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Encyclopedia > Charles I of Sicily
Statue of Charles I of Anjou by Arnolfo di Cambio, Rome, Palazzo dei Conservatori.

Charles of Anjou (March 12271285), also Charles I of Sicily. He was King of Sicily 1262–1282 (and under that title, King of Naples 1282–1285), King of Albania 1272–1285, King of Jerusalem 1277–1285, Prince of Achaea 1278–1285, Count of Provence and Forcalquier 1246–1285, and Count of Anjou and Maine 1247–1285. He was the posthumous son of Louis VIII of France and Blanche of Castile, and hence brother to Louis IX of France and Alphonse of Toulouse. He conquered the Kingdom of Sicily from the Hohenstaufen in 1266 and began to acquire lands in the eastern Mediterranean. However, the Sicilian Vespers freed Sicily from his control, and the resulting war forced him to abandon his plans to reassemble the Latin Empire. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (352x640, 38 KB)http://www. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (352x640, 38 KB)http://www. ... The tabernacle over the high altar of St. ... Nickname: The Eternal City Motto: SPQR: Senatus PopulusQue Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area    - City 1285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban... The Capitoline Hill (Capitolinus Mons), between the Forum and the Campus Martius, is one of the most famous and smallest of the seven hills of Rome. ... January 11 first mention of city of Požega in a charter of Andrew II of Hungary March 19 - Pope Gregory IX succeeds Pope Honorius III as the 178th pope. ... For broader historical context, see 1280s and 13th century. ... The following is a list of monarchs of the Kingdom of Naples and Sicily: // Hauteville Counts of Sicily, 1071–1130 Roger I 1071–1101 Simon 1101–1105 Roger II 1105–1130 Hauteville Kings of Sicily, 1130–1198 Roger II 1130–1154 William I 1154–1166 William II 1166–1189 Tancred... The Kingdom of Albania was established by Charles of Anjou in the territory he conquered from the Despotate of Epirus in 1271. ... Official language Latin, French, Italian, and other western languages; Greek and Arabic also widely spoken Capital Jerusalem, later Acre Constitution Various laws, so-called Assizes of Jerusalem The Kingdom of Jerusalem was a Christian kingdom established in the Levant in 1099 by the First Crusade. ... The Principality of Achaea was one of the three vassal states of the Latin Empire which replaced the Byzantine Empire after the capture of Constantinople during the Fourth Crusade. ... The now-extinct title of Count of Provence belonged to local families of Frankish origin, to the House of Barcelona, to the House of Anjou and to a cadet branch of the House of Valois. ... // Counts of Anjou, c. ... This is a list of counts and dukes of Maine, France. ... Louis VIII the Lion (French: Louis VIII le Lion) (September 5, 1187 – November 8, 1226) reigned as King of France from 1223 to 1226. ... Blanche of Castile (March 4, 1188 – November 26, 1252), wife of Louis VIII of France. ... Only representation of Saint Louis known to be true to life - Early 14th century statue from the church of Mainneville, Eure, France King Louis IX of France or Saint Louis (April 25, 1214/1215 – August 25, 1270) was King of France from 1226 until his death. ... Alphonse, Count of Toulouse and of Poitiers (November 11, 1220 – August 21, 1271). ... Arms of the Hohenstaufen Dynasty The Hohenstaufen (or the Staufer(s)) were a dynasty of Kings of Germany, many of whom were also crowned Holy Roman Emperor and Dukes of Swabia. ... The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ... Sicilian Vespers (1846), by Francesco Hayez The Sicilian Vespers is the name given to a rebellion in Sicily in 1282 against the rule of the Angevin king Charles I, who had taken control of the island with Papal support in 1266. ... Sicily (Sicilia in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ... The Latin Empire, Empire of Nicaea, Empire of Trebizond and the Despotate of Epirus. ...

Contents

Biography

Early life

Charles was born in 1227, shortly after the death of his father, King Louis VIII. In his will, his father had left to him (should he be male), the Counties of Anjou and Maine, with which he was invested in 1247. The affection of his mother Blanche seems largely to have been bestowed upon his brother Louis; and Louis tended to favour his other younger brothers, Robert of Artois and Alphonse. The self-reliance this engendered in Charles may account for the drive and ambition he showed in his later life. Robert I the Good (1216 - February 8, 1250) was Count of Artois. ...

French Monarchy
Direct Capetians
Hugh Capet
   Robert II
Robert II
   Henry I
   Robert I, Duke of Burgundy
Henry I
   Philip I
   Hugh, Count of Vermandois
Philip I
   Louis VI
Louis VI
   Louis VII
   Robert I of Dreux
Louis VII
   Mary, Countess of Champagne
   Alix, Countess of Blois
   Marguerite, Queen of Hungary
   Alys, Countess of the Vexin
   Philip II
   Agnes, Empress of Constantinople
Philip II
   Louis VIII
Louis VIII
   Louis IX
   Robert I, Count of Artois
   Alphonse, Count of Poitou and Toulouse
   Saint Isabel of France
   Charles I of Anjou and Sicily
Louis IX
   Philip III
   Robert, Count of Clermont
  Agnes, Duchess of Burgundy
Philip III
   Philip IV
   Charles III, Count of Valois
   Louis d'Evreux
   Margaret, Queen of England
Philip IV
   Louis X
   Philip V
   Isabella, Queen of England
   Charles IV
Grandchildren
    Joan II of Navarre
    John I
    Joan III, Countess and Duchess of Burgundy
    Margaret I, Countess of Burgundy
    Edward III of England
    Mary of France
    Blanche of France, Duchess of Orléans
Louis X
   Joan II of Navarre
   John I
John I
Philip V
Charles IV

