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Encyclopedia > Charles X Gustav of Sweden
Charles X Gustav by Sébastien Bourdon
  Swedish Royalty
  House of Palatinate-Zweibrücken

Charles X Gustav
Children
   Charles XI
Charles XI
Children
   Hedvig Sophia, Duchess of Holstein-Gottorp
   Charles XII
   Ulrika Eleonora
Charles XII
Ulrika Eleonora

Charles X Gustav (Karl X Gustav) (November 8, 1622February 13, 1660), was King of Sweden from 1654 until his death. He was the son of John Casimir, Count Palatine of Zweibrücken-Kleeburg[1] and Princess Catherine of Sweden, half-sister of Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden (1611–32). He was married to Hedwig Eleonora of Holstein-Gottorp, who bore his son and successor, Charles XI (1660–97). Charles X was the second Wittelsbach king of Sweden after the childless King Christopher (1441–48). Image File history File links Sébastien_Bourdons-Karl_X_Gustav. ... Image File history File links Sébastien_Bourdons-Karl_X_Gustav. ... Sébastian Bourdon (1616 - 1671) was a French painter, born in Montpellier; his chef doeuvre made for the church of Notre Dame. ... The House of Pfalz-Zweibrücken was the Royal House of Sweden from 1654 to 1720. ... Image File history File links The House of Pfalz-Zweibrücken heraldic shield. ... Charles XI (Karl XI) (November 24, 1655 – April 5, 1697) was King of Sweden from 1660 until his death. ... Charles XI (Karl XI) (November 24, 1655 – April 5, 1697) was King of Sweden from 1660 until his death. ... Hedvig Sofia Augusta, Princess of Sweden (26 June 1681-22 December 1708), Duchess of Holstein-Gottorp, was the eldest child of King Charles XI of Sweden, and his wife Ulrike Eleonore of Denmark. ... Carl XII, Karl XII or Carolus Rex, (June 17, 1682 – November 30, 1718), the Alexander of the North, nicknamed in Turkish as DemirbaÅŸ Åžarl (Charles the Habitué), was a King of Sweden from 1697 until his death in 1718. ... Ulrika Eleonora (February 23, 1688 – November 24, 1741) was Queen regnant of Sweden from November 30, 1718, to February 29, 1720, and then Queen consort until her death. ... Carl XII, Karl XII or Carolus Rex, (June 17, 1682 – November 30, 1718), the Alexander of the North, nicknamed in Turkish as DemirbaÅŸ Åžarl (Charles the Habitué), was a King of Sweden from 1697 until his death in 1718. ... Ulrika Eleonora (February 23, 1688 – November 24, 1741) was Queen regnant of Sweden from November 30, 1718, to February 29, 1720, and then Queen consort until her death. ... November 8 is the 312th day of the year (313th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 53 days remaining. ... Events January 1 - In the Gregorian calendar, January 1 is declared as the first day of the year, instead of March 25. ... February 13 is the 44th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events January 1 - Colonel George Monck with his regiment crosses from Scotland to England at the village of Coldstream and begins advance towards London in support of English Restoration. ... Sweden is a constitutional monarchy with a representative democracy based on a parliamentary system. ... The House of Pfalz-Zweibrücken was the Royal House of Sweden from 1654 to 1720. ... Princess Catherine of Sweden (Prinsessan Katarina) (November 10, 1584 – December 13, 1638) was the daughter of Charles IX of Sweden. ... Gustav II Adolf King of Sweden Gustav II Adolf (also known as Gustaf Adolf the Great (Swedish Gustav Adolf den store, Latin Gustavus Adolphus Magnus), or Gustavus II Adolphus) (December 9, 1594 – November 6, 1632 O.S.), widely known by the Latinized name Gustavus Adolphus and referred to by Protestants... Hedwig Eleonora of Holstein-Gottorp, queen of Sweden. ... Charles XI (Karl XI) (November 24, 1655 – April 5, 1697) was King of Sweden from 1660 until his death. ... The Wittelsbach family is an European royal family and a German dynasty from Bavaria. ... Christopher of Bavaria, Christoffer (III) af Bayern (Danish and Norwegian title) or Kristofer av Bayern (Swedish title), (1418-1448) was union king of Denmark, Norway (1440-1448) and Sweden (1441-1448). ...

