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Encyclopedia > Charles Mingus
Charles Mingus

Background information
Birth name Charles Mingus, Jr.
Also known as Charlie Mingus
Born April 22, 1922(1922-04-22)
US Army Base in Nogales, Arizona
Origin Los Angeles, California
Died January 5, 1979 (aged 56)
Cuernavaca, Mexico
Genre(s) Bebop
Avant-garde jazz
Post-bop
Occupation(s) Bassist, Composer, Bandleader
Instrument(s) Double bass, Piano, Cello, Trombone
Years active 1943 - 1979
Label(s) Debut, Impulse!, Candid, Atlantic, Blue Note, Mercury, Columbia
Website MingusMingusMingus.com

Charles Mingus (April 22, 1922January 5, 1979) was an American jazz bassist, composer, bandleader, and occasional pianist. He was also known for his activism against racial injustice. Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Shortcut: WP:-( Vandalism is indisputable bad-faith addition, deletion, or change to content, made in a deliberate attempt to compromise the integrity of the encyclopedia. ... Shortcut: WP:-( Vandalism is indisputable bad-faith addition, deletion, or change to content, made in a deliberate attempt to compromise the integrity of the encyclopedia. ... Image File history File links Charles_Mingus_15. ... is the 112th day of the year (113th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar). ... Nogales is a city in Santa Cruz County, Arizona, United States. ... Official language(s) English Spoken language(s) English 74. ... d Los Angeles and L.A. redirect here. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... January 5 is the 5th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... Cuernavaca is the capital and largest city of the state of Morelos in Mexico. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Bebop is a form of jazz characterized by fast tempos and improvisation based on harmonic structure rather than melody. ... Avant-jazz (also known as avant-garde jazz) is a style of music and improvisation that combines elements of avant-garde art music composition with elements of traditional jazz. ... Post-bop is a term for a form of small-combo jazz music that evolved in the early-to-mid sixties. ... ||/ | @___oo / / / (__,,,,| ) /^) ^/ _) ) /^/ _) ) _ / / _) / )// || | )_) < > |(,,) )__) || / )___) | ____( )___) )___ ______(_______;;; __;;; A bassist is not a musician, so much as a guy or girl trying to play an instrument with four strings and a long neck. ... A composer is a person who writes music. ... A bandleader is the director of a band of musicians. ... A musical instrument is a device constructed or modified with the purpose of making music. ... Side and front views of a modern double bass with a French bow. ... A short grand piano, with the top up. ... The violoncello, usually abbreviated to cello, or cello (the c is pronounced as in the ch of check), is a bowed stringed instrument, the lowest-sounding member of the violin family. ... The trombone is a musical instrument in the brass family. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Debut Records is a United States jazz record company, which was founded in 1952 by Bassist Charles Mingus, his then wife Celia and Drummer Max Roach, this short lived label was an attempt to avoid the compromises of working for major companies. ... Impulse! Records is an American based jazz record label, originally launched in 1960 by Creed Taylor as a subsidiary of ABC-Paramount Records in New York City. ... Candid Records was founded as a subsiduary of Archie Bleyers Cadence label in New York City in 1960. ... Atlantic Records (Atlantic Recording Corporation) is an American record label, and operates as a wholly owned subsidiary of Warner Music Group. ... Blue Note Records is a jazz record label, established in 1939 by Alfred Lion and Francis Wolff. ... Mercury Records was a record label founded in Chicago, Illinois in 1945 by Irving Green, Berle Adams and Arthur Talmadge. ... is the 112th day of the year (113th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar). ... January 5 is the 5th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... ||/ | @___oo / / / (__,,,,| ) /^) ^/ _) ) /^/ _) ) _ / / _) / )// || | )_) < > |(,,) )__) || / )___) | ____( )___) )___ ______(_______;;; __;;; A bassist is not a musician, so much as a guy or girl trying to play an instrument with four strings and a long neck. ... A composer is a person who writes music. ... A bandleader is the director of a band of musicians. ... A pianist is a person who plays the piano. ... Activism, in a general sense, can be described as intentional action to bring about social or political change. ... Racism is a belief or concept that inherent differences between people (such as those upon which the concept of race is based) determine cultural or individual achievement, and may involve the idea that ones own race is superior. ...


Mingus is highly ranked among the composers and performers of jazz, and he recorded many highly regarded albums. Dozens of musicians passed through his bands and later went on to impressive careers. His tunes—though melodic and distinctive—are not often recorded by later musicians, in part because of their unconventional nature. Mingus was also influential and creative as a bandleader, recruiting talented and sometimes little-known artists whom he assembled into unconventional and revealing configurations.


Nearly as well known as his ambitious music was Mingus' often fearsome temperament, which earned him the nickname "The Angry Man of Jazz." His refusal to compromise his musical integrity led to many onstage explosions, though it has been argued that his temper also grew from a need to vent frustration. Ironically, a perfect show could irritate him by closing this outlet.


Mingus was prone to depression. He tended to have brief periods of extreme creative activity, intermixed with fairly long periods of greatly decreased output. Clinical depression (also called major depressive disorder, or unipolar depression when compared to bipolar disorder) is a state of intense sadness, melancholia or despair that has advanced to the point of being disruptive to an individuals social functioning and/or activities of daily living. ...