The direct Capetian Dynasty followed the Carolingian rulers of France from 987 to 1328. ... An imagined image of Hugh Capet; no images of Hugh exist. ... Robert II the Pious (French: Robert II le Pieux) (March 27, 972 – July 20, 1031) was King of France from 996 to 1031. ... Robert II the Pious (French: Robert II le Pieux) (March 27, 972 – July 20, 1031) was King of France from 996 to 1031. ... Henry I (French: Henri Ier) (May 4, 1008–August 4, 1060) was King of France from 1031 to 1060. ... Robert I Capet (1011 – March 21, 1076) was duke of Burgundy between 1032 to his death. ... Henry I (French: Henri Ier) (May 4, 1008–August 4, 1060) was King of France from 1031 to 1060. ... Philip I (French: Philippe Ier) (May 23, 1052 – July 29, 1108) was King of France from 1060 to 1108. ... Hugh of Vermandois (1053 - October 18, 1101), was son to King Henry I of France and Anne of Kiev, and the younger brother of King Philip I of France. ... Philip I (French: Philippe Ier) (May 23, 1052 – July 29, 1108) was King of France from 1060 to 1108. ... Louis VI the Fat (French: Louis VI le Gros) (December 1, 1081 – August 1, 1137) was king of France from 1108 to 1137. ... Louis VI the Fat (French: Louis VI le Gros) (December 1, 1081 – August 1, 1137) was king of France from 1108 to 1137. ... Louis VII the Younger (French: Louis VII le Jeune) (1120 – September 18, 1180) was King of France from 1137 to 1180. ... Robert I of Dreux, nicknamed the Great (c. ... Louis VII the Younger (French: Louis VII le Jeune) (1120 – September 18, 1180) was King of France from 1137 to 1180. ... Marie of France, or Marie Capet, Countess of Champagne (1145 – March 11, 1198), was the elder daughter of Louis VII of France and his first wife, Eleanor of Aquitaine. ... Alix of France (1150 – 1197/1198) was the second daughter born to Louis VII of France by his first wife Eleanor of Aquitaine. ... Marguerite of France (1158 - 1197) was the eldest daughter of Louis VII of France by his second wife Constance of Castile. ... Alice, Countess of the Vexin (October 4, 1160 – c. ... Philip II Augustus (French: Philippe II Auguste) (August 21, 1165 – July 14, 1223), was King of France from 1180 to 1223. ... Agnes of France (1171 - after 1207) was a daughter of Louis VII of France by his third wife Adèle of Champagne. ... Philip II Augustus (French: Philippe II Auguste) (August 21, 1165 – July 14, 1223), was King of France from 1180 to 1223. ... Louis VIII the Lion (French: Louis VIII le Lion) (September 5, 1187 – November 8, 1226) reigned as King of France from 1223 to 1226. ... Louis VIII the Lion (French: Louis VIII le Lion) (September 5, 1187 – November 8, 1226) reigned as King of France from 1223 to 1226. ... Only representation of Saint Louis known to be true to life - Early 14th century statue from the church of Mainneville, Eure, France King Louis IX of France or Saint Louis (April 25, 1214/1215 – August 25, 1270) was King of France from 1226 until his death. ... Robert I the Good (1216 – February 8, 1250) was Count of Artois. ... Alphonse, Count of Toulouse and of Poitiers (November 11, 1220 – August 21, 1271). ... Saint Isabel of France (March, 1225 – 23 February 1270) was the daughter of Louis VIII of France and Blanche of Castile, and brother of Louis IX of France. ... Only representation of Saint Louis known to be true to life - Early 14th century statue from the church of Mainneville, Eure, France King Louis IX of France or Saint Louis (April 25, 1214/1215 – August 25, 1270) was King of France from 1226 until his death. ... Philip III the Bold (French: Philippe III le Hardi) (30 April 1245 – 5 October 1285) reigned as King of France from 1270 to 1285. ... Robert of France (1256 – February 7, 1317) was made Count of Clermont in 1268. ... Agnes of France (c. ... Philip III the Bold (French: Philippe III le Hardi) (30 April 1245 – 5 October 1285) reigned as King of France from 1270 to 1285. ... Philip IV the Fair (French: Philippe IV le Bel) (1268 – November 29, 1314) was King of France from 1285 until his death. ... Charles III of Valois (March 12, 1270 – December 16, 1325) was the third son of Philip III of France and Isabella of Aragon. ... Louis of France, Count dÉvreux (May, 1276 – May 19, 1319, Paris) was the third son of King Philip III the Bold with his second wife Marie de Brabant, and step-brother of King Philip IV the Fair. ... Marguerite of France (1282 – 14 February 1317) was a daughter of Philip III of France and Maria of Brabant. ... Philip IV the Fair (French: Philippe IV le Bel) (1268 – November 29, 1314) was King of France from 1285 until his death. ... Louis X of France Louis X the Quarreller, also called the Headstrong or the Stubborn, (French: Louis X le Hutin, Spanish: Luis el Obstinado) (October 4, 1289 – June 5, 1316), King of France from 1314 to 1316, was a member of the Capetian Dynasty. ... Philip V the Tall (French: Philippe V le Long) (1293 - January 3, 1322) was King of France from 1316 to 1322, a member of the Capetian dynasty. ... [[Image:Retour d Isabelle de France en pimp, Edward III. Jean Fouquet, 1455x1460. ... Charles IV the Fair (French: Charles IV le Bel) (1294 – February 1, 1328), a member of the Capetian Dynasty, reigned as King of France from 1322 to 1328. ... Joan II, Juana II, or Jeanne II, Queen of Navarre (1311 - 1349) - was the only daughter of King Louis X of France (Luis I of Navarre) and his first wife, Margaret of Burgundy. ... John I the Posthumous (French: Jean Ier le Posthume) (November 15, 1316 – November 20, 1316) was King of France for the five days he lived. ... Joan of Burgundy (1308-1349), also known as Jeanne de Bourgogne, Jeanne de France. ... Marguerite de France (1310 - 9 May 1382) was a medieval ruler, reigning countess of Artois and the Palatine Burgundy (Franche-Comté) as well as countess-consort of Flanders, Nevers and Rethel. ... For the play, see Edward III (play). ... Louis X of France Louis X the Quarreller, also called the Headstrong or the Stubborn, (French: Louis X le Hutin, Spanish: Luis el Obstinado) (October 4, 1289 – June 5, 1316), King of France from 1314 to 1316, was a member of the Capetian Dynasty. ... Joan II, Juana II, or Jeanne II, Queen of Navarre (1311 - 1349) - was the only daughter of King Louis X of France (Luis I of Navarre) and his first wife, Margaret of Burgundy. ... John I the Posthumous (French: Jean Ier le Posthume) (November 15, 1316 – November 20, 1316) was King of France for the five days he lived. ... John I the Posthumous (French: Jean Ier le Posthume) (November 15, 1316 – November 20, 1316) was King of France for the five days he lived. ... Philip V the Tall (French: Philippe V le Long) (1293 - January 3, 1322) was King of France from 1316 to 1322, a member of the Capetian dynasty. ... Charles IV the Fair (French: Charles IV le Bel) (1294 – February 1, 1328), a member of the Capetian Dynasty, reigned as King of France from 1322 to 1328. ...

Marriage and children

Charles was wedded to Beatrice of Provence on January 31, 1246, in Aix-en-Provence. Beatrice was the youngest daughter of Ramon Berenguer IV, Count of Provence and Forcalquier, who had died on August 19, 1245 by his wife Beatrice of Savoy. As his elder three daughters had all married kings and received substantial dowries, Raymond settled his entire inheritance upon Beatrice, making Charles Count of Provence and Forcalquier. They had the following children: Beatrice of Provence (1234 - 23 September 1267, Nocera) was the first wife and Queen of Charles I of Sicily. ... January 31 is the 31st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events End of the reign of Emperor Go-Saga, emperor of Japan. ... Aix (prounounced eks), or, to distinguish it from other cities built over hot springs, Aix-en-Provence is a city in southern France, some 30 km north of Marseille. ... Ramon Berenguer IV, Count of Provence (or Raymond) (1195 - 19 August 1245), Count of Provence and Forcalquier, was the son of Alfonso I, Count of Provence and Gersenda II of Sabran. ... August 19 is the 231st day of the year (232nd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Events Rebellion against king Sancho II of Portugal in favor of his brother Alphonso. ... Beatrice of Savoy (1198-1266), was the daughter of Thomas I of Savoy and Marguerite of Geneva. ...

  1. Louis (1248, Nicosia)
  2. Blanche (1250 – July 1269), married 1265 Count Robert III of Flanders
  3. Beatrice (1252–1275), married October 15, 1273 at Foggia to Philip of Courtenay, titular Emperor of Constantinople
  4. Charles II of Naples (1254 – 1309)
  5. Philip of Sicily (1256 – January 1, 1277), titular King of Thessalonica from 1274, married May 28, 1271 to Isabella of Villehardouin
  6. Robert (1258–1265)
  7. Elizabeth or Maria (1261 – c. 1300), married bef. September 1272 to Ladislas IV of Hungary

After the death of Beatrice, he married Margaret of Burgundy in 1268. Their only daughter, Margaret, died in infancy. Platia Eleftherias (Freedom square) Nicosia, Cyprus Satellite photo of Nicosia, Cyprus Nicosia, known locally as Lefkosia (Greek: Λευκωσία , also colloquially Khora, Χώρα or Turkish: LefkoÅŸa) is the capital and largest city of Cyprus. ... Robert III of Flanders (1249 – September 17, 1322), was Count of Flanders 1305–1322. ... October 15 is the 288th day of the year (289th in leap years). ... For broader historical context, see 1270s and 13th century. ... Foggia, Italy, is an Apulian big town and provincial capital. ... Philip of Courtenay (1243, Constantinople – 1283, Viterbo) was titular Emperor of Constantinople 1273–1283. ... The Latin Empire, Empire of Nicaea, Empire of Trebizond and the Despotate of Epirus. ... Charles II, known as the Lame (Fr. ... January 1 is the first day of the calendar year in both the Julian and Gregorian calendars. ... Events The philosophical doctrine Averroism is banned from Paris by bishop Etienne Tempier Burmas Pagan empire begins to disintegrate after being defeated by Kublai Khan at Ngasaungsyan, near the Chinese border. ... The Kingdom of Thessalonica was a short-lived Crusader State founded after the Fourth Crusade. ... May 28 is the 148th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (149th in leap years). ... For broader historical context, see 1270s and 13th century. ... Isabella of Villehardouin (born 1260/1263; died 23 January 1312) was the elder daughter of William II of Villehardouin, Prince of Achaea, and of the daughter (her name is unknown) of Narjot de Toucy (died 1241). ... Ladislaus IV the Cuman (Hungarian: IV László, Slovak: Ladislav IV)(1262 - July 10, 1290), also known as Laszlo IV, king of Hungary, was the son of Stephen V, whom he succeeded in 1272. ... Margaret of Burgundy (French:Marguerite de Bourgogne), (1250 - 4 September 1308) was the second wife of Charles I of Sicily, and by marriage Queen consort of Sicily. ...


