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Encyclopedia > Charles X of Sweden

Charles X or Karl X Gustav (16221660), king of Sweden, son of John Casimir, Margrave of Pfalz-Zweibrücken, and Catherine, sister of Gustavus Adolphus, was born at the Castle of Nyköping on November 8, 1622. He reigned as king of Sweden from 1654 to 1660. He married to Hedwig Eleonora of Holstein-Gottorp (1636 – 1715), who produced his son and successor, king Charles XI of Sweden. Events January 1 - In the Gregorian calendar, January 1 is declared as the first day of the year, instead of March 25. ... Events Expulsion of the Carib indigenous people from Martinique by French occupying forces. ... Gustav II Adolph Gustav II Adolph (December 9, 1594 - November 6, 1632) (also known as Gustav Adolph the Great, under the Latin name Gustavus Adolphus or the Swedish form Gustav II Adolf) was a King of Sweden. ... Nyköping is a Municipality in Södermanland County, in central Sweden. ... November 8 is the 312th day of the year (313th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 53 days remaining. ... Events January 1 - In the Gregorian calendar, January 1 is declared as the first day of the year, instead of March 25. ... Charles XI, or Karl XI, (November 24, 1655 – April 5, 1697) was a King of Sweden (1660 – 1697). ...

Karl X Gustav
Image:Charles X Gustav of Sweden.jpg
Portrait by Sébastien Bourdon (1653)
Reign June 6, 1654-February 13, 1660
Coronation June 6, 1654
Royal motto "In Jehovah sors mea, ipse faciet"
("In God my destiny - He shall perform it")
Queen Hedwig Eleonora of Holstein-Gottorp
Royal House Pfalz
Predecessor Christina of Sweden
Successor Charles XI of Sweden
Date of Birth November 8, 1622
Place of Birth Nyköping, Sudermannia
Date of Death February 13, 1660
Place of Death Gothenburg
Place of Burial Riddarholmskyrkan, Stockholm
Contents

Charles X Gustav of Sweden, portrait by Sébastien Bourdon 1653 The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... June 6 is the 157th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (158th in leap years), with 208 days remaining. ... Events April 5 - Signing of the Treaty of Westminster, ending the First Anglo-Dutch War. ... February 13 is the 44th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Expulsion of the Carib indigenous people from Martinique by French occupying forces. ... June 6 is the 157th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (158th in leap years), with 208 days remaining. ... Events April 5 - Signing of the Treaty of Westminster, ending the First Anglo-Dutch War. ... The Royal mottos or Valspråk of the Swedish monarchs has been a tradition since first used by Gustav I of Sweden, in the early 16th century. ... The term Royal House refers to the official designation and name of a royal family instead of surname. ... A palatinate is an area administered by a count palatine, originally the direct representative of the sovereign but later the hereditary ruler of the territory subject to the crowns overlordship. ... Christina (1626 – 1689) or Kristina, later known as Maria Christina Alexandra and sometime Count Dohna, was Queen of Sweden from 1632 to 1654, was the daughter of King Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden. ... Charles XI, or Karl XI, (November 24, 1655 – April 5, 1697) was a King of Sweden (1660 – 1697). ... November 8 is the 312th day of the year (313th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 53 days remaining. ... Events January 1 - In the Gregorian calendar, January 1 is declared as the first day of the year, instead of March 25. ... Nyköping is a Municipality in Södermanland County, in central Sweden. ... Sudermannia or Södermanland, is a historical province or landskap on the south eastern coast of Sweden. ... February 13 is the 44th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Expulsion of the Carib indigenous people from Martinique by French occupying forces. ... Gothenburg (Swedish: Göteborg  listen ) is a city and a municipality on the western coast of Sweden, in the County of Västra Götaland. ... Riddarholmskyrkan, as seen from the east Riddarholmskyrkan, or the Church of Riddarholmen, is the burial church of the Swedish monarchy. ... The Stockholm City Hall Stockholm  listen is the capital and the largest city of Sweden. ...

