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Encyclopedia > Charles Rennie Mackintosh
Hill House, Helensburgh.
Hill House, Helensburgh.
Glasgow School of Art.
Glasgow School of Art.

Charles Rennie Mackintosh (June 7, 1868December 10, 1928) was a Scottish architect, designer, and watercolourist who was a designer in the Arts and Crafts movement and also the main exponent of Art Nouveau in Scotland. Charles Macintosh (December 29, 1766 _ July 25, 1843) was a Scottish chemist and inventor of waterproof fabrics. ... Image File history File links File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The front (north) facade of Charles Rennie Mackintoshs Glasgow School of Art on Renfew Street on Garnethill in Glasgow in Scotland. ... The front (north) facade of Charles Rennie Mackintoshs Glasgow School of Art on Renfew Street on Garnethill in Glasgow in Scotland. ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1868 (MDCCCLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 344th day of the year (345th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1928 (MCMXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the country. ... For other uses, see Architect (disambiguation). ... Designer is a broad term for a person who designs any of a variety of things. ... Artichoke wallpaper, by John Henry Dearle for William Morris & Co. ... Vitebsk Railway Station one of the finest examples of Art Nouveau architecture. ... This article is about the country. ...

Contents

Life

Born in Glasgow, he attended the former Allan Glen's School[1]. At the age of 16 he was apprenticed to an architect named John Hutchison, where he worked from 1884 until 1889. Also during that time he became a draughtsman with Honeyman and Keppie, a new architectural practice, eventually becoming a partner in 1901. For other uses, see Glasgow (disambiguation). ... Allan Glens School was, for most of its existence a selective fee-paying secondary school for boys in Glasgow, Scotland. ... For other uses, see Architect (disambiguation). ...


He lived most of his life in the prospering city of Glasgow. Located by the margins of River Clyde, during the Industrial Revolution the city had one of the greatest production centers of heavy engineering and shipbuilding in the world. As the city grew a faster response to the high demand for consumer's needs, goods and arts was necessary. Industrialized, mass-produced items started to gain popularity. Along with the Industrial Revolution, Asian style and emerging modernist ideas also influenced Mackintosh's design concept. When Japanese isolationist regime softened, shipyards built at the River Clyde were exported to Japanese navy and training engineers; Glasgow’s link with the eastern country became particularly close. Japanese design became more accessible and gained tremendous popularity. This style was admired by Mackintosh because of how it valued restraint and economy of means rather than ostentatious accumulation, simple forms and natural materials rather than elaboration and artifice, the use of texture and light and shadow rather than pattern and ornament. In the old western style furniture was seen as ornament that displayed the wealth of its owner and the value of the piece was established according to the length of time spent creating it. While in the Japanese arts furniture and design was concerned with the quality of the space which was meant to evoke a calming and organic feeling to the interior.


At the same time a new philosophy concerned with creating functional and practical design was emerging throughout Europe: the so called "modernist ideas." The main concept of the Modernist movement was to develop innovative ideas and new technology: design concerned with present and future, rather than history and tradition. Even though Mackintosh became known as the ‘pioneer’ of the movement, his designs are far removed from the bleak and utilitarianism of modernism… His concern was to build around the needs of people, people seen not as masses but as individuals who needed not a machine for living in but a work of art.


All along he attended evening classes in art at the Glasgow School of Art. It was at these classes that he first met Margaret MacDonald (whom he later married), her sister Frances MacDonald, and Herbert MacNair who was also a fellow apprentice with Mackintosh at Honeyman and Keppie. The group of artists, known as "The Four," exhibited in Glasgow, London and Vienna, and these exhibitions helped establish Mackintosh's reputation. The so-called "Glasgow" style was exhibited in Europe and influenced the Viennese Art Nouveau movement known as Sezessionstil (in English, The Secession) around 1900. This article is about the philosophical concept of Art. ... Oh ye, all ye that walk in Willowood, 1902. ... Frances MacDonald (1873–1921) was a Scottish artist whose design work was a prominent feature of the Glasgow Style during the 1890s. ... The Gift of Doves, 1904. ... Vitebsk Railway Station one of the finest examples of Art Nouveau architecture. ... Ğ: For the film, see: 1900 (film). ...