Most of Mingus's music retained the hot and soulful feel of hard bop and drew heavily from black gospel music while sometimes drawing on elements of Third Stream Jazz and free jazz. Yet Mingus avoided categorization, forging his own brand of music that fused tradition with unique and unexplored realms of jazz. Mingus focused on collective improvisation, similar to the old New Orleans Jazz parades, paying particular attention to how each band member interacted with the group as a whole. In creating his bands, Mingus looked not only at the skills of the available musicians, but also their personalities. He strove to create unique music to be played by unique musicians. Hard bop is an extension of bebop (bop) music which incorporates influences from rhythm and blues, gospel music, and blues, especially in the saxophone and piano playing. ... Gospel music is a musical genre characterized by dominant vocals (often with strong use of harmony) referencing lyrics of a religious nature, particularly Christian. ... see Third Stream ... This article or section cites very few or no references or sources. ...


Due to his brilliant writing for mid-size ensembles — and his catering to and emphasizing the strengths of the musicians in his groups — Mingus is often considered the heir apparent to Duke Ellington, for whom he expressed unqualified admiration. Indeed, Dizzy Gillespie had once claimed Mingus reminded him "of a young Duke", bringing up their mutual "organizational genius." [1] Edward Kennedy “Duke” Ellington (April 29, 1899–May 24, 1974) was an American jazz composer, pianist, and band leader who has been one of the most influential figures in jazz, if not in all American music. ... John Birks Dizzy Gillespie (October 21, 1917 – January 6, 1993) was born in Cheraw, South Carolina. ...

Contents

Biography

Personal life

Charles Mingus (he detested being called 'Charlie') was born in Nogales, Arizona, but was raised largely in the Watts area of Los Angeles, California. His mother's paternal heritage was Chinese and English , while historical records indicate that his father was the illegitimate offspring of a black farmhand and his Swedish employer's white granddaughter. [2] Nogales is a city in Santa Cruz County, Arizona, United States. ... Official language(s) English Spoken language(s) English 74. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... d Los Angeles and L.A. redirect here. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ...


His mother allowed only church-related music in their home, but Mingus developed an early love for jazz, especially the music of Duke Ellington. He studied trombone, and later cello. Much of the cello technique he learned was applicable to double bass when he took up the instrument in high school. Edward Kennedy “Duke” Ellington (April 29, 1899–May 24, 1974) was an American jazz composer, pianist, and band leader who has been one of the most influential figures in jazz, if not in all American music. ... The trombone is a musical instrument in the brass family. ... The violoncello, usually abbreviated to cello, or cello (the c is pronounced as in the ch of check), is a bowed stringed instrument, the lowest-sounding member of the violin family. ... Side and front views of a modern double bass with a French bow. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Mingus maintained a romance with Sue Graham. Sue and Charles married in 1975. [3]


Early career

Beginning in his teen years, Mingus was writing quite advanced pieces; many are similar to Third Stream Jazz. A number of them were recorded in 1960 with conductor Gunther Schuller, and released as Pre-Bird, referring to Charlie "Bird" Parker. Gunther Schuller Gunther Schuller (born November 22, 1925) studied at the St. ... Charles Bird Parker, Jr. ...


Mingus gained a reputation as something of a bass prodigy. He toured with Louis Armstrong in 1943, then played with Lionel Hampton's band in the late 1940s; Hampton performed and recorded a few of Mingus's pieces. A popular trio of Mingus, Red Norvo and Tal Farlow in 1950 and 1951 received considerable acclaim. Mingus was briefly a member of Ellington's band in the early 1950s, and Mingus's notorious temper reportedly led to his being the only musician personally fired by Ellington (although there are reports that Sidney Bechet was another victim). This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Lionel Hampton with George W. Bush Lionel Leo Hampton (April 20, 1908, Louisville, Kentucky – August 31, 2002 New York City), was a jazz bandleader and percussionist. ... Red Norvo (31 March 1908- 6 April 1999) was one of jazzs early vibraphonists. ... Tal Farlow was a talented jazz guitarist. ...


Also in the early 1950s, before attaining commercial recognition as a bandleader, he played a number of live dates with Charlie Parker, whose compositions and improvisations greatly inspired and influenced Mingus. Mingus considered Parker the greatest genius and innovator in jazz history, but he had a love-hate relationship with Parker's legacy. Mingus blamed the Parker mythology for a derivative crop of pretenders to Parker's throne. He was also conflicted and sometimes disgusted by Parker's self-destructive habits and the romanticized lure of drug addiction they offered to other jazz musicians. In response to the many sax players who imitated Parker, Mingus titled a song, "If Charlie Parker were a Gunslinger, There'd be a Whole Lot of Dead Copycats" (released on Mingus Dynasty as "Gunslinging Bird"). Mingus Dynasty is an album by Charles Mingus, recorded and released in 1959. ...