Contents

Heir to the throne

Charles X learnt the art of war under Lennart Torstenson, being present at the second Battle of Breitenfeld (1642) and at Jankowitz (1645). From 1646 to 1648 he frequented the Swedish court, supposedly as a prospective husband of his cousin the queen regnant, Christina of Sweden (1626–89, reigned 1632–54), but her insurmountable objection to wedlock put an end to these anticipations, and to compensate her cousin for a broken half-promise she declared him her successor in 1649, despite the opposition of the Privy Council headed by Axel Oxenstierna. In 1648 he gained the appointment of commander of the Swedish forces in Germany. The conclusion of the treaties of Westphalia in October 1648 prevented him from winning the military laurels he is said to have desired, but as the Swedish plenipotentiary at the executive congress of Nuremberg, he had an opportunity to learn diplomacy, a science he is described as having quickly mastered. As the recognized heir to the throne, his position on his return to Sweden was dangerous because of the growing discontent with the queen. He therefore withdrew to the isle of Öland till the abdication of Christina on June 5, 1654 called him to the throne. Count Lennart Torstenson (August 17, 1603 - April 7, 1651) was a Swedish soldier and military engineer and the son of Torsten Lennartson, commandant of Älvsborg Fortress. ... The Second Battle of Breitenfeld (October 23, 1642), also known as the First Battle of Leipzig, took place 4 miles north-east of Leipzig, Germany during the Thirty Years War. ... The Battle of Jankau was fought by the Swedish army SSE of Prague in Bohemia (part of present-day Czech Republic) on February 23, 1645 during the Thirty Years War. ... Christina (Kristina) (December 8, 1626 – April 19, 1689), later known as Maria Christina Alexandra and sometimes Count Dohna, was Queen regnant of Sweden from 1632 to 1654. ... // Events January 30 - King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland is beheaded. ... The Swedish Senate: Riksrådet, from 1809 Statsrådet, from 1975 Regeringen was and is the principal government institution of Sweden The Swedish Senate, Senatus Regni Sueciae, originated as a council of Regional Magnates acting as advisers to the Monarch of the combined Realms of the Swedes (from 996, approximately). ... Count Axel Gustafsson Oxenstierna   listen? or Oxenstjerna (June 16, 1583 - August 28, 1654), Lord High Chancellor of Sweden, was born at FÃ¥nö in Uplandia, and received his education with his brothers at the universities of Rostock, Jena and Wittenberg. ... The Ratification of the Treaty of Münster by Gerard Terborch (1648) The Peace of Westphalia, also known as the treaties of Münster and Osnabrück, is the series of treaties that ended the Thirty Years War and officially recognized the United Provinces and Swiss Confederation. ... Nuremberg (German: Nürnberg, Polish: Norymberga) is a city in the German state of Bavaria, in the administrative region of Middle Franconia. ...   is an island in the Baltic Sea, located off the coast of SmÃ¥land. ... June 5 is the 156th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (157th in leap years), with 209 days remaining. ... Events April 5 - Signing of the Treaty of Westminster, ending the First Anglo-Dutch War. ...


Early days as King

The beginning of Charles X's reign concentrated on the healing of domestic discords and on the rallying of all the forces of the nation round his standard for a new policy of conquest. He contracted a political marriage on October 24, 1654 with Hedwig Leonora, the daughter of Duke Frederick III of Holstein-Gottorp, by way of securing a future ally against Denmark. The Riksdag which assembled at Stockholm in March 1655, duly considered the two great pressing national questions: war, and the restitution of the alienated crown lands. Over three days a secret committee presided over by the King decided the war question: Charles X easily persuaded the delegates that a war against Poland appeared necessary and might prove very advantageous; but the consideration of the question of the subsidies due to the crown for military purposes was postponed to the following Riksdag. In 1659 he proclaimed severe punishment for anyone hunting in the royal game reserve in Ottenby, Öland, Sweden, where he had built a long dry-stone wall separating the southern tip of the island. October 24 is the 297th day of the year (298th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 68 days remaining. ... Events April 5 - Signing of the Treaty of Westminster, ending the First Anglo-Dutch War. ... Frederick III of Holstein-Gottorp (22 December 1597 – 10 August 1659) was a Duke of Holstein-Gottorp. ... The Riksdag of the Estates, or Ståndsriksdagen, was the name used for the Estates of the Swedish realm, or Rikets ständer, when they were assembled. ... Nickname: Location of Stockholm in northern Europe Coordinates: Country Sweden Municipality Stockholm Municipality County Stockholm Province Södermanland and Uppland Charter 13th Century Population (April 2007)  - City 782,885  - Density 4,160/km² (10,774. ... Ottenby is a nature reserve at the southern tip of the island of Öland in Sweden. ...   is an island in the Baltic Sea, located off the coast of SmÃ¥land. ... It has been suggested that Rock fence be merged into this article or section. ...


