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Encyclopedia > Charles II of England
Charles II
King of England, Scots and Ireland (more...)
Reign 29 May 16606 February 1685
de jure from 30 January 1649
Predecessor Richard Cromwell (de facto)
Charles I (de jure)
Successor James II/VII
Consort Catherine of Braganza
Royal house House of Stuart
Father Charles I
Mother Henrietta Maria of France
Born 29 May 1630
St. James's Palace
Died 6 February 1685 (aged 54)
Burial Westminster Abbey

Charles II (29 May 16306 February 1685) was the King of England, Scotland, and Ireland. He asserted his accession to the throne when his father Charles I was executed at Whitehall on 30 January 1649, the climax of the "second" English Civil War. When the Protectorate collapsed under Richard Cromwell in 1660, Gen, George Monck invited Charles to come to England and assume his throne. Upon his arrival, Parliament backdated his reign to the above-mentioned date. His de facto reign, however, began on 29 May 1660 when he landed in England after sailing from his place of exile in the the United Provences. He died in 1685 at the age 55, shortly after a death-bed conversion to Catholicism. He was succeeded by his younger brother James II (1685-88). Charles was popularly known as the "Merrie Monarch", in reference, to both the liveliness and hedonism of his court and a the general relief at the failure of the Puritan experiment and Cromwell's police state. This is a list of the monarchs of England, which was unified as a kingdom in a series of stages between the reigns of Alfred the Great of Wessex and his grandson Athelstan (from 878 to 927). ... The Royal Coat of Arms of Scotland, as used before 1603 The monarch of Scotland was the head of state of the Kingdom of Scotland. ... The precise style of British Sovereigns has varied over the years. ... Image File history File links Charles_II_of_England. ... May 29 is the 149th day of the year (150th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events January 1 - Colonel George Monck with his regiment crosses from Scotland to England at the village of Coldstream and begins advance towards London in support of English Restoration. ... February 6 is the 37th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 6 - James Stuart, Duke of York becomes King James II of England and Ireland and King James VII of Scotland. ... January 30 is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events January 30 - King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland is beheaded. ... Richard Cromwell (4 October 1626 – 12 July 1712) was the third son of Oliver Cromwell, and the second Lord Protector of England, Scotland and Ireland, for little over eight months, from 3 September 1658 until 25 May 1659. ... Charles I (19 November 1600 – 30 January 1649) was King of England, King of Scotland and King of Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution in 1649. ... James II of England (also known as James VII of Scotland; 14 October 1633 – 16 September 1701) became King of England, King of Scots, and King of Ireland on 6 February 1685, and Duke of Normandy on 31 December 1660. ... Catherine of Braganza (November 25, 1638 – November 30, 1705) (Catherine Henrietta, Portuguese: Catarina Henriqueta de Bragança), was the queen consort of King Charles II of England. ... A Royal House or Dynasty is a sort of family name used by royalty. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Charles I (19 November 1600 – 30 January 1649) was King of England, King of Scotland and King of Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution in 1649. ... Queen Henrietta Maria (November 25, 1609 – September 10, 1669) was Queen Consort of England, Scotland and Ireland (June 13, 1625 - January 30, 1649) through her marriage to Charles I. The U.S. state of Maryland (in Latin, Terra Mariae) was so named in her honour by Cæcilius Calvert, son... May 29 is the 149th day of the year (150th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 22 - Native American Quadequine introduces Popcorn to English colonists. ... St Jamess Palace and The Mall by Jan Kip, 1715. ... February 6 is the 37th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 6 - James Stuart, Duke of York becomes King James II of England and Ireland and King James VII of Scotland. ... The Collegiate Church of St Peter, Westminster, which is almost always referred to by its original name of Westminster Abbey, is a mainly Gothic church, on the scale of a cathedral (and indeed often mistaken for one), in Westminster, London, just to the west of the Palace of Westminster. ... May 29 is the 149th day of the year (150th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 22 - Native American Quadequine introduces Popcorn to English colonists. ... February 6 is the 37th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 6 - James Stuart, Duke of York becomes King James II of England and Ireland and King James VII of Scotland. ... This is a list of British monarchs, that is, the monarchs on the thrones of some of the various kingdoms that have existed on, or incorporated, the island of Great Britain, namely: England (united with Wales from 1536) up to 1707; Scotland up to 1707; The Kingdom of Great Britain... Motto (Latin) No one provokes me with impunity Cha togar mfhearg gun dioladh (Scottish Gaelic) Wha daur meddle wi me?(Scots)1 Anthem (Multiple unofficial anthems) Scotlands location in Europe Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow Official languages English, Gaelic and Scots1 Government Constitutional monarchy  -  Monarch Queen Elizabeth II... Charles I (19 November 1600 – 30 January 1649) was King of England, King of Scotland and King of Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution in 1649. ... Whitehall, London, looking south towards the Houses of Parliament. ... January 30 is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events January 30 - King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland is beheaded. ... The English Civil War consisted of a series of armed conflicts and political machinations that took place between Parliamentarians (known as Roundheads) and Royalists (known as Cavaliers) between 1642 and 1651. ... Richard Cromwell (4 October 1626 – 12 July 1712) was the third son of Oliver Cromwell, and the second Lord Protector of England, Scotland and Ireland, for little over eight months, from 3 September 1658 until 25 May 1659. ... George Monck, 1st Duke of Albemarle by Sir Peter Lely, painted 1665–1666. ... May 29 is the 149th day of the year (150th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events January 1 - Colonel George Monck with his regiment crosses from Scotland to England at the village of Coldstream and begins advance towards London in support of English Restoration. ... Motto: Je Maintiendrai (Dutch: Ik zal handhaven, English: I Shall Uphold) Anthem: Wilhelmus van Nassouwe Capital Amsterdam1 Largest city Amsterdam Official language(s) Dutch2 Government Parliamentary democracy Constitutional monarchy  - Queen Beatrix  - Prime minister Jan Peter Balkenende Independence Eighty Years War   - Declared July 26, 1581   - Recognised January 30, 1648 (by Spain... James II of England (also known as James VII of Scotland; 14 October 1633 – 16 September 1701) became King of England, King of Scots, and King of Ireland on 6 February 1685, and Duke of Normandy on 31 December 1660. ... Gadabout redirects here. ...


After his father's execution, following his defeat in the second English Civil War, the victorious "Roundheads" abolished the monarchy and the country was declared a Commonwealth, effectively a republic, under the Rump Parliament. After the failure of the various factions of the Puritans to govern effectively, the "Commonwealth" became, under Oliver Cromwell, effectively a military dictatorship with the latter taking the title Lord Protector; Cromwell had floated the idea of becoming king but desisted after realizing strong opposition amongst his supporters, particular his "base", the army. The English Civil War consisted of a series of armed conflicts and political machinations that took place between Parliamentarians (known as Roundheads) and Royalists (known as Cavaliers) between 1642 and 1651. ... For the U.S., see Commonwealth (United States). ... The Rump Parliament was the name of the English Parliament immediately following the Long Parliament, after Prides Purge of December 6, 1648 had removed those Members of Parliament hostile to the intentions of the Grandees in the New Model Army to try King Charles I for high treason. ... Oliver Cromwell (25 April 1599 – 3 September 1658) was an English military and political leader best known for his involvement in making England into a republican Commonwealth and for his later role as Lord Protector of England, Scotland and Ireland. ... Lord Protector is a particular English title for Heads of State, with two meanings (and full styles) at different periods of history. ...


The exact date at which Charles became King is vague due to the uncertain political situation of the time. His father's execution on 30 January 1649, made him in law and custom King Charles II from that moment. He was proclaimed King in Scotland on 5 February and Jersey on 16 February 1649 — but also recognised in a few British colonies (notably including the Colony and Dominion Presbyterians) before he was finally crowned King of Scots in Scone on 1 January 1651. However, his reign there was short-lived as he was soon driven out by the republican armies, led by Oliver Cromwell and his son-in-law Henry Ireton. His coronation in England would not be until after Cromwell's death and the monarchy's restoration in May 1660; his intervening exile alternating between the United Provinces and France. January 30 is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events January 30 - King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland is beheaded. ... is the 36th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... February 16 is the 47th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events January 30 - King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland is beheaded. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events January 1 - Charles II crowned King of Scotland in Scone. ...


Much like his father, Charles II struggled during his reign in his relations with Parliament and the commerical interests that increasingly began to dominate it. Relations between the two never reached the same level of hostility as they had under Charles I, in part because of the second Charles' lassitude and absorption in mistresses and his determination, as Pope Leo X had put it, "God has given us the papacy; let us enjoy it." Charles was also a good deal more flexible and able in his handling of men than either his father or brother. He also never carried the notion of the "Divine Right" of Kings to the point of open breach with the London power elites and the religious dissenters. A parliament is a legislature, especially in those countries whose system of government is based on the Westminster system modelled after that of the United Kingdom. ...


He was only able to achieve true success towards the end of his reign, by dispensing with Parliament and ruling alone due to financial subsidies from France. Unlike his father's however, this policy did not lead to widespread popular opposition or civil war, as he avoided the imposition of any new taxes, thanks in part to monies he received from the French king, Louis XIV to support the Sun King's foreign policies (cemented by the Treaty_of_Dover), particularly hostility to the Dutch, a position very popular with London's merchant class as the former were economic and imperial rivals of England; in pursuing this line, Charles was essentially following Cromwell's lead, to the point of going to war with the Dutch. Though, in general, the Puritan had had more success, the Dutch colony in North America, "New Amsterdam" was conquered, becoming New York (named in honor of his brother, whose title was Duke of York and who was also head of the English Navy). Louis XIV King of France and Navarre By Hyacinthe Rigaud (1701) Louis XIV (Louis-Dieudonné) (September 5, 1638–September 1, 1715) reigned as King of France and King of Navarre from May 14, 1643 until his death. ... The Treaty of Dover was secret treaty of 1670 between Charles II of England and Louis XIV of France. ...


His success in ensuring his brother's succession was also partially due to his parliamentary opponents' overreaching as well Charles' own policy of tactical retreats until his opponents had weakened themselves, particularly the faction led by Anthony Ashley-Cooper, created Earl of Shaftesbury in 1672 by Charles. As neither political faction, nor the people, wished to push the matter to the point of another civil war, Charles was able to deftly use this sentiment to further isolate and defeat his parliamentary opponents. Instead of his father's and brother's refusal to attempt to deal with Parliament on its own terms, Charles had no problem with using his opponents' own tactics to defeat them. The title of Earl of Shaftesbury was created in 1672 for Anthony Ashley Cooper, 1st Baron Ashley, a prominent politician in the Cabal then dominating the policies of King Charles II. Earls of Shaftesbury (1672) Anthony Ashley Cooper, 1st Earl of Shaftesbury (1621-1683) Anthony Ashley Cooper, 2nd Earl of...