Accession in Provence

Upon his accession as Count of Provence and Forcalquier in 1246, Charles rapidly found himself in difficulties. His sisters-in-law felt cheated by their father's will, and his mother-in-law the Dowager Countess Beatrice of Savoy claimed the entire County of Forcalquier and the usufruct of Provence as her jointure. Furthermore, while Provence was technically a part of the Kingdom of Burgundy and hence of the Holy Roman Empire, in practice it was free of central authority. The recent counts had governed with a light hand, and the nobilities and cities (three of which, Marseille, Arles, and Avignon were Imperial cities technically separate from the county) had enjoyed great liberties. Charles, in constrast, was disposed towards a rigid administration; he ordered inquests in 1252 and again in 1278 to ascertain his rights[1] Charles broke the traditional powers of the great towns (Nice, Grasse, Marseille, Arles, Avignon) and aroused considerable hostility by his punctilious insistence on enjoying his full rights and fees. In 1247, while Charles had gone to France to receive the Counties of Anjou and Maine, the local nobility (represented by Barral of Baux and Boniface of Castellane) joined with Beatrice and the three Imperial cities to form a defensive league against him. Unfortunately for Charles, he had promised to join his brother on the Seventh Crusade. For the time being, Charles' only recourse was to compromise with Beatrice, allowing her to have Forcalquier and a third of the Provençal usufruct. Jointure is, in law, a provision for a wife after the death of her husband. ... The following is a list of the Kings of Burgundy // Kings of the Burgundians Gebicca (late 4th century–407) Godemar Giselcar Gundicar (413–436) Aetius moves the Burgundians into Sapaudia (Upper Rhone Basin) Gunderic/Gundioc (436–473) opposed by Chilperic I (443–c. ... The double-headed eagle A portrait of Charlemagne wearing the crown of the Holy Roman Empire (15th century painting by Albrecht Dürer) The Holy Roman Empire was a mainly Germanic conglomeration of lands in Central Europe during the Middle Ages and the early modern period. ... City flag Coat of arms Motto: By her great deeds, the city of Massilia shines Location Coordinates Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Administration Country France Region Provence-Alpes-Côte dAzur Department Bouches-du-Rhône (13) Subdivisions 16 arrondissements (in 8 secteurs) Intercommunality Urban Community of Marseille Provence... Coordinates Administration Country France Region Provence-Alpes-Côte dAzur Department Bouches-du-Rhône (Subprefecture) Arrondissement Arles Canton Chief town of 2 cantons: Arles-Est and Arles-Ouest Intercommunality Agglomeration community of Arles-Crau-Camargue-Montagnette Mayor Hervé Schiavetti  (PS) (2001-2008) Statistics Altitude 0 m–57 m... City flag City coat of arms Location Coordinates Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Administration Country France Région Provence-Alpes-Côte dAzur Département Vaucluse (préfecture) Arrondissement Avignon Canton Chief town of 4 cantons Intercommunality Communauté dagglomération du Grand Avignon Mayor Marie-Josée Roig... Barral of Baux (d. ... The Seventh Crusade was a crusade led by Louis IX of France from 1248 to 1254. ...


Rich Provence provided the funds that supported his wider career. His rights as landlord were on the whole of recent establishment, but his rights as sovereign entitled him to revenues on the gabelles (mainly salt), from alberga (commutation of gîte) and cavalcata (commutation of the duties of military service) and quista ("aids") (Baratier 1969). From the Church, unlike his brothers in the north, he received virtually nothing. Charles' agents were efficient, the towns were prosperous, the peasants were buying up the duties of corvée and establishing self-governing consulats in the villages: Provence flourished. The gabelle was a very unpopular tax on salt in France before 1790. ... A gîte (masculine gender, pronounced zheet) is a French holiday home that is available for rent. ... Corvée, or corvée labor, is a term used in feudal societies. ...


Seventh Crusade and return

Charles sailed with the rest of the Crusaders from Aigues-Mortes in 1248, and fought gallantly at Damietta and during the fighting around Mansourah. However, his piety does not seem to have matched that of his brother (Jean de Joinville relates a tale of Louis catching him gambling on the voyage from Egypt to Acre) and he returned with his brother Alphonse in May 1250. During his absence, open rebellion had broken out in Provence. Charles moved with his characteristic energy to suppress it, and Arles, Avignon, and Barral of Baux had surrendered to him by June 1251. Marseille held out until July 1252, but then sued for peace. Charles imposed a lenient peace, but insisted on the recognition of his full panoply of comital rights, and acknowledgement of his suzerainity by Marseille. Ramparts of the Town of Aigues-Mortes, one of the Municipalities of Languedoc. ... Damietta is a port in Dumyat, Egypt on the Mediterranean Sea at the Nile delta, about 200 kilometres north of Cairo. ... Al Mansurah (Arabic منصورة) is considered to be Egyptian fourth city after Cairo, Alexandria and Port Said. ... Jean de Joinville (1224 - December 24, 1317) was one of the great chroniclers of medieval France. ... The Old City of Akko in the 19th or early 20th century, looking south-west from atop the Land Wall Promenade, the open space now a parking lot. ...


Wider ambitions

In November 1252, the death of his mother Blanche of Castile caused him to go north to Paris and assume the joint regency of the kingdom with his brother Alphonse. While in Paris, he was approached by envoys from Pope Innocent IV. Innocent was then seeking to detach the Kingdom of Sicily from the Holy Roman Empire (in the person of Conrad IV of Germany), and offered it to Charles, after his brother-in-law Richard, Earl of Cornwall had declined it. Alphonse, however, was cool to the idea; and King Louis forbade it outright. Balked, Charles took up the cause of Margaret II of Flanders against her son, John I, Count of Hainaut in the War of the Succession of Flanders and Hainault. She granted him the County of Hainaut for his service. King Louis again disapproved, and on his return from Outremer in 1254 he returned Hainaut to John. The disappointed Charles returned to Provence, which had become restive again. The mediation of King Louis led to a settlement with Beatrice of Savoy, who returned Forcalquier and relinquished her claims for a cash payment and a pension. Marseille had attempted to involve Pisa and Alfonso X of Castile in the quarrel, but they proved unreliable as allies, and a coup by the supporters of Charles resulted in the surrender of the city's political powers. Charles spent the next several years quietly increasing his power over various lordships on the borders of Provence. A final rebellion occurred in 1262, when he was absent in France; Boniface of Castellane rebelled yet again, as did Marseille and Hugh of Baux. However, Barral of Baux now remained loyal to Charles, and Charles quickly returned to scatter the rebels. The mediation of James I of Aragon brought about a settlement; while Marseille was forced to dismantle its fortifications and surrender its arms, it otherwise went unpunished. Surprisingly, this lenity worked to good effect; hereafter, the Provençals proved staunch supporters of Charles, providing money and troops for his further conquests. Many of them were to be rewarded with high posts in his new dominions. Blanche of Castile (March 4, 1188 – November 26, 1252), wife of Louis VIII of France. ... City flag City coat of arms Motto: Fluctuat nec mergitur (Latin: Tossed by the waves, she does not sink) Paris Eiffel tower as seen from the esplanade du Trocadéro. ... Pope Innocent IV (Manarola, 1180/90 – Naples, December 7, 1254), born Sinibaldo de Fieschi, Pope from 1243 to 1254, belonged to the feudal nobility of Liguria, the Fieschi, counts of Lavagna. ... Conrad IV, Conrad of Hohenstaufen (April 25, 1228 Andria, Italy – May 21, 1254, Lavello), was king of Jerusalem (as Conrad II) 1228–1254, of Germany 1237–1254, and of Sicily (as Conrad I) 1250–1254. ... Richard (5 January 1209 - 2 April 1272) was Count of Poitou (bef. ... Margaret II of Flanders (1202-1278) was countess of Flanders from 1244 to 1278 and countess of Hainaut from 1244 to 1246. ... John I of Avesnes (May 1, 1218 - December 24, 1257) was count of Hainaut from 1246 to his death. ... The War of the Succession of Flanders and Hainault was a series of feudal conflicts in the mid-thirteenth century between the children of Margaret II, Countess of Flanders. ... The virtually independent county of Hainaut emerged from chaotic conditions at the end of the 9th century as a semi-independent state, at first a vassal of the crown of Lotharingia. ... Outremer, French for overseas, was the general name given the Crusader states established after the First Crusade; County of Edessa, Principality of Antioch, County of Tripoli and especially the Kingdom of Jerusalem. ... This article discusses the Italian city. ... Alfonso X and his court. ... James I of Aragon (Catalan: Jaume I, Spanish: Jaime I, Occitan: Jacme I) (Montpellier, February 2, 1208 – July 27, 1276) surnamed the Conqueror, was the king of Aragon, count of Barcelona and Lord of Montpellier from 1213 to 1276. ...