Heir to the throne

He learnt the art of war under the great Lennart Torstenson, being present at the second battle of Breitenfeld (1642) and at Jankowitz (1645). From 1646 to 1648 he frequented the Swedish court, supposedly as a prospective husband of his cousin the queen regnant, Christina of Sweden (1626 - 1689, reigned 1632 - 1654), but her insurmountable objection to wedlock put an end to these anticipations, and to compensate her cousin for a broken half-promise she declared him her successor in 1649, despite the opposition of the Privy Council headed by the venerable Axel Oxenstierna. In 1648 he gained the appointment of commander of the Swedish forces in Germany. The conclusion of the treaties of Westphalia in October 1648 prevented him from winning the military laurels he so ardently desired, but as the Swedish plenipotentiary at the executive congress of Nuremberg, he had unrivalled opportunities of learning diplomacy, in which science he speedily became a past master. As the recognized heir to the throne, his position on his return to Sweden did not lack danger, for the growing discontent with the queen turned the eyes of thousands to him as a possible deliverer. He therefore withdrew to the isle of Öland till the abdication of Christina on June 5, 1654 called him to the throne. Count Lennart Torstenson (August 17, 1603 - April 7, 1651) was a Swedish soldier and the son of Torsten Lennartson, commandant of Älvsborg Fortress. ... The Battle of Breitenfeld (1642) occurred in Germany during the Thirty Years War. ... Christina (1626 – 1689) or Kristina, later known as Maria Christina Alexandra and sometime Count Dohna, was Queen of Sweden from 1632 to 1654, was the daughter of King Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden. ... Events January 30 - King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland is beheaded. ... The Swedish Senate: Riksrådet, from 1809 Statsrådet, from 1975 Regeringen was and is the principal government institution of Sweden The Swedish Senate, Senatus Regni Sueciae, originated as a council of Regional Magnates acting as advisers to the Monarch of the combined Realms of the Swedes (from 996, approximately). ... Count Axel Gustafsson Oxenstierna  listen? or Oxenstjerna ( June 16, 1583 - August 28, 1654), Lord High Chancellor of Sweden, was born at Fånö in Uplandia, and received his education with his brothers at the universities of Rostock, Jena and Wittenberg. ... The Ratification of the Treaty of Münster by Gerard Terborch (1648) The Peace of Westphalia, also known as the treaties of Münster and Osnabrück, is the series of treaties that ended the Thirty Years War and officially recognized the United Provinces and Swiss Confederation. ... Nuremberg coat of arms Location of Nuremberg Nuremberg (German: Nürnberg) is a city in the German state of Bavaria, in the administrative region of Middle Franconia. ... Oelandia (Öland) is a historical Province (landskap) of Sweden. ... June 5 is the 156th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (157th in leap years), with 209 days remaining. ... Events April 5 - Signing of the Treaty of Westminster, ending the First Anglo-Dutch War. ...


Early days as King

The beginning of Charles X's reign concentrated on the healing of domestic discords and on the rallying of all the forces of the nation round his standard for a new policy of conquest. He contracted a political marriage on October 24, 1654 with Hedwig Leonora, the daughter of duke Frederick III of Holstein-Gottorp, by way of securing a future ally against Denmark. The Riksdag which assembled at Stockholm in March 1655, duly considered the two great pressing national questions: war, and the restitution of the alienated crown lands. Over three days a secret committee presided over by the king decided the war question: Charles X easily persuaded the delegates that a war against Poland appeared necessary and might prove very advantageous; but the consideration of the question of the subsidies due to the crown for military purposes was postponed to the following Riksdag. October 24 is the 297th day of the year (298th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 68 days remaining. ... Events April 5 - Signing of the Treaty of Westminster, ending the First Anglo-Dutch War. ... The Riksdag of the Estates, or Ståndsriksdagen, was the name used for the Estates of the Swedish realm, or Rikets ständer, when they were assembled. ... The Stockholm City Hall Stockholm  listen is the capital and the largest city of Sweden. ...