The principal conflicts of his reign revolved around a number of interlinked issues in domestic and foreign policy, most of which were related to the conflict between Protestants and Catholics, which while not as intense as in the first half of the 17th century, was still a major issue complicating nearly every international conflict in Europe. Copupled with the political struggle over the extent of the monarch's power, the Catholic/Protestant divide intensified the tension between political factions and fueling intrigue and embittering politics. It was during this reign that the Whig and Tory political parties factions first developed. The former supporting the expansion of Parliament's power (and the implicit absorption of the executive, i.e. the royal "perogative"). The latter supported the monarchy against Parliamentary encroachment upon its powers and privileges. These groupings were in no way comparable to the political parties of the later 19th and 20th centuries. The Tory faction eventually became modern Conservative Party (in opposition as of 2007). The Whigs (with the Tories) are often described as one of two political parties in England and later the United Kingdom from the late 17th to the mid 19th centuries. ... For other uses, see Tory (disambiguation). ... Political parties Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A political party is a political organization that seeks to attain political power within a government, usually by participating in electoral campaigns. ...


He famously fathered numerous illegitimate children, by numerous mistresses (thirteen of whom we know by name), of whom he acknowledged fourteen, but no legitimate children who lived. Charles was also a patron of the arts, and he and his court were largely responsible for the revival of public drama and music, after their virtual prohibition under the earlier Protectorate. Some historians, such as Maurice Ashley, believe that Charles was secretly a Roman Catholic for much of his life like his brother James while others, such as Antonia Fraser, disagree. All that is known for certain is that he had promised Louis XIV to become a Catholic in the Secrety Treaty of Dover for a large sum of money, and that, as mentioned above, he converted to Roman Catholicism on his deathbed, refusing the ministrations of an Anglican divine for those of a Catholic Church.[1] // Illegitimacy is a term that was once in common use for the status of being born to parents who were not validly married to one another. ... Legitimacy is the popular acceptance of a governing regime or law. ... ... The Protectorate in English history refers specifically to the English government of 1653 to 1659 under the direct control of Oliver Cromwell, who assumed the title of Lord Protector of the newly declared Commonwealth of England (later the Commonwealth of England, Scotland, and Ireland) after the English Civil War. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Roman Catholic Church... James II of England (also known as James VII of Scotland; 14 October 1633 – 16 September 1701) became King of England, King of Scots, and King of Ireland on 6 February 1685, and Duke of Normandy on 31 December 1660. ... Lady Antonia Fraser, née Pakenham, (born August 27, 1932) is a British author of history and novels, best known for writing biographies. ... The Treaty of Dover was secret treaty of 1670 between Charles II of England and Louis XIV of France. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Roman Catholic Church...

Charles presented with the first pineapple grown in England (1675 painting by Hendrik Danckerts).

Contents

Image File history File links Charles-pineapple. ... Image File history File links Charles-pineapple. ...

Early life

Charles, the eldest surviving son of Charles I of England and Henrietta Maria of France, was born Charles Stuart in St. James's Palace on 28 May 1630. At birth, he automatically became (as the eldest surviving son of the Sovereign) Duke of Cornwall and Duke of Rothesay; shortly after his birth, he was crowned Prince of Wales. Due to the disruption caused by the English Civil War, he was never formally invested with the Honours of the Principality of Wales. Charles I (19 November 1600 – 30 January 1649) was King of England, King of Scotland and King of Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution in 1649. ... Henrietta Maria Henrietta Maria (November 25, 1609 - September 10, 1669) was Queen Consort of England, Scotland and Ireland (June 13, 1625 - January 30, 1649) through her marriage to Charles I. The U.S. state of Maryland (in Latin, Terra Maria) was so named in her honour by Cæcilius Calvert... St Jamess Palace and The Mall by Jan Kip, 1715. ... May 28 is the 148th day of the year (149th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 22 - Native American Quadequine introduces Popcorn to English colonists. ... The Dukedom of Cornwall was the first dukedom created in the peerage of England. ... Banner of the Duke of Rothesay, the quarterings represent the Great Steward of Scotland and the Lord of the Isles. ... The Prince of Wales Feathers. This Heraldic badge of the Heir Apparent is derived from the ostrich feathers borne by Edward, the Black Prince. ... The English Civil War consisted of a series of armed conflicts and political machinations that took place between Parliamentarians (known as Roundheads) and Royalists (known as Cavaliers) between 1642 and 1651. ... Coronet of 1969 The Honours of the Principality of Wales are the Crown Jewels used at the investiture of Princes of Wales. ...

British Royalty
House of Stuart
Charles II
Illegitimate sons included
   James Scott, Duke of Monmouth
   Charles FitzRoy, Duke of Cleveland and Southampton
   Henry FitzRoy, Duke of Grafton
   George FitzRoy, Duke of Northumberland
   Charles Beauclerk, Duke of St Albans
   Charles Lennox, Duke of Richmond and Lennox


During the 1640s, when the Prince of Wales was still young, his father Charles I fought parliamentary and Puritan forces in the English Civil War. The prince accompanied his father during the Battle of Edgehill and, at the age of fifteen, participated in the campaigns of 1645, when he was made titular commander of the English forces in the West Country. In 1647, due to fears for his safety, he left England, going first to the Isles of Scilly, then to Jersey, and finally to France, where his mother was already living in exile. (His cousin, Louis XIV sat on the French throne.) The British monarch or Sovereign is the head of state of the United Kingdom and in the British overseas territories. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Image File history File links Armoiries_Grande-Bretagne_1603. ... James Scott, 1st Duke of Monmouth James Crofts, later James Scott, 1st Duke of Monmouth and of Buccleuch (April 9, 1649 – July 15, 1685) was born in Rotterdam in the Netherlands, the illegitimate son of Charles II and his mistress, Lucy Walter, who had followed him into continental exile after... Charles Fitzroy (or Palmer) (1662 - September 9, 1730) was the eldest son of Barbara Villiers, Countess of Castlemaine and Catholic, had him christened into the Catholic faith, but six days later the King had him rechristened into the Church of England. ... Henry FitzRoy, 1st Duke of Grafton (1663 - 1690) was the natural son of King Charles II by Barbara Villiers, Countess of Castlemaine and later Duchess of Cleveland. ... George Fitzroy, 1st Duke of Northumberland (Oxford, December 28, 1665 - Epsom, June 28, 1716) was the third and youngest illegitimate son of King Charles II. His mother was Barbara Villiers, Countess of Castlemaine (also known as Barbara Villiers, Duchess of Cleveland). ... Charles Beauclerk circa 1690. ... Charles Lennox, 1st Duke of Richmond and 1st Duke of Lennox (29 July 1672 _ 27 May 1723), was the illegitimate son of Charles II of England and his mistress Louise de Keroualle, Duchess of Portsmouth. ... The Puritans were members of a group of radical Protestants which developed in England after the Reformation. ... The Battle of Edgehill (or Edge Hill) was the first pitched battle of the First English Civil War. ... St Martins taken from the helicopter to Penzance View from Tresco, the second largest member of the Isles of Scilly For the area of Surrey, see Scilly Isles, Surrey. ... Louis XIV King of France and Navarre By Hyacinthe Rigaud (1701) Louis XIV (Louis-Dieudonné) (September 5, 1638–September 1, 1715) reigned as King of France and King of Navarre from May 14, 1643 until his death. ...


In 1648, during the Second Civil War, Charles moved to The Hague, where his sister Mary and his brother-in-law Prince of Orange seemed more likely to provide substantial aid to the Royalist cause than the Queen's French relations. However Charles was neither able to use the royalist fleet that came under his control to any advantage, nor to reach Scotland in time to join up with the royalist "Engagers" army of the Duke of Hamilton, before it was defeated at the Battle of Preston. The Second English Civil War (1648–1649) was the second of three wars known as the English Civil War (or Wars) which refers to the series of armed conflicts and political machinations which took place between Parliamentarians and Royalists from 1642 until 1652 and include the First English Civil... Coordinates: Country Netherlands Province South Holland Area (2006)  - Municipality 98. ... Mary, Princess Royal and Princess Orange-Nassau (4 November 1631 - 24 December 1660) was the eldest daughter of King Charles I of England, Scotland, and Ireland and his queen, Henrietta Maria. ... William II (fragment of a 1641 painting by Antoon van Dijck) William II, Prince of Orange (May 27, 1626 – November 6, 1650), stadtholder of the United Provinces of the Netherlands from March 14, 1647 until his death. ... The Engagers in Scottish history were a moderate faction of the Covenanter movement, who ruled Scotland during the Wars of the Three Kingdoms. ... James Hamilton, 1st Duke of Hamilton by Daniel Mytens. ... Two battles are known as the Battle of Preston: The Battle of Preston (1648) was a victory for Oliver Cromwell over the Royalists during the English Civil War. ...


At the Hague, Charles II had an affair with Lucy Walter (whom, some alleged, he secretly married). Their son, James Crofts (afterwards Duke of Monmouth and Duke of Buccleuch), was to become the most prominent of Charles's many illegitimate sons in English political life, and famously led a rebellion on Charles' death, aimed at placing himself (a staunch Protestant) on the throne instead of Charles' Catholic brother James. Lucy Walter (c. ... James Scott, 1st Duke of Monmouth James Crofts, later James Scott, 1st Duke of Monmouth and of Buccleuch (April 9, 1649 – July 15, 1685) was born in Rotterdam in the Netherlands, the illegitimate son of Charles II and his mistress, Lucy Walter, who had followed him into continental exile after... James Crofts, later Scott, 1st Duke of Monmouth, 1st Duke of Buccleuch (April 9, 1649–July 15, 1685) recognised by some as James II of England and James VII of Scotland, was born in Rotterdam in the Netherlands, the son of Charles II and his mistress, Lucy Walter, who... The title of Duke of Buccleuch (IPA ) was created in the Peerage of Scotland on 20 April 1663 for the Duke of Monmouth, eldest illegitimate son of Charles II of England, who had married Anne Scott, 4th Countess of Buccleuch. ...


