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Encyclopedia > Charles Murray (author)
Charles Murray

Charles Alan Murray (born 1943) is a controversial libertarian American political scientist. He is employed at the American Enterprise Institute, a right-leaning think tank in Washington, DC. He is perhaps best known for his book The Bell Curve, co-authored with the late Richard Herrnstein, in which he claims that IQ is a far more reliable predictor of success in life compared to socioeconomic status. "The Bell Curve" generated substantial controversy for its statements about race and IQ. Image File history File links This is a copyrighted promotional photo with a known source. ... Image File history File links This is a copyrighted promotional photo with a known source. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... See also Libertarianism and Libertarian Party Libertarian,is a term for person who has made a conscious and principled commitment, evidenced by a statement or Pledge, to forswear violating others rights and usually living in voluntary communities: thus in law no longer subject to government supervision. ... The American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research (AEI) is a conservative think tank, founded in 1943, whose stated mission is to defend the principles and improve the institutions of American freedom and democratic capitalism — limited government, private enterprise, individual liberty and responsibility, vigilant and effective defense and foreign policies... The Bell Curve is a controversial, best-selling 1994 book by Richard J. Herrnstein and Charles Murray exploring the role of genes in American life. ... Richard Herrnstein (1930-1994) was a prominent researcher in comparative psychology who did pioneering work on pigeon intelligence employing the Experimental Analysis of Behavior. ... IQ redirects here; for other uses of that term, see IQ (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Biography

Early Life and Education

Murray was raised in Newton, Iowa in a Republican, non-collegiate "Norman Rockwell kind of family" that stressed moral responsibility; he had an intellectual youth marked by a rebellious and prankster sensibility.[1] As a teen he played pool at a hangout for juvenile delinquents, studied debating, and, to his parents' annoyance, espoused labor unionism.[2] Jasper County Courthouse, Newton, Iowa Headquarters of the Maytag Corporation, Newton, Iowa Newton is the county seat of Jasper County, IowaGR6. ... The Republican Party is one of two major contemporary political parties in the United States of America, along with the Democratic Party. ... Norman Percevel Rockwell (February 3, 1894 – November 8, 1978) was a 20th century American painter. ...


Murray credits the SAT with helping him get out of Newton and into Harvard. "Back in 1961, the test helped get me into Harvard from a small Iowa town by giving me a way to show that I could compete with applicants from Exeter and Andover. Ever since, I have seen the SAT as the friend of the little guy, just as James Bryant Conant, president of Harvard, said it would be when he urged the SAT upon the nation in the 1940s." [3]


Murray obtained an A.B. in history from Harvard in 1965 and a Ph.D. in political science from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1974 [4] A Bachelor of Arts (B.A. or A.B.) is an undergraduate academic degree awarded for a course or program in the arts and/or sciences. ... The title page to The Historians History of the World. ... Harvard University is a private university in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA, and a member of the Ivy League. ... Doctor of Philosophy (Ph. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Political Science is the field concerning the theory and practice of politics and the description and analysis of political systems and political behaviour. ... The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is a private, coeducational research university located in Cambridge, Massachusetts. ...


Peace Corps Service in Thailand

Murray left for the Peace Corps in Thailand in 1965, staying abroad for a formative six years.[3] At the beginning of this period, the young Murray kindled a romance with his Thai Buddhist language instructor (in Hawaii), Suchart Dej-Udom, the daughter of a wealthy Thai businessman, who was "born with one hand and a mind sharp enough to outscore the rest of the country on the college entrance exam." Murray subsequently proposed by mail from Thailand, and their marriage began the following year, a move that Murray now considers youthful rebellion. "I'm getting married to a one-handed Thai Buddhist," he said. "This was not the daughter-in-law that would have normally presented itself to an Iowa couple." [5] It has been suggested that Crisis corps be merged into this article or section. ... A Short History of Buddhism in Thailand: The Thai form of Buddhism is sometimes called Lankavamsa (meaning Singhalese or Sri Lankan lineage) because it was introduced to the 13th century Sukhothai Kingdom by monks from Sri Lanka. ...


