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Encyclopedia > Charles I of England
Charles I
King of England, Scotland and Ireland (more...)
Portrait by Antoon van Dyck, 1636
Reign 27 March 162530 January 1649
(23 years)
Coronation 2 February 1626
Predecessor James VI and I
Successor Charles II de jure
Oliver Cromwell, de facto (as leader of the Commonwealth of England)
Consort Henrietta Maria of France
Issue
Charles II
Mary, Princess Royal
James II and VII
Elizabeth of England
Anne of England
Henry, Duke of Gloucester
Henrietta Anne of England
Titles and styles
HM The King
The Prince of Wales
The Duke of York
The Duke of Albany
The Prince Charles
Royal house House of Stuart
Father James I of England
Mother Anne of Denmark
Born November 19, 1600(1600-11-19)
Dunfermline, Scotland
Baptised 23 December 1601

1 date of christening =23 December 1602
Dunfermline, Scotland For the various rulers of the kingdoms within England prior to its formal unification, during the Heptarchy, see Bretwalda. ... The Royal Coat of Arms of Scotland, as used before 1603 The monarch of Scotland was the head of state of the Kingdom of Scotland. ... The designation King of Ireland has been used during three periods of Irish history. ... The precise style of British Sovereigns has varied over the years. ... Sir Anthony van Dyck (many variant spellings [1] See Van Dyke for other uses of all spellings), (22 March 1599 – 9 December 1641) was a Flemish artist who became the leading court painter in England. ... is the 86th day of the year (87th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events March 27 - Prince Charles Stuart becomes King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland. ... is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events January 30 - King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland is beheaded. ... is the 33rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events September 30 - Nurhaci, chieftain of the Jurchens and founder of the Qing Dynasty dies and is succeeded by his son Hong Taiji. ... James VI and I (19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625) was King of Scots as James VI, and King of England and King of Ireland as James I. He ruled in Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567, when he was only one year old, succeeding his mother Mary... Charles II (29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685) was the King of England, Scotland, and Ireland. ... Oliver Cromwell (25 April 1599 – 3 September 1658) was an English military and political leader best known for his involvement in making England into a republican Commonwealth and for his later role as Lord Protector of England, Scotland and Ireland. ... Motto: PAX QUÆRITUR BELLO (English: Peace is sought through war) Anthem: Multiple unofficial anthems Capital London Language(s) English Government Republic Lord Protector  - 1649-1658 Oliver Cromwell Legislature Rump Parliament Barebones Parliament History  - Declaration of Commonwealth May 19, 1649  - Declaration of Breda April 4, 1660 Area 130,395... Queen Henrietta Maria (November 25, 1609 – September 10, 1669) was Queen Consort of England, Scotland and Ireland (June 13, 1625 - January 30, 1649) through her marriage to Charles I. The U.S. state of Maryland (in Latin, Terra Mariae) was so named in her honour by Cæcilius Calvert, son... Charles II (29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685) was the King of England, Scotland, and Ireland. ... Mary, Princess Royal and Princess Orange-Nassau (4 November 1631 - 24 December 1660) was the eldest daughter of King Charles I of England, Scotland, and Ireland and his queen, Henrietta Maria. ... James II and VII (14 October 1633 – 16 September 1701)[2] was King of England, King of Scots,[1] and King of Ireland from 6 February 1685 to 11 December 1688. ... Princess Elizabeth Stuart (1635 – 1650) was the second daughter of Charles I of England and Queen Henrietta Maria. ... Princess Anne of England (17 March 1637 - 8 December 1640) was the daughter of King Charles I of England and Henrietta Maria. ... Henry Stuart, Duke of Gloucester KG (July 8, 1640 - September 18, 1660) was the fourth living son and youngest son of King Charles I of Englandand his Queen Henrietta Maria of France. ... Henrietta Anne Stuart (June 16, 1644 - June 30, 1670), sometimes known familiarly as Minette, was the youngest daughter of King Charles I of England and Queen Henrietta Maria of France. ... A Royal House or Dynasty is a sort of family name used by royalty. ... The Coat of Arms of King James I, the first British monarch of the House of Stuart The House of Stuart or Stewart was a royal house of the Kingdom of Scotland, later also of the Kingdom of England, and finally of the Kingdom of Great Britain. ... James VI and I (19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625) was King of Scots as James VI, and King of England and King of Ireland as James I. He ruled in Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567, when he was only one year old, succeeding his mother Mary... Anna of Denmark (October 14, 1574 – March 4, 1619) was queen consort of King James I of England and VI of Scotland. ... is the 323rd day of the year (324th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1600 was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... ‹ The template below has been proposed for deletion. ... This article is about the country. ... is the 357th day of the year (358th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 8 - Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex, rebels against Elizabeth I of England - revolt is quickly crushed February 25 - Robert Devereux beheaded Jesuit Matteo Ricci arrives in China Bad harvest in Russia due to rainy summer Dutch troops drive Portuguese from Málaga Battle of Kinsale, Ireland Births... is the 357th day of the year (358th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This page is about the year. ... ‹ The template below has been proposed for deletion. ... This article is about the country. ...

Died January 30, 1649 (aged 48)
Whitehall, England
Burial 7 February 1649
Windsor, England

Charles I (19 November 160030 January 1649) was King of England, Scotland and Ireland from March 27, 1625 until his execution.[1] Charles famously engaged in a struggle for power with the Parliament of England. He was an advocate of the Divine Right of Kings,[2] and many citizens of England feared that he was attempting to gain absolute power. Many of his actions, particularly the levying of taxes without Parliament's consent, caused widespread opposition.[3] is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events January 30 - King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland is beheaded. ... The Palace of Whitehall by Hendrick Danckerts. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... is the 38th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events January 30 - King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland is beheaded. ... Members of the public outside St Georges Chapel at Windsor Castle, waiting to watch the Garter Procession St Georges Chapel is the place of worship at Windsor Castle in England. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... is the 323rd day of the year (324th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1600 was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events January 30 - King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland is beheaded. ... For the various rulers of the kingdoms within England prior to its formal unification, during the Heptarchy, see Bretwalda. ... The Royal Coat of Arms of Scotland, as used before 1603 The monarch of Scotland was the head of state of the Kingdom of Scotland. ... The designation King of Ireland has been used during three periods of Irish history. ... is the 86th day of the year (87th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events March 27 - Prince Charles Stuart becomes King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland. ... The English parliament in front of the King, c. ... The Divine Right of Kings is a European political and religious doctrine of political absolutism. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      An autocracy is a form of government in which the political power is held by a single self appointed ruler. ... Taxes redirects here. ...


Religious conflicts permeated Charles's reign. He married a Catholic princess, Henrietta Maria of France, over the objections of Parliament and public opinion.[4][5] He further allied himself with controversial religious figures, including the ecclesiastic Richard Montagu and William Laud, whom Charles appointed Archbishop of Canterbury. Many of Charles's subjects felt this brought the Church of England too close to Roman Catholicism. Charles's later attempts to force religious reforms upon Scotland led to the Bishops' Wars that weakened England's government and helped precipitate his downfall. The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Queen Henrietta Maria (November 25, 1609 – September 10, 1669) was Queen Consort of England, Scotland and Ireland (June 13, 1625 - January 30, 1649) through her marriage to Charles I. The U.S. state of Maryland (in Latin, Terra Mariae) was so named in her honour by Cæcilius Calvert, son... This article is about the Christian buildings of worship. ... Richard Montagu (or Mountague) (1577 - April 13, 1641), English divine, was born at Dorney, Buckinghamshire, and educated at Eton and Cambridge. ... Archbishop William Laud (October 7, 1573 – January 10, 1645) was Archbishop of Canterbury and a fervent supporter of King Charles I of England, whom he encouraged to believe in divine right. ... The Archbishop of Canterbury is the spiritual leader and senior clergyman of the Church of England, recognized by convention as the head of the worldwide Anglican Communion. ... Catholic Church redirects here. ... This article is about the country. ... The Bishops’ Wars—Bellum Episcopale—refers to two armed encounters between Charles I and the Scottish Covenanters in 1639 and 1640, which helped to set the stage for the English Civil War and the subsequent Wars of the Three Kingdoms // The Scottish Reformation in 1560 was intended to settle the...


His last years were marked by the English Civil War, in which he was opposed by the forces of Parliament, which challenged his attempts to augment his own power, and by Puritans, who were hostile to his religious policies and supposed Catholic sympathies. Charles was defeated in the first Civil War (1642 - 1645), after which Parliament expected him to accept demands for a constitutional monarchy. He instead remained defiant by attempting to forge an alliance with Scotland and escaping to the Isle of Wight. This provoked a second Civil War (1648 - 1649) and a second defeat for Charles, who was subsequently captured, tried, convicted, and executed for high treason. The monarchy was then abolished and a republic called the Commonwealth of England, also referred to as the Cromwellian Interregnum, was declared. Charles's son, Charles II, became King after the restoration of the monarchy in 1660.[6] For other uses, see English Civil War (disambiguation). ... The Puritans were members of a group of radical Protestants which developed in England after the Reformation. ... For other uses, see Isle of Wight (disambiguation). ... Criminal procedure refers to the legal process for adjudicating claims that someone has violated the criminal law. ... In law, a conviction is the verdict which results when a court of law finds a defendant guilty of committing a crime. ... {{main|Treason}} High treason, broadly defined, is an action which is grossly disloyal to ones country or sovereign. ... This article is about the monarchy of the United Kingdom, one of sixteen that share a common monarch; for information about this constitutional relationship, see Commonwealth realm; for information on the reigning monarch, see Elizabeth II. For information about other Commonwealth realm monarchies, as well as other relevant articles, see... Motto: PAX QUÆRITUR BELLO (English: Peace is sought through war) Anthem: Multiple unofficial anthems Capital London Language(s) English Government Republic Lord Protector  - 1649-1658 Oliver Cromwell Legislature Rump Parliament Barebones Parliament History  - Declaration of Commonwealth May 19, 1649  - Declaration of Breda April 4, 1660 Area 130,395... Charles II (29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685) was the King of England, Scotland, and Ireland. ... For other uses, see Restoration. ...

Contents

Early life

The second son of James VI, King of Scots and Anne of Denmark and Norway, Charles was born at Dunfermline Palace, Fife, on November 19, 1600.[3][7] He was an underdeveloped child who was still unable to walk or talk at the age of 3. When Elizabeth I died in March 1603 and James VI became King of England as James I, Charles was originally left in Scotland in the care of nurses and servants because it was feared that the journey would damage his fragile health.[8] He did make the journey in July 1604 and was subsequently placed under the charge of Alletta (Hogenhove) Carey, the Dutch-born wife of courtier Sir Robert Carey, who taught him how to walk and talk and insisted that he wear boots made of Spanish leather and brass to help strengthen his weak ankles. When Charles was an adult he was 5 feet 4 inches (162 cm) tall. James VI and I (19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625) was King of Scots as James VI, and King of England and King of Ireland as James I. He ruled in Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567, when he was only one year old, succeeding his mother Mary... Anna of Denmark (October 14, 1574 – March 4, 1619) was queen consort of King James I of England and VI of Scotland. ... Dunfermline Palace is a former Scottish royal palace in Dunfermline, Fife. ... This article is about the area in Scotland. ... is the 323rd day of the year (324th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1600 was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Elizabeth I redirects here. ... For the various rulers of the kingdoms within England prior to its formal unification, during the Heptarchy, see Bretwalda. ... Sir Robert Carey, 1st Earl of Monmouth (c. ...