War on Poland

On July 10, 1655, Charles X left Sweden to engage in a war against Poland, in what became the Second (or Little) Northern War (1655-1660). By the time war was declared he had at his disposal 50,000 men and 50 warships. Hostilities had already begun with the occupation of Dünaburg in Polish Livonia by the Swedes on July 1, 1655, and the Polish army encamped among the marshes of the Netze concluded a convention on 25 July, whereby the palatinates of Poznań and Kalisz placed themselves under the protection of the Swedish King. Thereupon the Swedes entered Warsaw without opposition and occupied the whole of Greater Poland. The Polish king, John II Casimir of Poland (1648–74) of the House of Vasa, fled to Silesia. July 10 is the 191st day (192nd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 174 days remaining. ... Events March 25 - Saturns largest moon, Titan, is discovered by Christian Huygens. ... The Northern War can mean: Northern Wars (1655-1660) Great Northern War (1700-1721) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Daugavpils (Belarusian Дзьвінск Dźvinsk, Russian Двинcк Dvinsk, Lithuanian Daugpilis, German Dünaburg, Polish Dźwinów, DźwiÅ„sk or Dyneburg, Yiddish דענענבורג Denenburg), population 115,265 in 2000 census) is the second largest city in Latvia. ... This article is about the region in Europe. ... July 1 is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 183 days remaining. ... Events March 25 - Saturns largest moon, Titan, is discovered by Christian Huygens. ... July 25 is the 206th day (207th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 159 days remaining. ... PoznaÅ„ ( ; full official name: The Capital City of PoznaÅ„, Polish: StoÅ‚eczne Miasto PoznaÅ„ (Latin: , German: , Yiddish: פּױזן Poyzn) is a city in west-central Poland with over 578,900 inhabitants (2002). ... Kalisz (pronounce: [kaliʃ]) is a city in central Poland with 109,800 inhabitants (1995). ... Voivodship wielkopolskie since 1999 Coat of Arms for voivodship wielkopolskie Greater Poland (also Great Poland; Polish: , German: Großpolen, Latin: Polonia Maior) is a historical region of west-central Poland. ... Reign From November, 1648 until September 16, 1668 Elected In November 1648 in Wola, today suburb of Warsaw, Poland Coronation On January 19, 1649 in the Wawel Cathedral, Kraków, Poland Royal House Vasa Parents Zygmunt III Waza Constance of Austria Consorts Ludwika Maria Children with Ludwika Maria Maria Anna... The Vasa Coat of Arms The House of Vasa was the Royal House of Sweden (1523-1654) and of Poland (1587-1668). ... Silesia (Czech: ; German: ; Latin: ; Polish: ; Silesian: Åšlónsk) is a historical region in central Europe. ...


Meanwhile Charles X pressed on towards Kraków, which the Swedes captured after a two months' siege. The fall of Kraków followed, but before the end of the year a reaction began in Poland itself. On October 18, 1655 the Swedes invested the fortress-monastery of Częstochowa, but the Poles defended it and after a seventy days’ siege the Swedish besiegers had to retire with great loss. This success elicited popular enthusiasm in Poland and gave rise to a nationalistic and religious rhetoric concerning the war and Charles X. He was depicted as tactless and his mercenaries barbaric. His refusal to legalize his position by summoning the Polish diet and his negotiations for the partition of the very state he affected to befriend, awoke a nationalistic spirit in the country. Wawel Hill, Old Town, Kraków. ... October 18 is the 291st day of the year (292nd in leap years). ... Events March 25 - Saturns largest moon, Titan, is discovered by Christian Huygens. ... CzÄ™stochowa ( , German: ) is a city in south Poland on the Warta River with 248,894 inhabitants (2004). ...