Charles I was captured in 1647. He escaped and was recaptured in 1648. Despite his son's efforts to save him, Charles I was executed in 1649, and England was proclaimed a republic. in particular, for the archaizing senses of republic, as a translation of politeia or res publica Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A republic is a form of government maintained by a state or country whose sovereignty is based on popular consent and whose...

Charles II when Prince of Wales by William Dobson, circa 1642 or 1643.
Charles II when Prince of Wales by William Dobson, circa 1642 or 1643.

At the same time, however, Scotland recognized Charles as his father's successor—even the Covenanters (led by the Marquess of Argyll), the most extreme Presbyterian group in Scotland, proved unwilling to allow the English to decide the fate of their monarchy. Consequently, on 5 February 1649, Charles II was proclaimed King of Scots in Edinburgh. He would not be allowed to enjoy the powers that followed from his title until such time as he signed the Solemn League and Covenant (an agreement between England and Scotland that the Church of Scotland should not be remodelled on Anglican lines but should remain Presbyterian — the form of church governance preferred by most in Scotland — and that the Church of England and the Church of Ireland should be reformed along the same lines) (see also Treaty of Breda (1650)). Upon his arrival in Scotland on 23 June 1650, he formally agreed to the Covenant; his abandonment of Anglicanism, although winning him support in Scotland, left him unpopular in England. Charles himself soon came to despise his Scottish hosts (or "gaolers", as he came to see the dour Covenanters), and supposedly celebrated at the news of the Covenanters' defeat at Dunbar in September 1650. Image File history File links Charles_II_when_Prince_of_Wales_by_William_Dobson,_1642. ... Image File history File links Charles_II_when_Prince_of_Wales_by_William_Dobson,_1642. ... The Painter with Sir Charles Cottrell and Sir Balthasar Gerbier by William Dobson, circa 1645. ... The Covenanters, named after the Solemn League and Covenant, were a party that, originating in the Reformation movement, played an important part in the history of Scotland, and to a lesser extent in that of England, during the 17th century. ... Archibald Campbell Archibald Campbell, 1st Marquess of Argyll and 8th Earl of Argyll (1607 - 27 May 1661) was the de facto head of government in Scotland during most of the Scottish Civil War (which was part of the Wars of the Three Kingdoms). ... is the 36th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events January 30 - King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland is beheaded. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... James VI of Scotland (James I of England) was opposed by the Covenanters in his attempt to bring the Anglican Church into Scotland The Covenanters formed an important movement in the religion and politics of Scotland in the 17th century. ... The Church of Scotland (CofS, known informally as The Kirk, Eaglais na h-Alba in Scottish Gaelic) is the national church of Scotland. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Anglicanism is the term used to encapsulate... Presbyterianism is a form of church government which is most prevalent within the Reformed branch of Protestant Western Christianity. ... The Church of England is the officially established Christian church[1] in England, and acts as the mother and senior branch of the worldwide Anglican Communion, as well as a founding member of the Porvoo Communion. ... The Church of Ireland (Irish: ) is an autonomous province of the Anglican Communion, operating seamlessly across the border between the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland. ... The Treaty of Breda (1650) was signed on May 1, 1650 between Charles II (King in exile of England, Scotland and Ireland) and the Scottish Covenanters during the Wars of the Three Kingdoms. ... is the 174th day of the year (175th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1650 (MDCL) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... There were two Battles of Dunbar: Battle of Dunbar (1296), in the Wars of Scottish Independence. ...


Nevertheless, the Scots remained Charles's best hope of restoration, and he was crowned King of Scots at Scone on 1 January 1651. With Cromwell's forces threatening Charles's position in Scotland, it was decided to mount an attack on England. With many of the Scots (including Argyll and other leading Covenanters) refusing to participate, and with few English royalists joining the force as it moved south into England, the invasion ended in defeat at the Battle of Worcester on 3 September 1651, following which Charles is said to have hidden in the Royal Oak at Boscobel House, subsequently escaping to France in disguise. Parliament put a reward of £1,000 on the king's head, and the penalty of death for anyone caught helping him. Through six weeks of narrow escapes Charles managed to flee England. (See also Escape of Charles II.) Scone is a large village, a mile north of Perth, Scotland. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events January 1 - Charles II crowned King of Scotland in Scone. ... Oliver Cromwell (25 April 1599 – 3 September 1658) was an English military and political leader best known for his involvement in making England into a republican Commonwealth and for his later role as Lord Protector of England, Scotland and Ireland. ... The Battle of Worcester was the final battle of the English Civil War. ... is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events January 1 - Charles II crowned King of Scotland in Scone. ... The Royal Oak is the name given to the oak tree within which King Charles II of England hid to escape the Roundheads following the Battle of Worcester in 1651. ... Boscobel House, on the Shropshire/Staffordshire border, England, was built around 1632, when landowner John Gifford of White Ladies Priory converted a timber-framed farmhouse into a hunting lodge, Boscobel house became one of the most evocative sites in the English historical imagination. ... ISO 4217 Code GBP User(s) United Kingdom, Crown Dependencies Inflation 2. ... The Escape of Charles II from England in 1651 is a key episode in his life. ...


Impoverished, Charles could not obtain sufficient support to mount a serious challenge to Cromwell's government. Despite the Stuart familial connections through Henrietta Maria and the Princess of Orange, France and the United Provinces allied themselves with Cromwell's government, forcing Charles to turn to Spain for aid. He attempted to raise an army, but failed due to his financial shortcomings! Map of Dutch Republic by Joannes Janssonius United Netherlands redirects here. ...


Restoration

Monarchical Styles of
King Charles II of England
Reference style His Majesty
Spoken style Your Majesty
Alternative style Sire
Monarchical Styles of
Charles II, King of Scots
Reference style His Grace
Spoken style Your Grace
Alternative style Sire

After the death of Oliver Cromwell in 1658, Charles' chances of regaining the Crown seemed slim. Oliver Cromwell was succeeded as Lord Protector by his son, Richard Cromwell. However, the new Lord Protector, with no power base in either Parliament or the New Model Army, was forced to abdicate in 1659. The Protectorate of England was abolished, and the Commonwealth of England re-established. During the civil and military unrest which followed, George Monck, the Governor of Scotland, was concerned that the nation would descend into anarchy. Monck and his army marched into the City of London and forced the Long Parliament to dissolve itself. For the first time in almost twenty years, the members of Parliament faced a general election. Image File history File links Edward's_crown_PD_cleaned. ... A style of office, or honorific, is a form of address which by tradition or law precedes a reference to a person who holds a title or post, or to the political office itself. ... Look up majesty in Wiktionary, the free dictionary Majesty is an English word rooting in the Latin Maiestas, meaning literally, Greatness. ... A style of office, or honorific, is a form of address which by tradition or law precedes a reference to a person who holds a title or post, or to the political office itself. ... Oliver Cromwell (25 April 1599 – 3 September 1658) was an English military and political leader best known for his involvement in making England into a republican Commonwealth and for his later role as Lord Protector of England, Scotland and Ireland. ... Lord Protector is a particular English title for Heads of State, with two meanings (and full styles) at different periods of history. ... Richard Cromwell (4 October 1626 – 12 July 1712) was the third son of Oliver Cromwell, and the second Lord Protector of England, Scotland and Ireland, for little over eight months, from 3 September 1658 until 25 May 1659. ... The New Model Army became the best known of the various Parliamentarian armies in the English Civil War. ... Motto: PAX QUÆRITUR BELLO (English: Peace is sought through war) Anthem: Multiple unofficial anthems Capital London Language(s) English Government Republic Lord Protector  - 1649-1658 Oliver Cromwell Legislature Rump Parliament Barebones Parliament History  - Declaration of Commonwealth May 19, 1649  - Declaration of Breda April 4, 1660 Area 130,395... George Monck, 1st Duke of Albemarle by Sir Peter Lely, painted 1665–1666. ... The City of London is a geographically-small city within Greater London, England. ... The Long Parliament is the name of the English Parliament called by Charles I, in 1640, following the Bishops Wars. ...


A predominantly Royalist House of Commons was elected. The Convention Parliament, soon after it assembled on 25 April 1660, received news of the Declaration of Breda (8 May 1660), in which Charles agreed, amongst other things, to pardon many of his father's enemies. It also subsequently declared that Charles II had been the lawful Sovereign since Charles I's execution in 1649. The term Convention Parliament has been applied to three different English Parliaments, of 1399, 1660 and 1689. ... April 25 is the 115th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (116th in leap years). ... // Events January 1 - Colonel George Monck with his regiment crosses from Scotland to England at the village of Coldstream and begins advance towards London in support of English Restoration. ... Breda in the Netherlands, where King Charles II of England resided during his exile, has given its name to his Declaration of Breda (1660). ... May 8 is the 128th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (129th in leap years). ... // Events January 1 - Colonel George Monck with his regiment crosses from Scotland to England at the village of Coldstream and begins advance towards London in support of English Restoration. ...


Charles set out for England, arriving in Dover on 23 May 1660 and reaching London on 29 May (which is considered the date of the Restoration, and was Charles' thirtieth birthday). Although Charles granted amnesty to Cromwell's supporters in the Act of Indemnity and Oblivion, this made specific provision for people to be excluded by the indemnity through act of Parliament. In the end 13 people were executed: they were hanged, drawn and quartered; others were given life imprisonment or simply excluded from office for life. The bodies of Oliver Cromwell, Henry Ireton and John Bradshaw were subjected to the indignity of posthumous executions. Arms of Dover Borough Council This article is about the English port/town. ... is the 143rd day of the year (144th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events January 1 - Colonel George Monck with his regiment crosses from Scotland to England at the village of Coldstream and begins advance towards London in support of English Restoration. ... May 29 is the 149th day of the year (150th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... King Charles II, the first monarch to rule after the English Restoration. ... Look up Amnesty in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Indemnity and Oblivion Act ... To be hanged, drawn, and quartered was the penalty once ordained in England for high treason. ... Oliver Cromwell (25 April 1599 – 3 September 1658) was an English military and political leader best known for his involvement in making England into a republican Commonwealth and for his later role as Lord Protector of England, Scotland and Ireland. ... Henry Ireton Henry Ireton (1611 - November 26, 1651), was an English general in the army of Parliament during the English Civil War. ... John Bradshaw (1602-October 31, 1659) was one of the judges to preside over the trial and subsequent death sentence of Charles I of England. ... Posthumous execution is the ritual execution of an already dead body. ...


Cavalier Parliament

Charles II was restored as King of England in 1660.
Charles II was restored as King of England in 1660.

