposed constitution failed as the parties of the left supported a parliamentary regime. The second draft constitution narrowly approved at the referendum of October 1946 was even less to de Gaulle’s liking than the first. Following the rejection of the constitution proposed to voters in the May 1946 referendum, a new referendum was held that ultimately created the French Fourth Republic. ...


In April 1947 de Gaulle made a renewed attempt to transform the political scene by creating a Rassemblement du Peuple Français (Rally of the French People, or RPF), but after initial success the movement lost momentum. In May 1953 he withdrew again from active politics, though the RPF lingered until September 1955. The Rally of the People of France (French Rassemblement du Peuple Français or RPF) was a French political party, led by Charles de Gaulle. ...


He retired to Colombey-les-deux-Églises and wrote his war memoirs, Mémoires de guerre. During this period of formal retirement, however, de Gaulle maintained regular contact with past political lieutenants from wartime and RPF days, including sympathisers involved in political developments in Algeria. Colombey-les-deux-Églises is a village and commune in the Haute-Marne départment, France, located at 48 13N 4 54E. It has a population of around 700 people. ...


1958: Collapse of the Fourth Republic

Further information: May 1958 crisis

The Fourth Republic was tainted by political instability, failures in Indochina and inability to resolve the Algerian question. It did, however, pass the 1956 loi-cadre Deferre which granted independence to Tunisia and Morocco, while the Premier Pierre Mendès-France put an end to the Indochina War through the Geneva Conference of 1954. For other uses, see Algiers putsch (disambiguation) The May 1958 crisis (or Algiers putsch or the coup of May 13) was a political crisis in France, during the turmoil of the Algerian War of Independence (1954-62), which led to the return of Charles de Gaulle to political responsibilites after... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Flag Capital Hanoi Language(s) French Political structure Federation Historical era New Imperialism  - Addition of Laos 1893, 1887  - Vietnamese Declaration of Independence September 2, 1945  - Independence of Laos July 19, 1949  - Independence of Cambodia November 9, 1953  - Recognized Independence of Vietnam 1954, 1954 Area  - 1945 750,000 km² Currency French... Combatants FLN (1954-62) MNA (1954-62) France (1954-62) FAF (1960-61) OAS (1961-62) Commanders Mostefa Benboulaïd Ferhat Abbas Hocine Aït Ahmed Ahmed Ben Bella Krim Belkacem Larbi Ben MHidi Rabah Bitat Mohamed Boudiaf Messali Hadj General Jacques Massu General Maurice Challe Bachaga Said Boualam... Pierre Mendès France Pierre Mendès France (Paris, 11 January 1907 - 18 October 1982), French politician, was born in Paris, into a family of Portuguese Sephardic Jewish origin. ... The Geneva Conference (April 26 - July 21, 1954) was a conference between many countries that agreed to end hostilities and restore peace in French Indochina and Korea. ...


On 13 May 1958, settlers seized the government buildings in Algiers, attacking what they saw as French government weakness in the face of demands among the Arab majority for Algerian independence. A “Committee of Civil and Army Public Security” was created under the presidency of General Jacques Massu, a Gaullist sympathiser. General Raoul Salan, Commander-in-Chief in Algeria, announced on radio that the Army had “provisionally taken over responsibility for the destiny of French Algeria”.[citation needed] is the 133rd day of the year (134th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Jan. ... This article is about the capital of Algeria. ... Jacques Émile Massu (5 May 1908 – 26 October 2002) was a French general who fought in World War II, First Indochina War, Algerian War and the Suez crisis. ... clarified and proofread. ...


Under the pressure of Massu, Salan declared Vive de Gaulle! from the balcony of the Algiers Government-General building on 15 May. De Gaulle answered two days later that he was ready to “assume the powers of the Republic”. Many worried as they saw this answer as support for the army. is the 135th day of the year (136th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


At a 19 May press conference, de Gaulle asserted again that he was at the disposal of the country. As a journalist expressed the concerns of some who feared that he would violate civil liberties, de Gaulle retorted vehemently: is the 139th day of the year (140th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

“Have I ever done that? Au contraire, I have reestablished them when they had disappeared. Who honestly believes that, at age 67, I would start a career as a dictator?”

A republican by conviction, de Gaulle maintained throughout the crisis that he would accept power only from the lawfully constituted authorities.


The crisis deepened as French paratroops from Algeria seized Corsica and a landing near Paris was discussed (Operation Resurrection). Political leaders on many sides agreed to support the General’s return to power, except François Mitterrand, Pierre Mendès-France, Alain Savary, the Communist Party, etc. The philosopher Jean-Paul Sartre, famous existentialist author, was quoted as saying “I would rather vote for God.” On 29 May the French President, René Coty, appealed to the “most illustrious of Frenchmen” to become the last President of the Council (Prime Minister) of the Fourth Republic. For other uses, see Corsica (disambiguation). ...   IPA: (October 26, 1916 – January 8, 1996) served as President of France from 1981 to 1995, elected as representative of the Socialist Party (PS). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The French Communist Party (Parti communiste français or PCF) was founded in 1920. ... Jean-Paul Charles Aymard Sartre (June 21, 1905 – April 15, 1980), normally known simply as Jean-Paul Sartre (pronounced: ), was a French existentialist philosopher and pioneer, dramatist and screenwriter, novelist and critic. ... Existentialism is a philosophical movement that posits that individuals create the meaning and essence of their lives, as opposed to deities or authorities creating it for them. ... is the 149th day of the year (150th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... French statesman René Coty René-Jules-Gustave Coty (March 20, 1882 - November 22, 1962) was President of France from 1954 to 1959. ...


De Gaulle remained intent on replacing the constitution of the Fourth Republic, which he blamed for France’s political weakness. He set as a condition for his return that he be given wide emergency powers for six months and that a new constitution be proposed to the French people.[5] On 1 June 1958, de Gaulle became Premier and was given emergency powers for six months by the National Assembly. For a specific analysis of the population of France, see Demographics of France. ... is the 152nd day of the year (153rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Jan. ... The Palais Bourbon, front The French National Assembly (French: Assemblée nationale) is one of the two houses of the bicameral Parliament of France under the Fifth Republic. ...


On 28 September 1958, a referendum took place and 79.2 percent of those who voted supported the new constitution and the creation of the Fifth Republic. The colonies (Algeria was officially a part of France, not a colony) were given the choice between immediate independence and the new constitution. All African colonies voted for the new constitution and the replacement of the French Union by the French Community, except Guinea, which thus became the first French African colony to gain independence, at the cost of the immediate ending of all French assistance. is the 271st day of the year (272nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Jan. ... Following the political crisis that marked the end of the French Fourth Republic in 1958, a referendum on the adoption of a constitution for the French Fifth Republic was held. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... -1... Established by the French constitution of October 27, 1946, the French Union (French: Union Française) was a political entity created to replace the old French colonial system, the French Empire (Empire français). ... The French Community was the political entity which replaced the French Union, which in turn was the descendant of the French Empire following the Second World War. ...