In the beginning of 1656 King John II Casimir returned from exile and the reorganised Polish army increased in numbers. By this time Charles had discovered that he could more readily defeat the Poles than conquer Poland. What is described as his chief object, the conquest of Prussia, remained unaccomplished, and a new Swedish adversary arose in the elector of Brandenburg, Frederick William I , alarmed by the ambition of the Swedish king. Charles forced the elector, albeit at the point of the sword, to become his ally and vassal (Treaty of Königsberg, 17 January 1656); but the Polish national rising now imperatively demanded his presence in the south. For weeks he engaged in the pursuit of Polish guerrillas in the snow-covered plains of Poland, penetrating as far south as Jaroslaw in Galicia, by which time he had lost two-thirds of his 15,000 men with no apparent result. In the meantime, the Russians pursued a campaign in Livonia and laid siege to Riga, the second largest city in the Swedish Realm. Motto: Suum cuique Latin: To each his own Prussia at its peak, as leading state of the German Empire Capital Königsberg, later Berlin Political structure Duchy, Kingdom, Republic Duke1  - 1525–68 Albert I  - 1688–1701 Frederick III King1  - 1701–13 Frederick I  - 1888–1918 William II Prime Minister1,2...   (Lower Sorbian: Bramborska; Upper Sorbian: Braniborska) is one of Germanys sixteen Bundesländer (federal states). ... Friedrich Wilhelm I of Brandenburg. ... January 17 is the 17th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events Mehmed Köprülü becomes Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire. ... Jarosław is a town in south-eastern Poland with 41,800 inhabitants (1995). ... Coat-of-arms of the Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria Galicia (Ukrainian: , Polish: , Russian: , German: , Hungarian: , Czech: , Yiddish: , Turkish: , Romanian: ) is an historical region in East Central Europe, currently divided between Poland and Ukraine. ... The Russo-Swedish War of 1656-1658 was fought by Russia and Sweden against the background of the simultaneous Northern Wars and the War for Ukraine. ... Coordinates: Founded 1201 Government  - Mayor Jānis Birks Area  - City 307. ...


Charles's retreat from Jaroslaw to Warsaw, with the fragments of his host - amidst three converging armies, in a marshy forest region intersected in every direction by well-guarded rivers - is considered one of his most brilliant achievements. But on June 21, 1656 the Poles retook Warsaw, and four days later Charles was obliged to purchase the assistance of Frederick William I, by the treaty of Marienburg (23 June 1656). On 28 July-30 the combined Swedes and Brandenburgers, 18,000 strong, after a three days’ battle, defeated John II’s army of 40,000 at Warsaw and reoccupied the Polish capital. However, this feat of arms did not have the desired result for Charles, and when Frederick William compelled the Swedish king to open negotiations with the Poles, they refused the terms offered, the war resumed, and Charles concluded an offensive and defensive alliance with the elector of Brandenburg (Treaty of Labiau, November 20, 1656) which stipulated that Frederick William and his heirs should henceforth possess the full sovereignty of East Prussia. Motto: Contemnit procellas (It defies the storms) Semper invicta (Always invincible) Coordinates: Country Poland Voivodeship Masovia Powiat city county Gmina Warszawa Districts 18 boroughs City Rights turn of the 13th century Government  - Mayor Hanna Gronkiewicz-Waltz (PO) Area  - City 516. ... June 21 is the 172nd day of the year (173rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 193 days remaining. ... // Events Mehmed Köprülü becomes Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire. ... Friedrich Wilhelm I of Brandenburg. ... Malbork Castle 2003. ... June 23 is the 174th day of the year (175th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 191 days remaining. ... // Events Mehmed Köprülü becomes Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire. ... July 28 is the 209th day (210th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 156 days remaining. ... The Battle of Warsaw which took place on 28-30 July 1656, between armies of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth on the one side and of Sweden and Brandenburg on the other, was an important battle of the Northern Wars. ... The Treaty of Labiau was a treaty signed between Elector Frederick William of Brandenburg and King Charles X Gustav of Sweden on November 20, 1656 in Labiau, Ducal Prussia. ... November 20 is the 324th day of the year (325th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events Mehmed Köprülü becomes Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire. ... East Prussia (German: Ostpreu en; Polish: Prusy Wschodnie; Russian: Восточная Пруссия — Vostochnaya Prussiya) was a province of Kingdom of Prussia, situated on the territory of former Ducal Prussia. ...