War on Poland

On July 10, 1655, Charles quitted Sweden to engage in his Polish adventure, in what became the Northern Wars. By the time war was declared he had at his disposal 50,000 men and 50 warships. Hostilities had already begun with the occupation of Dünaburg in Polish Livonia by the Swedes on July 1, 1655, and the Polish army encamped among the marshes of the Netze concluded a convention on 25 July, whereby the palatinates of Poznan and Kalisz placed themselves under the protection of the Swedish king. Thereupon the Swedes entered Warsaw without opposition and occupied the whole of Greater Poland. The Polish king, John II Casimir of Poland, of the House of Vasa fled to Silesia. July 10 is the 191st day (192nd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 174 days remaining. ... Events New Sweden (Delaware) attacked and captured by Dutch forces. ... King Charles X of Sweden The Northern Wars (1655-1661) is a name sometimes used for the series of conflicts between Sweden and its adversaries Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (The Deluge, 1655-1660), Russia (1656-1661), Brandenburg-Prussia (1657-1660), the Holy Roman Empire (1657-60) and Denmark (1657-1658, 1658... Daugavpils (Belarusian Дзьвінск Dźvinsk, Russian Двинcк Dvinsk, Lithuanian Daugpilis, German Dünaburg, Polish Dzwinow or Dźwińsk, Yiddish דענענבורג Denenburg), population 115,265 in 2000 census) is the second largest city in Latvia. ... This article is about the region in Europe. ... July 1 is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 183 days remaining. ... Events New Sweden (Delaware) attacked and captured by Dutch forces. ... July 25 is the 206th day (207th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 159 days remaining. ... The Poznan is also a breed of horse, There is also American Poznan, OH. The title given to this article lacks diacritics because of certain technical limitations. ... Motto: Młode Duchem Nastarsze Miasto w Polsce Voivodship Greater Poland Municipal government Rada Miejska Kalisz Mayor Janusz Pęcherz Area 88 km² Population  - city  - urban  - density 160 149 - -/km² Founded City rights - - Latitude Longitude 51°45 N 18°04 E Area code +48 62 Car plates PK Twin towns - Municipal Website... Greater Poland (also Great Poland; Polish: Wielkopolska, German: Grosspolen, Latin: Polonia Maior) is one of the historical regions of Poland. ... Reign From November, 1648 until September 16, 1668 Elected In November 1648 in Wola, today suburb of Warsaw, Poland Coronation On January 19, 1649 in the Wawel Cathedral, Kraków, Poland Royal House Vasa Parents Zygmunt III Waza Constance of Austria Consorts Ludwika Maria Children with Ludwika Maria Maria Anna... The Vasa Coat of Arms The House of Vasa was the Royal House of Sweden (1523-1654) and of Poland (1587-1668). ... Silesia (Polish Śląsk, German Schlesien, Czech Slezsko) is a historical region in central Europe. ...