According to de Gaulle, the head of state should represent “the spirit of the nation” to the nation itself and to the world: “une certaine idée de la France” (a certain idea of France).


1958-62: Founding of the Fifth Republic

In the November 1958 elections, de Gaulle and his supporters (initially organised in the Union pour la Nouvelle République-Union Démocratique du Travail, then the Union des Démocrates pour la Vème République, and later still the Union des Démocrates pour la République, UDR) won a comfortable majority. In December, de Gaulle was elected President by the electoral college with 78% of the vote, and inaugurated in January 1959. French legislative election took place on November 23 and 30, 1958 to elect the 1st National Assembly of the Fifth Republic. ... Union of Democrats for the Republic (French : Union des Démocrates pour la République), also known as the Gaullist Party was a political party of France. ... The French presidential of 1958, the first of the French Fifth Republic, took place on December 21, 1958. ...


He oversaw tough economic measures to revitalise the country, including the issuing of a new franc (worth 100 old francs). Internationally, he rebuffed both the United States and the Soviet Union, pushing for an independent France with its own nuclear weapons, and strongly encouraged a “Free Europe”, believing that a confederation of all European nations would restore the past glories of the great European empires. He set about building Franco-German cooperation as the cornerstone of the European Economic Community (EEC), paying the first state visit to Germany by a French head of state since Napoleon. In 1963, Germany and France signed a treaty of friendship, the Élysée Treaty. France also reduced its dollar reserves, trading them for gold from the U.S. government, thereby reducing the US’ economic influence abroad. The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 kilometers (11 mi) above the hypocenter A nuclear weapon derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions of fusion or fission. ... François Mitterrand and Helmut Kohl in Verdun in 1984 The Franco-German Cooperation or Franco-German Partnership or Amitié franco-allemande are terms to describe the high collaboration between the countries of France and Germany in the post-1945 world. ... The European Community (EC) was originally founded on March 25, 1957 by the signing of the Treaty of Rome under the name of European Economic Community. ... State visits usually involve a military review. ... For other uses, see Napoleon (disambiguation). ... Élysée Treaty also known as the Treaty of Friendship, was concluded by Charles de Gaulle and Konrad Adenauer in 1963. ... This article is about the type of currency, for the U.S. Dollar see United States dollar. ... GOLD refers to one of the following: GOLD (IEEE) is an IEEE program designed to garner more student members at the university level (Graduates of the Last Decade). ...


On 23 November 1959, in a speech in Strasbourg, de Gaulle announced his vision for Europe: is the 327th day of the year (328th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Strasburg. ...

Oui, c’est l’Europe, depuis l’Atlantique jusqu’à l’Oural, c’est toute l’Europe, qui décidera du destin du monde.

(“Yes, it is Europe, from the Atlantic to the Urals, it is Europe, it is the whole of Europe, that will decide the destiny of the world.”) The Atlantic Ocean is Earths second-largest ocean, covering approximately one_fifth of its surface. ... The Ural Mountains, (Russian: Ура́льские го́ры = Ура́л) also known simply as the Urals, are a mountain range that run roughly north and south through western Russia. ...

His expression, “Europe, from the Atlantic to the Urals”, has often been cited throughout the history of European integration. It became, for the next ten years, a favourite political rallying cry of de Gaulle’s. His vision stood in contrast to the Atlanticism of the United States and Britain, preferring instead a Europe that would act as a third pole between the United States and the Soviet Union. By including in his ideal of Europe all the territory up to the Urals, de Gaulle was implicitly offering détente to the Soviets, while his phrase was also interpreted as excluding the United Kingdom from a future Europe. European integration is the process of political and economic (and in some cases social and cultural) integration of European states into a tighter bloc. ... Atlanticism is a philosophy of cooperation among Western European and North American nations (specifically the United States, and Canada) regarding political, economic, and defense issues, with the purpose to maintain the security of the participating countries, and to protect the values that unite them: democracy, individual liberty and the rule... Polarity in international relations is a description of the distribution of power within the international system. ... Détente is a French term, meaning a relaxing or easing; the term has been used in international politics since the early 1970s. ... Soviet redirects here. ...

A European Europe means that it exists by itself for itself, in other words in the midst of the world -it has its own policy.

De Gaulle believed that while the war in Algeria was militarily winnable, it was not defensible internationally, and he became reconciled to the colony’s eventual independence. This stance greatly angered the French settlers and their metropolitan supporters, and de Gaulle was forced to suppress two uprisings in Algeria by French settlers and troops, in the second of which (the Generals' Putsch in April 1961) France herself was threatened with invasion by rebel paratroops. De Gaulle’s government also covered up the Paris massacre of 1961, issued under the orders of the police prefect Maurice Papon. He was also targeted by the settler Organisation armée secrète (OAS) terrorist group and several assassination attempts were made on him; the most famous is that of 22 August 1962, when he and his wife narrowly escaped an assassination attempt when their Citroën DS was targeted by machine gun fire arranged by Jean-Marie Bastien-Thiry at the Petit-Clamart. After a referendum on Algerian self-determination carried out in 1961, de Gaulle arranged a cease-fire in Algeria with the March 1962 Evian Accords, legitimated by another referendum a month later. Algeria became independent in July 1962, while an amnesty was later issued covering all crimes committed during the war, including the use of torture. In just a few months in 1962, 900,000 French settlers left the country. The exodus accelerated after the 5th of July 1962 massacre.[6] Pied-noir is a term for the former French colonists of North Africa, especially Algeria. ... The Algiers putsch (or Generals putsch) took place on 23 April 1961 in the midst of the Algerian War of Independence (1954-1962). ... An invasion is a military action consisting of armed forces of one geopolitical entity entering territory controlled by another such entity, generally with the objective of conquering territory, or altering the established government. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Maurice Papon (September 3, 1910 – February 17, 2007) was a former official of the French Vichy government who collaborated with Nazi Germany in World War II and was in charge of the Paris police during the Paris massacre of 1961. ... The Organisation de larmée secrète (OAS; Secret Army Organization) was a short-lived French right-wing terrorist group formed in January 1961 to resist the granting of independence to the French colony of Algeria (Algérie française). ... Assassin and Assassins redirect here. ... is the 234th day of the year (235th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1974 Citroën DS23 Pallas Directional headlight detail of a Citroën DS21 Swedish-spec Citroën DS with headlight wipers Citroën DS Break - also known as the Safari, Familiale, or Wagon 1966 Citroën DS Convertible Turn indicators were mounted in the upper corners of the rear window... A machine gun is a fully-automatic firearm that is capable of firing bullets in rapid succession. ... General de Gaulle at upper left, Bastien-Thiry at upper right Jean-Marie Bastien-Thiry (October 19, 1927 – March 11, 1963) was a French military air weaponry engineer and the last who attempted to assassinate President of France Charles de Gaulle. ... Clamart is a city and commune in France, in the southwestern suburbs of Paris, on the left bank of the Seine. ... A referendum concerning self-determination for French Algeria was held on January 8, 1961. ... -1... [A referendum to approve the Évian Accords ending the Algerian War of Independence was held in France on April 8, 1961 Categories: | ... For other uses, see War (disambiguation). ... The French Army made a systemic use of torture during the Algerian War of Independence (1954-62), which was theorized as a counter-insurgency tactic by Roger Trinquier in Modern Warfare: A French View of Counterinsurgency (1961). ... The Oran massacre of 1962 was a massacre in Oran, Algeria on July 5, 1962, after the end of the Algerian War of Independence (1954–62). ...