In 1952 Mingus co-founded Debut Records with Max Roach, in order to conduct his recording career as he saw fit. After bassist Oscar Pettiford broke his arm playing baseball, Mingus stepped in to replace him at the famed May 15, 1953 concert at Massey Hall. He joined Dizzy Gillespie, Charlie Parker, Bud Powell, and Max Roach in what was to be the last recorded meeting of the two lead instrumentalists. After the event, Mingus chose to overdub his barely-audible bass part. The two 10" albums of the Massey Hall concert (one featured the trio of Powell, Mingus and Roach) were among Debut Records' earliest releases. Mingus may have objected to the way the major record companies treated musicians, but Gillespie once commented that he did not receive any royalties "for years and years" for his Massey Hall appearance. The records though, are often regarded as among the finest live jazz recordings. Debut Records is a United States jazz record company, which was founded in 1952 by Bassist Charles Mingus, his then wife Celia and Drummer Max Roach, this short lived label was an attempt to avoid the compromises of working for major companies. ... Jazz in 3/4 time cover released in 1957 on EmArcy Maxwell Lemuel Roach (born January 10, 1924) is a percussionist, drummer, and jazz composer. ... Oscar Pettiford (Okmulgee, Oklahoma, 30 September 1922-Copenhagen, Denmark, 8 September 1960) was an American jazz bassist, cellist and composer known particularly for his pioneering work in bebop. ... A view of the playing field at Busch Memorial Stadium, St. ... Massey Hall, Main Entrance as seen from across Shuter Street, December 2005. ... John Birks Dizzy Gillespie (October 21, 1917 – January 6, 1993) was born in Cheraw, South Carolina. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


In 1955, Mingus was involved in a notorious incident while playing a club date billed as a "reunion" with Parker, Powell, and Roach. Powell, who had suffered from alcoholism and mental illness for years (potentially exacerbated by a severe police beating and electroshock treatments), had to be helped from the stage, unable to play or speak coherently. As Powell's incapacitation became apparent, Parker stood in one spot at a microphone, chanting "Bud Powell...Bud Powell..." as if beseeching Powell's return. Allegedly, Parker continued this incantation for several minutes after Powell's departure, to his own amusement and Mingus' exasperation. Mingus took another mic and announced to the crowd, "Ladies and gentlemen, please don't associate me with any of this. This is not jazz. These are sick people." [4] Roughly a week later, Parker died of complications of years of drug abuse. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Electroconvulsive therapy, also known as electroshock or ECT, is a controversial type of psychiatric shock therapy involving the induction of an artificial seizure in a patient by passing electricity through the brain. ...


Pithecanthropus Erectus

Mingus had already recorded about ten albums as a bandleader, but 1956 was a breakthrough year, with the release of Pithecanthropus Erectus, arguably his first major work as both a bandleader and composer. Like Ellington, Mingus wrote songs with specific musicians in mind, and his band for Erectus included adventurous, though distinctly blues-oriented musicians, especially saxophonist Jackie McLean and piano player Mal Waldron. The title song is a ten minute tone poem, depicting the rise of man from his hominid roots (Pithecanthropus erectus) to an eventual downfall. A section of the piece was improvised free of structure or theme. Pithecanthropus Erectus is a 1956 album by jazz composer and bassist Charles Mingus. ... Blues is a vocal and instrumental form of music based on the use of the blue notes and a repetitive pattern that most often follows a twelve-bar structure. ... John Lenwood (Jackie) McLean (born May 17, 1932) is an American jazz alto saxophonist and educator, born in New York City. ... Malcolm Earl Waldron (August 16, 1926 - December 2, 2002) was an American jazz and world music pianist and composer. ... A symphonic poem or tone poem is a piece of orchestral music in one movement in which some extra-musical programme provides a narrative or illustrative element. ... Genera The hominids are the members of the biological family Hominidae (the great apes), which includes humans, chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans. ... Java Man was one of the first specimens of Homo erectus to be discovered. ... Free improvisation or free music is improvised music without any rules beyond the taste or inclination of the musician(s) involved; in many cases the musicians make an active effort to avoiding overt references to recognizable musical genres. ...


Another album, The Clown (1957 on Atlantic Records), with an improvised story on the title track by humorist Jean Shepherd, was the first to feature drummer Dannie Richmond. Richmond would be his drummer until Mingus died twenty years later. They formed one of the most impressive and versatile rhythm sections in jazz. Both were accomplished performers seeking to stretch the boundaries of their music while staying true to its roots. When joined by pianist Jaki Byard, they were dubbed "The Almighty Three". [5] The Clown is an album by Charles Mingus recorded and released in 1957. ... Year 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1957 Gregorian calendar). ... Atlantic Records (Atlantic Recording Corporation) is an American record label, and operates as a wholly owned subsidiary of Warner Music Group. ... Jean Shepherd posed as Frederick R. Ewing on the back cover of Ballantines I, Libertine (1956). ... A drummer in Action A drummer is a person who plays the drums, particularly the drum kit, marching percussion, or hand drums. ... Dannie Richmond (15 December 1935–15 March 1988) was an American drummer who was best known among jazz fans for his work with Charles Mingus, and among pop fans for his work with Joe Cocker and Elton John. ... Rhythm section refers to the musicians whose primary jobs in a jazz or popular music band or ensemble is to establish the rhythm of a song or musical piece, often via repeated riffs or ostinati. ... Jaki Byard (June 15, 1922 - February 11, 1999) was a jazz piano player. ...