Murray credits his time in the Peace Corps in Thailand with his lifelong interest in Asia. "There are aspects of Asian culture as it is lived that I still prefer to Western culture, 30 years after I last lived in Thailand. Two of my children are half-Asian. Apart from those personal aspects, I have always thought that the Chinese and Japanese civilizations had elements that represented the apex of human accomplishment in certain domains." [6]


Murray's work in the Peace Corps and subsequent social research in Thailand for research firms associated with the U.S. government led to the subject of his statistical doctoral thesis in political science at M.I.T., in which he argued against bureaucratic intervention in the lives of the Thai villagers.[4] It has been suggested that Crisis corps be merged into this article or section. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Political Science is the field concerning the theory and practice of politics and the description and analysis of political systems and political behaviour. ... The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is a private, coeducational research university located in Cambridge, Massachusetts. ...


Divorce and Remarriage

By the 1980s, his marriage to Suchart Dej-Udom had been unhappy for years, but "his childhood lessons on the importance of responsibility brought him slowly to the idea that divorce was an honorable alternative, especially with young children involved."[5]


Murray divorced Dej-Udom after fourteen years of marriage [7] and two years later married Catherine Bly Cox, an English literature instructor at Rutgers University. Cox was initially dubious when she saw his conservative reading choices, and she spent long hours "trying to reconcile his shocking views with what she saw as his deep decency." In 1989, Murray and Cox co-authored a book on the Apollo program, Apollo: Race to the Moon. [6] Murray and Cox have been involved in a Quaker meeting in Virginia, and they live in Frederick County, Maryland near Washington, D.C.[7] “Rutgers” redirects here. ... Project Apollo was a series of human spaceflight missions undertaken by the United States of America (NASA) using the Apollo spacecraft and Saturn launch vehicle, conducted during the years 1961 – 1975. ... The Religious Society of Friends, commonly known as Quakers, or Friends, is a religious community founded in England in the 17th century. ... Official language(s) English Capital Richmond Largest city Virginia Beach Area  Ranked 35th  - Total 42,774 sq mi (110,785 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 430 miles (690 km)  - % water 7. ... Official language(s) None (English, de facto) Capital Annapolis Largest city Baltimore Area  Ranked 42nd  - Total 12,407 sq mi (32,133 km²)  - Width 90 miles (145 km)  - Length 249 miles (400 km)  - % water 21  - Latitude 37° 53′ N to 39° 43′ N  - Longitude 75° 03′ W to 79° 29... Nickname: Motto: Justitia Omnibus (Justice for All) Location of Washington, D.C., in relation to the states Maryland and Virginia Coordinates: , Country United States Federal District District of Columbia Government  - Mayor Adrian M. Fenty (D)  - D.C. Council Chairperson: Vincent C. Gray (D) Ward 1: Jim Graham (D) Ward 2...


Murray has four children, two by each wife, and remains close with both families.[8]


Research

Murray began research work at the American Institutes for Research (AIR), one of the largest of the private social science research organizations, upon his return to the U.S. From 1974-1981, Murray worked for the AIR eventually becoming chief political scientist. While at AIR, Murray supervised evaluations in the fields of urban education, welfare services, daycare, adolescent pregnancy, services for the elderly, and criminal justice.


From 1981-1990, he was a fellow with the conservative Manhattan Institute where he wrote Losing Ground, which heavily influenced the welfare reform debate in 1996, and In Pursuit. The Manhattan Institute for Policy Research is an influential New York City-based free market think tank established in 1978. ...


He has been a fellow of the American Enterprise Institute since 1990 and is a frequent contributor to The Public Interest, a journal of conservative politics and culture. The American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research (AEI) is a conservative think tank, founded in 1943, whose stated mission is to defend the principles and improve the institutions of American freedom and democratic capitalism — limited government, private enterprise, individual liberty and responsibility, vigilant and effective defense and foreign policies... Year 1990 (MCMXC) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into The_Public_Interest_Magazine. ...


Murray has received grants from the conservative Bradley Foundation to support his scholarship, including the writing of The Bell Curve. The Lynde and Harry Bradley Foundation, based in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, is a large and influential foundation with about half a billion US dollars in assets. ...