Charles was not as well-regarded as his elder brother, Henry, Prince of Wales; Charles himself adored Henry and tried to emulate him. In 1603, Charles was created Duke of Albany in Scotland. Two years later, Charles was created Duke of York, as was then customary in the case of the Sovereign's second son. When his elder brother died at the age of 18 of typhoid in 1612, two weeks before Charles's 12th birthday, Charles became heir apparent and was subsequently created the Prince of Wales and Earl of Chester in November 1616. His sister Elizabeth married Frederick V, Elector Palatine in 1613 and moved to Heidelberg. For other people known as Henry, Prince of Wales see Henry, Prince of Wales (disambiguation) Henry Frederick Stuart, Prince of Wales ( February 19, 1594 - November 6, 1612) was the eldest son of King James VI of Scotland/ James I of England and Anne of Denmark. ... This article is about the title Prince of Wales. ... Duke of Albany is a peerage title that has occasionally been bestowed on the youngers sons in the Scottish and later the British Royal Family, particularly in the Houses of Stuart and Hanover. ... HRH The Prince Andrew, the current Duke of York For the nursery rhyme see The Grand Old Duke of York. ... This is about the disease typhoid fever. ... Contrasting with heir presumptive, an heir apparent is one who cannot be prevented from inheriting by the birth of any other person. ... The Earldom of Chester is one of the few palatine earldoms in England. ... There were many people whose name was Elizabeth Stuart, including: Elizabeth of Bohemia Elizabeth Stuart (died January 23, 1673 or 1674) was the mother of Thomas Howard, 5th Duke of Norfolk, and married to Henry Frederick Howard, 25th Earl of Arundel. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A palatinate is an area administered by a count palatine, originally the direct representative of the sovereign but later the hereditary ruler of the territory subject to the crowns overlordship. ... For other uses, see Heidelberg (disambiguation). ...


The new Prince of Wales was greatly influenced by his father's favourite, George Villiers, 1st Duke of Buckingham.[9] The two of them travelled incognito to Spain in 1623 to reach agreement on the long-pending Spanish Match between Charles and the daughter of the Spanish King Philip III, Infanta Maria Anna of Spain. The trip ended badly, however, as the Spanish demanded that Charles convert to Roman Catholicism and remain in Spain for a year after the wedding as a sort of hostage to ensure England's compliance with all the terms of the treaty. Charles was outraged, and upon their return in October, he and Buckingham demanded that James I declare war on Spain. Look up Favorite in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Duke of Buckingham by Rubens George Villiers, 1st Duke of Buckingham (28 August 1592 – 23 August 1628) (IPA pronunciation: ) was one of the most rewarded royal courtiers in all history. ... The Spanish Match describes the proposed marriage of Prince Charles, son of the son of King James I, to Maria Anna, Infanta of Spain. ... Philip III of Spain Philip III (Spanish: Felipe III) (April 14, 1578 – March 31, 1621) was the king of Spain and Portugal (as Philip II Portuguese: Filipe II), from 1598 until his death. ... Maria Anna (18 August 1606 – 13 May 1646), also known as Maria Anna of Austria, Infanta of Spain, was the youngest daughter of King Philip III of Spain and Margaret of Austria. ...

British Royalty
House of Stuart
Charles I
   Charles II
   James II & VII
   Henry, Duke of Gloucester
   Mary, Princess Royal
   Henrietta, Duchess of Orléans
   Princess Elizabeth

With the encouragement of his Protestant advisers, James summoned Parliament so that he could request subsidies for a war effort. James also requested that Parliament sanction the marriage between the Prince of Wales and Princess Henrietta Maria of France, whom Charles met in Paris whilst en route to Spain. It was a good match since she was a sister of Louis XIII (their father, Henry IV, had died during her childhood). Parliament agreed to the marriage, but was extremely critical of the prior attempt to arrange a marital alliance with Spain. James was growing senile and as a result was finding it extremely difficult to control Parliament—the same problem would later haunt Charles during his reign. During the last year of James' reign, actual power was held not by him but by Charles and the Duke of Buckingham. This article is about the monarchy of the United Kingdom, one of sixteen that share a common monarch; for information about this constitutional relationship, see Commonwealth realm; for information on the reigning monarch, see Elizabeth II. For information about other Commonwealth realm monarchies, as well as other relevant articles, see... The Coat of Arms of King James I, the first British monarch of the House of Stuart The House of Stuart or Stewart was a royal house of the Kingdom of Scotland, later also of the Kingdom of England, and finally of the Kingdom of Great Britain. ... Image File history File links England_Arms_1603. ... Charles II (29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685) was the King of England, Scotland, and Ireland. ... James II and VII (14 October 1633 – 16 September 1701)[2] was King of England, King of Scots,[1] and King of Ireland from 6 February 1685 to 11 December 1688. ... Henry Stuart, Duke of Gloucester KG (July 8, 1640 - September 18, 1660) was the fourth living son and youngest son of King Charles I of Englandand his Queen Henrietta Maria of France. ... Mary, Princess Royal and Princess Orange-Nassau (4 November 1631 - 24 December 1660) was the eldest daughter of King Charles I of England, Scotland, and Ireland and his queen, Henrietta Maria. ... Henrietta Anne Stuart (June 16, 1644 - June 30, 1670), sometimes known familiarly as Minette, was the youngest daughter of King Charles I of England and Queen Henrietta Maria of France. ... Princess Elizabeth Stuart (1635 – 1650) was the second daughter of Charles I of England and Queen Henrietta Maria. ... Queen Henrietta Maria (November 25, 1609 – September 10, 1669) was Queen Consort of England, Scotland and Ireland (June 13, 1625 - January 30, 1649) through her marriage to Charles I. The U.S. state of Maryland (in Latin, Terra Mariae) was so named in her honour by Cæcilius Calvert, son... This article is about the capital of France. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Henry IV of France, also Henry III of Navarre (13 December 1553 – 14 May 1610), ruled as King of France from 1589 to 1610 and King of Navarre from 1572 to 1610. ...


Both Charles and James were advocates of Divine Right monarchy, but James listened to the views of his subjects and favoured compromise and consensus. Charles I was shy and diffident, but also self-righteous, stubborn, opinionated, determined and confrontational. Charles believed he had no need to compromise or even explain his rules and that he was only answerable to God. He famously said: "Kings are not bound to give an account of their actions but to God alone,"[10][11] "I mean to show what I should speak in actions." Those actions were open to misinterpretation, and there were fears as early as 1626 that he was a potential tyrant. Divine Right is a comic book created by Jim Lee and published by Wildstorm. ...


Early reign

On 11 May 1625 Charles was married by proxy to Henrietta Maria of France, nine years his junior. In his first Parliament, which he opened in May, many members were opposed to his marriage to Henrietta Maria, a Roman Catholic, fearing that Charles would lift restrictions on Roman Catholics and undermine the official establishment of Protestantism. Although he stated to Parliament that he would not relax restrictions relating to recusants, he promised to do exactly that in a secret marriage treaty with Louis XIII. The couple were married in person on 13 June 1625, in Canterbury. Charles was crowned on 2 February 1626 at Westminster Abbey, but without his wife at his side due to the controversy. Charles and Henrietta had nine children, with three sons and three daughters surviving infancy.[12] is the 131st day of the year (132nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events March 27 - Prince Charles Stuart becomes King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland. ... A proxy marriage is a marriage in which either the bride or the groom is not physically present for the wedding. ... Queen Henrietta Maria (November 25, 1609 – September 10, 1669) was Queen Consort of England, Scotland and Ireland (June 13, 1625 - January 30, 1649) through her marriage to Charles I. The U.S. state of Maryland (in Latin, Terra Mariae) was so named in her honour by Cæcilius Calvert, son... In the history of England, recusancy was a term used to describe the statutory offence of not complying with the established Church of England. ... Louis XIII (September 27, 1601 - May 14, 1643), called the Just (French: le Juste), was King of France from 1610 to 1643. ... is the 164th day of the year (165th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events March 27 - Prince Charles Stuart becomes King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland. ... Canterbury is a cathedral city in east Kent in South East England and is the seat of the Archbishop of Canterbury, the Primate of All England, head of the Church of England and of the worldwide Anglican Communion. ... is the 33rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events September 30 - Nurhaci, chieftain of the Jurchens and founder of the Qing Dynasty dies and is succeeded by his son Hong Taiji. ... The Collegiate Church of St Peter, Westminster, which is almost always referred to by its original name of Westminster Abbey, is a mainly Gothic church, on the scale of a cathedral (and indeed often mistaken for one), in Westminster, London, just to the west of the Palace of Westminster. ...

Sir Anthony Van Dyck: Charles I painted in April 1634

Distrust of Charles's religious policies increased with his support of a controversial ecclesiastic, Richard Montagu. In a pamphlet, Montagu had argued against the teachings of John Calvin, thereby bringing himself into disrepute amongst the Puritans. After a Puritan member of the House of Commons, John Pym, attacked Montagu's pamphlet during debate, Montagu requested the king's aid in another pamphlet entitled "Appello Caesarem" (Latin "I appeal to Caesar", a reference to an appeal against Jewish persecution made by Saint Paul the Apostle).[13] Charles made the cleric one of his royal chaplains, increasing many Puritans' suspicions as to where Charles would lead the Church. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (599x779, 78 KB)Anthony Van Dycks oil painting on canvas of Charles I was made around 1635. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (599x779, 78 KB)Anthony Van Dycks oil painting on canvas of Charles I was made around 1635. ... Self Portrait With a Sunflower Sir Anthony (Anton) van Dyck (22 March 1599 – 9 December 1641) was a Flemish artist who became the leading court painter in England. ... Richard Montagu (or Mountague) (1577 - April 13, 1641), English divine, was born at Dorney, Buckinghamshire, and educated at Eton and Cambridge. ... John Calvin (July 10, 1509 – May 27, 1564) was a French Protestant theologian during the Protestant Reformation and was a central developer of the system of Christian theology called Calvinism or Reformed theology. ... John Pym (1584 – December 8, 1643) was an English parliamentarian, leader of the Long Parliament and a prominent critic of James I and then Charles I. Pym was born in Brymore, Somerset, into minor nobility. ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... Paul of Tarsus (b. ...


Charles's primary concern during his early reign was foreign policy. The Thirty Years' War, originally confined to Bohemia, was spiralling out of control into a wider war between Protestants and Catholics in Europe. In 1620, Frederick V, Elector Palatine, the husband of Charles's sister Elizabeth, had lost his hereditary lands in the Palatinate to the Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand II. Having agreed to help his brother-in-law regain the Palatinate, Charles declared war on Spain, hoping to force the Catholic Spanish King Philip IV to intercede with the Emperor on Frederick's behalf. Combatants Sweden  Bohemia Denmark-Norway[1] Dutch Republic France Scotland England Saxony  Holy Roman Empire Catholic League Austria Bavaria Spain Commanders Frederick V Buckingham Leven Gustav II Adolf â€  Johan Baner Cardinal Richelieu Louis II de Bourbon Vicomte de Turenne Christian IV of Denmark Bernhard of Saxe-Weimar Johann Georg I... For other uses, see Bohemia (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A palatinate is a territory administered by a count palatine, originally the direct representative of the sovereign, but later the hereditary ruler of the territory subject to the crowns overlordship. ... Emperor Ferdinand II Ferdinand II (July 9, 1578 – February 15, 1637), of the House of Habsburg, reigned as Holy Roman Emperor from 1620-1637. ... Philip IV (), (April 8, 1605 – September 17, 1665) was King of Spain from 1621 to 1665 and also King of Portugal until 1640. ...