The following decade is widely regarded as Mingus's most productive and fertile period. Impressive new compositions and albums appeared at an astonishing rate: some thirty records in ten years, for a number of record labels (Debut, Candid, Impulse! Records and others), a pace perhaps unmatched by any musician or group excepting Ellington. Candid Records was founded as a subsiduary of Archie Bleyers Cadence label in New York City in 1960. ... Impulse! Records is an American based jazz record label, originally launched in 1960 by Creed Taylor as a subsidiary of ABC-Paramount Records in New York City. ...


Mingus often worked with a mid-sized ensemble (around 8–10 members) of rotating musicians known as the Jazz Workshop. Mingus broke new ground, constantly demanding that his musicians be able to explore and develop their perceptions on the spot. Those tapped to join the Workshop (or Sweatshops as they were colorfully dubbed by the musicians) were skilled musicians yearning for a taste of the big time. Mingus shaped these promising novices into a cohesive improvisational machine that in many ways anticipated free jazz. Some musicians dubbed the workshop a "university" for jazz. This article or section cites very few or no references or sources. ...


Jazz Workshop members included:

Only one misstep occurred in this era: 1962's Town Hall Concert. An ambitious program, it was unfortunately plagued with troubles from its inception. [6] Mingus's vision was finally realized in 1989, see Epitaph (Mingus). Pepper Adams (October 8, 1930 - September 10, 1986) was one of hard bops most significant baritone saxophonists. ... Jaki Byard (June 15, 1922 - February 11, 1999) was a jazz piano player. ... Eric Allan Dolphy (June 20, 1928 – June 29, 1964) was a jazz musician who played alto saxophone, flute and bass clarinet. ... Booker Telleferro Ervin II (1930 – 1970) was an American jazz tenor saxophone player perhaps best known for his association with Charles Mingus, with whom he played and recorded from 1956 to 1962. ... Rahsaan Roland Kirk (August 7, 1936 - December 5, 1977) was a blind American jazz multi-instrumentalist. ... James M. (Jimmy) Knepper (*November 22, 1927 in Los Angeles, &#8224; 2003) was an American jazz trombonist. ... John Richard Handy III (born February 3, 1933 in Dallas, Texas) is an American jazz alto saxophonist. ... John Lenwood (Jackie) McLean (born May 17, 1932) is an American jazz alto saxophonist and educator, born in New York City. ... Horace Parlan (born 1931 in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania) is an American jazz piano player. ... Year 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... // Epitaph Epitaph is the master work of Charles Mingus. ...


Charles Mingus Presents Charles Mingus

Mingus witnessed Ornette Coleman's legendary—and controversial—1960 appearances at New York City's Five Spot jazz club. Though he initially expressed rather mixed feelings for Coleman's innovative music: "...if the free-form guys could play the same tune twice, then I would say they were playing something...Most of the time they use their fingers on the saxophone and they don't even know what's going to come out. They're experimenting." Mingus was in fact a prime influence of the early free jazz era. He formed a quartet with Richmond, trumpeter Ted Curson and saxophonist Eric Dolphy. This ensemble featured the same instruments as Coleman's quartet, and is often regarded as Mingus rising to the challenging new standard established by Coleman. Charles Mingus Presents Charles Mingus, the quartet's sole album, is frequently included among the finest in Mingus's catalogue. Ornette Coleman (born March 19, 1930) is an American saxophonist and composer. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... The Five Spot Cafe was located in New York City at the corner of Cooper Square and St. ... This article or section cites very few or no references or sources. ... Ted Curson is a jazz trumpeter. ... Eric Allan Dolphy (June 20, 1928 – June 29, 1964) was a jazz musician who played alto saxophone, flute and bass clarinet. ...


The Black Saint and the Sinner Lady

In 1963, Mingus released The Black Saint and the Sinner Lady, a sprawling, multi-section masterpiece, described as "one of the greatest achievements in orchestration by any composer in jazz history." [7] The album was also unique in that Mingus asked his psychotherapist to provide notes for the record. Year 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Black Saint and the Sinner Lady is a 1963 jazz composition and album by bassist Charles Mingus. ... Orchestration is the study or practice of writing music for orchestra (or, more loosely, for any musical ensemble) or of adapting for orchestra music composed for another medium. ... Psychotherapy is an interpersonal, relational intervention used by trained psychotherapists to aid clients in problems of living. ...


1963 also saw the release of an unaccompanied album Mingus Plays Piano. His piano technique, though capable and expressive, was somewhat unrefined when compared to Herbie Hancock or other contemporary jazz pianists, but the album is still generally well regarded. A few pieces were entirely improvised and drew on classical music as much as jazz, preceding Keith Jarrett's landmark The Köln Concert in those respects by some twelve years. Herbert Jeffrey Hancock (born April 12, 1940) is an Academy Award and multiple Grammy Award-winning jazz pianist and composer from Chicago, Illinois, U.S. Hancock is one of jazz musics most important and influential pianists and composers. ... Classical music is a broad, somewhat imprecise term, referring to music produced in, or rooted in the traditions of, European art, ecclesiastical and concert music, encompassing a broad period from roughly 1000 to the present day. ... Keith Jarrett (born May 8, 1945 in Allentown, Pennsylvania) is an American pianist and composer. ... The Köln Concert is a recording released through ECM by the renowned jazz pianist Keith Jarrett, who performed solo improvisations at the Cologne Opera House at Köln/Cologne in 1975. ...


