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Encyclopedia > Charles XI of Sweden
Charles XIKing of Sweden
Charles XI
King of Sweden
  Swedish Royalty
  House of Palatinate-Zweibrücken

Charles X Gustav
Children
   Charles XI
Charles XI
Children
   Hedvig Sophia, Duchess of Holstein-Gottorp
   Charles XII
   Ulrika Eleonora
Charles XII
Ulrika Eleonora

Charles XI (Karl XI) (November 24, 1655April 5, 1697) was King of Sweden from 1660 until his death. He was the only son of Charles X of Sweden and Hedwig Eleonora of Holstein-Gottorp. Charles XI of Sweden The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... Charles XI of Sweden The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... The House of Pfalz-Zweibrücken was the Royal House of Sweden from 1654 to 1720. ... Image File history File links The House of Pfalz-Zweibrücken heraldic shield. ... Charles X Gustav (Karl X Gustav) (November 8, 1622 – February 13, 1660), was King of Sweden from 1654 until his death. ... Hedvig Sofia Augusta, Princess of Sweden (26 June 1681-22 December 1708), Duchess of Holstein-Gottorp, was the eldest child of King Charles XI of Sweden, and his wife Ulrike Eleonore of Denmark. ... Carl XII, Karl XII or Carolus Rex, (June 17, 1682 – November 30, 1718), the Alexander of the North, nicknamed in Turkish as DemirbaÅŸ Åžarl (Charles the Habitué), was a King of Sweden from 1697 until his death in 1718. ... Ulrika Eleonora (February 23, 1688 – November 24, 1741) was Queen regnant of Sweden from November 30, 1718, to February 29, 1720, and then Queen consort until her death. ... Carl XII, Karl XII or Carolus Rex, (June 17, 1682 – November 30, 1718), the Alexander of the North, nicknamed in Turkish as DemirbaÅŸ Åžarl (Charles the Habitué), was a King of Sweden from 1697 until his death in 1718. ... Ulrika Eleonora (February 23, 1688 – November 24, 1741) was Queen regnant of Sweden from November 30, 1718, to February 29, 1720, and then Queen consort until her death. ... November 24 is the 328th day (329th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Events March 25 - Saturns largest moon, Titan, is discovered by Christian Huygens. ... April 5 is the 95th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (96th in leap years). ... Events September 11 - Battle of Zenta, Prince Eugene of Savoy crushed Ottoman army of Mustafa II September 20 - The Treaty of Ryswick December 2 – St Pauls Cathedral opened in London Peter the Great travels in Europe officially incognito as artilleryman Pjotr Mikhailov Use of palanquins increases in Europe Christopher... Sweden is a constitutional monarchy with a representative democracy based on a parliamentary system. ... // Events January 1 - Colonel George Monck with his regiment crosses from Scotland to England at the village of Coldstream and begins advance towards London in support of English Restoration. ... Charles X or Karl X Gustav (1622 – 1660), king of Sweden, son of John Casimir, Margrave of Pfalz-Zweibrücken, and Catherine, sister of Gustavus Adolphus, was born at the Castle of Nyköping on November 8, 1622. ... Hedwig Eleonora of Holstein-Gottorp, queen of Sweden. ...

Contents

Under guardian rule

Charles was born in the palace at Stockholm. His father, who died when Charles was four years old, left the care of his education to the regents whom he had appointed. At the age of seventeen, when Charles XI attained his majority, he devoted himself to sports and exercises, including the pursuit of his favourite pastime, bear-hunting, and appeared ignorant of the very rudiments of state-craft and almost illiterate. According to many contemporary sources, the king was considered poorly educated and therefore not qualified to conduct himself effectively in foreign affairs.[1] Charles was thus dependent on his advisors and diplomats, mainly because he had no foreign language skills beside German and therefore could not interact with the foreign envoys, but also because he was ignorant of the world outside the borders of Sweden.[2]   (IPA: ; UN/LOCODE: SE STO) is the capital of Sweden, and consequently the site of its Government and Parliament as well as the residence of the Swedish head of state, King Carl XVI Gustaf. ... Regent, from the Latin, a person selected to administer a state because the ruler is a minor or is not present or debilitated. ... Public policy is a course of action or inaction chosen by public authorities to address a problem. ... Literacy is the ability to use text to communicate across space and time. ...