With the usurpation of the Sicilian throne from Conradin by Manfred of Sicily in 1258, the relationship between the Papacy and the Hohenstaufen had changed again. Instead of the boy Conradin, safely sequestered across the Alps, the Papacy now faced an able military leader in Italy. Accordingly, when negotiations broke down with Manfred in 1262, Pope Urban IV again took up the scheme of disseising the Hohenstaufen from the Kingdom, and offered the crown to Charles again. Manfred's own usurpation from Conradin told upon King Louis' scruples; this time, he was persuaded to admit the offer, and Charles ratified a treaty with the Pope in July 1263. The terms were heavily in favor of the Pope; the Kingdom must never be re-united with the Empire, and the King was never to hold Imperial or Papal office, or interfere with ecclesiastical matters in the Kingdom. Nevertheless, Charles accepted eagerly. For money, he called for help from the then-omnipotent Sienese banker, Orlando Bonsignori. Portrait of Conradin from the Codex Manesse (Folio 7r). ... Manfred (c. ... Arms of the Hohenstaufen Dynasty The Hohenstaufen (or the Staufer(s)) were a dynasty of Kings of Germany, many of whom were also crowned Holy Roman Emperor and Dukes of Swabia. ... The West face of the Petit Dru above the Chamonix valley near the Mer de Glace. ... Urban IV, born Jacques Pantaléon (Troyes, ca. ... Orlando Bonsignori (died 1273) was an Italian banker from Siena. ...


Conquest of Sicily

Having endorsed the treaty, Charles could now play for time. With Manfred's troops advancing on the Papal States, Charles obtained an extensive renegotiation of the treaty on more favorable lines. As instructions went out to the clergy to submit contributions for the war, Urban IV died in October 1264 at Perugia, fleeing Manfred. This raised the possibility of a reversal of Papal policy. To underscore his resolve, he broke sharply with his previous policy of lenity and ordered the execution of Hugh of Baux and several other Provençal rebels, who had been in his hands for a year. Fortunately for Charles, the new Pope Clement IV was the former adviser of his brother Alphonse and strongly supported the accession of Charles. Charles entered Rome on May 23, 1265 and was proclaimed King of Sicily. Perugia is the capital city in the region of Umbria in central Italy, near the Tiber river, and the capital of the province of Perugia. ... Clement IV, né Gui Faucoi le Gros ( Guy Foulques the Fat or Guido le Gros) (Saint-Gilles-du-Gard, November 23, year uncertain – Viterbo, November 29, 1268), was elected Pope February 5, 1265, in a conclave held at Perugia that took four months, while cardinals argued over whether to call... Nickname: The Eternal City Motto: SPQR: Senatus PopulusQue Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area    - City 1285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban... May 23 is the 143rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (144th in leap years). ... For broader historical context, see 1260s and 13th century. ...

1246 coat of Arms of Anjou-Sicily.

Charles was popular in Rome, where he was elected Senator, and his diplomacy had already undermined Manfred's support in northern Italy. While Charles' campaigns were delayed for lack of money, Manfred, curiously, idled away his time hunting in Apulia, while his support in the north of Italy dwindled. Charles was able to bring his main army through the Alps, and he and Beatrice were crowned on January 6, 1266. As Charles' army began an energetic campaign, Manfred suddenly shed his lethargy and moved to meet him. Worried that further delays might endanger the loyalty of his supporters, he attacked Charles' army, then in disarray from the crossing of the hills into Benevento, on February 26, 1266. In the Battle of Benevento that followed, Manfred's army was defeated in detail and he was killed in the melee. Upon his death, resistance throughout the Kingdom collapsed, and Charles was master of Sicily. Image File history File links Blason_Sicile_Péninsulaire. ... Image File history File links Blason_Sicile_Péninsulaire. ... A senate is a deliberative body, often the upper house or chamber of a legislature. ... This article is about the Italian region. ... January 6 is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 359 days (360 in leap years) remaining. ... For broader historical context, see 1260s and 13th century. ... Benevento is a town and comune of Campania, Italy, capital of the province of Benevento, 50 km northeast of Naples. ... February 26 is the 57th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... For broader historical context, see 1260s and 13th century. ... The Battle of Benevento was fought in Southern Italy on February 26, 1266, where the invading Angevin forces led by Charles, the Count of Anjou, overcame a combined German-Sicilian force led by Manfred of Sicily. ...


While Charles' administration in his new Kingdom was generally fair and honest, it was also stringent. As in Provence, he insisted on maximizing the revenues and privileges he could obtain from his new subjects. Discontent was high; but for now, Charles could focus on extending his power in northern Italy (which alarmed the Pope, who feared a powerful king of all Italy as much as he did an Emperor). But the Pope was willing to allow this; for in September 1267 Conradin marched south to reclaim the rights of the Hohenstaufen, and one of his agents instigated a revolt in Sicily. He entered Rome on July 24, 1268, where his arrival was wildly celebrated. At the Battle of Tagliacozzo, on August 23, 1268, it appeared he might win the day; but a sudden charge of Charles' reserve discomfited his army and he was forced to flee to Rome. Told it was no longer safe, he attempted to escape to Genoa, but was arrested and imprisoned in the Castel dell'Ovo in Naples. In a trial carefully managed by Charles, Conradin was condemned for treason, and he was beheaded on October 29, 1268. By the end of 1270, he had captured Lucera[2] and put down the revolt in Sicily, executing many of the captured. With the whole kingdom powed beneath his strict, if fair, rule, he was ready to consider greater conquests. Portrait of Conradin from the Codex Manesse (Folio 7r). ... Sicily (Sicilia in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ... July 24 is the 205th day (206th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 160 days remaining. ... Conradin (right) is executed by Charles I of Sicily, thus extinguishing the Hohenstaufen dynasty, in 1268. ... The Battle of Tagliacozzo was fought on August 23, 1268 between the French forces of Charles of Anjou and the Sicilians, led by Conradin. ... August 23 is the 235th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (236th in leap years), with 130 days remaining. ... Conradin (right) is executed by Charles I of Sicily, thus extinguishing the Hohenstaufen dynasty, in 1268. ... Genoa (Genova in Italian - Zena in Genoese) is a city and a seaport in northern Italy, the capital of the Province of Genoa and of the region of Liguria. ... Castel dellOvo. ... The Bay of Naples Naples (Italian: , Neapolitan: Nàpule, from Greek Νεάπολη < Νέα Πόλις Néa Pólis New City) is the largest city in southern Italy and capital of the Campania region and the Province of Naples. ... October 29 is the 302nd day of the year (303rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Conradin (right) is executed by Charles I of Sicily, thus extinguishing the Hohenstaufen dynasty, in 1268. ... Country Italy Region Puglia Province Foggia (FO) Mayor Elevation 250 m Area 338 km² Population  - Total (as of 2005) 34,911  - Density 103/km² Time zone CET, UTC+1 Coordinates Gentilic Lucerini Dialing code 0881 Postal code 71036 Frazioni Regente, San Giusto Patron Santa Maria  - Day August 15 Location of...