The Convention Parliament was dissolved in December 1660. Shortly after Charles's coronation at Westminster Abbey on 23 April 1661, the second Parliament of the reign—the Cavalier Parliament—assembled. As the Cavalier Parliament was overwhelmingly Royalist, Charles saw no reason to dissolve it and force another general election for seventeen years. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (752x1159, 66 KB) Beschreibung Description: Charles II. of England Source: http://www. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (752x1159, 66 KB) Beschreibung Description: Charles II. of England Source: http://www. ... The Collegiate Church of St Peter, Westminster, which is almost always referred to by its original name of Westminster Abbey, is a mainly Gothic church, on the scale of a cathedral (and indeed often mistaken for one), in Westminster, London, just to the west of the Palace of Westminster. ... April 23 is the 113th day of the year (114th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1661 (MDCLXI) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Cavalier Parliament of Britain lasted from May 8, 1661 until January 24, 1679. ...


The Cavalier Parliament concerned itself with the agenda of Charles' chief advisor, Lord Clarendon (Edward Hyde, 1st Earl of Clarendon). Lord Clarendon sought to discourage non-conformity to the Church of England; at his instigation, the Cavalier Parliament passed several acts which became part of the "Clarendon Code". The Conventicle Act 1664 prohibited religious assemblies of more than five people, except under the auspices of the Church of England. The Five Mile Act 1665 prohibited clergymen from coming within five miles of a parish from which they had been banished. The Conventicle and Five Mile Acts remained in effect for the remainder of Charles' reign. Other parts of the Clarendon Code included the Corporation Act 1661 and the Act of Uniformity 1662. Edward Hyde, 1st Earl of Clarendon (18 February 1609–9 December 1674) was an English historian, statesman and grandfather of two queens regnant, Mary II and Anne. ... In English history, a non-conformist is any member of a Protestant congregation not affiliated with the Church of England. ... The Church of England is the officially established Christian church[1] in England, and acts as the mother and senior branch of the worldwide Anglican Communion, as well as a founding member of the Porvoo Communion. ... The Conventicle Act of 1664, 16 Charles II c. ... The Five Mile Act, 17 Charles II c. ... The Corporation Act of 1661 belongs to the general category of test acts, designed for the express purpose of restricting public offices in England to members of the Church of England. ... The Act of Uniformity was an Act of the Parliament of England, 14 Charles II c. ...


Charles agreed to give up antiquated feudal dues which had been revived by his father; in return, he was granted an annual income of £1,200,000 by Parliament. The grant, however, proved to be of little use for most of Charles' reign. The aforesaid sum was only an indication of the maximum the King was allowed to withdraw from the Treasury each year; for the most part, the amount actually in the coffers was much lower. To avoid further financial problems, Charles appointed George Downing (the builder of Downing Street) to reform the management of the Treasury and the collection of taxes. Sir George Downing, 1st Baronet (c. ... Downing Street Downing Street gates Downing Street is the street in London which contains the buildings that have been, for over two hundred years, the official residences of two of the most senior British cabinet ministers, the First Lord of the Treasury, an office held by the Prime Minister of...


Foreign policy

In 1662 Charles married a Portuguese princess, Catherine of Braganza, who brought him the territories of Bombay and Tangier as dowry. During the same year, however, he sold Dunkirk—a much more valuable strategic outpost—to his first cousin King Louis XIV of France for £40,000. Catherine of Braganza (November 25, 1638 – November 30, 1705) (Catherine Henrietta, Portuguese: Catarina Henriqueta de Bragança), was the queen consort of King Charles II of England. ... The original islands Seven islands were merged to form the city of Bombay (now called Mumbai): Isle of Bombay Colaba Little Colaba or Old Womans Island Mahim Mazagaon Parel Worli The nearby islands of Trombay and Salsette were also merged to form the surburban Greater Bombay. ... A view of Tangier bay at sunrise as seen from Cape Malabata Tangier - Avenue Mohammed VI Tangier (Tanja طنجة in Berber and Arabic, Tánger in Spanish, Tânger in Portuguese, and Tanger in French) is a city of northern Morocco with a population of 669,680 (2004 census). ... A dowry (also known as trousseau) is a gift of money or valuables given to the family of the bridegroom by the family of the bride at the time of their marriage. ... Location within France For the battleship, see Dunkerque Dunkirk (French: Dunkerque; Dutch: Duinkerke; German: Dünkirchen) is a harbour city and a commune in the northernmost part of France, in the département of Nord, 10 km from the Belgian border. ... “Sun King” redirects here. ...


Appreciative of the assistance given to him in gaining the throne, Charles awarded North American lands then known as Carolina—named after his father—to eight nobles (known as Lords Proprietors) in 1663. World map showing North America A satellite composite image of North America. ... The Carolina Colony grants Haystack of 1663 and 1665 The Province of Carolina from 1663 to 1729, was a North American British colony. ...

A medal struck in 1667 by John Roettier to commemorate the Second Dutch War, showing Charles II's full titles around the edge
A medal struck in 1667 by John Roettier to commemorate the Second Dutch War, showing Charles II's full titles around the edge

Whereas the Navigation Acts (1650), which hurt Dutch trade, started the First Dutch War (1652–1654), responsible for starting the Second Dutch War (1665–1667) was mainly the King's new advisor Lord Arlington, who hoped for much personal gain if the Dutch possessions in Africa and America could be conquered. This conflict began well for the English, with the capture of New Amsterdam (later renamed New York in honour of Charles' brother James, Duke of York, the future James II of England/James VII of Scotland), but in 1667 the Dutch launched a surprise attack upon the English (the Raid on the Medway) when they sailed up the River Thames to where the better part of the English fleet was docked. Almost all of the ships were sunk except for the flagship, the HMS Royal Charles, which was taken back to the Netherlands as a trophy. (The ship's transom remains on display, now at the Rijksmuseum in Amsterdam.) The Second Dutch War ended with the signing of the Treaty of Breda in 1667. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 669 × 600 pixels Full resolution (2050 × 1838 pixel, file size: 499 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Author: Guy de la Bedoyere from a medal by John Roettier, struck 1667. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 669 × 600 pixels Full resolution (2050 × 1838 pixel, file size: 499 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Author: Guy de la Bedoyere from a medal by John Roettier, struck 1667. ... The Royal Prince and other vessels at the Four Days Fight, 11–14 June 1666 by Abraham Storck depicts a battle of the Second Anglo-Dutch War. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Navigation Acts The English Navigation Acts were a series of laws which, beginning in 1651, restricted the use of foreign shipping in the trade of England (later Great Britain and its colonies). ... The Battle of Scheveningen, 10 August 1653 by Jan Abrahamsz Beerstraaten, painted c. ... The Royal Prince and other vessels at the Four Days Fight, 11–14 June 1666 by Abraham Storck depicts a battle of the Second Anglo-Dutch War. ... Henry Bennet, 1st Earl of Arlington (1618 - July 28, 1685), was an English statesman. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... World map showing North America A satellite composite image of North America. ... New Amsterdam (Dutch: Nieuw Amsterdam) was the name of the 17th century town which grew outside of Fort Amsterdam on Manhattan Island in the New Netherland territory (1614–1674) which was situated between 38 and 42 degrees latitude as a provincial extension of the Dutch Republic since 1624. ... NY redirects here. ... James II of England (also known as James VII of Scotland; 14 October 1633 – 16 September 1701) became King of England, King of Scots, and King of Ireland on 6 February 1685, and Duke of Normandy on 31 December 1660. ... Dutch Attack on the Medway, June 1667 by Pieter Cornelisz van Soest, painted c. ... The Thames (pronounced //) is a river flowing through southern England, and one of the major waterways in England. ... Two ships of the British Royal Navy have been named HMS Royal Charles, both after King Charles II. The first Royal Charles was an 80-gun ship of the line, launched as Naseby in 1655, renamed in 1660, and captured by the Dutch in the Raid on the Medway in... The Rijksmuseum Rembrandt van Rijn: The Night Watch 1642 Johannes Vermeer: Milkmaid 1658-1660 Frans Hals: Portrait of a Young Couple The Rijksmuseum (IPA: ; Dutch for National Museum) is a national museum of the Netherlands, located in Amsterdam on the Museumplein. ... Nickname: Motto: Heldhaftig, Vastberaden, Barmhartig (Valiant, Determined, Compassionate) Location of Amsterdam Coordinates: , Country Netherlands Province North Holland Government  - Mayor Job Cohen (PvdA)  - Aldermen Lodewijk Asscher Hennah Buyne Carolien Gehrels Tjeerd Herrema Maarten van Poelgeest Marijke Vos  - Secretary Erik Gerritsen Area [1][2]  - City 219 km²  (84. ... The Treaty of Breda was signed at the Dutch city of Breda, July 31, 1667, by England, the Dutch Republic, France, and Denmark. ...


As a result of the Second Dutch War, Charles dismissed his advisor Lord Clarendon, whom he used as a scapegoat for the war. Clarendon fled to France when impeached by the House of Commons for high treason (which carried the penalty of death). Power passed to a group of five politicians known as the CabalThomas Clifford, 1st Baron Clifford, Henry Bennet, 1st Earl of Arlington, George Villiers, 2nd Duke of Buckingham, Anthony Ashley Cooper, 1st Baron Ashley (afterwards Earl of Shaftesbury) and John Maitland, 1st Duke of Lauderdale. Edward Hyde, 1st Earl of Clarendon (18 February 1609–9 December 1674) was an English historian, statesman and grandfather of two queens regnant, Mary II and Anne. ... {{main|Treason}} High treason, broadly defined, is an action which is grossly disloyal to ones country or sovereign. ... A cabal is a number of persons united in some close design, usually to promote their private views and interests in a church, state, or other community by intrigue. ... Thomas Clifford, 1st Baron Clifford of Chudleigh (1 August 1630 - 17 October 1673), English statesman and politician, was created the first Baron Clifford of Chudleigh on April 22, 1672 for his suggestion that the King supply himself with money by stopping, for one year, all payments out of the Exchequer. ... Henry Bennet, 1st Earl of Arlington (1618 - July 28, 1685), was an English statesman. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Anthony Ashley Cooper, 1st Earl of Shaftesbury ( July 22, 1621– January 21, 1683) was a prominent English politician of the Interregnum and during the reign of King Charles II. Cooper, born in Dorset County, suffered the death of both his parents at a young age and was raised by... John Maitland, 1st Duke of Lauderdale (May 24, 1616-1682), eldest surviving son of John Maitland, 2nd Lord Maitland of Thirlestane (d. ...