In 1964 Mingus put together one of his best-known groups, a sextet including Dannie Richmond, Jaki Byard, Eric Dolphy, trumpeter Johnny Coles, and tenor saxophonist Clifford Jordan. The group was recorded frequently during its short existence; Coles fell ill during a European tour. On June 28, 1964 Dolphy died while in Berlin. Jaki Byard (June 15, 1922 - February 11, 1999) was a jazz piano player. ... Eric Allan Dolphy (June 20, 1928 – June 29, 1964) was a jazz musician who played alto saxophone, flute and bass clarinet. ... The trumpet is the highest brass instrument in register, above the French horn, trombone, baritone, euphonium, and tuba. ... Clifford Laconia Jordan (September 2, 1931, Chicago - March 27, 1993, Manhattan) was an inside/outside sax player who held his own with Eric Dolphy in the 1964 Charles Mingus Sextet. ...


Changes

Mingus's pace slowed somewhat in the late 1960s and early 1970s. In 1974 he formed a quintet with Richmond, pianist Don Pullen, trumpeter Jack Walrath and saxophonist George Adams. They recorded two well-received albums, "Changes One" and "Changes Two". Mingus also played with Charles McPherson in many of his groups during this time. Don Pullen (December 25, 1941 - April 22, 1995) was an American jazz pianist and organist. ... Jack Walrath (born May 5, 1946) is a white American post bop jazz trumpeter and musical arranger born in Stuart, Florida, probably better known for his work with musicians like Ray Charles, Gary Peacock, Charles Mingus and Glenn Ferris, among others. ... George Adams is the name of several people: George Adams (optician), an optician and scientific writer. ... Changes One is a 1974 (see 1974 in music) album by jazz composer and bassist Charles Mingus. ... Charles McPherson (born July 24, 1939) is an American jazz alto saxophonist born in Joplin, Missouri and raised in Detroit, Michigan, most notable for his work from 1960-1972 with Charles Mingus. ...


Cumbia and Jazz Fusion in 1976 sought to blend Colombian music (the "Cumbia" of the title) with more traditional jazz forms. Cumbia is originally a Colombian folk dance and dance music and is Colombias representative national dance and music along with vallenato. ...


Later career and death

By the mid-1970s, Mingus was suffering from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (popularly known as Lou Gehrig's disease), a wastage of the musculature. His once formidable bass technique suffered, until he could no longer play the instrument. He continued composing, however, and supervised a number of recordings before his death. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, sometimes called Lou Gehrigs Disease, Maladie de Charcot or motor neurone disease) is a progressive, fatal, neurodegenerative disease caused by the degeneration of motor neurons, the nerve cells in the central nervous system that control voluntary muscle movement. ... Henry Louis (Lou) Gehrig (June 19, 1903 – June 2, 1941), born Ludwig Heinrich Gehrig, was an American baseball player in the first half of the twentieth century. ...


Mingus died aged 56 in Cuernavaca, Mexico, where he had traveled for treatment and convalescence. His ashes were scattered in the Ganges River. Cuernavaca is the capital and largest city of the state of Morelos in Mexico. ... This article is about the river. ...


At the time of his death, Mingus had been recording an album with singer Joni Mitchell, which included vocal versions of some of his songs (including "Goodbye Pork Pie Hat") among Mitchell originals and short, spoken word duets and home recordings of Mitchell and Mingus. To show how important his influence was on the jazz world, this album also featured Jaco Pastorius, another massively influential (and self-destructive) bassist and composer. Joni Mitchell, CC (born Roberta Joan Anderson on November 7, 1943) is a Canadian musician, songwriter, and painter. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Epitaph

Epitaph is considered by many to be the masterwork of Charles Mingus. It is a composition which is more than 4,000 measures long, requires two hours to perform and was only completely discovered during the cataloguing process after his death by musicologist Andrew Homzy. With the help of a grant from the Ford Foundation, the score and instrumental parts were copied, and the piece itself was premiered by a 30-piece orchestra, conducted by Gunther Schuller. This concert was produced by Mingus's widow, Sue Graham Mingus, at Alice Tully Hall on June 3, 1989, ten years after his death. Epitaph is one of the longest jazz pieces ever written. // Epitaph Epitaph is the master work of Charles Mingus. ... The Ford Foundation is a charitable foundation based in New York City created to fund programs that promote democracy, reduce poverty, promote international understanding, and advance human achievement. ... Gunther Schuller Gunther Schuller (born November 22, 1925) studied at the St. ...