The Bell Curve

The Bell Curve: Intelligence and Class Structure in American Life (1994) (ISBN 0-02-914673-9) is Murray's controversial, best-selling 1994 book co-written with Harvard professor Richard J. Herrnstein. Its central point is that the affluent and their children (the "cognitive elite") are affluent due largely to an innate genetic and intellectual superiority to the non-affluent. The book had the potential for offending the majority of the U.S. population in that it constitutes a defense of plutocracy and inequality due to race, but it became widely read and debated, especially Chapters 13 and 14, where the authors state that blacks have a lower mean intelligence than whites and Asians due to genetic factors. The Bell Curve is a controversial, best-selling 1994 book by Richard J. Herrnstein and Charles Murray exploring the role of genes in American life. ... This is a list of controversial non-fiction books aimed at the general reader which discuss controversial issues, or are (or were at the time of writing) controversial for other reasons. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full 1994 Gregorian calendar). ... Richard Herrnstein (1930-1994) was a prominent researcher in comparative psychology who did pioneering work on pigeon intelligence employing the Experimental Analysis of Behavior. ... The cognitive elite of a society, according to some social science researchers, are those having higher intelligence levels and thus better prospects for success in life. ... A plutocracy is a form of government where the states power is centralized in an affluent social class. ...


The book's title comes from the bell-shaped normal distribution of IQ scores. A generalization of the binomial probability distribution, the normal distribution is used for those phenomena resulting from the sum of several random, equally likely occurrences. The normal distribution, also called the Gaussian distribution, is an important family of continuous probability distributions, applicable in many fields. ... IQ redirects here; for other uses of that term, see IQ (disambiguation). ... In probability theory and statistics, the binomial distribution is the discrete probability distribution of the number of successes in a sequence of n independent yes/no experiments, each of which yields success with probability p. ...


Shortly after publication, large numbers of people rallied both to criticize and defend the book. Some critics denounced the book and its authors as supporting scientific racism. It has been suggested that Race science be merged into this article or section. ...


Other Books

  • A Behavioral Study of Rural Modernization: Social and Economic Change in Thai Villages (Praeger Publishers, 1977)
  • Beyond Probation: Juvenile Corrections and the Chronic Delinquent - co-authored with Louis A. Cox, Jr. (Sage Publications, 1979)
  • Losing Ground: American Social Policy, 1950-1980, Basic Books (1984) ISBN 0-465-04231-7; on welfare reform
  • In Pursuit: Of Happiness and Good Government, Simon & Schuster (1989) ISBN 0-671-68743-3
  • Apollo: The Behind-the-Scenes Story of One of Humankind’s Greatest Achievements - co-authored by Catherine Bly Cox, Simon & Schuster, 1989.
  • What it Means to be a Libertarian, Broadway Books (1997) ISBN 0-553-06928-4
  • "IQ and economic success." Public Interest, 128, 21–35. (1997)
  • Income Inequality and IQ, AEI Press (1998) PDF copy
  • The Underclass Revisited, AEI Press (1999) PDF copy
  • Human Accomplishment: The Pursuit of Excellence in the Arts and Sciences, 800 B.C. to 1950, HarperCollins (2003) ISBN 0-06-019247-X; a quantification and ranking of well-known scientists and artists
  • In Our Hands: A Plan To Replace The Welfare State, AEI Press (March 2006)

Welfare reform is the name for a policy change in countries with a state-administered social welfare system to reduce dependence on welfare, as demanded by political conservatives. ... Human Accomplishment: The Pursuit of Excellence in the Arts and Sciences, 800 BC to 1950 is a book by Charles Murray surveying outstanding contributions to the arts and sciences from ancient times to the mid-twentieth century. ... For a List of scientists, see: List of anthropologists List of astronomers List of biologists List of chemists List of computer scientists List of economists List of engineers List of geologists List of inventors List of mathematicians List of meteorologists List of physicists Scientist pairs List of scientist pairs See... An artist is someone who employs creative talent to produce works of art. ...

Op-Ed Writings

Murray has published opinion pieces in The New Republic, Commentary, The Public Interest, the New York Times, the Wall Street Journal, National Review, and the Washington Post. He has been a witness before United States congressional and senate committees and a consultant to senior Republican government officials in the United States, and conservative officials in the United Kingdom, Eastern Europe, and the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). For other uses, see New Republic. ... Commentary Magazine is a journal published by the American Jewish Committee, since 1945. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into The_Public_Interest_Magazine. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... The Wall Street Journal is an influential international daily newspaper published in New York City, New York with an average daily circulation of 1,800,607 (2002). ... National Review (NR) is a biweekly magazine of political opinion, founded by author William F. Buckley, Jr. ... ... The Republican Party is one of two major contemporary political parties in the United States of America, along with the Democratic Party. ... The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) is an international organization of those developed countries that accept the principles of representative democracy and a free market economy. ...