Ambitions in the Latin Empire

After the defeat of Manfred at Benevento, Charles immediately began to plan his expansion into the Mediterranean. Historically, the Kingdom of Sicily had at times controlled parts of the eastern Adriatic seaboard, and Manfred had been possessed of the island of Corfu and the towns of Butrinto, Avlona and Suboto, which had formed the dowry of his wife Helena. Charles seized these at the end of 1266. From thence, he passed on to intrigue with the remaining nobility of the Latin Empire. In May 1267, he concluded the Treaty of Viterbo with the exiled Baldwin II of Constantinople and William II Villehardouin (through his chancellor Leonardo of Veruli). Taking advantage of the precarious situation of the remains of the Empire in the face of rising Greek power, he obtained confirmation of his possession of Corfu, the suzerain rights over Achaea, and sovereignty over most of the Aegean islands. Furthermore, the heirs of both the Latin princes were to marry children of Charles, and Charles was to have the reversion of the Empire and Principality should the couples have no heirs. With few options to check the Byzantine tide, he was well placed to dictate terms. The Adriatic Sea is an arm of the Mediterranean Sea separating the Apennine peninsula (Italy) from the Balkan peninsula, and the system of the Apennine Mountains from that of the Dinaric Alps and adjacent ranges. ... Pontikonisi island in the background with the Vlaheraina Monastery in the foreground. ... Remains of a theatre and part of the agora (Photo by Marc Morell) Remains of the 6th-century baptistery Butrint (Albanian: Butrint or Butrinti) is a city and an archeological site in Albania, close to the Greek border. ... Vlorë (Albanian: Vlorë or Vlora, Greek: ) is the second largest port city of Albania, after Durrës, with a population of about 85,000 (2003 estimate). ... The Treaty or Treaties of Viterbo was a pair of agreements made by Charles I of Sicily with Baldwin II of Constantinople and William II Villehardouin, Prince of Achaea, in May 1267, which transferred much of the rights to the Latin Empire from Baldwin to Charles. ... Baldwin II (1217&#8212;1273) was the last emperor of the Latin Empire of Constantinople. ... William II Villehardouin (died May 1, 1278) was the last Villehardouin prince of Achaea (=Morea) and ruled the principality at the height of its power and influence. ... Leonardo of Veruli (d. ... Look up Aegean Sea in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

In 1277, he claims the Kingdom of Jerusalem

Charles' wife Beatrice died on September 23, 1267, and he immediately sought a new marriage to Margaret, daughter of Bela IV of Hungary. However, Margaret wished to be a nun (and was later canonized); Charles instead married (on November 18, 1268), Margaret, Countess of Tonnerre (1250 – September 4, 1308, Tonnerre), the daughter of Eudes of Burgundy. However, he was able to make a marital alliance with the Hungarians: his son Charles, Prince of Salerno married Maria, daughter of crown prince Stephen, while Charles' daughter Elizabeth married Stephen's son Ladislas. Image File history File links Armoiries_Anjou_Jérusalem. ... Image File history File links Armoiries_Anjou_Jérusalem. ... September 23 is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years). ... For broader historical context, see 1260s and 13th century. ... B la IV (1206-1270) was the king of Hungary between 1235 and 1270. ... November 18 is the 322nd day of the year (323rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Conradin (right) is executed by Charles I of Sicily, thus extinguishing the Hohenstaufen dynasty, in 1268. ... Margaret of Burgundy (French:Marguerite de Bourgogne), (1250 - 4 September 1308) was the second wife of Charles I of Sicily, and by marriage Queen consort of Sicily. ... September 4 is the 247th day of the year (248th in leap years). ... Events Henry VII is elected as king of the Holy Roman Empire. ... Tonnerre is a town and commune of the Yonne département in France. ... Eudes of Burgundy (1230-1266) was count of Nevers and Auxerre and the heir of Hugh IV, Duke of Burgundy. ... Charles II, known as the Lame (Fr. ... King Stephen V of Hungary (Hungarian: , Slovak: Å tefan V) (1239 or 1240 – August 6, 1272), was the son of Bela IV of Hungary, whom he succeeded in 1270. ... Ladislaus IV the Cuman (Hungarian: IV László, Slovak: Ladislav IV)(1262 - July 10, 1290), also known as Laszlo IV, king of Hungary, was the son of Stephen V, whom he succeeded in 1272. ...


Eighth Crusade

Having thus made secure his position in the East, he began to prepare a crusade to recover the Latin Empire. Michael VIII Palaeologus was greatly alarmed at the prospect: he wrote to King Louis, suggesting that he was open to a voluntary union of the Roman and Latin churches, and poiting out the interference a descent on Constantinople would pose to Louis' own crusading plans. Louis took a dim view of his sincerity; but he was eager to take up the cross again, and he notified Charles of his intentions. Charles continued with his preparations against Constantinople, hoping the crusade might be postponed, but he also prepared to turn his brother's crusade to his own advantage. The Caliph of Tunis, Muhammed I al-Mustansir had been a vassal of Sicily, but had shaken off his allegiance with the fall of Manfred. However, there were rumors he might be sympathetic to Christianity. Accordingly, Charles suggested to his brother that the arrival of a crusade in his support might bring about Mustansir's conversion. Thus it was that Louis directed the Eighth Crusade against Tunis. Charles did not arrive until late in the day on August 25, 1270, only to find that his brother had died of dysentery that morning. Charles took command, and after a few skirmishes, Mustansir concluded a peace treaty and agreed to pay tribute to Charles. Illness continued to plague the army, however, and a storm devastated the fleet as it returned to Sicily. Charles was forced to postpone his designs against Constantinople again. The Byzantine Empire in 1265 (William R. Shepherd, Historical Atlas, 1911) Michael VIII (1225 – December 11, 1282) was the founder of the Palaeologos dynasty that would rule the Byzantine Empire to the Fall of Constantinople in 1453. ... The Eighth Crusade was a crusade launched by Louis IX of France, (who was by now in his mid-fifties) in 1270. ... August 25 is the 237th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (238th in leap years), with 128 days remaining. ... For broader historical context, see 1270s and 13th century. ...


Conquest of Albania and Genoese War

In February 1271, Charles began to expand his Adriatic possessions by capturing Durazzo, and he soon controlled much of the Albanian interior. In February 1272, he proclaimed himself King of Albania and appointed Gazzo Chinardo as his Vicar-General. He hoped to take up his expedition against Constantinople again, but was delayed by the rise Pope Gregory X, consecrated on March 27, 1272. Gregory had high hopes of reconciling Europe, unifying the Greek and Latin churches, and launching a new crusade: to that end, he announced the Council of Lyon, to be held in 1274, and worked to arrange the election of an Emperor. View of Durrës Durrës (historical names: Δυρράχιον,Durazzo, Epidamnos, Драч, Dyrrhachium) is the most ancient and one of the most economically important cities of Albania. ... The Kingdom of Albania was established by Charles of Anjou in the territory he conquered from the Despotate of Epirus in 1271. ... Gregory X, né Theobald Visconti (Piacenza, ca. ... March 27 is the 86th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (87th in leap years). ... For broader historical context, see 1270s and 13th century. ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ... The Council of Lyons refers to either the 13th or 14th ecumenical councils of the Roman Catholic Church, both held in Lyon, France during the 13th century: First Council of Lyons (1245; Pope Innocent IV; regarding the Crusades) Second Council of Lyons (1274; Pope Gregory X; regarding papal election procedures...