In 1668, England allied itself with Sweden, and with its former enemy the Netherlands, in order to oppose Louis XIV in the War of Devolution. Louis was forced to make peace with the Triple Alliance, but he continued to maintain his aggressive intentions. In 1670, Charles, seeking to solve his financial troubles, agreed to the Treaty of Dover, under which Louis XIV would pay him £200,000 each year. In exchange, Charles agreed to supply Louis with troops and to convert himself to Roman Catholicism "as soon as the welfare of his realm will permit." Louis was to provide him with 6,000 troops to suppress those who opposed the conversion. Charles endeavoured to ensure that the Treaty—especially the conversion clause—remained secret. It remains unclear if Charles ever seriously intended to follow through on the conversion clause. The War of Devolution (May 24, 1667 – May 2, 1668) was a war between Louis XIVs France and Habsburg Spain fought in the Spanish Netherlands. ... The Triple Alliance of 1668 consisted of England, Sweden, and the United Provinces. ... The Treaty of Dover was secret treaty of 1670 between Charles II of England and Louis XIV of France. ...


Meanwhile, by a series of five acts around 1670, Charles granted the British East India Company the rights to autonomous territorial acquisitions, to mint money, to command fortresses and troops, to form alliances, to make war and peace, and to exercise both civil and criminal jurisdiction over the acquired areas in India. Earlier in 1668 he leased the islands of Bombay for a paltry sum of ten pounds sterling paid in gold.[2] The British East India Company, sometimes referred to as John Company, was the first joint-stock company (the Dutch East India Company was the first to issue public stock). ... This article or section should be merged with Mumbai Mumbai (previously known as Bombay) is the worlds most populous conurbation, and is the sixth most populous agglomeration in the world. ... For details of notes and coins, see British coinage and British banknotes. ... GOLD refers to one of the following: GOLD (IEEE) is an IEEE program designed to garner more student members at the university level (Graduates of the Last Decade). ...


1670, was also the year that Charles II granted a royal charter to establish the Hudson's Bay Company in North America. HBC eventually became the oldest corporation on the North American continent. It started out in the lucrative fur trade with the native peoples, but eventually governed and colonized a large portion of the land that would eventually make up Canada, with access to vast real estate, mineral, gas, oil resources. HBC employees and associates directly or indirectly helped Europeans explore North America. Today, HBC is one of the major department store retailers of Canada, but reduced to only its retail operations. The Hudsons Bay Company (HBC; Compagnie de la Baie dHudson in French) is the oldest commercial corporation in North America and is one of the oldest in the world. ... World map showing North America A satellite composite image of North America. ... HBC may refer to: Hit By Car - A common abbreviation in veterinary medical records Hudsons Bay Company - Canadas oldest department store. ...


Great Plague and Fire

In 1665, Charles II was faced with a great health crisis: an outbreak of Bubonic Plague in London commonly referred to as the Great Plague. Believed to have been introduced by Dutch shipping vessels carrying cotton from Amsterdam, the plague was carried by rats and fleas and the death toll at one point reached up to 7000 per week. Charles, his family and court fled London in July 1665 to Oxford. Various attempts at containing the disease by London public health officials all fell in vain and the disease continued to spread rapidly. The bubonic plague or bubonic fever is the best-known variant of the deadly infectious disease caused by the enterobacteria Yersinia pestis. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... A bill of mortality for the plague year of 1665. ... Cotton ready for harvest. ... Nickname: Motto: Heldhaftig, Vastberaden, Barmhartig (Valiant, Determined, Compassionate) Location of Amsterdam Coordinates: , Country Netherlands Province North Holland Government  - Mayor Job Cohen (PvdA)  - Aldermen Lodewijk Asscher Hennah Buyne Carolien Gehrels Tjeerd Herrema Maarten van Poelgeest Marijke Vos  - Secretary Erik Gerritsen Area [1][2]  - City 219 km²  (84. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


On 2 September 1666, adding to London's woes was what later became famously known as the Great Fire of London. Although effectively ending the spreading of the Great Plague due to the burning of all plague-carrying rats and fleas, the fire consumed about 13,200 houses and 87 churches, including St. Paul's Cathedral. Charles II is famously remembered for joining the fire-fighters in combating the fire. September 2 is the 245th day of the year (246th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1666 is often called Annus Mirabilis. ... Detail of painting from 1666 of the Great Fire of London by an unknown artist, depicting the fire as it would have appeared on the evening of Tuesday, 4 September from a boat in the vicinity of Tower Wharf. ... St Pauls Cathedral is a cathedral on Ludgate Hill, in the City of London in London, and the seat of the Bishop of London. ...


At the time, a comet was visible in the night sky. The supposition of the day claimed it was God's message, and that the above crises were as a result of God's anger. Blame was placed upon Charles and his Court, but later the people shifted their blame to the hated Roman Catholics. The situation was not helped by Charles' brother (James II)'s conversion to Roman Catholicism in 1667. Comet Hale-Bopp Comet West For other uses, see Comet (disambiguation). ... This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... James II of England (also known as James VII of Scotland; 14 October 1633 – 16 September 1701) became King of England, King of Scots, and King of Ireland on 6 February 1685, and Duke of Normandy on 31 December 1660. ...


Conflict with Parliament

Half-Crown of Charles II, 1683. The inscription reads CAROLUS II DEI GRATIA (Charles II by the Grace of God).
Half-Crown of Charles II, 1683. The inscription reads CAROLUS II DEI GRATIA (Charles II by the Grace of God).

Although previously favourable to the Crown, the Cavalier Parliament was alienated by the king's wars and religious policies during the 1670s. In 1672, Charles issued the Royal Declaration of Indulgence, in which he purported to suspend all laws punishing Roman Catholics and other religious dissenters. In the same year, he openly supported Catholic France and started the Third Anglo-Dutch War. ImageMetadata File history File links Charles2coin. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Charles2coin. ... The Royal Declaration of Indulgence was Charles II of Englands attempt to extend religious liberty to Protestant nonconformists in his realms, by suspending the execution of the penal laws that punished recusants from the Church of England. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


The Cavalier Parliament opposed the Declaration of Indulgence on constitutional grounds (claiming that the King had no right to arbitrarily suspend laws) rather than on political ones. Charles II withdrew the Declaration, and also agreed to the Test Act, which not only required public officials to receive the sacrament under the forms prescribed by the Church of England, but also forced them to denounce certain teachings of the Roman Catholic Church as "superstitious and idolatrous". The Cavalier Parliament also refused to further fund the Anglo-Dutch War, which England was losing, forcing Charles to make peace in 1674. The several Test Acts were a series of English penal laws that imposed various civil disabilities on Roman Catholics and Nonconformists. ... For other uses, see Eucharist (disambiguation). ... The number 13 is often avoided in public buildings, also floors, doors and this Santa Anita Park horse stall. ... Idolatry is a major sin in the Abrahamic religions regarding image. ...


Charles' wife Queen Catherine was unable to produce an heir, her pregnancies instead ending in miscarriages and stillbirths. Charles' heir-presumptive was therefore his unpopular Roman Catholic brother, James, Duke of York. In 1678, Titus Oates, a former Anglican cleric, falsely warned of a "Popish Plot" to assassinate the king and replace him with the Duke of York. Charles did not believe the allegations, but ordered his chief minister Thomas Osborne, 1st Earl of Danby to investigate. Lord Danby was highly sceptical about Oates' revelations, but reported the matter to Parliament. The people were seized with an anti-Catholic hysteria; judges and juries across the land condemned the supposed conspirators; numerous innocent individuals were executed. Miscarriage or spontaneous abortion is the natural or accidental termination of a pregnancy at a stage where the embryo or the fetus is incapable of surviving, generally defined at a gestation of prior to 20 weeks. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... James II of England (also known as James VII of Scotland; 14 October 1633 – 16 September 1701) became King of England, King of Scots, and King of Ireland on 6 February 1685, and Duke of Normandy on 31 December 1660. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Popish Plot was an alleged Catholic conspiracy. ... Thomas Osborne, 1st Duke of Leeds (February 20, 1631 - July 26, 1712), English statesman, commonly known also by his earlier title of Earl of Danby, served in a variety of offices under Kings Charles II and William III of England. ...


Later in 1678, Lord Danby was impeached by the House of Commons on the charge of high treason. Although much of the nation had sought war with Catholic France, Charles II had secretly negotiated with Louis XIV, trying to reach an agreement under which England would remain neutral in return for money. Lord Danby was hostile to France, but reservedly agreed to abide by Charles' wishes. Unfortunately for him, the House of Commons failed to view him as a reluctant participant in the scandal, instead believing that he was the author of the policy. To save Lord Danby from the impeachment trial in the House of Lords, Charles dissolved the Cavalier Parliament in January 1679. {{main|Treason}} High treason, broadly defined, is an action which is grossly disloyal to ones country or sovereign. ... “Sun King” redirects here. ...


A new Parliament, which met in March of the same year, was quite hostile to the king. Lord Danby was forced to resign the post of Lord High Treasurer, but received a pardon from the king. In defiance of the royal will, Parliament declared that a dissolution did not interrupt impeachment proceedings. When the House of Lords seemed ready to impose the punishment of exile—which the House of Commons thought too mild—the impeachment was abandoned, and a bill of attainder introduced. As he had been required to do so many times during his reign, Charles II bowed to the wishes of his opponents, committing Lord Danby to the Tower of London. Lord Danby would be held without bail for another five years. The Lord High Treasurer bears a white staff as his symbol of office. ... A bill of attainder (also known as an act or writ of attainder) is an act of legislature declaring a person or group of persons guilty of some crime, and punishing them, without benefit of a trial. ... Her Majestys Royal Palace and Fortress The Tower of London, more commonly known as the Tower of London (and historically simply as The Tower), is a historic monument in central London, England on the north bank of the River Thames. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ...