In September 1962, De Gaulle sought a constitutional amendment to allow the president to be directly elected by the people and issued another referendum to this end, approved by more than three-fifths of voters despite a broad “coalition of no” formed by most of the parties, opposed to a presidential regime. Thereafter the President was to be elected at direct universal suffrage. After a motion of censure voted by the Parliament on October 4, 1962, de Gaulle dissolved the National Assembly and held new elections. Although the left progressed, the Gaullists won an increased majority, despite opposition from the Christian-Democrat MRP and the National Centre of Independents and Peasants (CNIP) who criticised de Gaulle’s euroscepticism and presidentialism. Although the Algerian issue was settled, Prime Minister Michel Debré resigned over the final settlement and was replaced with Georges Pompidou. A referendum concerning the election of the President of France through universal suffrage was held in France on October 28, 1962 Categories: | ... A Motion of No Confidence, also called Motion of Non Confidence is a parliamentary motion traditionally put before a parliament by the opposition in the hope of defeating or embarrassing a government. ... French legislative election took place on November 18 and 25, 1962 to elect the 2nd National Assembly of the Fifth Republic. ... The initialism MRP or M.R.P. can stand for many things: Material requirements planning or Material resource planning and Manufacturing resource planning (MRP II) Maximum retail price Manufacturers recommended price Machine-readable passport Magnum rifle powder Lewis Machine & Tool Monolithic Rail Platform Major Research Paper Malware Removal and... The National Center of Independents and Peasants (Centre National des Indépendants et Paysans) is a political party in France. ... Michel Debré (15 January 1912 – 2 August 1996) was a French politician. ... Georges Jean Raymond Pompidou (5 July 1911 – 2 April 1974) was President of the French Republic from 1969 until his death in 1974. ...


1962–68: Politics of grandeur

With the Algerian conflict behind him, de Gaulle was able to achieve his two main objectives: to reform and develop the French economy, and to promote an independent foreign policy and a strong stance on the international stage. This was, as named by foreign observers, the “politics of grandeur” (politique de grandeur).


“Thirty glorious years”

In the context of a population boom unseen in France since the 18th century, the government under prime minister Georges Pompidou oversaw a rapid transformation and expansion of the French economy. With dirigisme — a unique combination of capitalism and state-directed economy — the government intervened heavily in the economy, using indicative five-year plans as its main tool. Georges Jean Raymond Pompidou (5 July 1911 – 2 April 1974) was President of the French Republic from 1969 until his death in 1974. ... Dirigisme (from the French) (in English also dirigism although per the OED both spellings are used) is an economic term designating an economy where the government exerts strong directive influence. ...


High-profile projects, mostly but not always financially successful, were launched: the extension of Marseille harbor (soon ranking third in Europe and first in the Mediterranean); the promotion of the Caravelle passenger jetliner (a predecessor of Airbus); the decision to start building the supersonic Franco-British Concorde airliner in Toulouse; the expansion of the French auto industry with state-owned Renault at its center; and the building of the first motorways between Paris and the provinces. City flag Coat of arms Motto: By her great deeds, the city of Massilia shines The Old Port of Marseille Location Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Coordinates Administration Country Region Provence-Alpes-Côte dAzur Department Bouches-du-Rhône (13) Subdivisions 16 arrondissements (in 8 secteurs) Intercommunality Urban... Mediterranean redirects here. ... Sud Aviation Caravelle The SE 210 Caravelle was the first short/medium_range jet airliner, produced by the French Sud Aviation firm starting in 1955 (when it was still known as SNCASE). ... Airbus S.A.S. (pronounced in English, in French, and in German) is an aircraft manufacturing subsidiary of EADS, a European aerospace concern. ... For other uses, see Concorde (disambiguation). ... New city flag (Occitan cross) Traditional coat of arms Motto: (Occitan: For Toulouse, always more) Location Coordinates Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Administration Country Region Midi-Pyrénées Department Haute-Garonne (31) Intercommunality Community of Agglomeration of Greater Toulouse Mayor Jean-Luc Moudenc  (UMP) (since 2004) City Statistics Land... For the author, see Mary Renault. ...


With these projects, the French economy recorded growth rates unrivalled since the 19th century. In 1964, for the first time in 200 years, France’s GDP overtook that of the United Kingdom, a position it held until the 1990s. This period is still remembered in France with some nostalgia as the peak of the Trente Glorieuses (“Thirty Glorious Years” of economic growth between 1945 and 1974). The Trente Glorieuses (Thirty Glorious Years) were the years between 1945 (end of the Second World War) and 1974 (following the 1973 energy crisis) as seen from a French perspective. ...


He vetoed the British application to join the European Economic Community in 1963, because he thought that the United Kingdom lacked the political will to join the community.[7] Many Britons took de Gaulle’s “non” as an insult, especially with the role the United Kingdom had played in the Liberation of France only 19 years earlier. The European Community (EC), most important of three European Communities, was originally founded on March 25, 1957 by the signing of the Treaty of Rome under the name of European Economic Community. ...


Fourth nuclear power

This strong economic foundation enabled de Gaulle to implement his independent foreign policy. In 1960, France became the fourth state to acquire a nuclear arsenal, detonating an atomic bomb in the Algerian desert. In 1968, at the insistence of de Gaulle, French scientists finally succeeded in detonating a hydrogen bomb without U.S. assistance. In what was regarded as a snub to Britain, de Gaulle declared France to be the third big independent nuclear power, as Britain’s nuclear force was closely coordinated with that of the United States. France was the fourth country to test an independently developed nuclear weapon in 1960, under the government of Charles de Gaulle. ... Gerboise Bleue (blue jerboa) was the name of the first French nuclear test. ... Mushroom Cloud from the Canopus explosion rises above Fangataufa Canopus was the code name for Frances first two-stage thermonuclear test, conducted on August 24, 1968 at Fangataufa atoll. ...