Foreign affairs

The general situation produced by the speculative policy of his former guardians has been called forthto explain the king's qualities and to show why he was hardened prematurely.[citation needed] He is said to have attempted to grapple with the difficulties of the situation, waging a struggle against what is referred to as sloth, corruption and incompetence.[citation needed] The 20-year old king was inexperienced and considered ill-served amidst what has been called the anarchy in the nation and is said to have worked day and night in his newly-formed camp in Scania to arm the Swedish nation for struggle in the Scanian War.[citation needed] Anarchy, in its broadest sense, refers to a political and social theory in which human society exists without government. ... The Flag of Skåne (also known as Scania in English) is the southernmost historical province (landskap) and County (Län) of Sweden. ... Scanian War (Danish: Skånske Krig Swedish: Skånska kriget) was the Nordic part of the Franco-Dutch War (1672-1678). ...


The victory of Halmstad (August 17, 1676), when Charles and his commander-in-chief Simon Grundel-Helmfelt defeated a Danish division, was the first gleam of good luck for him, and on December 4, on the tableland of Helgonabäck, near Lund, the Swedish monarch defeated Christian V of Denmark, who also commanded his army in person. The Battle of Lund was, relative to the number engaged, one of the bloodiest engagements of modern times. More than half the combatants (8,357, of whom 3,000 were Swedes) actually perished on the battle-field. All the Swedish commanders showed ability, but the chief glory of the day have been attributed to Charles XI. Halmstad [hulm-stɑː(d)] is a port, university, industrial and recreational city at the mouth of the Nissan River in Halland in south-western Sweden. ... Commander-in-Chief (in NATO-lingo often C-in-C or CINC pronounced sink) is the commander of all the military forces within a particular region or of all the military forces of a state. ... Baron Simon Grundel-Helmfelt (1617–1677) was a Swedish Field marshal. ... In geology and earth science, a plateau (alternatively spelt in a false French spelling plâteau, the real spelling in French being plateau) is an area of highland, usually consisting of relatively flat open country if the uplift was recent in geologic history. ... Kävlinge River (KävlingeÃ¥n in Swedish, but also known as Lödde Ã¥) is the name of a small river on the flat lands of Scania in southern Sweden. ...   IPA: is a city in SkÃ¥ne in southern Sweden. ... Christian V (April 14, 1646 in Flensburg - August 25, 1699 in Copenhagen), was king of Denmark and Norway from 1670-1699. ... This article needs copyediting (checking for proper English spelling, grammar, usage, etc. ...


In the following year, Charles with 9,000 men routed 12,000 Danes at the Battle of Landskrona. This proved to be the last pitched battle of the war, in September 1678 Christian V evacuated his army back to Zealand. In 1679 Louis XIV of France dictated the terms of a general pacification, and Charles XI, who is said to have bitterly resented "the insufferable tutelage" of the French king,[citation needed] was forced at last to acquiesce in a peace which at least left his empire practically intact. The Battle of Landskrona was fought on the Ylleshed moore, outside the town of Landskrona, in southern Sweden on July 14, 1677 (Julian calendar). ... A pitched battle is a battle were both sides choose to fight at a chosen location and time and where either side has the option to disengage either before the battle starts, or shortly after the first armed exchanges. ... Map showing location of Zealand within Denmark. ... Sun King redirects here. ... Sweden between the years 1611 and 1718 is known as the Swedish Empire. ...


Sweden's weak economy didn't favour wars, even if Sweden was very successful in conflicts, conscription was hated by the peasants and mercenaries, and drained government revenue. Therefore, Charles initiated a dividing system; each region would contribute one citizen for warfare and supply him in peacetime. In a detail of Brueghels Land of Cockaigne (1567) a soft-boiled egg has little feet to rush to the luxuriating peasant who catches drops of honey on his tongue, while roast pigs roam wild: in fact, hunger and harsh winters were realities for the average European in the... A mercenary is a person who takes part in an armed conflict and is motivated to take part in the hostilities essentially by the desire for private gain and, in fact, is promised, by or on behalf of a Party to the conflict, material compensation substantially in excess of that... Revenue is a U.S. business term for the amount of money that a company earns from its activities in a given period, mostly from sales of products and/or services to customers. ... After Charles X of Swedens death in 1660, Swedens territory was at its height - covering todays entire Sweden, Finland, Estonia, half Latvia (including Riga), todays S:t Petersburg, Trondheim (a big part of central Norway), parts of northern Germany and Poland, and finally the islands Ã…land...