War on Denmark

Charles X. Engraving after a painting by David Klöcker Ehrenstrahl

Labiau involved an essential modification of Charles's Baltic policy; but the alliance with the elector of Brandenburg had now become indispensable for him on almost any terms. The difficulties of Charles X in Poland are believed to have caused him to receive the tidings of the Danish declaration of war on June 1, 1657 with extreme satisfaction. He had learnt from Torstensson that Denmark was most vulnerable if attacked from the south, and he attacked Denmark with a velocity which paralysed resistance. At the end of June 1657, at the head of 8,000 seasoned veterans, he broke up from Bydgoszcz in Pomerania and reached the borders of Holstein on 18 July. The Danish army dispersed and the Swedes recovered the duchy of Bremen. In the early autumn Charles's troops swarmed over Jutland and firmly established themselves in the duchies. But the fortress of Fredriksodde (Fredericia) held Charles’s smaller army at bay from mid-August to mid-October, while the fleet of Denmark, after two days’ battle, compelled the Swedish fleet to abandon its projected attack on the Danish islands. The position of the Swedish king had now become critical. In July Denmark and Poland-Lithuania concluded an offensive and defensive alliance. Still more ominously for the Swedes, the elector of Brandenburg, perceiving Sweden's difficulties, joined the league against Sweden and compelled Charles to accept the proffered mediation of Oliver Cromwell and Cardinal Mazarin. The negotiations foundered, however, upon the refusal of Sweden to refer the points in dispute to a general peace-congress, and Charles received encouragement from the capture of Fredriksodde, 23 October-24, whereupon he began to make preparations for conveying his troops over to Funen in transport vessels. But soon another and cheaper expedient presented itself. In the middle of December 1657 began the great frost, which would prove so fatal to Denmark. In a few weeks the cold had grown so intense that the freezing of an arm of the sea with so rapid a current as the Small Belt became a conceivable possibility; and henceforth meteorological observations formed an essential part of the strategy of the Swedes. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (789x961, 401 KB) Charles X of Sweden. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (789x961, 401 KB) Charles X of Sweden. ... The Crown of Immortality, held by the Allegoric figure Eterna (Eternity) on the Swedish House of Knights Fresco by David Klöcker Ehrenstrahl David Klöcker Ehrenstrahl (* 1628, Hamburg; † 1698, Stockholm), Swedish Nobleman and portrait painter who in 1652, 24 years of age, on request of Carl Gustaf Wrangel moved... June 1 is the 152nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (153rd in leap years), with 213 days remaining. ... Events January 8 - Miles Sindercombe, would-be-assassin of Oliver Cromwell, and his group are captured in London February - Admiral Robert Blake defeats the Spanish West Indian Fleet in a battle over the seizure of Jamaica. ... Bydgoszcz ( ; German: ; Latin: ) is a city in northern Poland, on the Brda and Vistula rivers, with a population of 369,151 (2004). ... Duchy of Pomerania, ruled by the slavic dynasty of Griffits (Polish: Gryfici, German: Greifen), was a semi-independent principality in the 17th century. ... Holstein (Hol-shtayn) (Low German: Holsteen, Danish: Holsten, Latin and historical English: Holsatia) is the southern part of Schleswig-Holstein in Germany, between the rivers Elbe and Eider. ... July 18 is the 199th day (200th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 166 days remaining. ... The Duchy of Bremen was a state of the Holy Roman Empire, with territory stretching from the north of the city of Bremen (although not including the city itself) to the coast of the North Sea. ... Jutland Peninsula Jutland (Danish: Jylland; German: Jütland; Frisian Jutlân; Low German Jötlann) is a peninsula in northern Europe that forms the only non-insular part of Denmark and also the northernmost part of Germany, dividing the North Sea from the Baltic Sea. ... Fredericia is a city in eastern Jutland, Denmark, founded in 1650 by Frederik III, after whom it was named. ... Fredericia is a city in eastern Jutland, Denmark, founded in 1650 by Frederik III, after whom it was named. ... Oliver Cromwell (April 25, 1599–September 3, 1658) was an English military and political leader best known for making England a republic and leading the Commonwealth of England. ... Cardinal Jules Mazarin, French diplomat and statesman Jules Mazarin, born Giulio Raimondo Mazzarino; but best known as Cardinal Mazarin (July 14, 1602 – March 9, 1661) served as the France from 1642, until his death. ... October 23 is the 296th day of the year (297th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Funen (Danish: Fyn) is the third largest island of Denmark, it has a population of 445,000 people. ... Categories: Straits of Europe | Stub ...