While grandeur was surely an essential motive in these nuclear developments, another was the concern that the U.S., being defeated in the unpopular and costly war in Vietnam, would hesitate to intervene in Europe should the Soviet Union decide to threaten Europe. De Gaulle wanted to develop an independent force de frappe. An additional effect was that the French military, which had been demoralised and close to rebellion after the loss of Algeria, was kept busy. In 1965, France launched its first satellite into orbit, making it the third country in the world to build a complete delivery system, after the Soviet Union and the United States. Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000... The Redoutable, the first French nuclear missile submarine // a Pluton missile mobile launcher The Force de frappe (literally Striking Force; meant for dissuasion, i. ... Combatants FLN (1954-62) MNA (1954-62) France (1954-62) FAF (1960-61) OAS (1961-62) Commanders Mostefa Benboulaïd Ferhat Abbas Hocine Aït Ahmed Ahmed Ben Bella Krim Belkacem Larbi Ben MHidi Rabah Bitat Mohamed Boudiaf Messali Hadj General Jacques Massu General Maurice Challe Bachaga Said Boualam... The Diamant rocket (diamant is French for diamond) was the first exclusively French expendable launch system. ...


Recognition of the People's Republic of China

De Gaulle was convinced that a strong and independent France could act as a balancing force between the United States and the Soviet Union, a policy seen as little more than posturing and opportunism by his critics, particularly in Britain and the United States, to which France was formally allied. In January 1964, he officially recognised the People's Republic of China, despite U.S. opposition. Eight years later U.S. President Richard Nixon visited the PRC and began normalising relations. Nixon redirects here. ... Richard Nixon met with Mao Zedong in 1972. ...


Nixon’s first foreign visit after his election was to France in 1969. He and de Gaulle both shared the same non-Wilsonian approach to world affairs, believing in nations and their relative strengths, rather than in ideologies, international organizations, or multilateral agreements. De Gaulle is famously known for calling the United Nations le Machin (“the thing”). UN redirects here. ...


Second round

In December 1965, de Gaulle returned as president for a second seven-year term, but this time he had to go through a second round of voting in which he defeated François Mitterrand. In February 1966, France withdrew from the common NATO military command, but remained within the organization. De Gaulle, haunted by the memories of 1940, wanted France to remain the master of the decisions affecting it, unlike in the 1930s, when France had to follow in step with her British ally. He also declared that all foreign military forces had to leave French territory and gave them one year to redeploy.   IPA: (October 26, 1916 – January 8, 1996) served as President of France from 1981 to 1995, elected as representative of the Socialist Party (PS). ... This article is about the military alliance. ...


In September 1966, in a famous speech in Phnom Penh (Cambodia), he expressed France’s disapproval of the U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War, calling for a U.S. withdrawal from Vietnam as the only way to ensure peace. As the Vietnam War had its roots in French colonialism in southeast Asia, this speech did little to endear de Gaulle to the Americans, even if they later came to the same conclusion. Nickname: Location of Phnom Penh, Cambodia Coordinates: , Country Province Settled 1372 Became Capital 1865 Government  - Type Municipality  - Mayor & Governor H.E. Keb Chutema (Khmer: )  - Vice Governors H.E. Than Sina, H.E. Map Sarin, H.E. Seng Tong Area  - Total 376 km² (145. ... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000... Map of the first (light blue) and second (dark blue) French colonial empires France has had colonial possessions, in various forms, since the beginning of the 17th century until the 1960s. ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ...


Empty Chair Crisis

During the establishment of the European Community, de Gaulle helped precipitate one of the greatest crises in the history of the EC, the Empty Chair Crisis. It involved the financing of the Common Agricultural Policy, but almost more importantly the use of qualified majority voting in the EC (as opposed to unanimity). In June 1965, after France and the other five members could not agree, de Gaulle withdrew France’s representatives from the EC. Their absence left the organization essentially unable to run its affairs until the Luxembourg compromise was reached in January 1966. De Gaulle managed to make QMV essentially meaningless for years to come, and halted more federalist plans for the EC, which he opposed. He vetoed Britain’s entry into the EEC a second time, in June 1967. The European Community (EC) was originally founded on March 25, 1957 by the signing of the Treaty of Rome under the name of European Economic Community. ... The Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) is a system of European Union agricultural subsidies and programmes. ... Qualified Majority Voting (QMV) is a voting procedure employed in the Council of the European Union for some decisions. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ...


Six-Day War

With tension rising in the Middle East in 1967, de Gaulle on June 2 declared an arms embargo against Israel, just three days before the outbreak of the Six-Day War. The pragmatism on which he prided himself meant acting to placate the producers of oil, not on sentiment.


This was an abrupt change in policy. In 1956 France, Britain, and Israel had cooperated in an elaborate effort to retake the Suez Canal from Egypt. Israel's air force operated French Mirage and Mystere jets in the Six-Day War, and its navy was building its new missile boats in Cherbourg. Though paid for, their transfer to Israel was now blocked by de Gaulle's government. But they were smuggled out in an operation that drew further denunciations from the French government. The last boats took to the sea in December 1969, directly after a major deal between France and now-independent Algeria exchanging French armaments for Algerian oil. [1]


Under de Gaulle, following the independence of Algeria, France embarked on foreign policy more favourable to the Arab side. Israel turned towards the United States for arms, and toward its own industry. For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ...


De Gaulle supported the principle of a just settlement for both the Arab and Jewish refugees of the Middle East within the framework of the United Nations. This was stated upon the adoption of UN Resolution 242, in his press conference of 27 November 1967 and contained in his letter to David Ben-Gurion dated 9 January 1968. Ben Gurion redirects here. ...


Nigerian Civil War

During Nigeria’s civil war of 1967-1970, de Gaulle’s government supported the Republic of Biafra in its struggle to gain independence from Nigeria. Despite lack of official recognition, de Gaulle provided covert military assistance through France’s former African colonies. The United Kingdom opposed de Gaulle’s stance, but he viewed the political position of the Igbo in Nigeria as analogous to that of the French Québécois living in Canada. National motto: Peace, Unity, Freedom Official language English Capital Enugu Head of State Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu Area ?- Total ?- % water Population;- Total 13,500,000 (1967) Currency Biafran pound (BIAP) Created May 30, 1967 Dissolved January 15, 1970 Demonym Biafran The Republic of Biafra was a short-lived secessionist state in... The Igbo, sometimes (especially formerly) referred to as the Ibo/Ebo, are an ethnic group in West Africa numbering in the tens of millions. ...


Vive le Québec Libre!

A day after his Vive le Québec Libre! speech, Charles de Gaulle attracts a crowd at Montreal’s Expo 67 on July 25, 1967.

