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Encyclopedia > Charles I, Duke of Burgundy
Rogier van der Weyden painted Charles the Bold in about 1460, wearing the Order of the Golden Fleece.
Rogier van der Weyden painted Charles the Bold in about 1460, wearing the Order of the Golden Fleece.

Charles, called the Bold or the Rash (French: Charles le Téméraire) (November 10, 1433January 5, 1477) was Duke of Burgundy from 1467 to 1477. He was known as Charles the Terrible to his detractors. He was the last Valois Duke of Burgundy and his early death was a pivotal, if under-recognised, moment in European history. After his death, his domains began an inevitable slide towards division between France and the Habsburgs (who through marriage to his heiress Mary became his heirs). Neither side was satisfied with the results and the disintegration of the Burgundian state was a factor in most major wars for over two centuries. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (900x1356, 354 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Charles I, Duke of Burgundy Jacques, Duke of Savoy Portal:Belgium/Anniversaries/January Portal:Belgium/Anniversaries/November Portal... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (900x1356, 354 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Charles I, Duke of Burgundy Jacques, Duke of Savoy Portal:Belgium/Anniversaries/January Portal:Belgium/Anniversaries/November Portal... Deposition by Roger van der Weyden (c. ... Ferdinand I Philip III, Duke of Burgundy, with the collar of the Order The Order of the Golden Fleece (Spanish: Orden del Toisón de Oro) is an order of chivalry founded in 1430 by Duke Philip III of Burgundy to celebrate his marriage to the Portuguese princess Isabelle of... November 10 is the 314th day of the year (315th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 51 days remaining. ... Events Births June 23 - Francis II, Duke of Brittany Kettil Karlsson Vasa, later Regent of Sweden. ... January 5 is the 5th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 5 - Battle of Nancy - Charles the Bold of Burgundy is again defeated, and this time is killed. ... The Duchy of Burgundy, today Bourgogne, has its origin in the small portion of traditional lands of Burgundians west of river Saône which in 843 was allotted to Charles the Balds kingdom of West Franks. ... Events October 29 - Battle of Brusthem: Charles the Bold defeats Liege Beginning of the Sengoku Period in Japan. ... Events January 5 - Battle of Nancy - Charles the Bold of Burgundy is again defeated, and this time is killed. ... Coat of arms of the 2nd duchy of Burgundy and later of the French province of Burgundy Burgundy (French: Bourgogne) is a historic region of France, inhabited in turn by Celts (Gauls), Romans (Gallo-Romans), and various Germanic peoples , most importantly the Burgundians and the Franks. ...

Contents

Early life and Family

He was born in Dijon, the son of Philip the Good and Isabella of Portugal, Duchess of Burgundy. In his father's lifetime (1433-1467) he bore the title of Count of Charolais; afterwards, he assumed all of his father's titles, including that of "Grand Duke of the West". He was also created a Knight of the Golden Fleece but twenty days after his birth, being invested by Charles I, Count of Nevers and the seigneur de Croÿ. Street in the center of Dijon Arc de triomphe known as the Porte Guillaume, on Place Darcy in the center of Dijon Dijon and suburbs Cathédrale St Bénigne - Dijon Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Dijon Dijon ( ) is a city in eastern France, the préfecture (administrative capital... Philip III, Duke of Burgundy (Philip the Good or Philippe le Bon) (1396–1467) was Duke of Burgundy from 1419 until his death. ... Isabella of Portugal, by Rogier van der Weyden. ... Events Births June 23 - Francis II, Duke of Brittany Kettil Karlsson Vasa, later Regent of Sweden. ... Charolais is an area of France, named after the town of Charolles, and located in todays Saône-et-Loire département, in Burgundy. ... The Order of the Golden Fleece (Ordre de la Toison dOr in French) is an order of chivalry founded in 1430 by Duke Philip III of Burgundy to celebrate his marriage to the Portuguese princess Isabelle of Aviz It was modelled on the English Order of the Garter (Philip... Charles I, Count of Nevers (1414 – May 25, 1464), Count of Nevers and Rethel, was the son of Philip II, Count of Nevers and Bonne dArtois. ... Arms of Philippe I de Croÿ, detail of Rogiers diptych (ca. ...

Charles as a boy stands next to his father. Rogier van der Weyden 1447-8
Charles as a boy stands next to his father. Rogier van der Weyden 1447-8

He was brought up under the direction of the Seigneur d'Auxy, and early showed great application to study and also to warlike exercises. His father's court was the most extravagant in Europe at the time, and a center for arts and commerce. While he was growing up, Charles witnessed his father's efforts to unite his increasing dominions in a single state, and his own later efforts centered on continuing and securing his father's successes. Image File history File links Van_der_weyden_miniature. ... Image File history File links Van_der_weyden_miniature. ... Deposition by Roger van der Weyden (c. ...