Domestic affairs

Charles devoted the rest of his life to the task of rehabilitating Sweden by means of a reduction, or recovery of alienated crown lands, a process which involved the examination of every title deed in the kingdom, and resulted in the complete readjustment of the nation's finances. In 1680 he intimidated the Riksdag into authorizing the reversion to the Crown of counties, baronies and large lordships from the nobility.[3] In addition to reduction, Charles XI's administration was involved in many other activities which are considered constructive and beneficial today. However, he was not solely responsible for the various activities that aimed to strengthen the Swedish state. Charles XI had numerous advisors, many who came from German or Baltic noble families, who were behind several reform projects during the king's rule. Changes in finance, commerce, the national armaments by sea and land, judicial procedure, church government, education, even art and science emerged during this period. Charles XI died on April 5, 1697, in his forty-first year. On May 6, 1680, he had married Ulrike Eleonora (1656 - 1693), daughter of King Frederick III of Denmark (1609-1670), a beloved consort from whose death in July 1693 Charles would never recover.[citation needed] A deed is a legal instrument used to grant a right. ... The Riksdag of the Estates, or Ståndsriksdagen, was the name used for the Estates of the Swedish realm, or Rikets ständer, when they were assembled. ... Throughout the Commonwealth Realms The Crown is an abstract concept which represents the legal authority for the existence of any government. ... A count is a nobleman in most European countries, equivalent in rank to a British earl, whose wife is also still a countess (for lack of an Anglo-Saxon term). ... Baron is a specific title of nobility or a more generic feudal qualification. ... Generic plan of a mediaeval manor; open-field strip farming, some enclosures, triennial crop rotation, demesne and manse, common woodland, pasturage and meadow Manorialism or Seigneurialism is the organization of rural economy and society in medieval western and parts of central Europe, characterised by the vesting of legal and economic... Nobility is a traditional hereditary status (see hereditary titles) that exists today in many countries (mainly present or former monarchies). ... http://www. ... Ulrike Eleonora (1656 - 1693), was the daughter of King Frederick III of Denmark. ... King Frederick III Frederick III (March 28, 1609 – February 19, 1670) was King of Denmark and Norway from 1648 until his death. ... King George V of the United Kingdom and his consort, Queen Mary A queen consort is the wife and consort of a reigning king. ...


Charles XI, like Gustav Vasa and Gustavus Adolphus, has sometimes been described in Sweden as the greatest of all the Swedish kings, unduly eclipsed by his father Charles X and his son Charles XII. In nationalistic lore, he is often depicted as a modest, homespun figure, and a master-builder who found Sweden in ruins and devoted his whole life to laying a solid foundations of a new order which, in its essential features, has endured to the present day, with the exception of absolute monarchy. Gustav I of Sweden, commonly known as Gustav Vasa, but originally known as Gustav Eriksson (May 12, 1496 – September 29, 1560) was King of Sweden from 1523 until his death. ... Gustav II Adolph Gustav II Adolph (December 9, 1594 - November 6, 1632) (also known as Gustav Adolph the Great, under the Latin name Gustavus Adolphus or the Swedish form Gustav II Adolf) was a King of Sweden. ... Charles X or Karl X Gustav (1622 – 1660), king of Sweden, son of John Casimir, Margrave of Pfalz-Zweibrücken, and Catherine, sister of Gustavus Adolphus, was born at the Castle of Nyköping on November 8, 1622. ... Carl XII, Karl XII or Carolus Rex, (June 17, 1682 – November 30, 1718), the Alexander of the North, nicknamed in Turkish as DemirbaÅŸ Åžarl (Charles the Habitué), was a King of Sweden from 1697 until his death in 1718. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ...