Parliament preferred an inexpensive naval attack on Spanish colonies in the New World, hoping that the capture of the Spanish treasure fleets could finance the war. Charles, however, preferred more aggressive (and more expensive) action on the Continent. Parliament only voted to grant a subsidy of £140,000; an insufficient sum for Charles. Moreover, the House of Commons limited its authorization for royal collection of tonnage and poundage (two varieties of customs duties) to a period of one year, although previous sovereigns since 1414 had been granted the right for life. In this manner, Parliament could keep a check on expenditures by forcing Charles to seek the renewal of the grant each year. Charles's allies in the House of Lords, led by the Duke of Buckingham, refused to pass the bill. Although no Parliamentary authority for the levy of tonnage and poundage was obtained, Charles continued to collect the duties anyway. …Tonnage and Poundage were certain duties and taxes first levied in Edward IIs reign on every tun (cask) of imported wine, which came mostly from Spain and Portugal, and on every pound weight of merchandise exported or imported. ...


The war with Spain went badly, largely due to Buckingham's incompetent leadership. Despite Parliament's protests, however, Charles refused to dismiss him, dismissing Parliament instead. He then provoked further unrest by trying to raise money for the war through a "forced loan" -- a tax levied without Parliamentary consent. Although partially successful in collecting the tax, Charles let the money dribble away in yet another military fiasco led by Buckingham. Summoned again in 1628, Parliament adopted a Petition of Right, calling upon the King to acknowledge that he could not levy taxes without Parliament's consent, impose martial law on civilians, imprison them without due process, or quarter troops in their homes. Charles assented to the petition, though he continued to claim the right to collect customs duties without authorization from Parliament. Then, on 23 August 1628, Buckingham was assassinated. Although the death of Buckingham effectively ended the war and eliminated his leadership as an issue, it did not end the conflicts between Charles and Parliament over taxation and religious matters.[14] In English law, a petition of right was a remedy available to subjects to recover property from the Crown. ... {| style=float:right; |- | |- | |} is the 235th day of the year (236th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1628 was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ...


Personal rule

Sir Anthony van Dyck, Charles I's court painter, created the famous "Charles I, King of England, from Three Angles", commonly known as the "Triple Portrait". This oil painting, of around 1636, was created in order that the Italian sculptor, Bernini, could create a marble bust of Charles

In January 1629, Charles opened the second session of the Parliament, which had been prorogued in June 1628, with a moderate speech on the tonnage and poundage issue. Members of the House of Commons began to voice their opposition in light of the Rolle case. Rolle was an MP whose goods were confiscated when he failed to pay tonnage and poundage. Many MPs viewed the confiscation as a breach of the Petition of Right,[15] arguing that the petition's freedom-from-arrest privilege extended to goods. When Charles ordered a parliamentary adjournment in March, members held the Speaker, John Finch, down in his chair whilst three resolutions against Charles were read aloud. The last of these resolutions declared that anyone who paid tonnage or poundage not authorised by Parliament would "be reputed a betrayer of the liberties of England, and an enemy to the same". Though the resolution was not formally passed, many members declared their approval. The fact that a number of MPs had to be detained in Parliament is relevant in understanding that there was no universal opposition towards the King. Nevertheless, the provocation was too much for Charles, who dissolved parliament the same day.[16][17] Charles resolved never again to rely on Parliament. Immediately, he made peace with France and Spain. The following eleven years, during which Charles ruled without a Parliament, have been known as both the Eleven Years Tyranny or simply as the Personal Rule. (Ruling without Parliament, though an exceptional exercise of the royal prerogative, was supported by precedent. By the middle of the 17th century, opinion had shifted, and many held the Personal Rule to be an illegitimate exercise of arbitrary, absolute power.) Anthony van Dyck, Charles Is court painter, created the famous Charles I, King of England, from Three Angles, commonly known as the Triple Portrait. ... Anthony van Dyck, Charles Is court painter, created the famous Charles I, King of England, from Three Angles, commonly known as the Triple Portrait. ... Self Portrait With a Sunflower Sir Anthony (Anton) van Dyck (22 March 1599 – 9 December 1641) was a Flemish artist who became the leading court painter in England. ... A parliamentary session is a period of time where the legislature in a parliamentary government is sitting. ... In English law, a petition of right was a remedy available to subjects to recover property from the Crown. ... Sir John Finch, Baron Finch of Fordwich ( September 17, 1584 - November 27, 1660), generally known as Sir John Finch, English judge, a member of the old family of Finch. ... The Personal Rule was the period from 1629 to 1640, when King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland ruled without recourse to Parliament. ... The Personal Rule was the period from 1629 to 1640, when King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland ruled without recourse to Parliament. ...


Economic problems

Even after making peace, Charles still had to acquire funds in order to maintain his treasury. To raise revenue without reconvening Parliament, Charles first resurrected an all-but-forgotten law called the "Distraint of Knighthood," promulgated in 1279, which required anyone who earned £40 or more each year to present himself at the King's coronation to join the royal army as a knight. Relying on this outdated statute, Charles fined all individuals who had failed to attend his coronation in 1626.


Later, Charles reintroduced an obsolete feudal tax known as ship money, which proved even more unpopular. Under statutes of Edward I and Edward III, collection of ship money had been authorized only during wars. Charles, however, sought to collect the tax during peacetime. Although the first writ levying ship money, issued in 1634, did not provoke much immediate opposition, the second and third writs, issued in 1635 and 1636, aroused strong opposition, as it was now clear that the ancient prohibition on collecting ship money during peacetime had been swept away. Many attempted to resist payment, but the royal courts declared that the tax was within the King's prerogative. The collection of ship money during peacetime was a major cause of concern among the ruling class. Ship money was a tax, the levy of which by Charles I of England without the consent of Parliament was one of the causes of the English Civil War. ... Edward I (17 June 1239 – 7 July 1307), popularly known as Longshanks[1], also as Edward the Lawgiver or the English Justinian because of his legal reforms, and as Hammer of the Scots,[2] achieved fame as the monarch who conquered Wales and tried to do the same to Scotland. ... This article is about the King of England. ...


Personal Rule ended after the attempted enforcement of the Anglican and increasingly Arminian styled prayer book under Laud that precipitated a rebellion in Scotland in 1640.[18]


Religious conflicts

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Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... This box:      Anglicanism most commonly refers to the beliefs and practices of the Anglican Communion, a world-wide affiliation of Christian Churches, most of which have historical connections with the Church of England. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (3200x2400, 1040 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: United Kingdom Canterbury Cathedral ... Main article: Anglicanism The Anglican Communion is a world-wide affiliation of Anglican Churches. ... The Archbishop of Canterbury is the spiritual leader and senior clergyman of the Church of England, recognized by convention as the head of the worldwide Anglican Communion. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... The Anglican Communion Primates Meetings are regular meetings of the senior archbishops and bishops of the Anglican Communion. ... The Anglican Consultative Council is one of the four Instruments of Unity of the Anglican Communion. ...

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Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... As a Christian ecclesiastical term, Catholic—from the Greek adjective , meaning general or universal[1]—is described in the Oxford English Dictionary as follows: ~Church, (originally) whole body of Christians; ~, belonging to or in accord with (a) this, (b) the church before separation into Greek or Eastern and Latin or... In Christianity, the doctrine of Apostolic Succession (or the belief that the Church is apostolic) maintains that the Christian Church today is the spiritual successor to the original body of believers in Christ, composed of the Apostles. ... This box:      King Henry VIII of England. ...

People

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Henry VIII redirects here. ... Thomas Cranmer (July 2, 1489 – March 21, 1556) was the Archbishop of Canterbury during the reigns of the English kings Henry VIII and Edward VI. He is credited with writing and compiling the first two Books of Common Prayer which established the basic structure of Anglican liturgy for centuries and... Thomas Cromwell, 1st Earl of Essex (c. ... Elizabeth I redirects here. ... This article is about the Anglican theologian. ... Archbishop William Laud (October 7, 1573 – January 10, 1645) was Archbishop of Canterbury and a fervent supporter of King Charles I of England, whom he encouraged to believe in divine right. ...

Liturgy and Worship

Book of Common Prayer
High Church · Low Church
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Sacraments
Saints in Anglicanism
For the novel, see A Book of Common Prayer. ... High Church relates to ecclesiology and liturgy in Christian theology and practice. ... Low church is a term of distinction in the Church of England or other Anglican churches, initially designed to be pejorative. ... Broad church is a term referring to latitudinarian churches in the Church of England. ... The Oxford Movement was a loose affiliation of High Church Anglicans, most of them members of the University of Oxford, who sought to demonstrate that the Church of England was a direct descendant of the Christian church established by the Apostles. ... The Thirty-Nine Articles are the defining statements of Anglican doctrine. ... Look up doctrine in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Like other churches in the Catholic tradition, the Anglican Communion recognises seven sacraments. ... The provinces of the Anglican Communion commemorate many of the same saints as those in the Roman Catholic calendar, often on the same days, but also commemorate various famous (often post-Reformation and/or English) Christians who have not been canonized. ...

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Anglicanism Portal

Charles wished to move the Church of England away from Calvinism in a more traditional and sacramental direction.[19] This goal was shared by his main political adviser, Archbishop William Laud. Laud was appointed by Charles as the Archbishop of Canterbury in 1633,[20][21] and started a series of unpopular reforms in an attempt to impose order and authority on the church. Laud attempted to ensure religious uniformity by dismissing non-conformist clergymen and closing Puritan organizations. This was actively hostile to the Reformist tendencies of many of his English and Scottish subjects. His policy was obnoxious to Calvinist theology, and insisted that the Church of England's liturgy be celebrated using the form prescribed in the Book of Common Prayer. Laud was also an advocate of Arminian theology, a view whose emphasis on the ability to reject salvation was viewed as heretical and virtually "Catholic" by strict Calvinists. Photograph by Keith Edkins File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Calvinism... Archbishop William Laud (October 7, 1573 – January 10, 1645) was Archbishop of Canterbury and a fervent supporter of King Charles I of England, whom he encouraged to believe in divine right. ... The Archbishop of Canterbury is the spiritual leader and senior clergyman of the Church of England, recognized by convention as the head of the worldwide Anglican Communion. ... -1... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Calvinism... A liturgy is the customary public worship of a religious group, according to their particular traditions. ... For the novel, see A Book of Common Prayer. ... Arminianism is a school of soteriological thought in Protestant Christian theology founded by the Dutch theologian Jacob Hermann, who was best known by the Latin form of his name, Jacobus Arminius. ...

William Laud

To punish those who refused to accept his reforms, Laud used the two most feared and most arbitrary courts in the land, the Court of High Commission and the Court of Star Chamber. The former could compel individuals to provide self-incriminating testimony, whilst the latter could inflict any punishment whatsoever (including torture), with the sole exception of death. Image File history File links William_Laud. ... Image File history File links William_Laud. ... The Court of High Commission was the supreme ecclesiastical court in England. ... The Star Chamber (Latin Camera stellata) was an English court of law at the royal Palace of Westminster that sat between 1487 and 1641, when the court itself was abolished. ...


The lawlessness of the Court of Star Chamber under Charles far exceeded that under any of his predecessors. Under Charles's reign, defendants were regularly hauled before the Court without indictment, due process of the law, or right to confront witnesses, and their testimonies were routinely extracted by the Court through torture.