March across the Belts

On January 28, 1658, Charles X arrived at Haderslev in South Jutland. His meteorologists estimated that in a couple of days the ice of the Little Belt would become firm enough to bear even the passage of a mail-clad host. The cold during the night of 29 January became most severe; and early in the morning of the 30th the Swedish king gave the order to start, the horsemen dismounting on the weaker spots of ice and cautiously leading their horses as far apart as possible, until they swung into their saddles again, closed their ranks and made a dash for the shore. Swedish arms quickly overpowered the Danish troops lining the opposite coast and won the whole of Funen with the loss of only two companies of cavalry, which disappeared under the ice while fighting with the Danish left wing. Pursuing his march, Charles X, with his eyes fixed steadily on Copenhagen, resolved to cross the frozen Great Belt also. However, he accepted the advice of his chief engineer officer Erik Dahlberg, who acted as pioneer throughout and chose the more circuitous route from Svendborg, by the islands of Langeland, Lolland and Falster, in preference to the direct route from Nyborg to Korsør, which would have had to cross a broad, almost uninterrupted expanse of ice. A council of war, which met at two o’clock in the morning to consider the practicability of Dahlberg’s proposal, dismissed it as hazardous. Even the king wavered; but when Dahlberg persisted in his opinion, Charles overruled the objections of the commanders. On the night of 5 February the transit began, the cavalry leading the way through the snow-covered ice, which quickly thawed beneath the horses’ hoofs so that the infantry which followed after had to wade through half an ell of sludge, facing the risk that the ice would break beneath their feet. At three o’clock in the afternoon, with Dahlberg leading the way, the army reached Grimsted in Lolland without losing a man; on 8 February, Charles reached Falster. On 11 February he stood safely on the soil of Zealand. A Swedish medal struck to commemorate the transit of the Baltic Sea bear the inscription: Natura hoc debuit uni. Sweden had achieved a rare war exploit, in Sweden considered to be matched only by the crusade of the Livonian Order led by William of Modena to conquer Saaremaa (Osel) in January 1227 and afterwards when two Russian armies crossed the frozen Gulf of Bothnia from Finland to mainland Sweden in March during the Finnish War. It is believed that the effect of this achievement on the Danish government found expression in the Treaty of Taastrup on 18 February, and in the Treaty of Roskilde (February 26, 1658), whereby Denmark sacrificed a great part of her territory to save the rest. However, Charles X continued the war efforts against Denmark after a council held at Gottorp on 7 July, even though he was in defiance of international equity. Without warning, Denmark was attacked a second time. The crossing of the Great Belt The March across the Belts was a campaign between January 30 and February 8, 1658 during the Northern Wars where Swedish king Karl X Gustav led the Swedish army from Jutland across the ice of the Little Belt and the Great Belt to reach... January 28 is the 28th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 13 - Edward Sexby, who had plotted against Oliver Cromwell, dies in Tower of London February 6 - Swedish troops of Charles X Gustav of Sweden cross The Great Belt (Storebælt) in Denmark over frozen sea May 1 - Publication of Hydriotaphia, Urn Burial and The Garden of Cyrus by... Map of the future municipality Haderslev (German: Hadersleben) is a municipality (Danish, kommune) in South Jutland County on the east coast of the Jutland peninsula in south Denmark. ... January 29 is the 29th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Copenhagen (disambiguation). ... The straits of Denmark. ... Count Erik Jönsson Dahlbergh (usually cited as Erik Dahlberg) (10 October 1625 - 16 January 1703) was a Swedish engineer, soldier, and field marshall, called the Vauban of Sweden. // Erik Dahlberg was born of peasant stock in Stockholm, Sweden, but rose to the level of titled nobility due to his... Categories: Stub | Islands of Denmark ... Lolland (formerly spelled Laaland) is the fourth largest island of Denmark, with an area of some 1,243 square kilometers. ... Falster is a Danish island. ... February 5 is the 36th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... February 8 is the 39th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... February 11 is the 42nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Map showing location of Zealand within Denmark. ... The Livonian Brothers of the Sword (Latin Fratres militiae Christi, literally the brothers of the army of Christ), also known as the Christ Knights, Sword Brethren or The Militia of Christ of Livonia, was a military order started in 1202 by Albert von Buxhövden, bishop of Riga (or Prince... William of Modena, Bishop of Modena in 1221, was frequently appointed a legate, or papal ambassador by the popes Honorius III and Gregory IX, especially in Livonia in the 1220s and in the Prussian questions of the 1240s. ... This article is about the island. ... January 11 first mention of city of Požega in a charter of Andrew II of Hungary March 19 - Pope Gregory IX succeeds Pope Honorius III as the 178th pope. ... The Baltic Sea The Gulf of Bothnia (Fin. ... Combatants Russia France Denmark–Norway Sweden Commanders Friedrich Wilhelm von Buxhoeveden Wilhelm Mauritz Klingspor Carl Johan Adlercreutz Georg Carl von Döbeln The Finnish War was fought between Sweden and Russia from February 1808 to September 1809. ... The Treaty of Taastrup (or Høje Taastrup Peace) was a preliminary accord signed on February 11, 1658 between Charles X Gustav of Sweden and King Frederick III of Denmark. ... February 18 is the 49th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Treaty of Roskilde was signed on February 26, 1658 in the Danish city Roskilde, whereby the king of Denmark-Norway sacrificed nearly half his territory to save the rest. ... February 26 is the 57th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 13 - Edward Sexby, who had plotted against Oliver Cromwell, dies in Tower of London February 6 - Swedish troops of Charles X Gustav of Sweden cross The Great Belt (Storebælt) in Denmark over frozen sea May 1 - Publication of Hydriotaphia, Urn Burial and The Garden of Cyrus by... The Swedish Senate: Riksrådet, from 1809 Statsrådet, from 1975 Regeringen was and is the principal government institution of Sweden The Swedish Senate, Senatus Regni Sueciae, originated as a council of Regional Magnates acting as advisers to the Monarch of the combined Realms of the Swedes (from 996, approximately). ... Gottorp in 1864 Gottorf (in Danish, Gottorp) is a palace and estate in the German city of Schleswig in the Bundesland of Schleswig-Holstein. ... July 7 is the 188th day of the year (189th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 177 days remaining. ...