Meanwhile Charles pressed on towards Cracow, which the Swedes captured after a two months’ siege. The fall of Cracow extinguished the last hope of the boldest Pole; but before the end of the year an extraordinary reaction began in Poland itself. On October 18, 1655 the Swedes invested the fortress-monastery of Czestochowa, but the Poles defended it heroically; and after a seventy days’ siege the besiegers had to retire with great loss. This astounding success elicited an outburst of popular enthusiasm which gave the war a national and religious character. The tactlessness of Charles, the rapacity of his generals, the barbarity of his mercenaries, his refusal to legalize his position by summoning the Polish diet, his negotiations for the partition of the very state he affected to befriend, awoke the long slumbering public spirit of the country. In the beginning of 1656 King John II Casimir returned from exile and the reorganised Polish army increased in numbers. By this time Charles had discovered that he could more readily defeat the Poles than conquer Poland. His chief object, the conquest of Prussia, remained unaccomplished, and a new foe arose in the elector of Brandenburg, Frederick William I , alarmed by the ambition of the Swedish king. Charles forced the elector, albeit at the point of the sword, to become his ally and vassal (Treaty of Königsberg, 17 January 1656); but the Polish national rising now imperatively demanded his presence in the south. For weeks he scoured the interminable snow-covered plains of Poland in pursuit of the Polish guerrillas, penetrating as far south as Jaroslaw in Galicia, by which time he had lost two-thirds of his 15,000 men with no apparent result. His retreat from Jaroslaw to Warsaw, with the fragments of his host -- amidst three converging armies, in a marshy forest region intersected in every direction by well-guarded rivers -- proved one of his most brilliant achievements. But his necessities became overwhelming. On June 21, 1656 the Poles retook Warsaw, and four days later Charles was obliged to purchase the assistance of Friedrich I of Prussia by the treaty of Marienburg (23 June 1656). On 28 July-30 the combined Swedes and Brandenburgers, 18,000 strong, after a three days’ battle, defeated John II’s army of 40,000 at Warsaw and reoccupied the Polish capital. However this brilliant feat of arms proved altogether useless, and when the suspicious attitude of Frederick William compelled the Swedish king at last to open negotiations with the Poles, they refused the terms offered, the war resumed, and Charles concluded an offensive and defensive alliance with the elector of Brandenburg (Treaty of Labiau, November 20, 1656) which stipulated that Frederick William and his heirs should henceforth possess the full sovereignty of East Prussia. Motto: none Voivodship Lesser Poland Municipal government Rada miasta Kraków Mayor Jacek Majchrowski Area 326,8 km² Population  - city  - urban  - density 757,500 (2004 est. ... October 18 is the 291st day of the year (292nd in Leap years). ... Events New Sweden (Delaware) attacked and captured by Dutch forces. ... Częstochowa (pronounce: [ʧε̃stɔ:xɔva]) is a city in south Poland on the Warta River with 248,894 inhabitants (2004). ... The coat of arms of the Kingdom of Prussia, 1701-1918 The word Prussia (German: Preußen or Preussen, Polish: Prusy, Lithuanian: Prūsai, Latin: Borussia) has had various (often contradictory) meanings: The land of the Baltic Prussians (in what is now parts of southern Lithuania, the Kaliningrad exclave of Russia and... Surrounding but excluding the national capital Berlin, Brandenburg is one of Germanys sixteen Bundesländer (federal states). ... Friedrich Wilhelm I of Brandenburg. ... January 17 is the 17th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Events Mehmed Köprülü becomes Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire. ... Jarosław is a town in south-eastern Poland with 41,800 inhabitants (1995). ... The Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria, or simply Galicia, was the largest and northernmost province of Austria from 1772 until 1918, with Lemberg (Lwów, Lviv) as its capital city. ... Warsaw (Polish: Warszawa, see also other names, in full The Capital City of Warsaw, Polish: Miasto Stołeczne Warszawa) is the capital of Poland and its largest city. ... June 21 is the 172nd day of the year (173rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 193 days remaining. ... Events Mehmed Köprülü becomes Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire. ... Friedrich I of Prussia. ... Malbork Castle 2003. ... June 23 is the 174th day of the year (175th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 191 days remaining. ... Events Mehmed Köprülü becomes Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire. ... July 28 is the 209th day (210th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 156 days remaining. ... The Battle of Warsaw which took place on 28-30 July 1656, between armies of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth on the one side and of Sweden and Brandenburg on the other, was an important battle of the Northern Wars. ... November 20 is the 324th day of the year (325th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Events Mehmed Köprülü becomes Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire. ... East Prussia (German: Ostpreu en; Polish: Prusy Wschodnie; Russian: Восточная Пруссия — Vostochnaya Prussiya) was a province of Kingdom of Prussia, situated on the territory of former Ducal Prussia. ...