In November 1272, the strained relations between Charles and Ghibelline-ruled Genoa finally broke into war. Ghibelline revolts broke out across the north of Italy, and increasingly occupied the attention of Charles, even as Michael Palaeologus was negotiating a union of churches with the Pope. At the same time, he had made contact with Genoa and was sending money to encourage the revolts in the north. At the apparently successful conclusion of the Council of Lyon, a Union of Churches was declared, and Charles and Philip of Courtenay were compelled to extend a truce with Michael. This was a blessing in disguise for Charles, for the Ghibellines now controlled most of the north, and he was forced to retreat from Piedmont in late 1275. In truth, Pope Gregory was not entirely displeased; he regarded north Italy as best dealt with by its new Emperor, Rudolph of Habsburg, and preferred that Charles be confined to the south. If he wished to make war, let him look to Outremer; and to this end, Gregory endorsed the sale to Charles of the claims of Maria of Antioch on the Kingdom of Jerusalem, which had been rejected by the Haute Cour there. On March 18, 1277, he bought her claim and assumed the title of King of Jerusalem, sending Roger of Sanseverino as his bailli to Acre. There Roger ousted Balian of Ibelin, the bailli of Hugh I and compelled the nobles to swear fealty. In the meantime, Gregory had been succeeded by Pope Innocent V, who arranged a peace between Charles and the Genoese. The Guelphs and Ghibellines were factions supporting, respectively, the Papacy and the Holy Roman Empire in Italy during the 12th century and 13th century. ... The Republic of Genoa, in full the Most Serene Republic of Genoa (known as the Ligurian Republic from 1798 to 1805) was an independent state in Liguria on the northwestern Italian coast from ca. ... Philip of Courtenay (1243, Constantinople – 1283, Viterbo) was titular Emperor of Constantinople 1273–1283. ... Piedmont (Italian: Piemonte) is a region of northwestern Italy. ... The brass of the tomb of Rudolph I in Speyer Rudolph I (Rudolph of Hapsburg) (May 1, 1218 - July 15, 1291) was a German king. ... Outremer, French for overseas, was the general name given the Crusader states established after the First Crusade; County of Edessa, Principality of Antioch, County of Tripoli and especially the Kingdom of Jerusalem. ... Maria of Antioch pretended to the throne of Jerusalem from 1269 to 1277. ... Official language Latin, French, Italian, and other western languages; Greek and Arabic also widely spoken Capital Jerusalem, later Acre Constitution Various laws, so-called Assizes of Jerusalem The Kingdom of Jerusalem was a Christian kingdom established in the Levant in 1099 by the First Crusade. ... The Haute Cour (High Court) was the feudal council of the Kingdom of Jerusalem. ... March 18 is the 77th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (78th in leap years). ... Events The philosophical doctrine Averroism is banned from Paris by bishop Etienne Tempier Burmas Pagan empire begins to disintegrate after being defeated by Kublai Khan at Ngasaungsyan, near the Chinese border. ... Roger of San Severino was the bailiff of the Kingdom of Jerusalem from 1277 to 1282. ... Drawing of Balian of Ibelins seal, from The Crusades: The Story of the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem, by T. A. Archer and Charles Lethbridge Kingsford (London & NY, 1894). ... Hugh III of Cyprus, Hugh I of Jerusalem, Hugh of Antioch or Hugh of Lusignan (died March 24, 1284), King of Cyprus 1267–1284 and King of Jerusalem 1268–1284, was the son of Henry of Antioch and Isabella of Cyprus, the daughter of Hugh I of Cyprus. ... Innocent V, né Pierre de Tarentaise (Hamlet of Friburge - Champagny en Vanoise, Savoy, ca. ...


Breakdown of the Union

Meanwhile, in Constantinople, the Union of the Churches was proving difficult to arrange, and the Emperor Michael had great difficulty in imposing it on his people. Nevertheless, he persuaded Innocent of his sincerity in working towards it, and Charles was again forbidden to attack Constantinople. Knowing this, Michael began a campaign in Albania in late 1274, where he captured Berat and Butrinto. He also enjoyed some success in his campaigns in Euboea and the Peloponnese. Berat (Albanian: Berat or Berati, Greek: ) is a town located in south-central Albania at . ... Remains of a theatre and part of the agora (Photo by Marc Morell) Remains of the 6th-century baptistery Butrint (Albanian: Butrint or Butrinti) is a city and an archeological site in Albania, close to the Greek border. ... Euboea or Negropont (Modern Greek: Εύβοια Evia, Ancient Greek Εúβοια Eúboia; see also List of traditional Greek place names), is the largest island of the Greek archipelago. ... The Peloponnese or Peloponnesus (Greek: Πελοπόννησος Peloponnesos; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is a large peninsula in southern Greece, forming the part of the country south of the Gulf of Corinth. ...


Affairs dragged on for several years, until the accession of Pope Martin IV on March 23, 1280. Pope Martin was a Frenchman, and lacked the evenhandedness of some of his recent precursors. He brought the full power of the Papacy into line behind Charles' plans. The Union, which had proved impossible to impose upon Constantinople, was called off, and Charles given authorization for the restoration of the Latin Empire. Martin IV, né Simon de Brion (ca. ... March 23 is the 82nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (83rd in leap years). ... For broader historical context, see 1280s and 13th century. ...


He opened his campaign in Albania, where his general Hugh of Sully captured Butrinto from the Despotate of Epirus in 1280 and besieging Berat. A Greek army of relief under Michael Tarchaniotes arrived in March, 1281: Hugh of Sully was ambushed and captured, and his army put to flight. The Greeks took possession of the interior of Albania. Nor was Charles particularly successful in Achaea, where he had become (by the Treaty of Viterbo) Prince of Achaea on the death of William II Villehardouin in 1278. His bailli Galeran of Ivry was defeated at Skorta in his one attempt to engage the Byzantines, and was recalled in 1280 and replaced by Philip of Lagonesse. Nonetheless, Charles was to launch the body of his crusade against Constantinople in the spring of 1282. The Despotate of Epirus was one of the medieval Greek successor states of the Byzantine Empire, founded in the aftermath of the Fourth Crusade in 1204. ... The Treaty or Treaties of Viterbo was a pair of agreements made by Charles I of Sicily with Baldwin II of Constantinople and William II Villehardouin, Prince of Achaea, in May 1267, which transferred much of the rights to the Latin Empire from Baldwin to Charles. ... Galeran of Ivry was an official of Charles I of Sicily. ... Coordinates 37°23′ N 22°3′ E Country Greece Periphery Peloponnese Prefecture Arcadia Population 1,266 (2001) Elevation 482 m Postal code 220 22 Area code 27910 Licence plate code TP Website www. ... Philip of Lagonesse was an official of Charles I of Sicily. ...


Sicilian Vespers

But Michael had not been working upon the military front alone. Many Ghibelline officials had fled the Kingdom of Sicily to the court of Peter III of Aragon, who had married Constance, the daughter and heir of Manfred. Manfred's former chancellor, John of Procida, had arranged contact between Michael, Peter and the refugees at his court, and conspirators on the island of Sicily itself. Peter began to assemble a fleet at Barcelona, ostensibly for another Crusade to Tunis. In fact, the master-plan of John of Procida was to place Peter on the throne of Sicily, his Hohenstaufen inheritance. The result was the uprising known as the Sicilian Vespers, which was initiated in Palermo on March 29, 1282. It rapidly grew into a general massacre of the French in Sicily. A few officials notable for their good conduct were spared; and the city of Messina still held for Charles. But through the diplomatic errors of Charles' Vicar, Herbert of Orleans, Messina, too, revolted on April 28, 1282. Herbert retreated to the castle of Mategriffon, but was forced to abandon the Crusading fleet, which was burnt. Peter III of Aragon (Catalan: Pere) (1239 – November 11, 1285, also Peter I of Valencia, Peter II of Barcelona), known as the Great, was the king of Aragon and Valencia and count of Barcelona from 1276 to 1285. ... Reproduction of the profile present in the duomo of Salerno (Michele Parascandolo. ... Location Coordinates : Time Zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer: CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name Barcelona (Catalan) Spanish name Barcelona Nickname Ciutat Comtal (Catalan) Ciudad Condal (Spanish) Postal code 08001-08080 Area code 34 (Spain) + 93 (Barcelona) Website http://www. ... Sicilian Vespers (1846), by Francesco Hayez The Sicilian Vespers is the name given to a rebellion in Sicily in 1282 against the rule of the Angevin king Charles I, who had taken control of the island with Papal support in 1266. ... March 29 is the 88th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (89th in leap years). ... For broader historical context, see 1280s and 13th century. ... Messina, Italy Strait of Messina, Italy. ... April 28 is the 118th day of the year (119th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 247 days remaining. ... For broader historical context, see 1280s and 13th century. ...