Later years

Another political storm which faced Charles was that of succession to the Throne. The Parliament of 1679 was vehemently opposed to the prospect of a Catholic monarch. Anthony Ashley Cooper, 1st Earl of Shaftesbury (previously Baron Ashley and a member of the Cabal, which had fallen apart in 1672) introduced the Exclusion Bill, which sought to exclude the Duke of York from the line of succession. Some even sought to confer the Crown to the Protestant Duke of Monmouth, the eldest of Charles's illegitimate children. The "Abhorrers" — those who opposed the Exclusion Bill — would develop into the Tory Party, while the "Petitioners" — those who supported the Exclusion Bill — became the Whig Party. Anthony Ashley Cooper, 1st Earl of Shaftesbury ( July 22, 1621– January 21, 1683) was a prominent English politician of the Interregnum and during the reign of King Charles II. Cooper, born in Dorset County, suffered the death of both his parents at a young age and was raised by... During the reign of Charles II of England, the Exclusion Bill crisis ran from 1678 till 1681. ... James Crofts, later Scott, 1st Duke of Monmouth, 1st Duke of Buccleuch (April 9, 1649–July 15, 1685) recognised by some as James II of England and James VII of Scotland, was born in Rotterdam in the Netherlands, the son of Charles II and his mistress, Lucy Walter, who... For other uses, see Tory (disambiguation). ... The Whigs (with the Tories) are often described as one of two political parties in England and later the United Kingdom from the late 17th to the mid 19th centuries. ...


Fearing that the Exclusion Bill would be passed, Charles dissolved Parliament in December 1679. Two further Parliaments were called in Charles' reign (one in 1680, the other in 1681), but both were dissolved because they sought to pass the Exclusion Bill. During the 1680s, however, popular support for the Exclusion Bill began to dissolve, and Charles experienced a nationwide surge of loyalty, for many of his subjects felt that Parliament had been too assertive. For the remainder of his reign, Charles ruled as an absolute monarch.


Charles' opposition to the Exclusion Bill angered some Protestants. Protestant conspirators formulated the Rye House Plot, a plan to murder the King and the Duke of York as they returned to London after horse races in Newmarket. A great fire, however, destroyed much of Newmarket and caused the cancellation of the races; thus, the planned attack could not take place. Before news of the plot leaked, the chief conspirators fled. Protestant politicians such as Algernon Sydney and the Lord William Russell were implicated in the plot and executed for high treason, albeit on very flimsy evidence. Rye House 1823 The Rye House Plot of 1683 was a plan to assassinate King Charles II of England and his brother (and heir to the throne) James, Duke of York. ... Newmarket is a market town in the English county of Suffolk,approximately 65 miles (105 kilometres) north of London, which has grown and become famous because of its connection with race horses and Thoroughbred horse racing at Newmarket Racecourse. ... Algernon Sydney (or Sidney), (January 1623 – December 7, 1683), was an English politician, an opponent of King Charles II of England. ... William Russell, later Lord Russell (September 29, 1639 - 1683), was an English politician. ...


Charles suffered an apopleptic fit and died suddenly on Wednesday, 6 February 1685 (at the age of 54) at 11:45am at Whitehall Palace of uremia (a clinical syndrome due to kidney dysfunction). He is purported to have said to his brother, the Duke of York on his deathbed: 'Let not poor Nelly starve.' and to his courtiers: 'I am sorry, gentlemen, for being such a time a-dying.'[3] He was buried in Westminster Abbey 'without any manner of pomp'[3] and was succeeded by his brother who became James II of England and Ireland, and James VII of Scotland. Apoplexy is an old-fashioned medical term, generally used interchangeably with cerebrovascular accident (CVA or stroke) but having other meanings as well. ... February 6 is the 37th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 6 - James Stuart, Duke of York becomes King James II of England and Ireland and King James VII of Scotland. ... The Palace of Whitehall was the main residence of the English monarchs in London from 1530 until 1698 when all except Inigo Jones 1622 Banqueting House was destroyed by fire. ... Uremia is a toxic condition resulting from renal failure, when kidney function is compromised and urea, a waste product normally excreted in the urine, is retained in the blood. ... James II of England (also known as James VII of Scotland; 14 October 1633 – 16 September 1701) became King of England, King of Scots, and King of Ireland on 6 February 1685, and Duke of Normandy on 31 December 1660. ... Nell Gwynn was one of the first English actresses and the mistress of King Charles II. Nell Gwyn (or Gwynn or Gwynne), born Eleanor, (2 February 1650 - 14 November 1687), was one of the earliest English actresses to receive prominent recognition, and a long-time mistress of King Charles II... The Collegiate Church of St Peter, Westminster, which is almost always referred to by its original name of Westminster Abbey, is a mainly Gothic church, on the scale of a cathedral (and indeed often mistaken for one), in Westminster, London, just to the west of the Palace of Westminster. ... James II of England (also known as James VII of Scotland; 14 October 1633 – 16 September 1701) became King of England, King of Scots, and King of Ireland on 6 February 1685, and Duke of Normandy on 31 December 1660. ...


Posterity and legacy

This statue of Charles II stands in the Figure Court of the Royal Hospital Chelsea.
This statue of Charles II stands in the Figure Court of the Royal Hospital Chelsea.

Charles II left no legitimate issue. He did, however, have several children by a number of mistresses (many of whom were wives of noblemen); many of his mistresses and illegitimate children received dukedoms or earldoms. He publicly acknowledged fourteen children by seven mistresses; six of those children were borne by a single woman, the notorious Barbara Villiers, Countess of Castlemaine, for whom the Dukedom of Cleveland was created. His other favourite mistresses were Nell Gwynne and Louise Renée de Penancoët de Kérouaille, Duchess of Portsmouth. Charles also acknowledged children by Lucy Walter, Elizabeth Killigrew, Viscountess Shannon and Catherine Pegge, Lady Greene. The present Duke of Buccleuch and Queensberry, Duke of Richmond and Gordon, Duke of Grafton and Duke of St Albans all descend from Charles in direct male line. Charles' relationships, as well as the politics of his time, are depicted in the historical drama Charles II: The Power and The Passion (produced in 2003 by the British Broadcasting Corporation). Download high resolution version (500x831, 62 KB)Statue of King Charles II in the Figure Court of the Royal Hospital Chelsea. ... Download high resolution version (500x831, 62 KB)Statue of King Charles II in the Figure Court of the Royal Hospital Chelsea. ... Figure Court of Royal Hospital Chelsea The Royal Hospital Chelsea is a retirement home and nursing home for British soldiers who are unfit for further duty due to injury or old age, located in the Chelsea region of central London. ... Barbara Villiers, Countess of Castlemaine Barbara Villiers (November 1640 - October 9, 1709), Duchess of Cleveland, was one of the most notorious of Charles IIs mistresses. ... The Dukedom of Cleveland was a peerage in the Peerage of England, and later in the Peerage of the United Kingdom, named for Cleveland in northern England. ... Nell Gwyn (or Gwynn or Gwynne), was born Eleanor Gwynne, (February 1650 - 14 November 1687), the most famous of the many mistresses of King Charles II, was called pretty, witty Nell by Samuel Pepys. ... Portrait of Louise de Kérouaille by Pierre Mignard Louise Renée de Penancoët de Kérouaille (1649 – 14 November 1734), was mistress of Charles II of England and Duchess of Portsmouth. ... Lucy Walter (c. ... The title of Duke of Buccleuch (IPA ) was created in the Peerage of Scotland on 20 April 1663 for the Duke of Monmouth, eldest illegitimate son of Charles II of England, who had married Anne Scott, 4th Countess of Buccleuch. ... The title Duke of Richmond is named after Richmond and its surrounding district of Richmondshire, and has been created several times in the Peerage of England for members of the royal Tudor and Stuart families. ... The title of Duke of Grafton was created in 1675 by Charles II of England for his 2nd illegitimate son by the Duchess of Cleveland, Henry FitzRoy. ... The title Duke of St Albans was created in the Peerage of England in 1684 for the 1st Earl of Burford when he was fourteen years old. ... The British Broadcasting Corporation,which is usually known as the BBC, is the largest broadcasting corporation in the world in terms of audience numbers, employing 26,000 staff in the United Kingdom alone and with a budget of more than GB£4 billion. ...

A monument to Charles II who contributed to the restoration of the Lichfield Cathedral following the English Civil War today stands outside its south doors.

Diana, Princess of Wales was descended from two of Charles' illegitimate sons, the Duke of Grafton and the Duke of Richmond (who is also a direct ancestor of Camilla, Duchess of Cornwall, second wife of Charles, Prince of Wales). Thus Diana's son Prince William of Wales, currently (2007) second in line to the British Throne, is likely to be the first monarch descended from Charles II. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2304x3072, 3234 KB) Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2304x3072, 3234 KB) Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... The West Front of Lichfield Cathedral Lichfield Cathedral is situated in Lichfield, Staffordshire, England. ... Diana, Princess of Wales (Diana Frances;[2] née Spencer; 1 July 1961 – 31 August 1997) was the first wife of Charles, Prince of Wales. ... Henry FitzRoy, 1st Duke of Grafton (1663 - 1690) was the natural son of King Charles II by Barbara Villiers, Countess of Castlemaine and later Duchess of Cleveland. ... Charles Lennox, 1st Duke of Richmond and 1st Duke of Lennox (29 July 1672 - 27 May 1723), was the illegitimate son of Charles II of England and his mistress Louise de Keroualle, Duchess of Portsmouth. ... HRH The Duchess of Cornwall The Duchess of Cornwall (Camilla Rosemary Mountbatten-Windsor, formerly Parker Bowles, née Shand) (born 17 July 1947) is a member of the British Royal Family. ... The Prince Charles, Prince of Wales (Charles Philip Arthur George[2]; born 14 November 1948), is the eldest son of Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. ... “Prince William” redirects here. ...


Charles II's eldest son, the Duke of Monmouth, led a rebellion against James II, but was defeated at the battle of Sedgemoor on 6 July 1685, captured, and executed. James II, however, was eventually dethroned in 1688 in the course of the Glorious Revolution. James was the last Catholic monarch to rule England. James Scott, 1st Duke of Monmouth James Crofts, later James Scott, 1st Duke of Monmouth and of Buccleuch (April 9, 1649 – July 15, 1685) was born in Rotterdam in the Netherlands, the illegitimate son of Charles II and his mistress, Lucy Walter, who had followed him into continental exile after... The Battle of Sedgemoor was fought on 6 July 1685. ... July 6 is the 187th day of the year (188th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 178 days remaining. ... Events February 6 - James Stuart, Duke of York becomes King James II of England and Ireland and King James VII of Scotland. ... The Revolution of 1688, commonly known as the Glorious Revolution, was the overthrow of James II of England in 1688 by a union of Parliamentarians and the Dutch stadtholder William III of Orange-Nassau (William of Orange). ...