War on Denmark

Labiau involved an essential modification of Charles's Baltic policy; but the alliance with the elector of Brandenburg had now become indispensable on almost any terms. So serious, indeed, had the difficulties of Charles X in Poland become that he received the tidings of the Danish declaration of war on June 1, 1657 with extreme satisfaction. The hostile action of Denmark enabled him honourably to emerge from the inglorious Polish imbroglio, and he could count on the zealous support of his own people. He had learnt from Torstensson that Denmark was most vulnerable if attacked from the south, and, imitating the strategy of his master, he fell upon her with a velocity which paralysed resistance. At the end of June 1657, at the head of 8,000 seasoned veterans, he broke up from Bydgoszcz in Pomerania and reached the borders of Holstein on 18 July. The Danish army at once dispersed and the Swedes recovered the duchy of Bremen. In the early autumn Charles's troops swarmed over Jutland and firmly established themselves in the duchies. But the fortress of Fredriksodde (Fredericia) held Charles’s little army at bay from mid-August to mid-October, while the fleet of Denmark, after a stubborn two days’ battle, compelled the Swedish fleet to abandon its projected attack on the Danish islands. The position of the Swedish king had now become critical. In July Denmark and Poland-Lithuania concluded an offensive and defensive alliance. Still more ominously, the elector of Brandenburg, perceiving Sweden's difficulties, joined the league against her and compelled Charles to accept the proffered mediation of Oliver Cromwell and Cardinal Mazarin. The negotiations foundered, however, upon the refusal of Sweden to refer the points in dispute to a general peace-congress, and Charles received encouragement from the capture of Fredriksodde, 23 October-24, whereupon he began to make preparations for conveying his troops over to Funen in transport vessels. But soon another and cheaper expedient presented itself. In the middle of December 1657 began the great frost, which would prove so fatal to Denmark. In a few weeks the cold had grown so intense that the freezing of an arm of the sea with so rapid a current as the Small Belt became a conceivable possibility; and henceforth meteorological observations formed an essential part of the strategy of the Swedes. June 1 is the 152nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (153rd in leap years), with 213 days remaining. ... Events January 8 - Miles Sindercombe, would-be-assassin of Oliver Cromwell, and his group are captured in London February - Admiral Robert Blake defeats the Spanish West Indian Fleet in a battle over the seizure of Jamaica. ... Bydgoszcz (in Polish pronounce: [:bidgɔʃʧ], Latin: Bydgostia) is a city in northern Poland, on Brda and Vistula rivers, with a population of 369,151 (2004). ... Pomerania (Polish: Pomorze, German: Pommern and Pommerellen, Lithuanian Pamarė, Pomeranian (Kashubian): Pòmòrze and Pòmòrskô, Latin: Pomerania, Pomorania) is a geographical and historical region in northern Poland and Germany on the south coasts of the Baltic Sea between and on both sides of the Vistula and Oder (Odra) rivers, reaching the... For other uses of the word, see Holstein Holstein (Hol-shtayn) is the southern part of Schleswig-Holstein in Germany, between the rivers Elbe, Eider and the Schlei firth. ... July 18 is the 199th day (200th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 166 days remaining. ... Bremen lies in North Germany 50km South of the North Sea. ... Jutland Peninsula Jutland (Danish: Jylland, German: Jütland) is a peninsula in northern Europe that forms the continental part of Denmark and a northern part of Germany, dividing the North Sea from the Baltic Sea. ... Fredericia is a city in eastern Jutland, Denmark, founded in 1650 by Frederik III, after whom it was named. ... Fredericia is a city in eastern Jutland, Denmark, founded in 1650 by Frederik III, after whom it was named. ... Unfinished portrait miniature of Oliver Cromwell by Samuel Cooper, 1657. ... Cardinal Jules Mazarin, French diplomat and statesman Jules Mazarin, born Giulio Raimondo Mazzarino; but best known as Cardinal Mazarin (July 14, 1602 – March 9, 1661) served as the France from 1642, until his death. ... October 23 is the 296th day of the year (297th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 69 days remaining. ... Funen (Danish: Fyn) is the third largest island of Denmark. ... Categories: Straits of Europe | Stub ...