The first years of the Personal Rule were marked by peace in England, to some extent due to tighter central control. Several individuals opposed Charles's taxes and Laud's policies. For example, in 1634, the ship Griffin left for America carrying religious dissidents, such as the Puritan minister Anne Hutchinson. However, the overall trend of the early Personal Rule period is one of peace. When, however, Charles attempted to impose his religious policies in Scotland he faced numerous difficulties. The King ordered the use of a new Prayer Book modelled on the English Book of Common Prayer, which, although supported by the Scottish Bishops, was resisted by many Presbyterian Scots, who saw the new Prayer Book as a vehicle for introducing Anglicanism to Scotland. When the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland abolished Episcopalian government (that is, governance of the Church by bishops) in 1638, replacing it with Presbyterian government (that is, governance by elders and deacons), Charles sought to put down what he saw as a rebellion against his authority. Anne Hutchinson on Trial by Edwin Austin Abbey Anne Hutchinson (July 1591 – August 1643) was the unauthorized Puritan minister of a dissident church discussion group and a pioneer settler in Massachusetts, Rhode Island and New Netherlands. ... For the novel, see A Book of Common Prayer. ...


In 1639, when the First Bishops' War broke out, Charles sought to collect taxes from his subjects, who refused to yield any further. Charles's war ended in a humiliating truce in June of the same year. In the Pacification of Berwick, Charles agreed to grant his Scottish subjects civil and ecclesiastical freedoms. The Bishops’ Wars—Bellum Episcopale—refers to two armed encounters between Charles I and the Scottish Covenanters in 1639 and 1640, which helped to set the stage for the English Civil War and the subsequent Wars of the Three Kingdoms // The Scottish Reformation in 1560 was intended to settle the... The Treaty of Berwick (also known as the Peace of Berwick or the Pacification of Berwick) was signed on June 18, 1639 between Charles I of England and the Scots. ...


Charles's military failure in the First Bishops' War in turn caused a financial and military crisis for Charles, which caused the end of Personal Rule. Due to his financial weakness, Charles was forced to call Parliament into session by 1640 in an attempt to raise funds. While the ruling class grievances with the changes to government and finance during the Personal Rule period were a contributing factor in the Scottish Rebellion, the key issue of religion was the main reason that forced Charles to confront the ruling class in Parliament for the first time in eleven years. In essence, it was Charles's and Laud's confrontational religious modifications that ended what the Whig historians refer to as "The Eleven Years of Tyranny".


The "Short" and "Long" Parliaments

Disputes regarding the interpretation of the peace treaty between Charles and the Church of Scotland led to further conflict. To subdue the Scots, Charles needed more money; therefore, he took the fateful step of recalling Parliament in April 1640. Although Charles offered to repeal ship money, and the House of Commons agreed to allow Charles to raise the funds for war, an impasse was reached when Parliament demanded the discussion of various abuses of power during the Personal Rule. As both sides refused to give ground on this matter, Parliament was dissolved in May 1640, less than a month after it assembled; thus, the Parliament became known as the "Short Parliament." Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... The Church of Scotland (CofS; Scottish Gaelic: ), known informally by its pre-Union Scots name, The Kirk, is the national church of Scotland. ... The Short Parliament (April 13-May 5, 1640) of King Charles I is so called because it lasted only three weeks. ...

Sir Anthony van Dyck. Equestrian portrait of Charles I with Seignior de St Antoine

In the meantime, Charles attempted to defeat the Scots, but failed miserably. The humiliating Treaty of Ripon, signed after the end of the Second Bishops' War in October 1640, required the King to pay the expenses of the Scottish army he had just fought. Charles took the unusual step of summoning the magnum concilium, the ancient council of all the Peers of the Realm, who were considered the King's hereditary counsellors. The magnum concilium had not been summoned for centuries. On the advice of the peers, Charles summoned another Parliament, which, in contrast with its predecessor, became known as the Long Parliament. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (638x890, 62 KB)Anthony van Dyck. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (638x890, 62 KB)Anthony van Dyck. ... The Treaty of Ripon was an agreement signed by Charles I of England and the Scots on October 26, 1640 in the aftermath of the Second Bishops War. ... The Bishops’ Wars—Bellum Episcopale—refers to two armed encounters between Charles I and the Scottish Covenanters in 1639 and 1640, which helped to set the stage for the English Civil War and the subsequent Wars of the Three Kingdoms // The Scottish Reformation in 1560 was intended to settle the... The Magnum Concilium, or Great Council, was established in the reign of Henry III. It a was meeting held at certain times of the year where church leaders and wealthy landowners were invited to discuss affairs of the country with the king and was held when King Charles 1 was... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... The Long Parliament is the name of the English Parliament called by Charles I, in 1640, following the Bishops Wars. ...


The Long Parliament assembled in November 1640 under the leadership of John Pym, and proved just as difficult for Charles as the Short Parliament. Although the members of the House of Commons thought of themselves as conservatives defending the King, Church and Parliamentary government against innovations in religion and the tyranny of Charles's advisors, Charles viewed many of them as dangerous rebels trying to undermine his rule. John Pym (1584 – December 8, 1643) was an English parliamentarian, leader of the Long Parliament and a prominent critic of James I and then Charles I. Pym was born in Brymore, Somerset, into minor nobility. ...


To prevent the King from dissolving it at will, Parliament passed the Triennial Act, to which the Royal Assent was granted in February 1641. The Act required that Parliament was to be summoned at least once every three years, and that when the King failed to issue proper summons, the members could assemble on their own. In May, he assented to an even more far-reaching Act, which provided that Parliament could not be dissolved without its own consent. Charles was forced into one concession after another. He agreed to bills of attainder authorising the executions of Thomas Wentworth and William Laud. Ship money, fines in destraint of knighthood and forced loans were declared unlawful, and the hated Courts of Star Chamber and High Commission were abolished. Although he made several important concessions, Charles improved his own military position by securing the favour of the Scots. He finally agreed to the official establishment of Presbyterianism; in return, he was able to enlist considerable anti-parliamentary support. The Triennial Act, of 1641, was a piece of legislation passed by the English Long Parliament, during the reign of King Charles I. The act requires that the Parliament meet for at least a fifty-day session once every three years. ... A bill of attainder (also known as an act or writ of attainder) is an act of legislature declaring a person or group of persons guilty of some crime, and punishing them, without benefit of a trial. ... Thomas Wentworth, 1st Earl of Strafford (April 13, 1593 - May 12, 1641) was an English statesman, a major figure in the period leading up to the English Civil War. ... Archbishop William Laud (October 7, 1573 – January 10, 1645) was Archbishop of Canterbury and a fervent supporter of King Charles I of England, whom he encouraged to believe in divine right. ... The Star Chamber (Latin Camera stellata) was an English court of law at the royal Palace of Westminster that sat between 1487 and 1641, when the court itself was abolished. ... A High Commissioner is a person serving in a special executive capacity. ...

Henrietta Maria (c. 1633) by Sir Anthony van Dyck

In November 1641, the House of Commons passed the Grand Remonstrance, a long list of grievances against actions by Charles' ministers that were asserted to be abuses of royal power Charles had committed since the beginning of his reign. The tension was heightened when the Irish rebelled against Protestant English rule and rumours of Charles's complicity reached Parliament. An army was required to put down the rebellion but many members of the House of Commons feared that Charles might later use it against Parliament itself. The Militia Bill was intended to wrest control of the army from the King, but Charles refused to agree to it. However, Parliament decreed The Protestation as an attempt to lessen the conflict. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (600x785, 72 KB) Description: Portrait of Queen Consort Henrietta Maria of France Date: 1632/35 Source: English Wikipedia, uploaded there by user Maveric149, scan from The Kings and Queens of England by Williamson, D. (1998). ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (600x785, 72 KB) Description: Portrait of Queen Consort Henrietta Maria of France Date: 1632/35 Source: English Wikipedia, uploaded there by user Maveric149, scan from The Kings and Queens of England by Williamson, D. (1998). ... The Grand Remonstrance was a list of 204 grievances, mostly religious, by the English Parliament against King Charles I of England during the Long Parliaments reign during the English Civil War. ... The Irish Rebellion of 1641 began as an attempted coup détat by Irish Catholic gentry, but rapidly degenerated into bloody intercommunal violence between native Irish Catholics and English and Scottish Protestant settlers. ... the militia bill was a suggestion by the long parliament ,in hopes that they would be able to control the army. ... The Protestation was an attempt to avert the English Civil War. ...


When rumours reached Charles that Parliament intended to impeach his Catholic Queen, Henrietta Maria, he took drastic action. It was possibly Henrietta who persuaded him to arrest the five members of the House of Commons who were perceived to be the most troublesome on charges of high treason, but the MPs had already slipped away by the time Charles arrived. Charles entered the House of Commons with an armed force on 4 January 1642, but found that his opponents had already escaped, with exception to Oliver Cromwell who had not fled the house of commons, but avoided arrest. He asked the Speaker, William Lenthall, where the MPs had fled, and Lenthall famously replied, "May it please your Majesty, I have neither eyes to see nor tongue to speak in this place but as the House is pleased to direct me, whose servant I am here."[22] This move was politically disastrous for Charles. It caused acute embarrassment for the monarch and essentially triggered the total breakdown of government in England. Afterwards, Charles could no longer feel safe in London and he began travelling north to raise an army against Parliament; the Queen, at the same time, went abroad to raise money to pay for it. Henrietta Maria Henrietta Maria (November 25, 1609 - September 10, 1669) was Queen Consort of England, Scotland and Ireland (June 13, 1625 - January 30, 1649) through her marriage to Charles I. The U.S. state of Maryland (in Latin, Terra Maria) was so named in her honour by Cæcilius Calvert... is the 4th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 4 - Charles I attempts to arrest five leading members of the Long Parliament, but they escape. ... Oliver Cromwell (25 April 1599 – 3 September 1658) was an English military and political leader best known for his involvement in making England into a republican Commonwealth and for his later role as Lord Protector of England, Scotland and Ireland. ... William Lenthall (1591 – September 3, 1662), was an English politician of the Civil War period, Speaker of the House of Commons. ...


English Civil War

Main article: English Civil War

The English Civil War had not yet started, but both sides began to arm. Following futile negotiations, Charles raised the royal standard (an anachronistic mediæval gesture) in Nottingham on 22 August 1642. He then set up his court at Oxford, when his government controlled roughly the north and west of England, Parliament remaining in control of London and the south and east. Charles raised an army using the archaic method of the Commission of Array. The Civil War started on 26 October 1642 with the inconclusive Battle of Edgehill and continued indecisively through 1643 and 1644, until the Battle of Naseby tipped the military balance decisively in favour of Parliament. There followed a great number of defeats for the Royalists, and then the Siege of Oxford, from which Charles escaped in April 1646.[23] He put himself into the hands of the Scottish Presbyterian army at Newark, and was taken to nearby Southwell while his "hosts" decided what to do with him. The Presbyterians finally arrived at an agreement with Parliament and delivered Charles to them in 1647. He was imprisoned at Holdenby House in Northamptonshire, until cornet George Joyce took him by force to Newmarket in the name of the New Model Army. At this time, mutual suspicion had developed between the New Model Army and Parliament, and Charles was eager to exploit it. For other uses, see English Civil War (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see English Civil War (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Nottingham (disambiguation). ... is the 234th day of the year (235th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 4 - Charles I attempts to arrest five leading members of the Long Parliament, but they escape. ... This article is about the city of Oxford in England. ... A commission given by royalty to officers or gentry in a given territory to muster and array the inhabitants, or see them in a condition for war. ... is the 299th day of the year (300th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 4 - Charles I attempts to arrest five leading members of the Long Parliament, but they escape. ... The Battle of Edgehill (or Edge Hill) was the first pitched battle of the First English Civil War. ... Combatants Parliamentarians Royalists Commanders Sir Thomas Fairfax Oliver Cromwell King Charles I Prince Rupert of the Rhine Strength 6,000 horse 7,000 foot 4,100 horse 3,300 foot Casualties 150 total casualties[1] approximately 1,000 killed, 5,000 captured[1] The Battle of Naseby was the key... The Siege of Oxford was a Parliamentarian victory late in the First English Civil War. ... Newark (also Newark-on-Trent) is a town in Nottinghamshire, located on the River Trent. ... Vicars Court and the Residence Southwell is a small town in Nottinghamshire, England. ... Holdenby Palace before its demolition in the 17th century Holdenby House is a historic country house in Northamptonshire, completed 1583 by the Elizabethan Lord chancellor, Sir Christopher Hatton. ... Northamptonshire (abbreviated Northants or Nhants) is a landlocked county in central England with a population of 629,676 (2001 census). ... Cornet George Joyce (b. ... Newmarket is a market town in the English county of Suffolk,approximately 65 miles (105 kilometres) north of London, which has grown and become famous because of its connection with race horses and Thoroughbred horse racing at Newmarket Racecourse. ... For the band, see New Model Army (band). ...