In July 1967, de Gaulle visited Canada, which was celebrating its centennial with a world's fair, Expo 67. On 24 July, speaking to a large crowd from a balcony at Montreal’s city hall, de Gaulle yelled Vive le Québec ! (Long live Quebec!) then added, Vive le Québec libre ! (Long live Free Québec!). The Canadian media harshly criticised the statement, and the Prime Minister of Canada, Lester B. Pearson, a soldier who had fought in World War I and a Nobel Peace Prize winner, stated that “Canadians do not need to be liberated.” [2] De Gaulle left Canada the next day without proceeding to Ottawa as scheduled. He never returned to Canada. The speech caused outrage in most of Canada; it led to a serious diplomatic rift between the two countries. However, the event was seen as a watershed moment by the Quebec sovereignty movement. Vive le Québec libre ! (Long live free Quebec!) was a famous and controversial phrase in a speech delivered by French President Charles de Gaulle in Montreal on July 24, 1967. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... is the 206th day of the year (207th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the 1967 Gregorian calendar. ... Worlds Fair is any of various large expositions held since the mid-19th century. ... The 1967 International and Universal Exposition, or simply Expo 67 was the General Exhibition Category 1 Worlds Fair held in Montreal, Quebec, Canada from April 27 to October 29, 1967. ... is the 205th day of the year (206th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Nickname: Motto: Concordia Salus (well-being through harmony) Coordinates: , Country Province Region Montréal Founded 1642 Established 1832 Government  - Mayor Gérald Tremblay Area [1][2][3]  - City 365. ... Regions Political culture Foreign relations Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      The Prime Minister of Canada (French: Premier ministre du Canada), is the Minister of the Crown who is head of the Government of Canada. ... Mike Pearson redirects here. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Lester B. Pearson after accepting the 1957 Nobel Peace Prize The Nobel Peace Prize (Swedish and Norwegian: Nobels fredspris) is the name of one of five Nobel Prizes bequeathed by the Swedish industrialist and inventor Alfred Nobel. ... This article is about the capital city of Canada. ... The province of Quebec shown in red. ...


In December 1967, claiming continental European solidarity, he again rejected British entry into the European Economic Community. The European Community (EC) was originally founded on March 25, 1957 by the signing of the Treaty of Rome under the name of European Economic Community. ...


Assessment

Many have commented that the “policy of grandeur” was probably too ambitious and heavy for the shoulders of France[citation needed]. This policy, it is argued, was only made possible by de Gaulle’s resolve, and was not sustainable in the long run. In any case, it is still remembered in France as a defining era of modern French foreign policy, and it still largely inspires policy to this day.


May 1968

Main article: May 1968

De Gaulle’s government was criticised within France, particularly for its heavy-handed style. While the written press and elections were free, the state had a monopoly on television and radio broadcasts (though there were private stations broadcasting from abroad; see ORTF) and the executive occasionally told public broadcasters the bias that they desired on news. In many respects, society was traditionalistic and repressive, especially regarding the position of women[citation needed]. Many factors contributed to a general weariness of sections of the public, particularly the student youth, which led to the events of May 1968. A May 1968 poster: Be young and shut up, with stereotypical silhouette of General de Gaulle. ... The Office de Radiodiffusion-Télévision Française (ORTF) was the national agency charged, between 1964 and 1974, with providing public radio and television in France. ...


The huge demonstrations and strikes in France in May 1968 severely challenged de Gaulle’s legitimacy. He briefly fled to Germany and met with Jacques Massu, the then chief of the French forces occupying Germany, to discuss possible army intervention against the protesters (according to popular unofficial accounts).[citation needed] Baden-Baden is a town in Baden-Württemberg, Germany. ... Jacques Émile Massu (5 May 1908 – 26 October 2002) was a French general who fought in World War II, First Indochina War, Algerian War and the Suez crisis. ...


In a private meeting discussing the students’ and workers’ demands for direct participation in business and government he coined the phrase “La réforme oui, la chienlit non”, which can be politely translated as 'reform yes, masquerade/chaos no.' It was a vernacular scatological pun meaning 'chie-en-lit, no'. The term is now common parlance in French political commentary, used both critically and ironically referring back to De Gaulle. Chienlit is a traditional French term typically translated as masquerade or carnival/chaos, but in 1968 it was brought to notoriety by General Charles de Gaulle in an angry speech during the student protests in Paris during May 1968, when he used the vernacular term as a scatological pun La... Look up Vernacular in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Scatology, or coprology, in medicine, biology and paleontology, is the study of feces. ... For other uses, see Pun (disambiguation). ... Chienlit is a traditional French term typically translated as masquerade or carnival/chaos, but in 1968 it was brought to notoriety by General Charles de Gaulle in an angry speech during the student protests in Paris during May 1968, when he used the vernacular term as a scatological pun La...


But de Gaulle offered to accept some of the reforms the demonstrators sought. He again considered a referendum to support his moves, but Pompidou persuaded him to dissolve parliament (in which the government had all but lost its majority in the March 1967 elections) and hold new elections instead. The June 1968 elections were a major success for the Gaullists and their allies; when shown the spectre of revolution or even civil war, the majority of the country rallied to him. His party won 358 of 487 seats. Pompidou was suddenly replaced by Maurice Couve de Murville in July. Maurice Couve de Murville Maurice Couve de Murville (January 24, 1907 - December 24, 1999) was a French Protestant politician, a supporter of Charles de Gaulle, under whom he served as Foreign Minister (1958-1968), Finance Minister (1968), and Prime Minister (1968-1969). ...


Retirement and death

US president Richard Nixon visiting president Charles de Gaulle one month before de Gaulle's retirement.

Charles de Gaulle resigned the presidency on 28 April 1969, following the defeat of his referendum to transform the Senate (upper house of the French parliament, wielding less power than the National Assembly) into an advisory body while giving extended powers to regional councils. Some said this referendum was a self-conscious political suicide committed by de Gaulle after the traumatising events of May 1968. As in 1946, de Gaulle refused to stay in power without widespread popular support. Nixon redirects here. ... is the 118th day of the year (119th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1969 (number) 1969 (movie) 1969 (Stargate SG-1) episode. ...


De Gaulle retired once again to Colombey-les-Deux-Églises, where he died suddenly in 1970, two weeks before his 80th birthday, in the middle of writing his memoirs. In generally very robust health until then, despite an operation on his prostate some years before, it was reported that as he had finished watching the evening news on television and was sitting in his armchair he suddenly said “I feel a pain here”, pointing to his neck, just seconds before he fell unconscious due to an aneurysmal rupture. Within minutes, he was dead. Colombey-les-deux-Églises is a village and commune in the Haute-Marne départment, France, located at 48 13N 4 54E. It has a population of around 700 people. ... The prostate is a compound tubuloalveolar exocrine gland of the male mammalian reproductive system. ... A cerebral aneurysm or brain aneurysm is a cerebrovascular disorder in which weakness in the wall of a cerebral artery or vein causes a localized dilation or ballooning of the blood vessel. ...