On January 28, 1658, Charles X arrived at Haderslev in South Jutland. His meteorologists estimated that in a couple of days the ice of the Little Belt would become firm enough to bear even the passage of a mail-clad host. The cold during the night of 29 January became most severe; and early in the morning of the 30th the Swedish king gave the order to start, the horsemen dismounting on the weaker spots of ice and cautiously leading their horses as far apart as possible, until they swung into their saddles again, closed their ranks and made a dash for the shore. Swedish arms quickly overpowered the Danish troops lining the opposite coast and won the whole of Funen with the loss of only two companies of cavalry, which disappeared under the ice while fighting with the Danish left wing. Pursuing his irresistible march, Charles X, with his eyes fixed steadily on Copenhagen, resolved to cross the frozen Great Belt also. After some hesitation, he accepted the advice of his chief engineer officer Erik Dahlberg, who acted as pioneer throughout and chose the more circuitous route from Svendborg, by the islands of Langeland, Laaland and Falster, in preference to the direct route from Nyborg to Korsör, which would have had to cross a broad, almost uninterrupted expanse of ice. Yet the Swedes did not embark upon this second adventure without much anxious consideration. A council of war, which met at two o’clock in the morning to consider the practicability of Dahlberg’s proposal, at once dismissed it as criminally hazardous. Even the king wavered for an instant; but, Dahlberg persisting in his opinion, Charles overruled the objections of the commanders. On the night of 5 February the transit began, the cavalry leading the way through the snow-covered ice, which quickly thawed beneath the horses’ hoofs so that the infantry which followed after had to wade through half an ell of sludge, fearing every moment lest the rotting ice should break beneath their feet. At three o’clock in the afternoon, Dahlberg leading the way, the army reached Grimsted in Laaland without losing a man; on 8 February, Charles reached Falster. On 11 February he stood safely on the soil of Zealand. Not without reason did the medal struck to commemorate the glorious transit of the Baltic Sea bear the haughty inscription: Natura hoc debuit uni. Sweden had achieved an exploit unique in history. The crushing effect of this unheard-of achievement on the Danish government found expression in the Treaty of Taastrup on 18 February, and in the Treaty of Roskilde (February 26, 1658), whereby Denmark sacrificed nearly half her territory to save the rest. But this seemed insufficient, and at a council held at Gottorp on 7 July, Charles X resolved to wipe from the map of Europe an inconvenient rival, and without any warning, in defiance of all international equity, let loose his veterans upon Denmark a second time. January 28 is the 28th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Events January 13 - Edward Sexby, who has plotted against Oliver Cromwell, dies in Tower of London February 6 - Swedish troops of Charles X Gustav of Sweden cross from Sweden to Denmark over frozen sea May 1 - Publication of Hydriotaphia, Urn Burial and The Garden of Cyrus by Thomas Browne September... Haderslev (German Hadersleben) is a municipality in south Denmark, in the county of South Jutland on the peninsula of Jutland. ... January 29 is the 29th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... City nickname: none Location in Denmark Area  - Total  - Water 526 km² xxx km² xx% Population  - City (2004)  - Metropolitan  - Density 502,204 1,116,979 954/km2 [including water] xxx/km2 [land only] Time zone Eastern: UTC+1 Latitude Longitude 55°43 N 12°34 W Copenhagen (Danish: København) is... The Great Belt (Danish:Storebælt) is a strait between the main Danish islands of Zealand and Funen. ... Erik Dahlberg in Suecia Antiqua et Hodierna Count Erik Dahlberg, (1625-1703), Swedish soldier and engineer, was born at Stockholm. ... Categories: Stub | Islands of Denmark ... Lolland (formerly spelled Laaland) is the fourth largest island of Denmark, with an area of some 1,243 square kilometers. ... Falster is a Danish island. ... February 5 is the 36th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... February 8 is the 39th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... February 11 is the 42nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... This article is about the Danish island. ... February 18 is the 49th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... The Treaty of Roskilde was signed on February 26, 1658 in the Danish city Roskilde, whereby the king of Denmark-Norway sacrificed nearly half his territory to save the rest. ... February 26 is the 57th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Events January 13 - Edward Sexby, who has plotted against Oliver Cromwell, dies in Tower of London February 6 - Swedish troops of Charles X Gustav of Sweden cross from Sweden to Denmark over frozen sea May 1 - Publication of Hydriotaphia, Urn Burial and The Garden of Cyrus by Thomas Browne September... The Swedish Senate: Riksrådet, from 1809 Statsrådet, from 1975 Regeringen was and is the principal government institution of Sweden The Swedish Senate, Senatus Regni Sueciae, originated as a council of Regional Magnates acting as advisers to the Monarch of the combined Realms of the Swedes (from 996, approximately). ... Gottorp in 1864 Gottorf (in Danish, Gottorp) is a palace and estate in the German city of Schleswig in the Bundesland of Schleswig-Holstein. ... July 7 is the 188th day of the year (189th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 177 days remaining. ...


On 17 July he again landed on Zealand and besieged Copenhagen with its king Frederick III of Denmark. To everybody's surprise however Copenhagen held out long enough for the Dutch fleet under Lieutenant-Admiral Jacob van Wassenaer Obdam to relieve the city, defeating the Swedish fleet in the Battle of the Sound on 29 October 1658. The Dutch in 1659 liberated the Danish Isles. As Baltic trade was vital to the Dutch economy they made clear to Charles they wouldn't allow such a powerful state as his to control the Sound. July 17 is the 198th day (199th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 167 days remaining. ... Frederick III (March 28, 1609 – February 19, 1670) was King of Denmark and Norway from 1648 until his death. ... Jacob, Banner Lord of Wassenaer, Lord Obdam, Hensbroek, Spanbroek, Opmeer, Zuidwijk and Kernhem (1610 - 13 June 1665) was a Dutch Lieutenant-Admiral, and supreme commander of the confederate Dutch navy. ... October 29 is the 302nd day of the year (303rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 63 days remaining. ... Events January 13 - Edward Sexby, who has plotted against Oliver Cromwell, dies in Tower of London February 6 - Swedish troops of Charles X Gustav of Sweden cross from Sweden to Denmark over frozen sea May 1 - Publication of Hydriotaphia, Urn Burial and The Garden of Cyrus by Thomas Browne September... Events May 25 - Richard Cromwell resigns as Lord Protector of England following the restoration of the Long Parliament, beginning a second brief period of the republican government called the Commonwealth. ...