On 17 July he again landed on Zealand and besieged Copenhagen with its king Frederick III of Denmark, but Copenhagen managed to hold out long enough for the Dutch fleet under Lieutenant-Admiral Jacob van Wassenaer Obdam to relieve the city, defeating the Swedish fleet in the Battle of the Sound on 29 October 1658. The Dutch in 1659 liberated the Danish Isles. As Baltic trade was vital to the Dutch economy they made clear to Charles they wouldn't allow Sweden to control the Sound. July 17 is the 198th day of the year (199th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... King Frederick III Frederick III (March 28, 1609 – February 19, 1670) was King of Denmark and Norway from 1648 until his death. ... Jacob, Banner Lord of Wassenaer, Lord Obdam, Hensbroek, Spanbroek, Opmeer, Zuidwijk and Kernhem (1610 – 13 June 1665) was a Dutch Lieutenant-Admiral, and supreme commander of the confederate Dutch navy. ... Battle of the Sound 1658 The naval Battle of The Sound took place on 8 November 1658 (29 October OS) just south of København, being at that time under siege by Charles X of Sweden. ... October 29 is the 302nd day of the year (303rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 13 - Edward Sexby, who had plotted against Oliver Cromwell, dies in Tower of London February 6 - Swedish troops of Charles X Gustav of Sweden cross The Great Belt (Storebælt) in Denmark over frozen sea May 1 - Publication of Hydriotaphia, Urn Burial and The Garden of Cyrus by... // Events May 25 - Richard Cromwell resigns as Lord Protector of England following the restoration of the Long Parliament, beginning a second brief period of the republican government called the Commonwealth. ...