He joined a firm of architects in 1889 and developed his own style: a contrast between strong right angles and floral-inspired decorative motifs with subtle curves, e.g. the Mackintosh Rose motif, along with some references to traditional Scottish architecture. The project that helped make his international reputation was the Glasgow School of Art (1897-1909). Year 1889 (MDCCCLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... This article is about building architecture. ... Glasgow School of Art is one of four independent art schools in Scotland, situated in the Garnethill area of Glasgow. ... 1897 (MDCCCXCVII) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1909 (MCMIX) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


Mackintosh’s career was a relatively short one, but of significant quality and impact. All his major commissions were in between 1896 and 1906, where he designed private homes, commercial buildings, interior renovations, church, and furniture. He died in 1928 of throat cancer. Year 1928 (MCMXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Esophageal cancer is malignancy of the esophagus. ...


Architectural Work

In the UK

"The Lighthouse", Charles Mackintosh's Glasgow Herald building
The Willow Tearooms in Sauchiehall Street
The Willow Tearooms in Sauchiehall Street

Amongst his noted architectural works are: Download high resolution version (599x800, 143 KB)C.R.Mackintoshs Herald building in Glasgow, Scotland. ... Download high resolution version (599x800, 143 KB)C.R.Mackintoshs Herald building in Glasgow, Scotland. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1341x2072, 307 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Charles Rennie Mackintosh ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1341x2072, 307 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Charles Rennie Mackintosh ...

The Room de Luxe at The Willow Tearooms features furniture and interior design by Mackintosh and Margaret Macdonald.
The Room de Luxe at The Willow Tearooms features furniture and interior design by Mackintosh and Margaret Macdonald.
Scotland Street school in Glasgow
Scotland Street school in Glasgow


, Kilmacolm (Gaelic: Cille Mhaol Chaluim ) is a village or small town in Inverclyde, Scotland although is commonly associated more closely with its traditional county of Renfrewshire. ... Hill House Hill House in Helensburgh, Scotland is one of Charles Rennie Mackintoshs most famous works, probably second only to Glasgow School of Art. ... For the suburb of Wollongong in Australia, see Helensburgh, New South Wales. ... The standard of the NTS The National Trust for Scotland, or NTS, describes itself as The conservation charity that protects and promotes Scotlands natural and cultural heritage for present and future generations to enjoy. ... Competition entry drawing of the house from the north west. ... The University of Glasgows Hunterian Museum and Art Gallery is the oldest public museum in Scotland. ... The Church of Scotland parish church Glasgow: Queens Cross, also known as The Mackintosh Church, is the only church designed by Charles Rennie Mackintosh. ... The halls stand next to the church tower. ... Bridge of Allan is a town in Stirling District in Scotland, just north of the city of Stirling. ... Scotland Street School Museum is located in Glasgow, Scotland is the only one of its kind in the world. ... The Willow Tearooms entrance and jewellers shop frontage on Sauchiehall Street. ... Catherine Cranston (1849–1934), widely known as Kate Cranston or Miss Cranston, was a leading figure in the development of the social phenomenon of tea rooms. ... For tea rooms used in Japanese tea ceremony, see Japanese tea house The gallery in The Willow Tearooms. ... Nitshill is a suburb on the south side of Glasgow. ... Glasgow School of Art is one of four independent art schools in Scotland, situated in the Garnethill area of Glasgow. ... The Royal Highland Fusiliers (Princess Margarets Own Glasgow and Ayrshire Regiment) was a regular Scottish line infantry regiment of the British Army, part of the Scottish Division, and abbreviated as The RHF. The regiment was formed on 20th January 1959 by the then controversial amalgamation of the Royal Scots... Daily Record building at Central Quay, Glasgow The Daily Record is a combination of a comic for the mentally sub-normal and substitute tiolet paper, based in Glasgow. ... Charles Mackintoshs Glasgow Herald building, now The Lighthouse The Herald is a national broadsheet newspaper published Monday to Saturday in Glasgow, Scotland, with an audited circulation of 71,000, making it the best-selling national Scottish broadsheet newspaper. ... The Lighthouse, Charles Mackintoshs Glasgow Herald building The Lighthouse in Glasgow, is Scotlands Centre for Architecture, Design and the City. ... 78 Derngate is a Grade II* listed Georgian house in the centre of Northampton, England. ... Bassett-Lowke was a toy company, based in Northampton, England founded by Wenman Joseph Bassett-Lowke in 1898 or 1899 that specialized in model railways, model boats and ships, and construction sets. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2272x1508, 310 KB) Summary The Room de Luxe at The Willow Tearooms, Glasgow designed by Charles Rennie Mackintosh in collaboration with Margaret MacDonald for Catherine Cranston. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2272x1508, 310 KB) Summary The Room de Luxe at The Willow Tearooms, Glasgow designed by Charles Rennie Mackintosh in collaboration with Margaret MacDonald for Catherine Cranston. ... The north facade of Charles Rennie Mackintoshs Scotland Street school in Glasgow, Scotland Taken by Finlay McWalter on 7th May 2004. ... The north facade of Charles Rennie Mackintoshs Scotland Street school in Glasgow, Scotland Taken by Finlay McWalter on 7th May 2004. ...