De Gaulle had made arrangements that insisted that his funeral would be held at Colombey, and that no presidents or ministers attend his funeral, only his Compagnons de la Libération. Heads of state had to content themselves with a simultaneous service at Notre-Dame Cathedral. He was carried to his grave on a tank, and as he was lowered into the ground the bells of all the churches in France tolled starting from Notre Dame and spreading out from there. For other uses, see Notre Dame. ...


He specified that his tombstone bear the simple inscription of his name and his dates of birth and death. Therefore, it simply says: “Charles de Gaulle, 1890-1970”.


Unlike many other politicians, de Gaulle was nearly destitute when he died. When he retired, he did not accept pensions to which he was entitled as a retired president and as a retired general. Instead, he only accepted a pension to which colonels are entitled. Destitution is an extreme state of poverty, in which a person is almost completely lacking in resources or means of support. ...


His family had to sell the Boisserie residence. It was purchased by a foundation and is currently the Charles de Gaulle Museum.


Private life

Charles de Gaulle married Yvonne Vendroux (“Tante (Aunt) Yvonne”) on 7 April 1921. They had 3 children: Philippe (born 1921), Élisabeth (1924), who married general Alain de Boissieu, and Anne (1928 - 1948). Anne had Down syndrome and died at 20. April 7 is the 97th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (98th in leap years). ... Year 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Anne de Gaulle (January 1, 1928 - February 6, 1948) was the daughter of General Charles de Gaulle and his wife, Yvonne. ...


One of Charles de Gaulle’s grandsons, Charles de Gaulle, was a member of the European Parliament from 1994 to 2004, his last tenure being for the National Front. He is said by most other family members especially Philippe de Gaulle (in several TV shows while promoting his book De Gaulle, mon père) to be ”the shame of the family” all the more since he shares the name of his famous grandfather. Charles de Gaulle (b. ... A Member of the European Parliament (English abbreviation MEP)[1] is a member of the European Unions directly-elected legislative body, the European Parliament. ... The National Front (FN, French: ) is a French Far right, nationalist [1] political party, founded in 1972 by Jean-Marie Le Pen. ...


Another grandson, Jean de Gaulle, is a member of the French Parliament.


Current view

Though controversial throughout his political career, not least among ideological opponents on the left and among overseas strategic partners, de Gaulle continues to command enormous respect in France and beyond, where his presidency is seen as a return to political stability and to strength on the international stage. To his admirers, he was the epitome of a roi juste (“just king”) — the embodiment of the qualities of a just and righteous ruler. De Gaulle’s new constitution for the Fifth Republic satisfied a lingering feeling for a strong, central, single political position, harking back to the monarchy but connected to a democratic system. An epitome (Greek epitemnein—to cut short) is a summary or miniature form, also used as a synonym for embodiment. ...


De Gaulle’s opponents saw his constitution as nothing but a recasting of the old—a caesaropapism, with the president wielding almost monarchical powers like those under the ancien regime. Nevertheless, the system of the Fifth Republic (une certaine idée de la France) has proven remarkably stable, compared to that of the previous, Fourth Republic, notwithstanding constitutional changes since its implementation. Caesaropapism is the concept of combining the power of secular government with, or making it supreme to, the spiritual authority of the Christian Church; most especially, the inter-penetration of the theological authority of the Christian Church with the legal/juridical authority of the government; in its extreme form, it... Ancien R gime means Old Regime or Old Order in French; in English, the term refers primarily to the social and political system established in France under the Valois and Bourbon dynasties, and secondarily to any regime which shares the formers defining features: a feudal system under the control...


Domestically, for all the flaws in de Gaulle’s approach, he presided over a return to economic prosperity after an initially sluggish postwar performance, while maintaining much of the social contract evolved in previous decades between employers and labour. The associated dirigisme (state economic interventionism) of the Fifth Republic’s early decades remains at odds with the current trend of western economic orthodoxy; yet those decades coincided with unprecedented growth and much-improved standards of living for the French population. Dirigisme (from the French) (in English also dirigism although per the OED both spellings are used) is an economic term designating an economy where the government exerts strong directive influence. ...


De Gaulle’s presidential style of government was continued under his successors. Internationally, the emphasis on French independence which so characterised de Gaulle’s policy remains a keystone of foreign policy, together with his alignment with former rival Germany, still seen in both countries as a foundation for European integration.


France’s largest airport, in Roissy, outside Paris was named Charles de Gaulle International Airport in his honour. Roissy-en-France, or simply Roissy, is a commune of the Val-dOise département, near Paris, France. ... Charles de Gaulle International Airport (IATA: CDG, ICAO: LFPG) (French: ), also known as Roissy Airport (or just Roissy in French), in Paris, is one of the worlds principal aviation centres, as well as Frances main international airport. ...

Further information: Things named after Charles de Gaulle

Many streets and public buildings in France bear the name of Charles de Gaulle. ...

Popular culture

The Day of the Jackal is a thriller novel by Frederick Forsyth, first published in 1971, about a professional assassin who is contracted by the OAS, a French terrorist group of the early 1960s, to kill Charles de Gaulle. ... The Day of the Jackal is a 1973 film set in late 1963, based on a novel of the same name by Frederick Forsyth. ... The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles is an Emmy Award-winning American television series that ran from 1992 to 1996. ... Vernon Dobtcheff (b. ... “Starcraft” redirects here. ... ... Admiral Gerard DuGalle is a character in the StarCraft universe. ...

Works

French editions

  • La Discorde Chez l’Ennemi (1924)
  • Histoire des Troupes du Levant (1931) Written by Major de Gaulle and Major Yvon, with Staff Colonel de Mierry collaborating in the preparation of the final text.
  • Le Fil de l’Épée (1932)
  • Vers l’Armée de Métier (1934)
  • La France et son Armée (1938)
  • Trois Études (1945) (Rôle Historique des Places Fortes; Mobilisation Economique à l’Étranger; Comment Faire une Armée de Métier) followed by the Memorandum of January 26, 1940.
  • Mémoires de Guerre
    • Volume I - L’Appel 1940–1942 (1954)
    • Volume II - L’Unité, 1942–1944 (1956)
    • Volume III - Le Salut, 1944–1946 (1959)
  • Mémoires d’Espoir
    • Volume I - Le Renouveau 1958–1962 (1970)
  • Discours et Messages
    • Volume I - Pendant la Guerre 1940–1946 (1970)
    • Volume II - Dans l’attente 1946–1958 (1970)
    • Volume III - Avec le Renouveau 1958–1962 (1970)
    • Volume IV - Pour l’Effort 1962–1965 (1970)
    • Volume V - Vers le Terme 1966–1969