The Estates in Gothenburg

Charles X consented to reopen negotiations with Denmark, at the same time proposing to exercise pressure upon his rival by a simultaneous winter campaign in Norway. Such an enterprise necessitated fresh subsidies from his already impoverished people, and obliged him in December 1659 to cross over to Sweden to meet the estates, whom he had summoned to Gothenburg. The lower estates protested the imposition of fresh burdens, but were persuaded by Charles. The Riksdag of the Estates, or Ståndsriksdagen, was the name used for the Estates of the Swedish realm, or Rikets ständer, when they were assembled. ... Location of Gothenburg in northern Europe Coordinates: Country Sweden County Västra Götaland County Province Västergötland Charter 1621 Government  - Mayor Göran Johansson Area  - City 450 km²  (174 sq mi)  - Water 14. ...


Charles X Gustav died on the night of February 13, 1660, at the age of 37. February 13 is the 44th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events January 1 - Colonel George Monck with his regiment crosses from Scotland to England at the village of Coldstream and begins advance towards London in support of English Restoration. ...


Family

Charles X had one legitimate child by Hedwig Eleonora of Holstein-Gottorp: his successor Charles XI (1655 - 1697, reigned 1660 - 1697). Hedwig Eleonora of Holstein-Gottorp, queen of Sweden. ... Charles XI (Karl XI) (November 24, 1655 – April 5, 1697) was King of Sweden from 1660 until his death. ...


By Brita Allerts he had an illegitimate son: Gustaf Carlson (1647 - 1708), who became Count of Börringe and Lindholmen Castle in Scania. House of Vasa Agda Persdotter, mistress of Eric XIV of Sweden Karin Jacobsdotter, mistress of Eric XIV of Sweden Karin Hansdotter, Finnish mistress of John III of Sweden Karin Nilsdotter, mistress of Charles IX of Sweden Ebba Brahe, mistress of Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden Margareta Slots, mistress of Gustavus Adolphus... Börringe Abbey Börringe Abbey (or Börringekloster Castle) is a Scanian castle built on the ruins of a Benedictine abbey from the 12th century in Svedala, Scania, in southern Sweden. ... Lindholmen Castle is a former Danish fortified castle on the banks of lake Börringe in Svedala Municipality, Scania, southern Sweden. ... Scania (SkÃ¥ne in Swedish  ) is a geographical region of Sweden on the southernmost tip of the Scandinavian peninsula, a historical province (landskap)[1] of the Kingdom of Sweden, since 1997 a county (Län) of Sweden, before 1658 part of the Kingdom of Denmark. ...


See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Charles X Gustav of Sweden
Preceded by
Christina
Queen of Sweden
King of Sweden
1654–1660
Succeeded by
Charles XI

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... The Wikimedia Commons (also called Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ... Christina (Kristina) (December 8, 1626 – April 19, 1689), later known as Maria Christina Alexandra and sometimes Count Dohna, was Queen regnant of Sweden from 1632 to 1654. ... This is a list of Swedish monarchs, that is, the Kings and ruling Queens of Sweden with Regents and Viceroys of the Kalmar Union up until the present time. ... Charles XI (Karl XI) (November 24, 1655 – April 5, 1697) was King of Sweden from 1660 until his death. ...

References

  • This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain.
  1. ^ Huberty, Michel; Alain Giraud, F. and B. Magdelaine (1985). L'Allemagne Dynastique Tome IV Wittelsbach (in French), 109. ISBN 2-901138-04-7. “Returning to the Palatinate in 1617 after his marriage with the sister of the King, the Count, seeking a home and having purchased [the village of] Birlenbach, had the castle of Catherinenburg built there, during the construction of which he received permission from his elder brother to take up temporary residence in the castle of Kleeburg, which domain, it has been noted, came to belong to him in its entirety by 1622. The same year however, the Thirty Years War forced him to flee to Sweden with his family...John Casimir would, in the few years remaining to him, resume his idea of rounding out his territories, but this time in Alsace, near his Kleeburg lands."” 

  Results from FactBites:
 
Charles X Gustav of Sweden - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2032 words)
Charles X learnt the art of war under the great Lennart Torstenson, being present at the second Battle of Breitenfeld (1642) and at Jankowitz (1645).
The beginning of Charles X's reign concentrated on the healing of domestic discords and on the rallying of all the forces of the nation round his standard for a new policy of conquest.
Charles X Gustav died on the night of February 13, 1660, at the age of 37.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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