The news surprised Peter of Aragon, who had expected to intervene only after Charles had left for Constantinople. But the conspirators, aided by the Emperor Michael (who wished to see Charles balked in his expedition), had set the revolt in motion early. Peter did not immediately intervene; he sailed with the fleet to Tunis, where he discovered that the would-be convert on whose behalf the crusade had ostensibly been undertaken had been caught and executed. While he bided his time, the Sicilians made an appeal to Pope Martin to take the Communes of their cities under his protection. But Martin was far too deeply committed to Charles and French interests to heed them; instead, he excommunicated the rebels, the Emperor Michael, and the Ghibellines in north Italy. Charles gathered his forces in Calabria and made a landing near Messina and began a siege. Several attempts to assault the city were unsuccessful. Rejected by the Pope, the Sicilians now appealed to King Peter and Queen Constance; he duly accepted, and landed at Trapani on August 30, 1282. He was proclaimed King in Palermo on September 4; as the Archibishopric of Palermo was vacant, he could not immediately be crowned. In the face of the Aragonese landing, Charles was compelled to withdraw across the Straits of Messina into Calabria in September; but the Aragonese moved swiftly enough to destroy part of his army and most of his baggage. The Angevin house was forever ousted from Sicily. Calabria (Latin: Bruttium or Brutium), is a region in southern Italy which occupies the toe of the Italian peninsula south of Naples. ... Torre della Colombaia Trapani (2004 population 67,456) is a city in the west coast of Sicily in Italy. ... August 30 is the 242nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (243rd in leap years), with 123 days remaining. ... For broader historical context, see 1280s and 13th century. ... Palermo (Palermo in Italian, Palermu, Palemmu, Paliermu or Paliemmu in Sicilian) is the principal city and administrative seat of the autonomous region of Sicily, Italy as well as the capital of the Province of Palermo. ... September 4 is the 247th day of the year (248th in leap years). ... Angevin (IPA: ) is the name applied to the residents of Anjou, a former province of the Kingdom of France, as well as to the residents of Angers. ...


War with Aragon

Despite his retreat into Calabria, Charles remained in a strong position. His nephew, Philip III of France, was devoted to him; and Pope Martin regarded the rebellion as an affront both to French interests and his own rights as suzerain of the Kingdom. Both sides temporized; the expense of a long war might be disastrous for both, and Peter and Charles arranged for a judicial duel, with a hundred knights apiece, on June 1, 1283 at Bordeaux. Skirmishes and raids continued to occur: in January 1283, Aragonese guerillas attacked Catona and killed Count Peter I of Alençon in his hostel. In February, the Aragonese crossed into Calabria to face off with Charles of Salerno. However, tensions between the Aragonese and the Sicilians had begun to rise. Both men now hoped to turn the war to their advantage, and the judicial duel turned into a farce, the two kings arriving at different times, declaring a victory over their absent opponent, and departing. Now the war was to escalate: Pope Martin had excommunicated Peter and proclaimed the war against the Sicilians a Crusade in January, and in March, declared Peter to be deprived of his dominions. On February 2, 1284, Aragon and Valencia were officially conferred upon Charles of Valois. The war continued in Italy: while little progress had been made in Calabria, a detachment of the Aragonese fleet was blockading Malta. Charles of Salerno sent a newly raised Provençal fleet to the relief of Malta; but it was caught by the main Aragonese fleet under Roger of Lauria and destroyed in the Battle of Malta. The Aragonese were now, however, running quite short of money, and Peter was threatened by the prospect of a French attack on Aragon. King Charles planned to raise new troops and a fleet in Provence, and instructed Charles of Salerno to maintain a strict defensive posture until his return from France. However, Roger of Lauria continued to command the sea and launch harassing raids up and down the coast of Calabria, and in May 1284 he successfully blockaded Naples, basing a small squadron on the island of Nisida to do so. The Neapolitans were infuriated by the blockade; and in June, Charles of Salerno armed the newly launched fleet at Naples and embarked on June 5 to destroy the blockading squadron. Evidently believing the main Aragonese fleet was raiding down the coast, he hoped to destroy the blockading squadron and return to Naples before it returned. However, Roger of Lauria had learned of his plans, and Charles found himself engulfed by superior numbers. After a short, sharp, fight, most of his fleet was captured, and he himself was taken prisoner. Philip III the Bold (French: Philippe III le Hardi) (30 April 1245 – 5 October 1285) reigned as King of France from 1270 to 1285. ... June 1 is the 152nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (153rd in leap years), with 213 days remaining. ... For broader historical context, see 1280s and 13th century. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Charles II, known as the Lame (Fr. ... February 2 is the 33rd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... // Events War and politics King Charles II of Naples is captured in a naval battle off Naples by Roger of Lauria, admiral to King Peter III of Aragon. ... for the cycling team, see Comunitat Valenciana (cycling team). ... Charles III of Valois (March 12, 1270 – December 16, 1325) was the third son of Philip III of France and Isabella of Aragon. ... Roger of Lauria Roger of Lauria, or Ruggero di Lauria (c. ... The naval Battle of Malta took place on July 8, 1283 in the entrance to Grand Harbor, Valetta, when a galley fleet commanded by Roger of Lauria (Ruggiero di Lauria) defeated a fleet of Angevin galleys commanded by William Cornut and Bartholomew Bonvin. ... The Bay of Naples Naples (Italian: , Neapolitan: Nàpule, from Greek Νεάπολη < Νέα Πόλις Néa Pólis New City) is the largest city in southern Italy and capital of the Campania region and the Province of Naples. ... Isle of Nisida in the Gulf of Naples. ... June 5 is the 156th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (157th in leap years), with 209 days remaining. ...


News of the reverse caused anti-French riots in Naples, and Roger of Lauria was quick to take advantage of Charles' captivity to obtain the release of Beatrice, daughter of Manfred of Sicily, then held in Naples. King Charles arrived in Gaeta on June 6 and learned of the disaster. He was furious at his son and his disobedience; by the time he reached Naples, the riots had been quelled. He advanced on Calabria and attempted a landing in Sicily; but his main army was blocked at Reggio, and he retreated from Calabria entirely on August 3. He continued to make preparations for a campaign against Sicily in the new year; but his health failed. On January 7, 1285, he died in Foggia. Manfred (c. ... Gaeta (ancient Latin name Caieta) is a city in Province of Latina, in Lazio, Italy. ... June 6 is the 157th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (158th in leap years), with 208 days remaining // 1508 - Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor, is defeated in Friulia by Venetian forces; he is forced to sign a three-year truce and cede several territories to Venice 1513... Reggio is the name of two Italian towns: Reggio Emilia, in the North, sometimes called Reggio nell Emilia or, in ancient times, Reggio di Lombardia or Reggio di Modena Reggio Calabria, in the South (also called Reggio di Calabria) This is a disambiguation page &#8212; a navigational aid which lists... August 3 is the 215th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (216th in leap years), with 150 days remaining. ... January 7 is the seventh day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For broader historical context, see 1280s and 13th century. ... Foggia, Italy, is an Apulian big town and provincial capital. ...


Death and legacy

On his death, Charles left all of his domains to his son Charles, then a prisoner in Catalonia. For the time being, they were held by a joint regency between a papal legate and Robert II of Artois. Charles had spent his life striving to assemble a Mediterranean empire out of whatever land he could get through law or force of arms. He did so, it seems, with a clear conscience; he regarded himself as God's instrument to uphold the Papacy and punish the Hohenstaufen. He ruled justly, but with the rigidity and severity that might be expected in one of his convictions. Ultimately, his unbending austerity could not inspire the devotion needed to hold his conquests together. Charles II, known as the Lame (Fr. ... Anthem: Els Segadors Capital Barcelona Official language(s) Catalan, Spanish and, in Aran Valley, Aranese Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 6th  32,114 km²  6. ... Robert II of Artois (September 1250 – July 11, 1302) was the posthumous son and heir of Robert I of Artois and Matilda of Brabant. ... Arms of the Hohenstaufen Dynasty The Hohenstaufen (or the Staufer(s)) were a dynasty of Kings of Germany, many of whom were also crowned Holy Roman Emperor and Dukes of Swabia. ...