He was then transferred first to Oatlands and then to Hampton Court, where more involved but fruitless negotiations took place. He was persuaded that it would be in his best interests to escape — perhaps abroad, perhaps to France, or perhaps to the custody of Colonel Robert Hammond, Parliamentary Governor of the Isle of Wight.[24] He decided on the last course, believing Hammond to be sympathetic, and fled on 11 November.[25] Hammond, however, was opposed to Charles, whom he confined in Carisbrooke Castle.[26] Oatlands is a district in Surrey near Weybridge (Weybridge website), which in Tudor and Stuart times was the location of a royal palace. ... Hampton Court redirects here. ... Robert Hammond was a Colonel in the New Model Army commanding a regiment of foot, he was succeeded by his lieutenant-colonel Isaac Ewer in 1647 who had transferred to the New Model Army in April 1645. ... For other uses, see Isle of Wight (disambiguation). ... is the 315th day of the year (316th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Carisbrooke Castle Carisbrooke Castle is a historic castle located in the village of Carisbrooke, near Newport, Isle of Wight. ...


From Carisbrooke, Charles continued to try to bargain with the various parties, eventually coming to terms with the Scottish Presbyterians that he would allow the establishment of Presbyterianism in England as well as Scotland for a trial period. The Royalists rose in July 1648 igniting the Second Civil War, and as agreed with Charles the Scots invaded England. Most of the uprisings in England were put down by forces loyal to Parliament after little more than skirmishes, but uprisings in Kent, Essex and Cumberland, the rebellion in Wales and the Scottish invasion involved the fighting of pitched battles and prolonged sieges. But with the defeat of the Scots at the Battle of Preston, the Royalists lost any chance of winning the war. Presbyterianism is a family of Christian denominations within the Reformed branch of Protestant Western Christianity. ... Belligerents Royalist Forces Parliamentary Forces: Commanders King Charles I Duke of Hamilton Earl of Norwich Baron Capel Oliver Cromwell Thomas Fairfax Thomas Horton The Second English Civil War (1648–1649) was the second of three wars known as the English Civil War (or Wars) which refers to the series of... For other uses, see Kent (disambiguation). ... For other meanings of Essex, see Essex (disambiguation). ... Cumberland is one of the 39 traditional counties of England. ... This article is about the country. ... See Battle of Preston (1715) for the battle of the Jacobite Rising. ...


Trial

A plate depicting the Trial of Charles I on January 4, 1649, from "Nalson's Record of the Trial of Charles I, 1688" in the British Museum.

Charles was moved to Hurst Castle at the end of 1648, and there after to Windsor Castle. In January 1649, in response to Charles's defiance of Parliament even after defeat, and his encouraging the second Civil War while in captivity, the House of Commons passed an Act of Parliament creating a court for Charles's trial. After the first Civil War, the parliamentarians accepted the premise that the King, although wrong, had been able to justify his fight, and that he would still be entitled to limited powers as King under a new constitutional settlement. It was now felt that by provoking the second Civil War even while defeated and in captivity, Charles showed himself incorrigible, dishonourable, and responsible for unjustifiable bloodshed. The High Court of Justice is the name given to the court established by the Rump Parliament to try King Charles I. This was an ad hoc tribunal created specifically for the purpose of trying the king, although the same name was used again for subsequent courts. ... Hurst Castle is one of Henry VIIIs Device Forts built at the end of a long shingle spit at the west end of the Solent to guard the approaches to Portsmouth, and given extensive new wing batteries after the 1859 Royal Commission report. ... This article is about the castle in Windsor. ...


The idea of trying a king was a novel one; previous monarchs had been deposed, but had never been brought to trial as monarchs. The High Court of Justice established by the Act consisted of 135 Commissioners but only about half of that number ever sat in judgement (all firm Parliamentarians); the prosecution was led by Solicitor General John Cooke. The prosecutor is the chief legal representative of the prosecution in countries adopting the common law adversarial system or the civil law inquisitorial system. ... Her Majestys Solicitor General for England and Wales, often known as the Solicitor General, is one of the Law Officers of the Crown, and the deputy of the Attorney General, whose duty is to advise the Crown and Cabinet on the law. ... John Cooke (1608 –1660) (sometimes spelled John Cook) was the Solicitor General and the leading prosecutor at the trial of Charles I. He was the son of a Leicestershire farmer, educated at Wadham College Oxford, and at Grays Inn. ...


His trial on charges of high treason and "other high crimes" began on 20 January 1649, but Charles refused to enter a plea, claiming that no court had jurisdiction over a monarch.[27] He believed that his own authority to rule had been given to him by God when he was crowned and anointed, and that the power wielded by those trying him was simply that which grew out of a barrel of gunpowder. In fact, when urged to enter a plea stated his objection to entering a plea: "I would know by what power I am called hither, by what lawful authority...?"[27] The court, by contrast, proposed that no man is above the law. Over a period of a week, when Charles was asked to plead three times, he refused. It was then normal practice to take a refusal to plead as [pro confess]: an admission of guilt, which meant that the prosecution could not call witnesses to its case. However, the trial did hear witnesses. Fifty-nine of the Commissioners signed Charles's death warrant, possibly at the Red Lion Inn in Stathern, Leicestershire[28] on 29 January 1649. is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events January 30 - King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland is beheaded. ... Regicides of Charles I are considered to be the 59 Commissioners (Judges) who formed the tribunal that tried King Charles I of England and signed his death warrant, along with other officials who participated in his trial or execution, and Hugh Peters an influential republican preacher. ... is the 29th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events January 30 - King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland is beheaded. ...


When Cooke began to read the indictment, Charles I tried to stop him using the poke of his cane. The ornate silver tip of the cane fell off and Cooke refused to pick it up. After a long pause, King Charles I stooped to retrieve it. This is considered an important moment that may symbolize the divine monarch bowed before the human law.[27] In the common law legal system, an indictment (IPA: ) is a formal accusation of having committed a criminal offense. ...


After the ruling, he was led from St. James's Palace, where he was confined, to the Palace of Whitehall, where an execution scaffold had been erected in front of the Banqueting House. St Jamess Palace and The Mall by Jan Kip, 1715. ... The Palace of Whitehall by Hendrick Danckerts. ... Banqueting House, Whitehall, London The Banqueting House at Whitehall is a famous London building, formerly part of the Palace of Whitehall, designed by architect Inigo Jones in 1619, and completed in 1622, with assistance from John Webb. ...


Execution

This contemporary German print depicts Charles I's decapitation.

Charles was beheaded on Tuesday 30 January 1649,[29][30][31]though at the time the new year did not occur until March, so his death is often recorded as occurring in the year 1648.[32] At the execution it is reputed that he wore two cotton shirts as to prevent the cold weather causing any noticeable shivers that the crowd could have mistaken for fear or weakness. He put his head on the block after saying a prayer and signalled the executioner when he was ready; he was then beheaded with one clean stroke. His last words were, "We shall go from a corruptible to an incorruptible Crown, where no disturbance can be."[3] Public domain image scanned from The Kings and Queens of England by Williamson, D. (1998). ... Public domain image scanned from The Kings and Queens of England by Williamson, D. (1998). ... Decapitation (from Latin, caput, capitis, meaning head), or beheading, is the removal of a living organisms head. ... is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events January 30 - King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland is beheaded. ... 1648 (MDCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Saturday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ...


Philip Henry records that moments after the execution, a moan was heard from the assembled crowd, some of whom then dipped their handkerchiefs in his blood, thus starting the cult of the Martyr King. However no other eyewitness source, including Samuel Pepys records this. Henry's account was written during the Restoration, some 12 years after the event though Henry was 19 when the King was executed and he and his family were Royalist propaganda writers.[1] Philip Henry (1631-96) was an English Nonconformist clergyman, born in London. ... Charles I (1631) by Daniel Mytens. ... Samuel Pepys, FRS (23 February 1633 – 26 May 1703) was an English naval administrator and Member of Parliament, who is now most famous for his diary. ... For other uses, see Restoration. ...


There is some debate over the identity of the man who beheaded the King, who was masked at the scene. It is known that the Commissioners approached Richard Brandon, the common Hangman of London, but that he refused, and contemporary sources do not generally identify him as the King's headsman. Ellis's Historical Inquiries, however, names him as the executioner, contending that he stated so before dying. It is possible he relented and agreed to undertake the commission, but there are others who have been identified. An Irishman named Gunning is widely believed to have beheaded Charles, and a plaque naming him as the executioner is on show in the Kings Head pub in Galway, Ireland. William Hewlett was convicted of regicide after the Restoration.[33] In 1661, two people identified as "Dayborne and Bickerstaffe" were arrested but then discharged. Henry Walker, a revolutionary journalist, or his brother William, were suspected but never charged. Various local legends around England name local worthies. An examination performed in 1813 at Windsor suggests that the execution was done by an experienced headsman. Richard Brandon (? - June 20, 1649) was a 17th century English hangman. ... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: , Irish Grid Reference M300256 Statistics Province: Connacht County: Dáil Éireann: Galway West European Parliament: North-West Dialling Code: 091 Postal District(s): G Area: 50. ... After the Restoration, Captain William Hewlett was convicted on 15 October 1660 for his part in the regicide of Charles I on January 30, 1649, but was not executed along with the other men who were tried with him: Daniel Axtel and Francis Hacker. ... For other uses, see Regicide (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Restoration. ...

It was common practice for the head of a traitor to be held up and exhibited to the crowd with the words "Behold the head of a traitor!"; although Charles's head was exhibited, the words were not used. In an unprecedented gesture, one of the revolutionary leaders, Oliver Cromwell, allowed the King's head to be sewn back on his body so the family could pay its respects. Charles was buried in private and at night on 7 February 1649, in the Henry VIII vault inside St George's Chapel in Windsor Castle. The royal retainers Sir Thomas Herbert, Capt. Anthony Mildmay, Sir Henry Firebrace, William Levett Esq. and Abraham Dowcett (sometimes spelled Dowsett) conveyed the King's body to Windsor.[34][35] The King's son, King Charles II, later planned an elaborate royal mausoleum, but it was never built. Oliver Cromwell (25 April 1599 – 3 September 1658) was an English military and political leader best known for his involvement in making England into a republican Commonwealth and for his later role as Lord Protector of England, Scotland and Ireland. ... is the 38th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events January 30 - King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland is beheaded. ... St Georges Chapel, Windsor St. ... Charles II King of England, Scotland and Ireland Charles II (29 May 1630–6 February 1685) was the King of England, Scotland and Ireland from 30 January 1649 (de jure) or 29 May 1660 (de facto) until his death. ...