Children

He had seven children, of whom only three survived him, a son Charles, and two daughters, Hedwig Sophia, duchess of Holstein-Gottorp and grandmother of Tsar Peter III, and Ulrike Eleonora, who ultimately succeeded her brother on the Swedish throne. Holstein-Gottorp or Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorp was a duchy consisting of areas within Schleswig and Holstein, in present-day Denmark and Germany. ... Tsar (Bulgarian, Serbian and Macedonian цар, Russian  , in scientific transliteration respectively car and car ), occasionally spelled Czar or Tzar and sometimes Csar or Zar in English, is a Slavonic term designating certain monarchs. ... Grand Duke Peter, 1753, by Alexei Antropov Peter III (February 21, 1728 - July 17, 1762) (Russian: Пётр III Федорович or Pyotr III Fyodorovitch) was Emperor of Russia for six months in 1762. ...

  1. Hedwig Sophia (1681-1708)
  2. King Charles XII (1682-1718)
  3. Gustav (1683-1685)
  4. Ulrich (1684-1685)
  5. Friedrich (1685-1685)
  6. Carl Gustav (1686-1687)
  7. Queen Ulrika Eleonora (1688-1741)

Hedvig Sofia of Sweden (1681-1708), Duchess of Holstein-Gottorp, was the eldest child of King Charles XI of Sweden. ... Carl XII, Karl XII or Carolus Rex, (June 17, 1682 – November 30, 1718), the Alexander of the North, nicknamed in Turkish as Demirbaş Şarl (Charles the Habitué), was a King of Sweden from 1697 until his death in 1718. ... Ulrika Eleonora (February 23, 1688 – November 24, 1741) was Queen regnant of Sweden from November 30, 1718, to February 29, 1720, and then Queen consort until her death. ...

See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Charles XI of Sweden
Preceded by
Charles X
King of Sweden
1660–1697
Succeeded by
Charles XII
Preceded by
Frederick Louis
Duke of Zweibrücken
1681–1697

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Wikimedia Commons logo by Reid Beels The Wikimedia Commons (also called Commons or Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ... Sweden between the years 1611 and 1718 is known as the Swedish Empire. ... Carlsten is a stone fortress located at Sweden. ... Charles X or Karl X Gustav (1622 – 1660), king of Sweden, son of John Casimir, Margrave of Pfalz-Zweibrücken, and Catherine, sister of Gustavus Adolphus, was born at the Castle of Nyköping on November 8, 1622. ... This is a list of Swedish monarchs, that is, the Kings and ruling Queens of Sweden with Regents and Viceroys of the Kalmar Union up until the present time. ... Carl XII, Karl XII or Carolus Rex, (June 17, 1682 – November 30, 1718), the Alexander of the North, nicknamed in Turkish as DemirbaÅŸ Åžarl (Charles the Habitué), was a King of Sweden from 1697 until his death in 1718. ... Frederick Louis (German: ) (27 October 1619 – 11 April 1681) was the Duke of Landsberg from 1645 until 1681, and the Duke of Zweibrücken from 1661 until 1681. ... The town of Zweibrücken was mentioned for the first time in 1170, and in 1182 it became an independent county. ...

References

  • This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain.
  1. ^ Upton, Anthony F. (1998). Charles XI and Swedish Absolutism, 1660-1697. Cambridge University Press, 1998. ISBN 0521573904, p. 91: "There was a widespread contemporary impression that the king was poorly qualified and ineffective in foreign affairs [...] The Danish minister, M. Scheel, reported to his king how Charles XI seemed embarrassed by questions, kept his eyes down and was taciturn [...] The French diplomat, Jean Antoine de Mesmes, comte d’Avaux, described him as 'a prince with few natural talents', so obsessed with getting money out of his subjects that he 'does not concern himself much with foreign affairs'. The Dane, Jens Juel, made a similar comment."
  2. ^ Upton, p. 91.
  3. ^ Trager, James (1979). The People's Chronology. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 256. ISBN 0-03-017811-8. 

  Results from FactBites:
 
Charles XI of Sweden (759 words)
Charles XI (November 24, 1655 - April 5, 1697), king of Sweden, the only son of Charles X of Sweden, and Hedwig Eleonora of Holstein-Gottorp[?], was born in the palace at Stockholm on November 24, 1655.
In 1679 Louis XIV of France dictated the terms of a general pacification, and Charles XI, who bitterly resented "the insufferable tutelage" of the French king, was forced at last to acquiesce in a peace which at least left his empire practically intact.
Charles devoted the rest of his life to the gigantic task of rehabilitating Sweden by means of a reduction, or recovery of alienated crown lands, a process which involved the examination of every title deed in the kingdom, and resulted in the complete readjustment of the finances.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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