The music after his death

The Mingus Big Band

The music of Charles Mingus is currently being performed and reinterpreted by the Mingus Big Band, which plays every Tuesday at Iridium Jazz Club in New York City, and often tours the rest of the US and Europe. Elvis Costello has written lyrics for a few Mingus pieces. He had once sung lyrics for one piece, "Invisible Lady", being backed by the Mingus Big Band on the album, Tonight at Noon: Three of Four Shades of Love. [8] The Mingus Big Band is a jazz band, based in New York City, that specializes in the compositions of the late Charles Mingus. ... United States may refer to: Places: United States of America SS United States, the fastest ocean liner ever built. ... Elvis Costello (born Declan Patrick MacManus August 25, 1954 in London) is an English musician, singer, and songwriter. ...


In addition to the Mingus Big Band, there is the Mingus Orchestra and the Mingus Dynasty, each of which are managed by Jazz Workshop, Inc., and run by Charles's widow Sue Graham Mingus. Other tribute bands are also active all around the US and the world, including Mingus Amungus in the San Francisco Bay Area, and the Swedish Mingus Band Siegmund Freud's Mothers in Stockholm. USGS satellite photo of the San Francisco Bay Area. ...


Cover versions

Considering the number of compositions that Charles Mingus has written, his works have not been recorded as often as comparable jazz composers. Of all his works, his elegant elegy for Lester Young, "Goodbye Porkpie Hat" (from Mingus Ah Um) has probably had the most recordings. Besides recordings from the expected jazz artists, the song has also been recorded by musicians as disparate as Jeff Beck, Andy Summers, Eugene Chadbourne, and Bert Jansch and John Renbourn with and without Pentangle. Joni Mitchell sang a version with lyrics that she wrote for the song. Elvis Costello has recorded "Hora Decubitus" (from Mingus Mingus Mingus Mingus Mingus) on 'My Flame Burns Blue' (2006). "Better Git It in Your Soul" was covered by Davey Graham on his album "Folk, Blues, and Beyond." Trumpeter Ron Miles performs a version of "Pithecanthropus Erectus" on his EP "Witness." New York Ska Jazz Ensemble has done a cover of Mingus' "Haitian Fight Song", as have Pentangle and others. Hal Willner's 1992 tribute album Weird Nightmare: Meditations on Mingus (Columbia Records) contains idiosyncratic renditions of Mingus's works involving numerous popular musicians including Chuck D, Keith Richards, Henry Rollins and Dr. John. Elegy was originally used for a type of poetic metre (Elegiac metre), but is also used for a poem of mourning, from the Greek elegos, a reflection on the death of someone or on a sorrow generally. ... Lester Young Lester Willis Young (August 27, 1909 – March 15, 1959), nicknamed Prez, was an American jazz tenor saxophonist and clarinetist. ... A pork pie hat is a felt hat, similer to a Trilby, dating from the middle 19th century, much the same as a fedora, but with a flattened top. ... Geoffrey Arnold (Jeff) Beck (born June 24, 1944 to Arnold and Ethel Beck in Wallington, Greater London, England) is an English guitar virtuoso and songwriter. ... Eugene Chadbourne (January 4, 1954 in Mount Vernon, NY) is a USA composer, improvisor, guitarist and banjoist. ... Herbert Jansch (born 3 November 1943[1]), known as Bert Jansch, is a Scottish folk musician and founding member of the band Pentangle. ... John Renbourn (born August 8, 1944, Marylebone, North London, England) is a British guitarist and songwriter. ... Pentangle is a British folk-rock band. ... Joni Mitchell, CC (born Roberta Joan Anderson on November 7, 1943) is a Canadian musician, songwriter, and painter. ... Elvis Costello (born Declan Patrick MacManus August 25, 1954 in London) is an English musician, singer, and songwriter. ... Mingus Mingus Mingus Mingus Mingus is a 1963 (see 1963 in music) album by jazz composer and bassist Charles Mingus. ... Hat, released in 1969 Davey Graham (originally Davy Graham, b. ... Hal Willner (born 1957, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania) is a music producer working in recording, Films, TV and live events. ... A tribute album is a recorded collection of cover versions of a specific artists songs. ... Columbia Records is the oldest brand name in recorded sound, dating back to 1888, and was the first record company to produce pre-recorded records as opposed to blank cylinders. ... Carlton Douglas Ridenhour (born August 1, 1960), better known by his stage name Chuck D, is an American rapper, composer, actor, author, radio personality and producer. ... Keith Richards (born 18 December 1943) is an English guitarist, songwriter, singer and a founding member of The Rolling Stones in 1962. ... Henry Rollins (born February 13, 1961 as Henry Lawrence Garfield[1]) is a singer and songwriter, spoken word artist, book author (prose and poetry), radio and TV personality, occasional movie actor, comedian, and voice-over artist. ... Dr. John is the stage name of Malcolm John Rebennack Jr. ...


Personality and temper

As respected as Mingus was for his musical talents, he was often feared for his sometimes violent onstage temper, which was at times directed at members of his band, and other times aimed at the audience. He was physically large, prone to obesity (especially in his later years), and was by all accounts often intimidating and frightening when expressing anger or displeasure.


When confronted with a nightclub audience talking and clinking ice in their glasses while he performed, Mingus stopped his band and loudly chastised the audience, stating "Isaac Stern doesn't have to put up with this shit." [9] He once played a prank on a similar group of nightclub chatterers by silencing his band for several seconds, allowing the loud audience members to be clearly heard, then continuing as the rest of the audience snickered at the oblivious "soloists". Isaac Stern (July 21, 1920 – September 22, 2001) is widely considered one of the finest violin virtuosi of the twentieth century. ...