Charles, a patron of the arts and sciences, helped found the Royal Society, a scientific group whose early members included Robert Hooke, Robert Boyle and Sir Isaac Newton. Charles was the personal patron of Sir Christopher Wren, the architect who helped rebuild London after the Great Fire in 1666. Wren also constructed the Royal Hospital Chelsea, which Charles founded as a home for retired soldiers in 1681. Since 1692, a statue of Charles II in ancient Roman dress (created by Grinling Gibbons in 1676) has stood in the Figure Court of the Royal Hospital. The premises of The Royal Society in London (first four properties only). ... Robert Hooke, FRS (July 18, 1635 – March 3, 1703) was an English polymath who played an important role in the scientific revolution, through both experimental and theoretical work. ... Robert Boyle Robert Boyle (25 January 1627 – 30 December 1691) was an Anglo-Irish natural philosopher, chemist, physicist, inventor, and early gentleman scientist, noted for his work in physics and chemistry. ... Sir Isaac Newton, (4 January 1643 – 31 March 1727) [ OS: 25 December 1642 – 20 March 1727][1] was an English physicist, mathematician, astronomer, natural philosopher, and alchemist, regarded by many as the greatest figure in the history of science. ... Sir Christopher Wren, (20 October 1632–25 February 1723) was a 17th century English designer, astronomer, geometrician, and the greatest English architect of his time. ... Detail of painting from 1666 of the Great Fire of London by an unknown artist, depicting the fire as it would have appeared on the evening of Tuesday, 4 September from a boat in the vicinity of Tower Wharf. ... Figure Court of Royal Hospital Chelsea The Royal Hospital Chelsea is a retirement home and nursing home for British soldiers who are unfit for further duty due to injury or old age, located in the Chelsea region of central London. ... One of the many bookcase carvings Gibbons made for the Wren Library, Cambridge. ...


The anniversary of Charles' Restoration (which is also his birthday) — 29 May — is recognised in the United Kingdom as "Oak Apple Day", after the Royal Oak in which Charles is said to have hidden to escape from the forces of Oliver Cromwell. Traditional celebrations involved the wearing of oak leaves, but these have now died out. The anniversary of the Restoration is also an official Collar Day. King Charles II, the first monarch to rule after the English Restoration. ... May 29 is the 149th day of the year (150th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Oak Apple Day is celebrated in the United Kingdom on 29th May. ... Among the insignia granted to certain members of orders of knighthood in Great Britain are collars, which are worn only on designated Collar Days. ...


Style and arms

The official style of Charles II was "Charles the Second, by the Grace of God, King of England, Scotland, France and Ireland, Defender of the Faith, etc." (The claim to France was only nominal, and had been asserted by every English King since Edward III, regardless of the amount of French territory actually controlled.) A style of office, or honorific, is a form of address which by tradition or law precedes a reference to a person who holds a title or post, or to the political office itself. ... The Kingdom of England was first unified as a state by Athelstan of Wessex. ... The Royal Coat of Arms of Scotland, as used before 1603 The monarch of Scotland was the head of state of the Kingdom of Scotland. ... // Fidei defensor is the Latin original of the English and French titles. ... This article is about the King of England. ...


His arms were: Quarterly, I and IV Grandquarterly, Azure three fleurs-de-lis Or (for France) and Gules three lions passant guardant in pale Or (for England); II Or a lion rampant within a tressure flory-counter-flory Gules (for Scotland); III Azure a harp Or stringed Argent (for Ireland). Heraldry in its most general sense encompasses all matters relating to the duties and responsibilities of officers of arms. ... Motto (French) God and my right Anthem No official anthem - the  United Kingdom anthem God Save the Queen is commonly used England() – on the European continent() – in the United Kingdom() Capital (and largest city) London (de facto) Official languages English (de facto) Unified  -  by Athelstan 927 AD  Area  -  Total 130... Motto (Latin) No one provokes me with impunity Cha togar mfhearg gun dioladh (Scottish Gaelic) Wha daur meddle wi me?(Scots)1 Anthem (Multiple unofficial anthems) Scotlands location in Europe Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow Official languages English, Gaelic and Scots1 Government Constitutional monarchy  -  Monarch Queen Elizabeth II...


Ancestors

Charles II's ancestors in three generations
Charles II of England Father:
Charles I of England
Paternal Grandfather:
James I of England
Paternal Great-grandfather:
Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley
Paternal Great-grandmother:
Mary I of Scotland
Paternal Grandmother:
Anne of Denmark
Paternal Great-grandfather:
Frederick II of Denmark
Paternal Great-grandmother:
Sofie of Mecklenburg-Schwerin
Mother:
Henrietta Maria of France
Maternal Grandfather:
Henry IV of France
Maternal Great-grandfather:
Antoine of Navarre
Maternal Great-grandmother:
Jeanne III of Navarre
Maternal Grandmother:
Marie de' Medici
Maternal Great-grandfather:
Francesco I de' Medici
Maternal Great-grandmother:
Johanna of Austria

Charles I (19 November 1600 – 30 January 1649) was King of England, King of Scotland and King of Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution in 1649. ... James Stuart (19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625) was King of Scots as James VI, and King of England and King of Ireland as James I. He ruled in Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567, when he was only one year old. ... Henry Stuart, Duke of Albany (7 December 1545 – 9 or 10 February 1567), commonly known as Lord Darnley, King Consort of Scotland, was the first cousin and second husband of Mary, Queen of Scots, and the father of her son King James VI, who became King James I of England. ... Mary I (popularly known as Mary, Queen of Scots: French: ); (December 8, 1542 – February 8, 1587) was Queen of Scots (the monarch of the Kingdom of Scotland) from December 14, 1542, to July 24, 1567. ... Anna of Denmark (October 14, 1574 – March 4, 1619) was queen consort of King James I of England and VI of Scotland. ... Frederick II of Denmark and Norway Frederick II (July 1, 1534 - April 4, 1588), King of Denmark and Norway from 1559 until his death. ... Hans Knieper: Königin Sophie von Dänemark For other uses, see Sofie of Mecklenburg-Schwerin (disambiguation). ... Queen Henrietta Maria (November 25, 1609 – September 10, 1669) was Queen Consort of England, Scotland and Ireland (June 13, 1625 - January 30, 1649) through her marriage to Charles I. The U.S. state of Maryland (in Latin, Terra Mariae) was so named in her honour by Cæcilius Calvert, son... Henry IV of France, also Henry III of Navarre (13 December 1553 – 14 May 1610), ruled as King of France from 1589 to 1610 and King of Navarre from 1572 to 1610. ... Antoine de Bourbon (1560) Antoine de Bourbon, duc de Vendôme (22 April 1518 – 17 November 1562), was head of the House of Bourbon from 1537 to 1562, and King-consort of Navarre from 1555 to 1562. ... Jeanne dAlbret Jeanne dAlbret (January 7, 1528 - June 9, 1572) was Queen of Navarre from 1555 to 1572, wife of Antoine de Bourbon, duke of Vendome and mother of Henry IV of France. ... Portrait of Marie de Medici. ... Francesco I de Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany (25 March 1541 – 19 October 1587) was the second Grand Duke of Tuscany, ruling from 1574 to 1587. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

Children

Charles left no legitimate heirs but fathered an unknown number of illegitimate children. He acknowledged fourteen children to be his own, including Barbara Fitzroy, who almost certainly was not his biological child[citation needed]. Barbara (Benedicta) Fitzroy (1672-1731) was the youngest daughter of Barbara Villiers, Countess of Castlemaine. ...

By Marguerite or Margaret de Carteret
  1. Some accounts say that she bore Charles a son named James de la Cloche in 1646. James de Carteret/de la Cloche is believed to have died sometime around the year 1667.
By Lucy Walter (1630–1658)
  1. James Crofts "Scott" (1649–1685), created Duke of Monmouth (1663) in England and Duke of Buccleuch (1663) in Scotland. Ancestor of Sarah, Duchess of York.
  2. Mary Crofts (born c. 1651 - ?), not acknowledged. She married a William Sarsfield and later a William Fanshaw and became a faith healer operating in Covent Garden.
By Elizabeth Killigrew (1622–1680)
  1. Charlotte Jemima Henrietta Maria Boyle (FitzCharles) (1650–1684), Countess of Yarmouth
By Catherine Pegge, Lady Green
  1. Charles Fitzcharles (1657–1680), known as "Don Carlos", created Earl of Plymouth (1675)
  2. Catherine Fitzcharles (born 1658, died young)
By Dorothea Helena Kirkhoven,Countess of Derby
  1. George Swan born 1658 died 1730.
By Barbara Palmer (1640–1709) (née Villiers), Countess of Castlemaine and Duchess of Cleveland
  1. Anne Palmer (Fitzroy) (1661–1722)
  2. Charles Fitzroy (1662–1730) created Duke of Southampton (1675), became 2nd Duke of Cleveland (1709)
  3. Henry Fitzroy (1663–1690), created Earl of Euston (1672), Duke of Grafton (1709), also 7th Great-Grandfather of Lady Diana Spencer, mother of Prince William of Wales
  4. Charlotte Fitzroy (1664–1718), Countess of Lichfield. She married Benedict Leonard Calvert, 4th Baron Baltimore.
  5. George Fitzroy (1665–1716), created Earl of Northumberland (1674), Duke of Northumberland (1683)
  6. Barbara (Benedicta) Fitzroy (1672–1737) - She was acknowledged as Charles' daughter, but was probably the child of John Churchill, later Duke of Marlborough
By Eleanor "Nell" Gwyn (1650–1687)
  1. Charles Beauclerk (1670–1726), created Duke of St Albans
  2. James Beauclerk (1671–1681)
By Louise Renée de Penancoet de Kéroualle (1648–1734), Duchess of Portsmouth (1673)
  1. Charles Lennox (1672–1723), created Duke of Richmond (1675) in England and Duke of Lennox (1675) in Scotland. Ancestor of Lady Diana Spencer, The Duchess of Cornwall, and Sarah, Duchess of York.
By Mary 'Moll' Davis, courtesan and actress of repute
  1. Mary Tudor (1673–1726), married to Edward Radclyffe (1655–1705), the Second Earl of Derwentwater from 1687–1705. Upon Edward's death, she married Henry Graham (son and heir to Col. James Graham), and upon his death she wed James Rooke in 1707. Mary bore four children to Edward, which continued the house of Derwentwater.
By Unknown mistress
  1. Elizabeth Fitzcharles (1670–1731), married Sir Edward Morgan (1670–1734), the son of Sir James Morgan, 4th Earl Baronet of Llantarnam and his wife Lady Ann Hopton. She bore her husband ten children. Some sources give her surname as Jarman, however, that remains inconclusive.[4]
Other mistresses
  1. Cristabella Wyndham
  2. Hortense Mancini, Duchess of Mazarin
  3. Winifred Wells - one of the Queen's Maids of Honour
  4. Mrs Jane Roberts - the daughter of a clergyman
  5. Mary Sackville (formerly Berkeley, née Bagot) - the widowed Countess of Falmouth
  6. Elizabeth Fitzgerald, Countess of Kildare
  7. Frances Teresa Stewart, Duchess of Richmond and Lennox