English translations

  • The Enemy’s House Divided (La Discorde chez l’ennemi). Tr. by Robert Eden. University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill, 2002.
  • The Edge of the Sword (Le Fil de l’Épée). Tr. by Gerard Hopkins. Faber, London, 1960 Criterion Books, New York, 1960
  • The Army of the Future (Vers l’Armée de Métier). Hutchinson, London-Melbourne, 1940. Lippincott, New York, 1940
  • France and Her Army (La France et son Armée). Tr. by F.L. Dash. Hutchinson London, 1945. Ryerson Press, Toronto, 1945
  • War Memoirs: Call to Honour, 1940–1942 (L’Appel). Tr. by Jonathan Griffin. Collins, London, 1955 (2 volumes). Viking Press, New York, 1955.
  • War Memoirs: Unity, 1942–1944 (L’Unité). Tr. by Richard Howard (narrative) and Joyce Murchie and Hamish Erskine (documents). Weidenfeld & Nicolson, London, 1959 (2 volumes). Simon and Schuster, New York, 1959 (2 volumes).
  • War Memoirs: Salvation, 1944–1946' (Le Salut). Tr. by Richard Howard (narrative) and Joyce Murchie and Hamish Erskine (documents). Weidenfeld & Nicolson, London, 1960 (2 volumes). Simon and Schuster, New York, 1960 (2 volumes).

De Gaulle’s Second Government, 21 December 1945 - 26 January 1946

  • Charles de Gaulle: Chairman of the Provisional Government
  • Georges Bidault: Minister of Foreign Affairs
  • Edmond Michelet: Minister of Armies
  • Charles Tillon: Minister of Armaments
  • Adrien Tixier: Minister of the Interior
  • René Pleven: Minister of Finance
  • François Billoux: Minister of National Economy
  • Marcel Paul: Minister of Industrial Production
  • Ambroise Croizat: Minister of Labour
  • Pierre-Henri Teitgen: Minister of Justice
  • Paul Giacobbi: Minister of National Education
  • Laurent Casanova: Minister of Veterans and War Victims
  • François Tanguy-Prigent: Minister of Agriculture and Supply
  • Jacques Soustelle: Minister of Colonies
  • Jules Moch: Minister of Public Works and Transport
  • Robert Prigent: Minister of Population
  • Raoul Dautry: Minister of Reconstruction and Town Planning
  • Eugène Thomas: Minister of Posts
  • André Malraux: Minister of Information
  • Vincent Auriol: Minister of State
  • Francisque Gay: Minister of State
  • Louis Jacquinot: Minister of State
  • Maurice Thorez: Minister of State

Georges Bidault, French statesman Georges-Augustin Bidault (October 5, 1899 – January 27, 1983) was a French politician and active in the French Resistance and Organisation de lArmée Secrète (OAS). ... Edmond Michelet (born Paris October 8, 1899, died October 9, 1970) helped many victims of the Nazis in occupied France, including Catholic philosopher Dietrich von Hildebrand. ... Charles Tillon is a French politician. ... René Pleven, French prime minister René Pleven (April 1901 - January 13, 1993) was a notable French politician of the Fourth Republic. ... Marcel Paul (July 12, 1900–November 11, 1982) was a French politician. ... Pierre-Henri Teitgen was born in Rennes on May 29th, 1908 and died on April, 6th 1997 in Paris . ... François Tanguy-Prigent was born on October 11, 1909 at Saint Jean du Doigt, in the Finistere department of Bretagne, France (The name “Prigent” comes from Prit beautiful and “Gent” race - line. It first appears in Redon in the year 869 A.D.). Tanguy-Prigent became politically active at... Jacques Soustelle was born in Montpellier, France on 3 February 1912 and died 6 August 1990. ... Jules Moch , a French politician, was born in Paris on March 15, 1893 and died on August 1, 1985 in Cabris (Alpes-Maritimes). ... André Malraux, French author, adventurer, and statesman André Malraux (November 3, 1901 – November 23, 1976) was a French author, adventurer and statesman, and a dominant figure in French politics and culture. ... Jules-Vincent Auriol (August 27, 1884 – January 1, 1966) was a French politician who served as the first President of the Fourth Republic from 1947 to 1954. ... Louis Jacquinot (16 September 1898 - 14 June 1993) was a French lawyer and politician, and chief of Prime Minister Raymond Poincarés office. ... Maurice Thorez Maurice Thorez (April 28, 1900–July 11, 1964) was a French statesman and longtime leader of the French Communist Party (PCF) from 1930 until his death. ...

De Gaulle’s Third Ministry, 9 June 1958 - 8 January 1959

  • Charles de Gaulle: President of the Council and Minister of National Defense
  • Maurice Couve de Murville: Minister of Foreign Affairs
  • Émile Pelletier: Minister of the Interior
  • Antoine Pinay: Minister of Finance and interim Minister of Public Works, Transport, and Tourism
  • Édouard Ramonet: Minister of Industry
  • Paul Bacon: Minister of Labour
  • Edmond Michelet: Minister of Veterans and War Victims
  • Michel Debré: Minister of Justice
  • Jean Berthoin: Minister of National Education
  • Roger Houdet: Minister of Agriculture
  • Bernard Cornut-Gentille: Minister of Overseas France
  • Robert Buron: Minister of Public Works, Transport, and Tourism
  • Eugène Thomas: Minister of Posts
  • Édouard Ramonet: Minister of Commerce
  • Pierre Sudreau: Minister of Construction
  • Max Lejeune: Minister of Sahara
  • Guy Mollet: Minister of State
  • Pierre Pflimlin: Minister of State
  • Félix Houphouët-Boigny: Minister of State
  • Louis Jacquinot: Minister of State

Changes Maurice Couve de Murville Maurice Couve de Murville (January 24, 1907 - December 24, 1999) was a French Protestant politician, a supporter of Charles de Gaulle, under whom he served as Foreign Minister (1958-1968), Finance Minister (1968), and Prime Minister (1968-1969). ... Antoine Pinay, French prime minister Antoine Pinay (December 30, 1891 - December 13, 1994) served as Prime Minister of France from 1952 - 1953 (technically, president of the Council). One of Frances most spirited leaders after World War II, Pinay is today remembered as the longest lived Prime Minister. ... Paul Bacon (born 1st November 1907 in Paris, died on 6th December 1999) was a French politician. ... Edmond Michelet (born Paris October 8, 1899, died October 9, 1970) helped many victims of the Nazis in occupied France, including Catholic philosopher Dietrich von Hildebrand. ... Michel Debré (15 January 1912 – 2 August 1996) was a French politician. ... Bernard Cornut-Gentille (26 July 1909–21 January 1992) was a French administrator and politician. ... Robert Buron was a French politician and Minister of Finance from 20 January 1955 to 23 February 1955 and Minister of Public Works, Transport, and Tourism during De Gaulles third term from 9 June 1958 to 8 January 1959. ... Guy Mollet (31 December 1905 - 3 October 1975) was a French Socialist politician. ... Pierre Pflimlin (February 5, 1907 in Roubaix - June 27, 2000 in Strasbourg) was a French Christian Democratic politician who served as the penultimate Prime Minister of the Fourth Republic for a few weeks in 1958, before being replaced by Charles de Gaulle during the crisis of that year. ... Félix Houphouët-Boigny (fālēks´ oofwā´-bwä´nye) (October 18, 1905 - December 7, 1993) was the first President of Côte dIvoire (1960 - 1993) and was previously appointed minister in the government of France several times between 1957 and 1961. ... Louis Jacquinot (16 September 1898 - 14 June 1993) was a French lawyer and politician, and chief of Prime Minister Raymond Poincarés office. ...