Ten days after Charles's execution, a memoir purporting to be from Charles's hand appeared for sale. This book, the Eikon Basilike (Greek: the "Royal Portrait"), contained an apologia for royal policies, and proved an effective piece of royalist propaganda. William Levett, Charles's groom of the bedchamber, who had accompanied Charles on the day of his execution, was quoted in a statement swearing he had watched the King writing the Eikon Basilike.[36] John Cooke published the speech he would have delivered if Charles had entered a plea, while Parliament commissioned John Milton to write a rejoinder, the Eikonoklastes ("The Iconoclast"), but the response made little headway against the pathos of the royalist book.[1] As a literary genre, a memoir (from the French: mémoire from the Latin memoria, meaning memory), or a reminiscence, forms a subclass of autobiography, although it is an older form of writing. ... The Eikon Basilike (Greek: Eικων Bασιλικη, the Royal Portrait), The Pourtrature of His Sacred Majestie in His Solitudes and Sufferings, was a purported spiritual autobiography attributed to King Charles I of England. ... John Cooke (1608 –1660) (sometimes spelled John Cook) was the Solicitor General and the leading prosecutor at the trial of Charles I. He was the son of a Leicestershire farmer, educated at Wadham College Oxford, and at Grays Inn. ... For other persons named John Milton, see John Milton (disambiguation). ...


Various prodigies were recorded in the contemporary popular press in relation to the execution - a beached whale at Dover died within an hour of the King; a falling star appeared that night over Whitehall; a man who had said that the King deserved to die had his eyes pecked out by crows. Arms of Dover Borough Council This article is about the English port. ...


Legacy

With the monarchy overthrown, power was assumed by a Council of State, which included Oliver Cromwell, then Lord General of the Parliamentary Army. The Long Parliament (known by then as the Rump Parliament) which had been called by Charles I in 1640 continued to exist until Cromwell forcibly disbanded it in 1653. Cromwell then became Lord Protector of England, Scotland and Ireland; a monarch in all but name: he was even "invested" on the royal coronation chair. Upon his death in 1658, Cromwell was briefly succeeded by his son, Richard Cromwell. Richard Cromwell was an ineffective ruler, and the Long Parliament was reinstated in 1659. The Long Parliament dissolved itself in 1660, and the first elections in twenty years led to the election of a Convention Parliament which restored Charles I's eldest son to the monarchy as Charles II. Oliver Cromwell (25 April 1599 – 3 September 1658) was an English military and political leader best known for his involvement in making England into a republican Commonwealth and for his later role as Lord Protector of England, Scotland and Ireland. ... The Rump Parliament was the name of the English Parliament immediately following the Long Parliament, after Prides Purge of December 6, 1648 had removed those Members of Parliament hostile to the intentions of the Grandees in the New Model Army to try King Charles I for high treason. ... Lord Protector is a particular English title for Heads of State, with two meanings (and full styles) at different periods of history. ... Richard Cromwell (4 October 1626 – 12 July 1712) was the third son of Oliver Cromwell, and the second Lord Protector of England, Scotland and Ireland, for little over eight months, from 3 September 1658 until 25 May 1659. ... The term Convention Parliament has been applied to three different English Parliaments, of 1399, 1660 and 1689. ... Charles II (29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685) was the King of England, Scotland, and Ireland. ...


The Colony of Carolina in North America was named for Charles I. Carolina later separated into North Carolina and South Carolina, which eventually declared independence from Great Britain during the formation of the United States. To the north in the Virginia Colony, Cape Charles, the Charles River, Charles River Shire, and Charles City Shire were named for him. Charles himself named the Charles River after himself.[37] Charles City Shire survives almost 400 years later as Charles City County, Virginia. The Virginia Colony is now the Commonwealth of Virginia (one of the four U.S. states that are called commonwealths), and retains its official nickname of "The Old Dominion" bestowed by Charles II because it had remained loyal to Charles I during the English Civil War. The Carolina Colony grants Haystack of 1663 and 1665 The Province of Carolina from 1663 to 1729, was a North American British colony. ... North American redirects here. ... Official language(s) English Demonym North Carolinian Capital Raleigh Largest city Charlotte Largest metro area Charlotte metro area Area  Ranked 28th in the US  - Total 53,865 sq mi (139,509 km²)  - Width 150 miles (340 km)  - Length 560[1] miles (900 km)  - % water 9. ... Official language(s) English Capital Columbia Largest city Columbia Largest metro area Columbia Area  Ranked 40th  - Total 34,726 sq mi (82,965 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 260 miles (420 km)  - % water 6  - Latitude 32° 2′ N to 35° 13′ N  - Longitude 78° 32′ W to 83... The 1609 charter for the Virginia colony from sea to sea The Virginia Colony refers to the English colony in North America that existed during the 17th and 18th centuries before the American Revolution. ... Cape Charles is a town located in Northampton County, Virginia. ... The York River is a navigable estuary, approximately 40 mi (64 km) long, in eastern Virginia in the United States. ... Charles River Shire was one of eight shires created in colonial Virginia in 1634. ... Charles City Shire was formed in 1634 in the Virginia colony. ... Location in the state of Virginia Formed 1619 Seat Charles City Area  - Total  - Water 529 km² (204 mi²) 56 km² (21 mi²) 10. ... State nickname: Old Dominion Other U.S. States Capital Richmond Largest city Virginia Beach Governor Mark R. Warner Official languages English Area 110,862 km² (35th)  - Land 102,642 km²  - Water 8,220 km² (7. ... A U.S. state is any one of the 50 states which have membership of the federation known as the United States of America (USA or U.S.). The separate state governments and the U.S. federal government share sovereignty. ... This article or section may be confusing or unclear for some readers, and should be edited to rectify this. ...


English furniture produced during the reign of Charles I is distinctive and is commonly characterised as Charles I as to period. For the UK band, see Furniture (band). ...


Sainthood

Charles I

Portrait of Charles by Daniel Mytens
Saint King Charles the Martyr
Born 19 November 1600, Dunfermline, Scotland
Died 30 January 1649, Whitehall, England
Venerated in Anglican Communion
Canonized 29 May, 1660, Canterbury
Feast 30 January
Patronage Society of King Charles the Martyr
Saints Portal

Upon the Restoration, Charles II added a commemoration of his father — to be observed on 30 January, the date of the execution — to the Book of Common Prayer making him the only post-reformation Saint of the Church of England. However, in the time of Queen Victoria, this feast was removed, due to popular discontent with the commemorating of a dead monarch with a major feast day of the Church. Now, 30 January is only listed as a "Lesser Festival". Download high resolution version (800x1320, 158 KB)Public domain image scanned from The Kings and Queens of England by Williamson, D. (1998). ... ‹ The template below has been proposed for deletion. ... This article is about the country. ... The Palace of Whitehall by Hendrick Danckerts. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... This article is about the process of declaring saints. ... The calendar of saints is a traditional Christian method of organising a liturgical year on the level of days by associating each day with one or more saints, and referring to the day as that saints day. ... Saint Quentin is the patron saint of locksmiths and is also invoked against coughs and sneezes. ... Charles I (1631) by Daniel Mytens. ... Image File history File links Gloriole. ... For other uses, see Restoration. ... is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Saints redirects here. ... The Church of England is the officially established Christian church[3] in England, the Mother Church of the worldwide Anglican Communion and the oldest among the communions thirty-eight independent national churches. ... Queen Victoria redirects here. ... is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...


There are several Anglican and Episcopal churches dedicated to Charles I as "King and Martyr", in England, Canada, Australia and the United States.[38] The Society of King Charles the Martyr was established in 1894 by one Mrs. Greville-Negent, assisted by Fr. James Fish, rector of St Margaret Pattens, London. The objectives of the SKCM include prayer for the Church of England and the Anglican Communion, promoting a wider observance of 30 January in commemoration of Charles's "martyrdom", and the reinstatement of his feast day in the Book of Common Prayer. King Charles is regarded as a martyr by some Anglicans for his notion of "Christian Kingship", and as a "defender of the Anglican faith". He is also regarded as a martyr by some due to the unfairness of "deriving guilt from a refusal to recognize the court."[27] Charles I (1631) by Daniel Mytens. ... St Margaret Pattens church, and the neighbouring Plantation Place. ... is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Martyr (disambiguation). ... Look up monarch in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Assessments

Archbishop William Laud described Charles as "A mild and gracious prince who knew not how to be, or how to be made, great."[39] Archbishop William Laud (October 7, 1573 – January 10, 1645) was Archbishop of Canterbury and a fervent supporter of King Charles I of England, whom he encouraged to believe in divine right. ...


Ralph Dutton says - "In spite of his intelligence and cultivation, Charles was curiously inept in his contacts with human beings. Socially, he was tactless and diffident, and his manner was not helped by his stammer and thick Scottish accent, while in public he was seldom able to make a happy impression."[40]


Titles, styles, honours and arms

Titles

is the 323rd day of the year (324th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1600 was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 86th day of the year (87th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events March 27 - Prince Charles Stuart becomes King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland. ... is the 357th day of the year (358th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1600 was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 86th day of the year (87th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events March 27 - Prince Charles Stuart becomes King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland. ... is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1605 was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 86th day of the year (87th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events March 27 - Prince Charles Stuart becomes King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland. ... is the 310th day of the year (311th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 20 - Mathias becomes Holy Roman Emperor. ... is the 86th day of the year (87th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events March 27 - Prince Charles Stuart becomes King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland. ... is the 310th day of the year (311th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 20 - Mathias becomes Holy Roman Emperor. ... is the 86th day of the year (87th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events March 27 - Prince Charles Stuart becomes King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland. ... is the 308th day of the year (309th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1616 (MDCXVI) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 86th day of the year (87th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events March 27 - Prince Charles Stuart becomes King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland. ... is the 86th day of the year (87th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events March 27 - Prince Charles Stuart becomes King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland. ... is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events January 30 - King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland is beheaded. ...

Styles

The official style of Charles I was "Charles, by the Grace of God, King of England, Scotland, France and Ireland, Defender of the Faith, etc." (The claim to France was only nominal, and was asserted by every English King from Edward III to George III, regardless of the amount of French territory actually controlled.) The authors of his death warrant, however, did not wish to use the religious portions of his title. It only referred to him as "Charles Stuart, King of England". A style of office, or honorific, is a form of address which by tradition or law precedes a reference to a person who holds a title or post, or to the political office itself. ... The Kingdom of England was first unified as a state by Athelstan of Wessex. ... The Royal Coat of Arms of Scotland, as used before 1603 The monarch of Scotland was the head of state of the Kingdom of Scotland. ... This article or section should be merged with English claims to the French throne From 1339 to 1801, with only brief intervals in 1360-1369 and 1420-1422, the Kings of England also bore the title of King of France. ... // Fidei defensor is the Latin original of the English and French titles. ... This article is about the King of England. ... George III redirects here. ...


Honours

Memorial to Charles I at Carisbrooke Castle, Isle of Wight

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (600x800, 113 KB)Memorial to King Charles I of England at Carisbrooke Castle, Isle of Wight By ChrisO File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (600x800, 113 KB)Memorial to King Charles I of England at Carisbrooke Castle, Isle of Wight By ChrisO File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Carisbrooke Castle Carisbrooke Castle is a historic castle located in the village of Carisbrooke, near Newport, Isle of Wight. ... For other uses, see Isle of Wight (disambiguation). ... The insignia of a knight of the Order of the Garter. ... is the 114th day of the year (115th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events June 23 - Henry Hudsons crew maroons him, his son and 7 others in a boat November 1 - At Whitehall Palace in London, William Shakespeares romantic comedy The Tempest is presented for the first time. ... is the 86th day of the year (87th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events March 27 - Prince Charles Stuart becomes King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland. ...