In the April, 2007 issue of Commentary Magazine, Murray wrote on the disproportionate represention of Jews in the ranks of outstanding achievers and says that one of the reasons is that Jews "have been found to have an unusually high mean intelligence as measured by IQ tests since the first Jewish samples were tested." [8] Commentary Magazine is a journal published by the American Jewish Committee, since 1945. ...


In the July/August, 2007 issue of The American, a magazine published by the American Enterprise Institute, Murray says he has changed his mind about SAT tests and says it's time to scrap the test. "The evidence has become overwhelming that the SAT no longer serves a democratizing purpose. Worse, events have conspired to make the SAT a negative force in American life. And so I find myself arguing that the SAT should be ended. Not just deemphasized, but no longer administered. Nothing important would be lost by so doing. Much would be gained." [9] The American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research (AEI) is a conservative think tank, founded in 1943, whose stated mission is to defend the principles and improve the institutions of American freedom and democratic capitalism — limited government, private enterprise, individual liberty and responsibility, vigilant and effective defense and foreign policies...


Notes

  1. ^ DeParle, Jason (1994). "Daring Research or 'Social Science Pornography'?: Charles Murray", New York Times, Oct. 9. (p. 3).
  2. ^ DeParle 1994, pp. 3-4. DeParle's biographical article finds in some of Murray's life and work a still-present theme of a high-school prankster who "only [learns] later what the fuss [is] all about" (p.12). Some critics, however, have found significant one incident written about by DeParle:
    "While there is much to admire about the industry and inquisitiveness of Murray's teen-age years, there is at least one adventure that he understandably deletes from the story — the night he helped his friends burn a cross. They had formed a kind of good guys' gang, "the Mallows," whose very name, from marshmallows, was a play on their own softness. In the fall of 1960, during their senior year, they nailed some scrap wood into a cross, adorned it with fireworks and set it ablaze on a hill beside the police station, with marshmallows scattered as a calling card.
    Rutledge [a social worker and former juvenile delinquent] who was still hanging around the pool hall [and considers some of Murray's other memories to be idealized] recalls his astonishment the next day when the talk turned to racial persecution in a town with two black families. "There wouldn't have been a racist thought in our simple-minded minds," he says. "That's how unaware we were."
    A long pause follows when Murray is reminded of the event. "Incredibly, incredibly dumb," he says. "But it never crossed our minds that this had any larger significance. And I look back on that and say, 'How on earth could we be so oblivious?' I guess it says something about that day and age that it didn't cross our minds" (p. 4).
  3. ^ DeParle, pp. 4-5.
  4. ^ De Parle 1994. McIntosh 2006: "My epiphany came in Thailand in the 1960s, when I first came to understand how badly bureaucracies dealt with human problems in the villages, and how well (with qualifications) villagers dealt with their own problems given certain conditions." [1]
  5. ^ DeParle, p. 7.
  6. ^ Nasa Symposium on Forty Years of Human Spaceflight (2001). The book was well reviewed: "Rich, densely packed and beautifully told.... Filled with cliffhangers, suspense and spine-tingling adventure." -Charles Sheffield, Washington Post Book World, July 9 1989. "Heart-gripping.... So brilliantly told one can almost smell the perspiration in Houston Mission Control." -Charles Petit, San Francisco Chronicle, July 9, 1989:
  7. ^ Quaker meeting: [2]; current location: DeParle p. 8.
  8. ^ Two children from each marriage: DeParle, pp. 7-8.

See also

... Historiometry measures the number of references to great people and discoveries in relatively neutral texts in an attempt to quantify human progress. ... Human Accomplishment: The Pursuit of Excellence in the Arts and Sciences, 800 BC to 1950 is a book by Charles Murray surveying outstanding contributions to the arts and sciences from ancient times to the mid-twentieth century. ...

External links

RealVideo is a proprietary video format developed by RealNetworks. ...

Pro

RealVideo is a proprietary video format developed by RealNetworks. ... RealAudio is a proprietary audio format developed by RealNetworks. ... RealAudio is a proprietary audio format developed by RealNetworks. ... Hoover Tower at the Hoover Institution The Hoover Institution on War, Revolution, and Peace is a public policy think tank and library founded by Herbert Hoover at Stanford University, his alma mater. ...

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