Unbuilt Mackintosh

Although moderately popular (for a period) in his native Scotland, most of his more ambitious designs were not built. His designs of various buildings for the 1901 Glasgow International Exhibition were not constructed, as was his "Haus eines Kunstfreundes" (Art Lover's House) in the same year. He competed in the 1903 design competition for Liverpool Cathedral, but lost the commission to Giles Gilbert Scott. Year 1901 (MCMI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Competition entry drawing of the house from the north west. ... Year 1903 (MCMIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ... North elevation of Liverpool Anglican Cathedral. ... Sir Giles Gilbert Scott, OM, FRIBA (November 9, 1880 – February 8, 1960) was an English architect known for his work on such buildings as Liverpool Cathedral and Battersea Power Station. ...


Although the House for An Art Lover was subsequently (1989-1996) built after his death, Mackintosh left many unbuilt designs. Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ...

  • Railway Terminus,
  • Concert Hall,
  • Alternative Concert Hall,
  • Bar and Dining Room,
  • Exhibition Hall
  • Science and Art Museum
  • Chapter House
  • Liverpool Cathedral - Anglican Cathedral competition entry oooh yeah! thats him orite!! up there YEAH BABY!

Although Mackintosh's architectural output was fairly small he had a considerable influence on European design. Especially popular in Austria and Germany, Mackintosh's work was highly acclaimed when it was shown at the Vienna Secession Exhibition in 1900. It was also exhibited in Budapest, Munich, Dresden, Venice and Moscow. The secession building at Vienna, built in 1897 by Joseph Maria Olbrich for exhibitions of the secession group another view The Vienna Secession or (also known as Secessionsstil, or Sezessionsstil in Austria) was part of that highly varied movement that is now covered by the general term Art Nouveau. ...


Design work and paintings

The Fort, circa 1925 - 1926. Fort Mailly, a ruined 16th-century fortification on the outskirts of Port Vendres.
The Fort, circa 1925 - 1926. Fort Mailly, a ruined 16th-century fortification on the outskirts of Port Vendres.

Mackintosh also worked in interior design, furniture, textiles and, metalwork. Much of this work combines Mackintosh's own designs with those of his wife, whose flowing, floral style complimented his more formal, rectilinear work. Like his contemporary Frank Lloyd Wright, Mackintosh's architectural designs often included extensive specifications for the detailing, decoration, and furnishing of his buildings. His work was shown at the Vienna Secession Exhibition in 1900. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (750x747, 79 KB) Photograph of The Fort, circa 1925 - 1926. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (750x747, 79 KB) Photograph of The Fort, circa 1925 - 1926. ... It has been suggested that Interior decoration be merged into this article or section. ... For the UK band, see Furniture (band). ... For other uses, see Textile (disambiguation). ... Metalworking is the craft and practice of working with metals to create parts or structures. ... Frank Lloyd Wright (June 8, 1867 – April 9, 1959) was one of the worlds most prominent and influential architects. ... The secession building at Vienna, built in 1897 by Joseph Maria Olbrich for exhibitions of the secession group another view The Vienna Secession or (also known as Secessionsstil, or Sezessionsstil in Austria) was part of that highly varied movement that is now covered by the general term Art Nouveau. ... Ğ: For the film, see: 1900 (film). ...