Arms

Whilst he was King, Charles I's arms were: Quarterly, I and IV Grandquarterly, Azure three fleurs-de-lis Or (for France) and Gules three lions passant guardant in pale Or (for England); II Or a lion rampant within a tressure flory-counter-flory Gules (for Scotland); III Azure a harp Or stringed Argent (for Ireland). Heraldry in its most general sense encompasses all matters relating to the duties and responsibilities of officers of arms. ...


Ancestry and descent

Ancestry

King Charles II, the first monarch to rule after the English Restoration.
Charles I's ancestors in three generations
Charles I of England Father:
James I of England
Paternal Grandfather:
Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley
Paternal Great-grandfather:
4th Earl of Lennox
Paternal Great-grandmother:
Margaret Douglas
Paternal Grandmother:
Mary I, Queen of Scots
Paternal Great-grandfather:
James V of Scotland
Paternal Great-grandmother:
Marie de Guise
Mother:
Anne of Denmark
Maternal Grandfather:
Frederick II of Denmark
Maternal Great-grandfather:
Christian III of Denmark
Maternal Great-grandmother:
Dorothea of Saxe-Lauenburg
Maternal Grandmother:
Sofie of Mecklenburg-Schwerin
Maternal Great-grandfather:
Ulrich III of Mecklenburg-Schwerin
Maternal Great-grandmother:
Elizabeth of Denmark

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (752x1159, 66 KB) Beschreibung Description: Charles II. of England Source: http://www. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (752x1159, 66 KB) Beschreibung Description: Charles II. of England Source: http://www. ... James VI and I (19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625) was King of Scots as James VI, and King of England and King of Ireland as James I. He ruled in Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567, when he was only one year old, succeeding his mother Mary... Henry Stuart, Duke of Albany (7 December 1545 – 9 or 10 February 1567), commonly known as Lord Darnley, king consort of Scotland, was the first cousin and second husband of Mary, Queen of Scots, and the father of her son King James VI, who also succeded Elizabeth I of England. ... Matthew Stewart (1516-1571) was the 4th Earl of Lennox, and leader of the Catholic nobility in Scotland. ... Margaret Douglas, Countess of Lennox Margaret Douglas, Countess of Lennox (October 8, 1515 – March 7, 1578) was the daughter of Archibald Douglas, 6th Earl of Angus, and Margaret Tudor, Queen Dowager of Scotland. ... Mary, Queen of Scots redirects here. ... James V (April 10, 1512 – December 14, 1542) was king of Scotland (September 9, 1513 – December 14, 1542). ... Marie de Guise (in English, Mary of Guise) (November 22, 1515 - June,1560) was the queen consort of James V of Scotland and the mother of Mary, Queen of Scots. ... Anna of Denmark (October 14, 1574 – March 4, 1619) was queen consort of King James I of England and VI of Scotland. ... Frederick II of Denmark and Norway Frederick II (July 1, 1534 - April 4, 1588), King of Denmark and Norway from 1559 until his death. ... Christian III Christian III (August 12, 1503–January 1, 1559), king of Denmark and Norway, was the son of Frederick I of Denmark and his first consort, Anne of Brandenburg. ... Queen Dorothea Dorothea of Saxe-Lauenburg (9 July 1511 – 7 October 1571), consort of Christian III from 1525 and Queen consort of Denmark and Norway. ... Hans Knieper: Königin Sophie von Dänemark For other uses, see Sofie of Mecklenburg-Schwerin (disambiguation). ... Ulrich III, Duke of Mecklenburg (March 5, 1527 – March 14, 1603) was duke of Mecklenburg from 1555-56 to 1603. ... Elizabeth of Denmark (14 October 1524 – 15 October 1586) was a Duchess of Mecklenburg. ...

Marriage and Issue

Painting of Charles I's children. The future Charles II is depicted at centre, stroking the dog

Charles was father to a total of nine legitimate children, two of whom would eventually succeed him as king. Several other children died in childhood.[41] Public domain image scanned from The Kings and Queens of England by Williamson, D. (1998). ... Public domain image scanned from The Kings and Queens of England by Williamson, D. (1998). ... Charles II (29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685) was the King of England, Scotland, and Ireland. ...


Charles is also believed to have had a daughter, prior to his marriage with Henrietta Maria. Her name was Joanna Brydges, born 1619-20, the daughter of a Miss Brydges ("a member of a younger branch of the ancient Kentish family of that name"), possibly from the line of Brydges of Chandos and Sudeley. Joanna Brydges who was provided for by the estate of Mandinam, Carmarthenshire, was brought up in secrecy at Glamorgan, Wales. She went on to become second wife to Bishop Jeremy Taylor, author of Holy Living and Holy Dying and chaplain to both Archbishop Laud and Charles I. The Bishop and his wife Joanna Brydges left for Ireland, where Jeremy Taylor became Bishop of Down, Connor and Dromore in 1660. Joanna Brydges and Jeremy Taylor had several children, including two daughters, Joanna Taylor(Harrison) and Mary Taylor (Marsh).[42][43][44] Jeremy Taylor is depicted in this portrait at Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge University. ...


See also Descendants of Charles I of England. List of regicides of Charles I Society of King Charles the Martyr Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Descendants of Charles I of England Chronology Charles I World History Database The Royal Household. ...

Name Birth Death Notes
Charles James, Duke of Cornwall 13 March 1629 13 March 1629 Stillbirth.
Charles II, King of England 29 May 1630 6 February 1685 Married Catherine of Braganza (1638 - 1705) in 1663. No legitimate issue. Believed to have fathered such illegitimate children as James Scott, 1st Duke of Monmouth, who later rose against James II.
Mary, Princess Royal 4 November 1631 24 December 1660 Married William II, Prince of Orange (1626 - 1650) in 1641. Had issue.
James II, King of England 14 October 1633 16 September 1701 Married (1) Anne Hyde (1637 - 1671) in 1659. Had issue;
Married (2) Mary of Modena (1658 - 1718) in 1673. Had issue.
Elizabeth, Princess of England 29 December 1635 8 September 1650 No issue.
Anne, Princess of England 17 March 1637 8 December 1640 Died young. No issue.
Catherine, Princess of England 29 January 1639 29 January 1639 Stillbirth
Henry, Duke of Gloucester 8 July 1640 18 September 1660 No issue.
Henrietta Anne, Princess of England 16 June 1644 30 June 1670 Married Philip I, Duke of Orléans (1640 - 1701) in 1661. Had issue

is the 72nd day of the year (73rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events March 4 - Massachusetts Bay Colony is granted a Royal charter. ... is the 72nd day of the year (73rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events March 4 - Massachusetts Bay Colony is granted a Royal charter. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Charles II (29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685) was the King of England, Scotland, and Ireland. ... is the 149th day of the year (150th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 22 - Native American Quadequine introduces Popcorn to English colonists. ... is the 37th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 6 - James Stuart, Duke of York becomes King James II of England and Ireland and King James VII of Scotland. ... Catherine of Braganza (November 25, 1638 – November 30, 1705) (Catherine Henrietta, Portuguese: Catarina Henriqueta de Bragança), was the queen consort of King Charles II of England. ... James Crofts, later James Scott, 1st Duke of Monmouth and of Buccleuch (April 9, 1649 – July 15, 1685), was an English nobleman who was executed in 1685 after making an unsuccessful attempt to claim the British throne, the Monmouth Rebellion. ... Mary, Princess Royal and Princess Orange-Nassau (4 November 1631 - 24 December 1660) was the eldest daughter of King Charles I of England, Scotland, and Ireland and his queen, Henrietta Maria. ... is the 308th day of the year (309th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events February 5 - Roger Williams emigrates to Boston. ... is the 358th day of the year (359th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events January 1 - Colonel George Monck with his regiment crosses from Scotland to England at the village of Coldstream and begins advance towards London in support of English Restoration. ... William II, Prince of Orange (May 27, 1626 - November 6, 1650), stadtholder of the United Provinces of the Netherlands (March 14, 1647 - November 6, 1650). ... James II and VII (14 October 1633 – 16 September 1701)[2] was King of England, King of Scots,[1] and King of Ireland from 6 February 1685 to 11 December 1688. ... is the 287th day of the year (288th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 13 - Galileo Galilei arrives in Rome for his trial before the Inquisition. ... is the 259th day of the year (260th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 18 - Frederick I becomes King of Prussia. ... Lady Anne Hyde (1637 - March 31, 1671), daughter of Edward Hyde, 1st Earl of Clarendon, became the first wife of James, Duke of York (the future King James II of England), and the mother of two British queens, Mary II and Anne. ... Mary of Modena (October 5, 1658 – May 7, 1718) was the queen consort of King James II of England. ... Princess Elizabeth Stuart (1635 – 1650) was the second daughter of Charles I of England and Queen Henrietta Maria. ... is the 363rd day of the year (364th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 10 - The Académie française in Paris is expanded to become a national academy for the artistic elite. ... is the 251st day of the year (252nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1650 (MDCL) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Princess Anne of England (17 March 1637 - 8 December 1640) was the daughter of King Charles I of England and Henrietta Maria. ... is the 76th day of the year (77th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 3 - Tulipmania collapses in Netherlands by government order February 15 - Ferdinand III becomes Holy Roman Emperor December 17 - Shimabara Rebellion erupts in Japan Pierre de Fermat makes a marginal claim to have proof of what would become known as Fermats last theorem. ... is the 342nd day of the year (343rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events December 1 - Portugal regains its independence from Spain and João IV of Portugal becomes king. ... is the 29th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 14 - Connecticuts first constitution, the Fundamental Orders, is adopted. ... is the 29th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 14 - Connecticuts first constitution, the Fundamental Orders, is adopted. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Henry Stuart, Duke of Gloucester KG (July 8, 1640 - September 18, 1660) was the fourth living son and youngest son of King Charles I of Englandand his Queen Henrietta Maria of France. ... is the 189th day of the year (190th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events December 1 - Portugal regains its independence from Spain and João IV of Portugal becomes king. ... is the 261st day of the year (262nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events January 1 - Colonel George Monck with his regiment crosses from Scotland to England at the village of Coldstream and begins advance towards London in support of English Restoration. ... Henrietta Anne Stuart (June 16, 1644 - June 30, 1670), sometimes known familiarly as Minette, was the youngest daughter of King Charles I of England and Queen Henrietta Maria of France. ... is the 167th day of the year (168th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events February to August - Explorer Abel Tasmans second expedition for the Dutch East India Company maps the north coast of Australia. ... is the 181st day of the year (182nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1670 (MDCLXX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Philippe I, Duc dOrléans (September 21, 1640 – June 8, 1701) was the son of the Louis XIII of France and Anne of Austria, and younger brother of Louis XIV of France. ...

See also

Saints Portal

Image File history File links Gloriole. ... Regicides of Charles I are considered to be the 59 Commissioners (Judges) who formed the tribunal that tried King Charles I of England and signed his death warrant, along with other officials who participated in his trial or execution, and Hugh Peters an influential republican preacher. ... Charles I (1631) by Daniel Mytens. ...