Guitarist and singer Jackie Paris was a first-hand witness to Mingus's irascibility. Paris recalls his time in the Jazz Workshop: "He chased everybody off the stand except [drummer] Paul Motian and me... The three of us just wailed on the blues for about an hour and a half before he called the other cats back." [10] Jackie Paris (September 20, 1926 - June 17, 2004) was an American jazz singer and guitarist. ... Stephen Paul Motian (born 25 March 1931 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania and raised in Providence, Rhode Island), is a American jazz drummer, percussionist and composer of Armenian extraction. ...


While onstage at a memorial concert in Philadelphia, he reportedly attempted to crush his pianist's hands with the instrument's keyboard cover, then punched trombonist Jimmy Knepper in the mouth. [11] On October 12, 1962, Mingus reportedly punched Knepper while the two men were working together at Mingus's apartment on a score for his upcoming concert at New York Town Hall and Knepper refused to take on more work. The blow broke one of Knepper's teeth, ruined his embouchure and resulted in the permanent loss of the top octave of his range on the trombone. This attack ended their working relationship and Knepper was unable to perform at the concert. Charged with assault, Mingus appeared in court in January, 1963 and was given a suspended sentence. [12] In another incident, saxophonist Jackie McLean, fearing the bassist was about to kill him, nearly stabbed Mingus after Mingus punched him. James M. (Jimmy) Knepper (*November 22, 1927 in Los Angeles, &#8224; 2003) was an American jazz trombonist. ... is the 285th day of the year (286th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The embouchure is the use of facial muscles and the shaping of the lips to the mouthpiece of a wind instrument. ... John Lenwood (Jackie) McLean (born May 17, 1932) is an American jazz alto saxophonist and educator, born in New York City. ...


Mingus's onstage destruction of an $800 bass [13] prompted British rockers The Animals—avid fans who witnessed Mingus's characteristic explosion at a London show—to emulate the outburst, starting a trend of rampant onstage destruction of musical equipment in "rock theater" popularized by Jimi Hendrix and The Who, continuing to this day. The US edition of The Animals self-titled debut album. ... This article contains a trivia section. ... The Who are an English rock band that first formed in 1964 and grew to be considered one of the greatest[1] and most influential[2] bands in the world. ...

Charles Mingus postage stamp; issued by the USPS on September 16, 1995.

This image is a postage stamp produced by the United States Postal Service after 1978. ... This image is a postage stamp produced by the United States Postal Service after 1978. ...

Awards and honors

In 1995, the United States Postal Service issued a stamp in his honor. Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full 1995 Gregorian calendar). ... The United States Postal Service (USPS) is an independent establishment of the executive branch of the United States government (see 39 U.S.C. Â§ 201) responsible for providing postal service in the U.S. Within the United States, it is colloquially referred to simply as the post office. ...


In 1997, he was posthumously awarded the Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award. The Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award is awarded by the Recording Academy to performers who, during their lifetimes, have made creative contributions of outstanding artistic significance to the field of recording [1]. This award is distinct from the Grammy Hall of Fame Award, which honors specific recordings rather than individuals, and...


Samples

See "Fables of Faubus".

Fables of Faubus is a song composed by jazz bassist and composer Charles Mingus. ...

Partial discography

Original cover of The Clown

Major works include: Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 598 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (600 × 602 pixel, file size: 68 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) This image is of a cover of an audio recording, and the copyright for it is most likely owned by either the publisher of the... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 598 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (600 × 602 pixel, file size: 68 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) This image is of a cover of an audio recording, and the copyright for it is most likely owned by either the publisher of the...

Year 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Bethlehem Records was a record label bought by King Records. ... Pithecanthropus Erectus is a 1956 album by jazz composer and bassist Charles Mingus. ... Year 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Atlantic Records (Atlantic Recording Corporation) is an American record label, and operates as a wholly owned subsidiary of Warner Music Group. ... The Clown is an album by Charles Mingus recorded and released in 1957. ... Year 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1957 Gregorian calendar). ... Tijuana Moods is a 1957 album by Charles Mingus. ... RCA Records is one of the flagship labels of Sony BMG Music Entertainment. ... New Tijuana Moods is a album by Charles Mingus. ... Blues & Roots, an album by Charles Mingus, was recorded and released in 1959. ... Year 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Mingus Ah Um is an album by Charles Mingus, recorded and released in 1959. ... Mingus Dynasty is an album by Charles Mingus, recorded and released in 1959. ... Year 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Mercury Records was a record label founded in Chicago, Illinois in 1945 by Irving Green, Berle Adams and Arthur Talmadge. ... Mingus at Antibes was originally a double album (now a single CD) recorded at a live 1960 performance at Juan-les-Pins by jazz bassist and composer Charles Mingus; it was released in 1976. ... Charles Mingus Presents Charles Mingus is an album by jazz bassist and composer Charles Mingus; it was recorded in 1960 and released in 1987. ... Oh Yeah is a album by Charles Mingus. ... Year 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Black Saint and the Sinner Lady is a 1963 jazz composition and album by bassist Charles Mingus. ... Year 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Mingus Mingus Mingus Mingus Mingus is a 1963 (see 1963 in music) album by jazz composer and bassist Charles Mingus. ... Eric Allan Dolphy (June 20, 1928 – June 29, 1964) was a jazz musician who played alto saxophone, flute and bass clarinet. ... Changes One is a 1974 (see 1974 in music) album by jazz composer and bassist Charles Mingus. ... A blonde haired, very skilled worker with a 70s look. ... Year 1976 (MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... // Epitaph Epitaph is the master work of Charles Mingus. ... Year 1990 (MCMXC) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar). ...