The Estates in Gothenburg

Only after great hesitation would Charles X consent to reopen negotiations with Denmark direct, at the same time proposing to exercise pressure upon the enemy by a simultaneous winter campaign in Norway. Such an enterprise necessitated fresh subsidies from his already impoverished people, and obliged him in December 1659 to cross over to Sweden to meet the estates, whom he had summoned to Gothenburg. The lower estates murmured at the imposition of fresh burdens; and Charles had need of all his adroitness to persuade them of the reasonableness and necessity of his demands. The Riksdag of the Estates, or Ståndsriksdagen, was the name used for the Estates of the Swedish realm, or Rikets ständer, when they were assembled. ... Gothenburg (Swedish: Göteborg  listen ) is a city and a municipality on the western coast of Sweden, in the County of Västra Götaland. ...


At the very beginning of the Riksdag, in January 1660, the king showed signs of illness; but he spared himself as little in the council-chamber as in the battle-field, till death suddenly overtook him on the night of February 13, 1660, in his thirty-eighth year. Sweden lost much with the abrupt cessation of such an inexhaustible fount of enterprise and energy; indications suggest that, in his latter years, Charles had begun to feel the need and value of repose. Had he lived long enough to overcome his martial ardour, and develop and organize the empire he helped to create, Sweden might perhaps have remained a great power to this day. Even so she owes her natural frontiers in the Scandinavian Peninsula to Charles X. February 13 is the 44th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Expulsion of the Carib indigenous people from Martinique by French occupying forces. ... Scandinavia, Fennoscandia, and the Kola Peninsula. ...


Family

Charles X had one legitimate child by Hedwig Eleonora of Holstein-Gottorp: his successor Charles XI (1655 - 1697, reigned 1660 - 1697). Charles XI, or Karl XI, (November 24, 1655 – April 5, 1697) was a King of Sweden (1660 – 1697). ...


By Brita Allerts he had an illegitimate son: Gustaf Carlson (1647 - 1708), who became Count of Börringe and Lindholmen.


This article incorporates text from the public domain 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica. The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ... The Eleventh Edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica (1911) in many ways represents the sum of knowledge at the beginning of the 20th century. ...

Preceded by:
Christina
King of Sweden
1654-1660
Succeeded by:
Charles XI

  Results from FactBites:
 
Charles X of Sweden - LoveToKnow 1911 (1792 words)
CHARLES X. [CHARLES GUSTAVUS] (1622-1660), king of Sweden, son of John Casimir, count palatine of Zweibriicken, and Catherine, sister of Gustavus Adolphus, was born at Nykoping Castle on the 8th of November 1622.
The tactlessness of Charles, the rapacity of his generals, the barbarity of his mercenaries, his refusal to legalize his position by summoning the Polish diet, his negotiations for the partition of the very state he affected to befriend, awoke the long slumbering public spirit of the country.
Charles forced the elector, indeed, at the point of the sword to become his ally and vassal (treaty of Konigsberg, Jan. 17, 1656); but the Polish national rising now imperatively demanded his presence in the south.
Charles IX of Sweden - LoveToKnow 1911 (791 words)
(1550-1611), king of Sweden, was the youngest son of Gustavus Vasa and Margareto Lejonhufrud.
Technically Charles was, without doubt, guilty of high treason, and the considerable minority of all classes which adhered to Sigismund on his landing in Sweden in 1598 indisputably behaved like loyal subjects.
Indisputably Charles was cruel, ungenerous and vindictive; yet he seems, at all hazards, strenuously to have endeavoured to do his duty during a period of political and religious transition, and, despite his violence and brutality, possessed many of the qualities of a wise and courageous statesman.
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