FACTOID # 2: Puerto Rico has roughly the same gross state product as Montana, Wyoming and North Dakota combined.
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Encyclopedia > Charles II of Parma
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Charles Louis (1799-1883) was the King of Etruria (1803-1807), the Duke of Lucca (1815-1847) and the Duke of Parma (1847-1848). He was the grandson of Duke Ferdinand of Parma. When Ferdinand was deposed by Napoleon Bonaparte his son, Louis, Charles Louis's father, was made king of Etruria, a new state Bonaparte created from the Grand Duchy of Tuscany. Charles Louis succeeded his father in 1803. In 1807 he was driven from Etruria by Napoleon's army. 1799 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... 1883 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Bonaparte as general Napoleon Bonaparte ( 15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a general of the French Revolution and was the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from November 11, 1799 to May 18, 1804, then as Emperor of the French (Empereur des Français... Merchant flag of the Kingdom of Etruria. ...

After Napoleon's downfall in 1815 the House of Bourbon was not restored to the Duchy of Parma, but rather the duchy was given to Maria Louisa, Napoleon's wife. Charles Louis was compensated with the smaller Duchy of Lucca. Maria Louisa died in 1847 and was succeeded by Charles Louis as Charles II. Lucca was incorporated into the Grand Duchy of Tuscany. The House of Bourbon is an important European royal house. ... ... Duchy of Lucca was an Italian state that was formed in 1815 according to the Congress of Vienna, with capital Lucca. ...

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CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: St. Charles Borromeo (7012 words)
Charles' office of secretary of state and his care for the business of the family did not prevent him from giving time to study, and even to recreations in the form of playing the lute and violoncello, and a game of ball.
Charles was now assured that it was his duty to remain in the world; but all the more he felt he ought to visit his diocese, though the pope always opposed his departure.
Charles was at Lodi, at the funeral of the bishop.
Charles IV (1480 words)
When he was born, Charles Emanuel was also fifth in line to the English and Scottish thrones - after Charles, Prince of Wales, Henry, Cardinal Duke of York, King Charles Emanuel III of Sardinia, and the Duke of Savoy (later King Victor Amadeus III of Sardinia).
Two of Charles Emanuel's sisters were married to the younger brothers of King Louis XVI of France (Giuseppina to the Comte de Provence, later King Louis XVIII, and Maria Teresa to the Comte d'Artois, later King Charles X).
Charles Emanuel's sister Giuseppina suggested a match with her sister-in-law Princess Marie-Clothilde of France, daughter of the late Dauphin Louis and of his wife, Princess Maria Josefa of Saxony.
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