Books on Charles Mingus

  • His autobiography, Beneath the Underdog, presents a vibrantly boastful and possibly apocryphal account of his early career as a pimp.
  • Myself When I Am Real: The Life and Music of Charles Mingus by Gene Santoro, Oxford University Press (November 1, 2001), 480 pages, ISBN 0-19-514711-1
  • Mingus: A Critical Biography by Brian Priestley, Da Capo Press (April 1, 1984), 340 pages, ISBN 0-306-80217-1
  • Tonight At Noon: A Love Story by Sue Graham Mingus, Da Capo Press; Reprint edition (April, 2003), 272 pages, ISBN 0-306-81220-7. Written by his widow.
  • Charles Mingus - More Than a Fake Book by Charles Mingus, Hal Leonard Corporation (November 1, 1991), 160 pages, ISBN 0-7935-0900-9. Includes 2 CDs, photos, discography, music transcriptions, a Mingus comic book promoting his anti-bootlegging project, etc.
  • Mingus/Mingus : Two Memoirs by Janet Coleman, Al Young, Limelight Editions (August 1, 2004), 164 pages, ISBN 0-87910-149-0
  • I Know What I Know : The Music of Charles Mingus by Todd S. Jenkins, Praeger (2006), 196 pages, ISBN 0-27598-102-9
  • But Beautiful by Geoff Dyer, Abacus (2006), pages 103 - 127, ISBN 0-349-11005-0

In Judeo-Christian theologies, apocrypha refers to religious Sacred text that have questionable authenticity or are otherwise disputed. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

Movies

  • In 1959, Mingus provided the music for John Cassavetes's gritty New York City film, Shadows.
  • In 1968, Thomas Reichman directed the documentary Mingus: Charlie Mingus 1968.
  • In 1991, Ray Davies produced a documentary entitled Weird Nightmare. It contains footage of Mingus and interviews with artists making Hal Willner's tribute album of the same name, including Elvis Costello, Charlie Watts, Keith Richards, and Vernon Reid.
  • Charles Mingus: Triumph of the Underdog is a 78 minute long documentary film on Charles Mingus directed by Don McGlynn and released in 1998 .

John Nicholas Cassavetes (December 9, 1929–February 3, 1989) was a Greek American actor, screenwriter, and director. ... Raymond Douglas Davies, CBE (born June 21, 1944 in Fortis Green, London) is an influential English rock musician, best known as lead singer-songwriter for The Kinks - one of the most influential, prolific and long-lived British Invasion bands - which he led with his younger brother, Dave. ... Hal Willner (born 1957, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania) is a music producer working in recording, Films, TV and live events. ... Elvis Costello (born Declan Patrick MacManus August 25, 1954 in London) is an English musician, singer, and songwriter. ... Charles Robert Charlie Watts (born 2 June 1941) is the drummer of The Rolling Stones. ... Keith Richards (born 18 December 1943) is an English guitarist, songwriter, singer and a founding member of The Rolling Stones in 1962. ... Vernon Reid (born August 22, 1958) is a guitar player, perhaps best known as the founder and primary songwriter of hard rock group Living Colour. ... Documentary film is a broad category of visual expression that is based on the attempt, in one fashion or another, to document reality. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Myself When I Am Real: The Life and Music of Charles Mingus, by Gene Santoro. Jazz Institute of Chicago book review.
  2. ^ Myself When I am Real: The Life and Music of Charles Mingus, Gene Santoro (Oxford University Press, 1994) ISBN 0195097335
  3. ^ Tonight at Noon: A Love Story, Sue Graham Mingus (Pantheon, 2002) ISBN 0375421157
  4. ^ Five More Articles on Jazz (Rexroth). Bureau of Public Secrets article.
  5. ^ Saying Something: Jazz Improvisation and Interaction, Ingrid Monson (University of Chicago Press, 1997) ISBN 0226534782
  6. ^ Town Hall Train Wreck. Village Voice article by Gene Santoro.
  7. ^ The Black Saint and the Sinner Lady. Album overview on All Music Guide.
  8. ^ Tonight at Noon: Three of Four Shades of Love. Album overview on All Music Guide.
  9. ^ RÉNE MARIE: Jump, and the net will appear. Interview by Bruce Crowther.
  10. ^ Paris When He Sizzles. Village Voice article by Will Friedwald.
  11. ^ Charles Mingus. Biography on MP3.com.
  12. ^ JIMMY KNEPPER. The Independent article by Steve Voce.
  13. ^ Charles Mingus: Changes One and Two. TimesOnline album review by John Bungey.

External links

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