James de la Cloche (1644?-1669?) is an alleged would-be-illegitimate son of Charles II of England who would have first joined a Jesuit seminary and then gave up his habit to marry an Napolitan woman. ... Lucy Walter (c. ... James Scott, 1st Duke of Monmouth James Crofts, later James Scott, 1st Duke of Monmouth and of Buccleuch (April 9, 1649 – July 15, 1685) was born in Rotterdam in the Netherlands, the illegitimate son of Charles II and his mistress, Lucy Walter, who had followed him into continental exile after... James Crofts, later Scott, 1st Duke of Monmouth, 1st Duke of Buccleuch (April 9, 1649–July 15, 1685) recognised by some as James II of England and James VII of Scotland, was born in Rotterdam in the Netherlands, the son of Charles II and his mistress, Lucy Walter, who... The title of Duke of Buccleuch (IPA ) was created in the Peerage of Scotland on 20 April 1663 for the Duke of Monmouth, eldest illegitimate son of Charles II of England, who had married Anne Scott, 4th Countess of Buccleuch. ... Sarah, Duchess of York (Sarah Margaret Ferguson; born 15 October 1959, London, England), is the former wife of Prince Andrew, Duke of York, fourth in line to the British throne. ... The Earldom of Plymouth has been created thrice, twice in the Peerage of England and once in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. ... Barbara Villiers, by Sir Peter Lely. ... The Earldom of Castlemaine was a title created in the Peerage of Ireland. ... The Dukedom of Cleveland was a peerage in the Peerage of England, and later in the Peerage of the United Kingdom, named for Cleveland in northern England. ... Lady Anne Palmer (or Fitzroy) (February 25, 1661 - 1722) was the eldest daughter of Barbara Villiers, Countess of Castlemaine, and most probably the daughter of Charles II. (The second Earl of Chesterfield has also been considered as a possible father. ... Charles Fitzroy (or Palmer) (1662 - September 9, 1730) was the eldest son of Barbara Villiers, Countess of Castlemaine and Catholic, had him christened into the Catholic faith, but six days later the King had him rechristened into the Church of England. ... The Dukedom of Cleveland was a peerage in the Peerage of England, and later in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. ... The Dukedom of Cleveland was a peerage in the Peerage of England, and later in the Peerage of the United Kingdom, named for Cleveland in northern England. ... Henry FitzRoy, 1st Duke of Grafton (1663 - 1690) was the natural son of King Charles II by Barbara Villiers, Countess of Castlemaine and later Duchess of Cleveland. ... The title of Duke of Grafton was created in 1675 by Charles II of England for his 2nd illegitimate son by the Duchess of Cleveland, Henry FitzRoy. ... The title of Duke of Grafton was created in 1675 by Charles II of England for his 2nd illegitimate son by the Duchess of Cleveland, Henry FitzRoy. ... Diana, Princess of Wales (Diana Frances;[2] née Spencer; 1 July 1961 – 31 August 1997) was the first wife of Charles, Prince of Wales. ... “Prince William” redirects here. ... Charlotte Fitzroy (September 5, 1664 _ February 17, 1718) was the daughter of Barbara Villiers, Countess of Castlemaine and Charles II. Charlotte was married to Sir Edward Lee at the age of 9. ... Benedict Leonard Calvert, 4th Baron Baltimore Benedict Leonard Calvert, 4th Baron Baltimore (March 21, 1679- April 16, 1715) was the second son of Charles Calvert, 3rd Baron Baltimore and became his fathers heir upon the death of his elder brother, Cecil in 1681. ... George Fitzroy, 1st Duke of Northumberland (Oxford, December 28, 1665 - Epsom, June 28, 1716) was the third and youngest illegitimate son of King Charles II. His mother was Barbara Villiers, Countess of Castlemaine (also known as Barbara Villiers, Duchess of Cleveland). ... The title of Earl of Northumberland was created several times in the Peerages of England and Great Britain. ... The title Duke of Northumberland was created in 1551 for John Dudley. ... Barbara (Benedicta) Fitzroy (1672-1731) was the youngest daughter of Barbara Villiers, Countess of Castlemaine. ... John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough, in his Garter robes John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough (May 26, 1650 - June 16, 1722), in full The Most Noble Captain-General John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough, Earl of Marlborough, Baron Churchill of Sandridge, Lord Churchill of Eyemouth, KG, PC (in addition... The coat of arms of the Dukes of Marlborough The Dukedom of Marlborough (named after Marlborough, pronounced Maulbruh - in the IPA), is an hereditary title of British nobility in the Peerage of England. ... Nell Gwynn was one of the first English actresses and the mistress of King Charles II. Nell Gwyn (or Gwynn or Gwynne), born Eleanor, (2 February 1650 - 14 November 1687), was one of the earliest English actresses to receive prominent recognition, and a long-time mistress of King Charles II... Charles Beauclerk circa 1690. ... The title Duke of St Albans was created in the Peerage of England in 1684 for the 1st Earl of Burford when he was fourteen years old. ... Portrait of Louise de Kérouaille by Pierre Mignard Louise Renée de Penancoët de Kérouaille (1649 – 14 November 1734), was mistress of Charles II of England and Duchess of Portsmouth. ... The title Duke of Portsmouth was created in the Peerage of England in 1673 for Louise Renée de Penancoët de Kérouaille. ... Charles Lennox, 1st Duke of Richmond and 1st Duke of Lennox (29 July 1672 - 27 May 1723), was the illegitimate son of Charles II of England and his mistress Louise de Keroualle, Duchess of Portsmouth. ... The title Duke of Richmond is named after Richmond and its surrounding district of Richmondshire, and has been created several times in the Peerage of England for members of the royal Tudor and Stuart families. ... The title Duke of Lennox has been created several times in the Peerage of Scotland. ... Diana, Princess of Wales (Diana Frances;[2] née Spencer; 1 July 1961 – 31 August 1997) was the first wife of Charles, Prince of Wales. ... Camilla, Duchess of Cornwall (Camilla Rosemary; formerly Parker Bowles; née Shand, born 17 July 1947) is the second wife of Charles, Prince of Wales, heir apparent to the thrones of the United Kingdom and the other 15 Commonwealth Realms. ... Sarah, Duchess of York (Sarah Margaret Ferguson; born 15 October 1959, London, England), is the former wife of Prince Andrew, Duke of York, fourth in line to the British throne. ... Hortense Mancini (1646 - 1699) Ortensia or Hortense Mancini, Duchess of Mazarin (1646 – November 9, 1699), was the niece of Cardinal Mazarin, chief minister of France, and a mistress of Charles II, King of England. ... The title Viscount Falmouth has been created twice, first in the Peerage of England, and then in the Peerage of Great Britain. ... Earl of Kildare is an Irish peerage title. ... Frances Teresa Stuart by Sir Peter Lely, 1662-65. ...

Footnotes

  1. ^ Abbott, Jacob (1849). History of King Charles the Second of England" p. 302.
  2. ^ Bombay: History of a City. The British Library Board. Retrieved on 2007-05-18.
  3. ^ a b Bryant, Mark (2001). Private Lives. London:Cassell. ISBN 0304357588 p.73
  4. ^ Scroggins, William G. Genealogical and Heraldic History.

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... May 18 is the 138th day of the year (139th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

  • Abbott, Jacob (1849). History of King Charles the Second of England. Available at Project Gutenberg, Retrieved on 2007-05-18
  • Brewer, E. Cobham (2001). Brewer's Concise Dictionary of Phrase and Fable. Cassell reference. ISBN 0304357251. 
  • CHARLES II (r. 1660–85). The official website of the British Monarchy. Retrieved on 2007-05-18.
  • (1975) in Fraser, Antonia: The Lives of the Kings and Queens of England. Weidenfeld & Nicolson, pgs 234–238. ISBN 0297769111. 
  • Fraser, Antonia (2002). King Charles II. Phoenix Press. ISBN 075381403X. 
  • Harris, Tim (2005). Restoration : Charles II and his kingdoms, 1660–1685. London: Allen Lane. ISBN 0713991917. 
  • Hilliam, David (1998). Kings, Queens, Bones and Bastards: Who's who in the English Monarchy from Egbert to Elizabeth II. Gloucestershire: Sutton. ISBN 0750917415. 
  • Hutton, Ronald (1989). Charles II: King of England, Scotland, and Ireland. Oxford (England): Clarendon Press. ISBN 0198229119. 
  • Miller, John (1991). Charles II. 
  • Miller, John (1985). Restoration England : the reign of Charles II. London: Longman. ISBN 0582353963. 

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... May 18 is the 138th day of the year (139th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... May 18 is the 138th day of the year (139th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

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Charles II of England
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Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... The Wikimedia Commons (also called Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is a sister project of Wikipedia, using the same MediaWiki software. ...

Charles II of England
House of Stuart
Born: 29 May 1630
Died: 6 February 1685
Preceded by
Charles I (de jure)
Commonwealth of England (de facto)
King of England
1660 (1649)–1685
Succeeded by
James VII & II
King of Scots
1660 (1649)–1685
King of Ireland
1660 (1649)–1685
Preceded by
Charles I of England
Prince of Wales Succeeded by
James Francis Edward Stuart
British royalty
Preceded by
Elizabeth Stuart
Heir to the Thrones
as heir apparent
May 29, 1630January 30, 1649
Succeeded by
James II of England
Preceded by
The Duke of York
Lord High Admiral
1673
Succeeded by
Prince Rupert of the Rhine
Preceded by
The Earl of Nottingham
(First Lord of the Admiralty)
Lord High Admiral
1684–1685
Succeeded by
King James II


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Charles II of England - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (4135 words)
Charles II (29 May 1630 6 February 1685) was the King of England, King of Scots, and King of Ireland from 30 January 1649 (de jure) or 29 May 1660 (de facto) until his death.
At the Hague, Charles II had an affair with Lucy Walter (who, some alleged, secretly married him); their son, James Crofts (afterwards Duke of Monmouth and Duke of Buccleuch), was to become the most prominent of Charles's many illegitimate sons in English political life.
The Protectorate of England was abolished, and the Commonwealth of England re-established.
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