  • 12 June 1958: André Malraux enters the cabinet as Minister of Radio, Television, and Press.
  • 14 June 1958: Guy Mollet becomes Minister of General Civil Servants Status.
  • 7 July 1958: Bernard Chenot enters the cabinet as Minister of Public Health and Population. Jacques Soustelle succeeds Malraux as Minister of Information.
  • 23 July 1958: Antoine Pinay becomes Minister of Economic Affairs, remaining also Minister of Finance.

is the 163rd day of the year (164th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Jan. ... André Malraux, French author, adventurer, and statesman André Malraux (November 3, 1901 – November 23, 1976) was a French author, adventurer and statesman, and a dominant figure in French politics and culture. ... is the 165th day of the year (166th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Jan. ... Guy Mollet (31 December 1905 - 3 October 1975) was a French Socialist politician. ... is the 188th day of the year (189th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Jan. ... Jacques Soustelle was born in Montpellier, France on 3 February 1912 and died 6 August 1990. ... is the 204th day of the year (205th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Jan. ...

See also

Charles de Gaulle, in his generals uniform Gaullism (French: Gaullisme) is a French political ideology based on the thought and action of Charles de Gaulle. ... In France, the Gaullist Party is usually used to refer to the largest party professing to be Gaullist. ... In France, Charles de Gaulle is called or referred to with different names, depending on who is talking, and what are the feelings of the person talking about de Gaulle, which can be quite confusing. ... Many streets and public buildings in France bear the name of Charles de Gaulle. ...

References

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Wikisource has original works written by or about:
  1. ^ a b c d e World War II Commemoration
  2. ^ Account of Jean-Louis Loubet del Bayle’s book on the non-conformists of the 1930s on the EHESS’s website (French)
  3. ^ a b c Brad DeLong (29 May 2000). Charles de Gaulle. University of California at Berkeley. Retrieved on 2008-02-11.
  4. ^ Anthony Clayton Three Marshals of France. p. 124
  5. ^ As he commissioned the new constitution and was responsible for its overall framework, de Gaulle is sometimes described as the author of the constitution. De Gaulle’s political ideas were written into a constitution by Michel Debré who then guided the text through the enactment process. Thus while the constitution reflects de Gaulle’s ideas, Michel Debré was the actual author of the text.
  6. ^ Pied-noirs breathe life back into Algerian tourism
  7. ^ How the EU was built (2000). Retrieved on 2007-08-18.

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is one of a family of wiki-based projects run by the Wikimedia Foundation, running on MediaWiki software. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ... The Non-Conformists of the 1930s refers to a nebula of groups and individuals during the inter-war period in France which were looking for new solutions to face the political, economical and social crisis. ... The École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales (or School for Advanced Studies in the Social Sciences, also known as EHESS) is a French institution for research and higher education, a Grand Établissement. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 42nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The current Constitution of France was adopted on October 4, 1958, and has been amended 17 times, most recently on March 28, 2003. ... Michel Debré (15 January 1912 – 2 August 1996) was a French politician. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 230th day of the year (231st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

  • Charles de Gaulle World History Database
  • News, speech excerpts and quotations
  • De Gaulle’s policy in the Middle East
  • Works by or about Charles de Gaulle in libraries (WorldCat catalog)
  • Speeches (in original French) collected by the Charles De Gaulle foundation
  • Biographical elements from the Charles De Gaulle foundation
Political offices
Preceded by
Pierre Laval (as Prime Minister)
Chairman of the Provisional Government of France
1944–1946
Succeeded by
Félix Gouin
Preceded by
Philippe Pétain (as Head of State)
Co-Prince of Andorra
1944–1946
with Ramon Iglesias i Navarri
Preceded by
Pierre Pflimlin
Prime Minister of France
1958–1959
Succeeded by
Michel Debré
Preceded by
Pierre de Chevigné
Minister of National Defense
1958–1959
Succeeded by
Pierre Guillaumat
Preceded by
René Coty
Presidents of the French Republic
1959–1969
Succeeded by
Alain Poher
Co-Prince of Andorra
1959–1969
with Ramon Iglesias i Navarri
Succeeded by
Georges Pompidou
Party political offices
New title Gaullist Party Presidential Candidate
1958 (won); 1965 (won)
Succeeded by
Georges Pompidou
Persondata
NAME Gaulle, Charles André Joseph Marie de
ALTERNATIVE NAMES
SHORT DESCRIPTION French politician
DATE OF BIRTH 22 November 1890
PLACE OF BIRTH Lille
DATE OF DEATH November 9, 1970
PLACE OF DEATH Colombey-les-deux-Églises

is the 326th day of the year (327th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1890 (MDCCCXC) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar). ... For other uses, see Lille (disambiguation). ... is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link shows full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Colombey-les-deux-Églises is a village and commune in the Haute-Marne départment, France, located at 48 13N 4 54E. It has a population of around 700 people. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
GI -- World War II Commemoration (2175 words)
CHARLES DE GAULLE, (1890-1970), president of France, who was the leader of the Free French movement during WORLD WAR II and the chief architect of the Fifth Republic.
Charles Andre Joseph Marie de Gaulle was born in Lille, France, on Nov. 22, 1890, the son of a teacher of philosophy and literature at a Jesuit college.
De Gaulle was one of the few in the cabinet to resist surrender and to propose that the government withdraw if necessary to North Africa to continue the struggle.
Charles de Gaulle (532 words)
Charles de Gaulle (1890-1970) was a brigadier general at the time of the French defeat in 1940.
When the Minister of Culture, De Gaulle's literary friend André Malraux, had the Grand Trianon entirely restored, the left wing was furnished for prestigious guests of the nation, while the Trianon-sous-Bois wing was reserved for France's head of state.
De Gaulle subsequently preferred to entertain distinguished guests at the Trianon rather than at the Elysée (the former residence of Madame de Pompadour), claiming that 'the home of a queen seems more dignified than that of a favourite' a comment more witty than historically accurate.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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