References

  1. ^ a b BBC - History - Charles I (1600 - 1649). Retrieved on 2008-04-20.
  2. ^ Charles I (of England) - MSN Encarta. Retrieved on 2008-04-20.
  3. ^ a b c Charles I (r.1625-49). Royal.gov.uk. Retrieved on 2008-04-20.
  4. ^ Queen Henrietta Maria, 1609-69. British-civil-wars.co.uk. Retrieved on 2008-04-20.
  5. ^ Queen Henrietta Maria, 1609-69. British-civil-wars.co.uk. Retrieved on 2008-04-20.
  6. ^ History of the Monarchy - CHARLES I (r. 1625-49). Retrieved on 2008-04-20.
  7. ^ Memorable Christians. Retrieved on 2008-04-20.
  8. ^ Charles I Undiscovered Scotland: The Ultimate Online Guide. Undiscovered Scotland.co.uk. Retrieved on 2008-04-24.
  9. ^ Charles I (1625-49 AD). Britannia.com. Retrieved on 17 October, 2007.
  10. ^ Lecture 7: The English Civil War. Retrieved on 2008-04-20.
  11. ^ Timeline - English Civil War. Retrieved on 2008-04-20.
  12. ^ Info Please: Charle I's Early Life. Retrieved on 2008-04-20.
  13. ^ See Acts 25:10-12 (NRSV translation): "Paul said, 'I am appealing to the emperor's tribunal; this is where I should be tried. I have done no wrong to the Jews, as you very well know. 11Now if I am in the wrong and have committed something for which I deserve to die, I am not trying to escape death; but if there is nothing to their charges against me, no one can turn me over to them. I appeal to the emperor.' 12Then Festus, after he had conferred with his council, replied, 'You have appealed to the emperor; to the emperor you will go.'"
  14. ^ J.P. Kenyon, Stuart England, pp. 96-97, 101-05 (Harmondsworth, England, Penguin Books, 1978); Simon Schama, A History of England, Vol. II, pp. 69-74 (New York, Simon and Schuster, 2001).
  15. ^ Info Please: Charles I's Reign. Retrieved on 2008-04-20.
  16. ^ Kenyon, pp. [105-06 Kenyon].
  17. ^ Historic Figures: Charles I (1600 - 1649). British Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved on 17 October, 2007.
  18. ^ Murphy, p.211-235
  19. ^ Charles I of England. Spiritus-temporis.com. Retrieved on 2008-04-24.
  20. ^ Archbishop William Laud, 1573-1645. British-civil-wars.co.uk. Retrieved on 2008-04-24.
  21. ^ William Laud. Nndb.com. Retrieved on 2008-04-24.
  22. ^ Telegraph Article - "Some predecessors kept their nerve, others lost their heads".
  23. ^ Info Please: Charle I's Civil War. Retrieved on 2008-04-20.
  24. ^ [List of Persons Desired by His Majesty to Attend Him the Isle of Wight, The Parliamentary or Constitutional History of England, 1763].
  25. ^ "Message from the King; on His Escape from Hampton Court, that He will appear again if He can be heard, and will give Satisfaction.", Journal of the House of Lords, vol. 9, London, South East, South West, East, Midlands, North, Scotland, Wales: (History of Parliament Trust), 12 November 1647, pp. 519-522, <http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.asp?compid=37160#s15> 
  26. ^ "Letter from Colonel Hammond, that he has ordered, no Persons shall come in or go outof the Isle of Wight without his Pass;—and desiring the King's former Allowance may be continued to Him.", Journal of the House of Lords, vol. 9, London, South East, South West, East, Midlands, North, Scotland, Wales: (History of Parliament Trust), 18 November 1647, pp. 531-533, <http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.asp?compid=37165#s16> 
  27. ^ a b c d Robertson, Geoffrey (2002). "Chapter 1 The Human Rights Story", Crimes Against Humanity: The Struggle for Global Justice, 2nd ed., Penguin Books, p.5. ISBN 978-0141010144. 
  28. ^ Red Lion Inn, a Pub and Bar in Stathern, Leicestershire. Search for Leicestershire Pub and Bars.
  29. ^ 1649 calendar.
  30. ^ Historic Royal Palaces - Charles I's Execution. Retrieved on 2008-04-20.
  31. ^ Info Please: Charles I's Execution. Retrieved on 2008-04-20.
  32. ^ Eye Witness History: Charles I. Retrieved on 2008-04-20.
  33. ^ Selections from the Trial and Execution of Col. Daniel Axtell in October 1660".
  34. ^ A Narrative by John Ashburnham of His Attendance on King Charles I, 1830.
  35. ^ Memoirs of the two last years of the Reign of King Charles I, Thomas Herbert, 1815.
  36. ^ The Life of Charles the First, the Royal Martyr, Charles Wheeler Coit, Houghton Mifflin, Boston, 1926.
  37. ^ Stewart, George R. [1945] (1967). Names on the Land: A Historical Account of Place-Naming in the United States, Sentry edition (3rd), Houghton Mifflin, p. 38. 
  38. ^ SKCM: S.Charles: Cult-Churches, Memorials Dedicated to the Martyr.
  39. ^ Archbishop Laud, quoted by his chaplain Peter Heylin in Cyprianus Angelicus, 1688
  40. ^ Ralph Dutton, English Court Life, 1965
  41. ^ Britannia: Monarchs of Britain. Retrieved on 2008-04-20.
  42. ^ "The Family of Pollock of Newry and Descendants".
  43. ^ "A Sketch of the Life and Times of Bishop Taylor".
  44. ^ "Jeremy Taylor, Bishop and Theologian (13 August 1667)".

2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 110th day of the year (111th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 110th day of the year (111th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 110th day of the year (111th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 110th day of the year (111th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 110th day of the year (111th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 110th day of the year (111th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 110th day of the year (111th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 114th day of the year (115th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 110th day of the year (111th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 110th day of the year (111th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 110th day of the year (111th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 110th day of the year (111th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is an overview article about the Crown chartered British Broadcasting Corporation formed in 1927. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 114th day of the year (115th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 114th day of the year (115th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 114th day of the year (115th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 110th day of the year (111th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 316th day of the year (317th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1647 (MDCXLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 322nd day of the year (323rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1647 (MDCXLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Geoffrey Ronald Robertson QC (born September 30, 1946 in Sydney) is an Australian human rights lawyer, academic, author and broadcaster. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 110th day of the year (111th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 110th day of the year (111th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 110th day of the year (111th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... George R. Stewarts books about U.S. highways were based on his cross-country drives in 1924, 1949 and 1950. ... Houghton Mifflin Company is a leading educational publisher in the United States. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 110th day of the year (111th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading

  • Carlton, Charles (1995). Charles I: The personal monarch. Routledge, 423. ISBN 0415121418. 
  • Gardiner, Samuel Rawson (1962). The Constitutional Documents of the Puritan Revolution 1625–1660 (3rd Revised Edition.). Oxford: Oxford University Press, 476. 
  • Kishlansky, Mark A. (2005). "Charles I: A Case of Mistaken Identity" no. 189, Past and Presentpp. 41–80. 
  • Murphy, Derrick (2002). Britain 1558-1689. London: HarperCollins Publishers, 384. ISBN 0-00-713850-4.  pp. 211-235
  • Robertson, Geoffrey (2005). The Tyrannicide Brief: The Man Who Sent Charles I to the Scaffold. Chatto & Windus, 429. ISBN 0-7011-7602-4. 
  • Williamson, D. (1998). 'The Kings and Queens of England. London: National Portrait Gallery. ISBN 1-85514-228-7. 
  • Rushworth, J. (1959). The Trial of King Charles I, pp.133-4. 
  • Carlton, Charles (1995). Charles I: The Personal Monarch. Great Britain: Routledge, 423. ISBN 0415121418. 
  • Holmes, Clive (2006). Why was Charles I Executed?. Continuum International, 244. ISBN 1852852828. 
  • Abbott, Jacob (1901). Charles I.. Great Britain: Harper & brothers, 285. 
  • Cust, Richard (July 21, 2007). Charles I. Longman, 512. ISBN 978-1405859035. 
  • Abbott, Jacob (1900). History of King Charles the First of England. Great Britain: Henry Altemus company, 230. 
  • Mackintosh, James; William Wallace, Robert Bell (1835). {{{title}}}. Great Britain: Longman. 
  • Hill, C. (1991). The Century of Revolution, 1603–1714. Great Britain: Routledge, 296. ISBN 0415051789. 
  • V Wedgwood, C (1955). The Great Rebellion: The King's Peace, 1637–1641. Colins, 510. 
  • V Wedgwood, C (1958). The Great Rebellion: The King's War, 1641-1647.. Collins, 702. 
  • Wedgewood, Cicely Veronica (1964). A Coffin for King Charles: The Trial and Execution of Charles I. Macmillan, 307. ISBN 978-0026255004. 
  • Ashley, Maurice (1987). Charles I and Cromwell. Methuen, 256. ISBN 978-0413162700. 
  • Reeve, L. J. (1989). Charles I and the Road to Personal Rule. Great Britain: Cambridge University Press, 325. ISBN 0521521335. 

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Charles I of England
Born: 19 November 1600 Died: 30 January 1649
Regnal titles
Preceded by
James I and VI
King of England
King of Ireland

27 March 1625 – 30 January 1649
Vacant
Title next held by
Charles II
King of Scotland
27 March 1625 – 30 January 1649
Lord of the Isles
27 March 1625 – 30 January 1649
British royalty
Preceded by
Henry Frederick, Prince of Wales
Heir to the English, Scottish and Irish Thrones
as heir apparent
6 November 1612 – 27 March 1625
Succeeded by
Elizabeth Stuart
Peerage of England
Preceded by
Henry Frederick
Prince of Wales
1612 – 1625
Vacant
Title next held by
Charles II
New creation Duke of York
4th creation
1605 – 1625
Merged in the Crown
Peerage of Scotland
Preceded by
Henry Frederick
Duke of Rothesay
1612 – 1625
Vacant
Title next held by
Charles II
New creation Duke of Albany
5th creation
1603 – 1625
Merged in the Crown
Persondata
NAME Charles I of England
ALTERNATIVE NAMES
SHORT DESCRIPTION King of England and Ireland
DATE OF BIRTH 19 November 1600
PLACE OF BIRTH Dunfermline, Scotland
DATE OF DEATH 12 February 1554
PLACE OF DEATH Whitehall, England
is the 323rd day of the year (324th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1600 was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... ‹ The template below has been proposed for deletion. ... This article is about the country. ... is the 43rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 5 - Great fire in Eindhoven, Netherlands. ... The Palace of Whitehall by Hendrick Danckerts. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
History of the Monarchy > The Stuarts > Charles I (1990 words)
Charles I was born in Fife on 19 November 1600, the second son of James VI of Scotland (from 1603 also James I of England) and Anne of Denmark.
Charles did not see his action as surrender, but as an opportunity to regain lost ground by playing one group off against another; he saw the monarchy as the source of stability and told parliamentary commanders 'you cannot be without me: you will fall to ruin if I do not sustain you'.
Charles I, in his unwavering belief that he stood for constitutional and social stability, and the right of the people to enjoy the benefits of that stability, fatally weakened his position by failing to negotiate a compromise with Parliament and paid the price.
Charles I (of England) - MSN Encarta (940 words)
Charles I (of England) (1600-1649), king of England, Scotland, and Ireland (1625-1649), who was deposed and executed during the English Revolution.
Charles was unable to quell the revolt, and in 1640 he convoked the so-called Short Parliament to raise an army and necessary funds.
Soon after, Charles was implicated in a plot to murder the leaders of the Covenanters, a Scottish group devoted to maintaining Presbyterianism.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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