Later in life, disillusioned with architecture, Mackintosh worked largely as a watercolourist, painting numerous landscapes and flower studies (often in collaboration with Margaret, with whose style Mackintosh's own gradually converged) in the Suffolk village of Walberswick (to which the pair moved in 1914), and where he was arrested as a possible spy in 1915. Watercolor is a painting technique making use of water-soluble pigments that are either transparent or opaque and are formulated with gum to bond the pigment to the paper. ... Suffolk (pronounced ) is a large historic and modern non-metropolitan county in East Anglia, England. ... Walberswick is a village on the Suffolk coast, across the River Blyth from Southwold and close to Orford Ness. ... Year 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


By 1923, he had entirely abandoned architecture and design and moved to the south of France with Margaret where he concentrated on watercolour painting. He was interested in the relationships between man-made and naturally occurring landscapes. Many of his paintings depict Port Vendres, a small port near the Spanish border, and the nearby landscapes.


Retrospect

Ingram chairs by Mackintosh

Mackintosh's designs gained in popularity in the decades following his death. His House for an Art Lover was finally built in Glasgow's Bellahouston Park in 1996, and the University of Glasgow (which owns the majority of his watercolour work) rebuilt a terraced house Mackintosh had designed, and furnished it with his and Margaret's work (it is part of the University's Hunterian Museum). The Glasgow School of Art building (now renamed "The Mackintosh Building") is regularly cited by architectural critics as among the very finest buildings in the UK. The Charles Rennie Mackintosh Society tries to encourage a greater awareness of the work of Mackintosh as an important architect, artist and designer. Image File history File links Ingram chairs by Charles Rennie Mackintosh. ... Image File history File links Ingram chairs by Charles Rennie Mackintosh. ... For other uses of chair, see chair (disambiguation). ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... Master of Theology (MTh) Dentistry Nursing Affiliations Russell Group Universitas 21 Website http://www. ... The University of Glasgows Hunterian Museum and Art Gallery is the oldest public museum in Scotland. ... Glasgow School of Art is one of four independent art schools in Scotland, situated in the Garnethill area of Glasgow. ...




References

  • Davidson, Fiona (1998). The Pitkin Guide: Charles Rennie Mackintosh. Great Britain: Pitkin Unichrome. ISBN 0-85372-874-7. 
  • Fiell, Charlotte and Peter (1995). Charles Rennie Mackintosh. Taschen. ISBN 3-8228-3204-9. 
  1. ^ Scotsman.com – Heritage and Culture – Charles Rennie Mackintosh

See also

For other uses, see Glasgow (disambiguation). ... The city of Glasgow, Scotland, has many amenities for a wide range of cultural activities, from curling to opera and from football to art appreciation; it also has a large selection of museums that include those devoted to transport, religion, and modern art. ...

Further reading

  • Alan Crawford Charles Rennie Mackintosh (Thames & Hudson)
  • John McKean Charles Rennie Mackintosh, Architect, Artist, Icon (Lomond) illustrated by Colin Baxter
  • David Brett Charles Rennie Mackintosh: The Poetics of Workmanship (1992)
  • Timothy Neat Part Seen Part Imagined (1994)
  • John McKean Charles Rennie Mackintosh Pocket Guide

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Charles Rennie Mackintosh

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Charles Rennie Mackintosh Online (392 words)
Charles Rennie Mackintosh at the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City
Charles Rennie Mackintosh at the National Gallery of Art, Washington D.C. Ladies' Luncheon Room
All images and text on this Charles Rennie Mackintosh page are copyright 2007 by John Malyon/Artcyclopedia, unless otherwise noted.
Charles Rennie Mackintosh / Design Museum Collection : Architect + Furniture Designer (1868-1928) - Design/Designer ... (3064 words)
One of eleven children, Mackintosh was born in 1868 to Margaret and William Mackintosh, a clerk in the police force.
Mackintosh married Margaret Macdonald in 1900 and she was to remain his principal collaborator throughout his life.
Mackintosh’s other domestic schemes ranged from single rooms, such as the music room he designed in Vienna for Fritz Wärndorfer in 1902, to the interiors of existing buildings, like his 1904 scheme for the 18th century Hous’hill owned by Kate Cranston and her husband John Cochrane.
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