Still, he was to leave a substantial legacy to his heirs. Henry II of Cyprus reclaimed the Kingdom of Jerusalem after his death, for the few short years left to it; but his possessions otherwise remained within the Angevin dynasty which he founded, or their descendants. Both the Angevins and their Aragonese rivals were to claim the title of "King of Sicily"; but the Angevins, confined to the mainland, would be known to history as "Kings of Naples". But the style of "King of Sicily" persisted; and when the two realms were reunited, it was under the style of "King of the Two Sicilies". Henry II of Jerusalem (died 1324) was the last king of Jerusalem and at the same time ruled as King of Cyprus. ... Official language Latin, French, Italian, and other western languages; Greek and Arabic also widely spoken Capital Jerusalem, later Acre Constitution Various laws, so-called Assizes of Jerusalem The Kingdom of Jerusalem was a Christian kingdom established in the Levant in 1099 by the First Crusade. ... Angevin (IPA: ) is the name applied to the residents of Anjou, a former province of the Kingdom of France, as well as to the residents of Angers. ...


However, his wars resulted in an even more serious consequence that the partition of the Kingdom of Sicily. Pope Martin IV had hopelessly compromised the Papacy in his cause; and the botched secular "Crusades" against Sicily and (after Charles' death) Aragon greatly tarnished its spiritual power. The collapse of its moral authority and the rise of nationalism rang the death knell for Crusading, and would ultimately lead to the Avignon Papacy and the Western Schism. Charles was an able soldier and a good administrator; but his failure to understand the qualities of his diverse subjects, and his grasping, if pious, ambition, ultimately led him to failure. Martin IV, né Simon de Brion (ca. ... The Papal palace in Avignon In the history of the Roman Catholic Church, the Avignon Papacy was the period from 1309 to 1377 during which seven popes, all French, resided in Avignon: Pope Clement V: 1305–1314 Pope John XXII: 1316–1334 Pope Benedict XII: 1334–1342 Pope Clement VI... Historical map of the Western Schism. ...


In the Divine Comedy Dante sees Charles outside the gates of Purgatory "singing in accord" with his former rival Peter. Dante shown holding a copy of The Divine Comedy, next to the entrance to Hell, the seven terraces of Mount Purgatory and the city of Florence, with the spheres of Heaven above, in Michelinos fresco. ...


Notes

  1. ^ These enquêtes conserved in the Bibliotheque Nationale are the equivalent of Domesday for thirteenth-century Provence. They have been edited by Edouard Baratier, Enquêtes sur les droits et revenus de Charles I d'Anjou en Provence (1252 et 1278) (Paris 1969).
  2. ^ During the siege of Lucera, Peter of Maricourt (Petrus Peregrinus), who was serving in Charles' army, wrote his famous work on magnetism, Epistola de magnete.

The new buildings of the library. ... This article is about the 11th century census. ... Peter of Maricourt (13th century), a French savant, to whom his disciple, Roger Bacon, pays the highest tribute in his opus tertium and other works. ... Magnetic lines of force of a bar magnet shown by iron filings on paper In physics, magnetism is one of the phenomena by which materials exert an attractive or repulsive force on other materials. ...

References

  • Runciman, Steven (1958). The Sicilian Vespers. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-43774-1. 

Sir James Cochran Stevenson Runciman (7 July 1903 - 1 November 2000) was a British historian known for his work on the Middle Ages. ...

See also

The Battle of Benevento was fought in Southern Italy on February 26, 1266, where the invading Angevin forces led by Charles, the Count of Anjou, overcame a combined German-Sicilian force led by Manfred of Sicily. ... The Eighth Crusade was a crusade launched by Louis IX of France, (who was by now in his mid-fifties) in 1270. ... The Kingdom of Albania was established by Charles of Anjou in the territory he conquered from the Despotate of Epirus in 1271. ... Official language Latin, French, Italian, and other western languages; Greek and Arabic also widely spoken Capital Jerusalem, later Acre Constitution Various laws, so-called Assizes of Jerusalem The Kingdom of Jerusalem was a Christian kingdom established in the Levant in 1099 by the First Crusade. ... Reproduction of the profile present in the duomo of Salerno (Michele Parascandolo. ... The Latin Empire, Empire of Nicaea, Empire of Trebizond and the Despotate of Epirus. ... Only representation of Saint Louis known to be true to life - Early 14th century statue from the church of Mainneville, Eure, France King Louis IX of France or Saint Louis (April 25, 1214/1215 – August 25, 1270) was King of France from 1226 until his death. ... Manfred (c. ... The Byzantine Empire in 1265 (William R. Shepherd, Historical Atlas, 1911) Michael VIII (1225 – December 11, 1282) was the founder of the Palaeologos dynasty that would rule the Byzantine Empire to the Fall of Constantinople in 1453. ... The Bay of Naples Naples (Italian: , Neapolitan: Nàpule, from Greek Νεάπολη < Νέα Πόλις Néa Pólis New City) is the largest city in southern Italy and capital of the Campania region and the Province of Naples. ... Peter III of Aragon (Catalan: Pere) (1239 – November 11, 1285, also Peter I of Valencia, Peter II of Barcelona), known as the Great, was the king of Aragon and Valencia and count of Barcelona from 1276 to 1285. ... Martin IV, né Simon de Brion (ca. ... The Principality of Achaea was one of the three vassal states of the Latin Empire which replaced the Byzantine Empire after the capture of Constantinople during the Fourth Crusade. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Provence-Alpes-Côte dAzur. ... Roger of Lauria Roger of Lauria, or Ruggero di Lauria (c. ... The Seventh Crusade was a crusade led by Louis IX of France from 1248 to 1254. ... Sicilian Vespers (1846), by Francesco Hayez The Sicilian Vespers is the name given to a rebellion in Sicily in 1282 against the rule of the Angevin king Charles I, who had taken control of the island with Papal support in 1266. ... Sicily (Sicilia in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ...

External links

Preceded by:
Manfred
King of Sicily
1266–1282
Succeeded by:
Peter I
King of Naples
1266–1285
Charles II
King of Albania
1272–1285
William II Prince of Achaea
1246–1285
Ramon Berenguer IV Count of Provence and Forcalquier
1278–1285
Count of Anjou and Maine
1247–1285
Persondata
NAME Charles I of Sicily
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Charles of Anjou (alternate form)
SHORT DESCRIPTION King of Sicily
DATE OF BIRTH March of 1227
PLACE OF BIRTH
DATE OF DEATH 1285
PLACE OF DEATH Foggia (now Italy)

  Results from FactBites:
 
Charles I of Sicily - Biocrawler (959 words)
Charles I (March 1227 (or 1226) - January 7, 1285) was the posthumous (or born ten months before father's death: sources suggest two possible birth years) son of King Louis VIII of France by Blanche of Castile.
In 1266 Charles was invested by Pope Clement IV with the kingship of Naples and Sicily, in return for expelling Manfred, son of Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II.
This was cemented by dynastic marriages: In 1270, Charles's heir Charles married Stephen's daughter Mary, and Charles's daughter Elisabeth was betrothed to Stephen's only son and heir, the future Ladislaus IV of Hungary, whom she married in 1272 soon after Stephen's death.
Sicily - Academic Kids (2263 words)
Sicily (Sicilia in Italian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,700 sq.
The Aeolian islands to the north are administratively a part of Sicily, as are the Aegadian Islands to the west, Ustica Island to the north-west, and the Pelagian Islands to the south-west.
Sicily is well known as a country of art: many poets and writers were born on this island, starting from the Sicilian School in the early 13th century, which inspired much subsequent Italian poetry and created the first Italian standard.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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