In 1440, at the age of seven, Charles was married to Catherine, daughter of Charles VII, the King of France, and sister of the Dauphin (afterwards Louis XI). She was only five years older than her husband, and she died in 1446 at the age of 18. They had no children. Charles VII the Victorious, a. ... Coat of Arms of the Dauphins of France. ... Louis XI the Prudent (French: Louis XI le Prudent) (July 3, 1423 – August 30, 1483), also informally nicknamed luniverselle aragne (old French for universal spider), or the Spider King, was King of France (1461–1483). ...


In 1454, at the age of 21, having been a widower for six years, Charles married a second time. He wanted to marry a daughter of his cousin, the Duke of York (sister of Kings Edward IV and Richard III of England), but under the Treaty of Arras (1435), he was required to marry only a royal princess of France. His father chose Isabella of Bourbon for him: she was the daughter of Philip the Good's sister, and a very distant cousin of Charles VII of France. Their daughter, Mary, was Charles's only surviving child, and became heiress to all of the Burgundian domains. Isabella died in 1465. Richard, Duke of York (21 September 1411 – 30 December 1460) was a member of the English royal family, who served in senior positions in France at the end of the Hundred Years War, and in England during Henry VIs madness. ... Edward IV (April 28, 1442 – April 9, 1483) was King of England from March 4, 1461 to April 9, 1483, with a break of a few months in the period 1470–1471. ... Richard III (2 October 1452 – 22 August 1485) was King of England from 1483 until his death. ... There have been several treaties of Arras: the Treaty of Arras (1435) between Charles VII of France and Philip the Good of Burgundy. ... Isabelle de Bourbon ( 1436 - 1465) was a daughter of Charles I, Duke of Bourbon, and Agnes de Bourgogne. ... Mary of Burgundy Mary (February 13, 1457 – March 27, 1482), duchess of Burgundy, was the only child of Charles the Bold, Duke of Burgundy, and his wife Isabella of Bourbon. ...


Charles was on familiar terms with his brother-in-law, the Dauphin, when the latter was a refugee at the Court of Burgundy from 1456 until Louis succeeded his father as King of France in in 1461. But Louis began to pursue some of the same policies as his father; Charles viewed with chagrin Louis's later repurchase of the towns on the Somme, which Louis's father had ceded in 1435 to Charles's father in the Treaty of Arras. When his own father's failing health enabled him to take into his hands the reins of government (which Philip relinquished to him completely by an act of April 12, 1465), he entered upon his lifelong struggle against Louis XI, and became one of the principal leaders of the League of the Public Weal. Coat of Arms of the Dauphins of France. ... Coat of arms of the 2nd duchy of Burgundy and later of the French province of Burgundy Burgundy (French: Bourgogne) is a historic region of France, inhabited in turn by Celts (Gauls), Romans (Gallo-Romans), and various Germanic peoples , most importantly the Burgundians and the Franks. ... Somme river The Somme River (French Rivière Somme) is a river in Picardy, northern France. ... The Treaty of Arras was fought over the Utopian Princess by the countries of Gama and Dama. ... April 12 is the 102nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (103rd in leap years). ... Events July 13 - Battle of Montlhéry Troops of King Louis XI of France fight inconclusively against an army of the great nobles organized as the League of the Public Weal. ... The Burgundy Wars were a conflict between the House of Habsburg and the Valois Dynasty, in which the Old Swiss Confederacy got involved and would play a decisive role. ... The League of the Public Weal was an alliance of feudal nobles organized in defiance of the centralized authority of the French King, Louis XI, by his brother, the duke of Berry, and Charles the Bold of Burgundy. ...


For his third wife, Charles was offered the hand of Louis XI's daughter, Anne; however, the wife he ultimately chose was Margaret of York (who was his second cousin, they both being descended from John of Gaunt). With his father gone, and being no longer bound by the Treaty of Arras, Charles decided to ally himself with Burgundy's old ally against France. Louis did his best to prevent or delay the marriage (even sending French ships to waylay Margaret as she sailed to Sluys), but in the summer of 1468 it was celebrated sumptuously at Bruges. They had no children, but Margaret devoted herself to her stepdaughter Mary; and after Mary's untimely death many years later, she kept Mary's two infant children as long as she was allowed. Margaret survived her husband, and was the only one of his wives to be Duchess of Burgundy, the first two wives having died while Philip, Duke of Burgundy, was still alive, and thus being known as Countesses of Charolais. Anne de France aka Anne de Beaujeu (April 1461 in Genappe - 14 November 1522 in Saint-Vincent-de-Salers, was a Princess and Regent of Kingdom of France. ... Margaret of York (May 3, 1446 - November 23, 1503) - also by marriage known as Margaret of Burgundy- was a daughter to Richard Plantagenet, 3rd Duke of York and Cecily Neville, a sister of Kings Edward IV of England and Richard III of England, third wife to Charles the Bold, Duke... John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster (June 24, 1340 - February 3, 1399), the third surviving son of King Edward III of England, gained his name because he was born at Ghent in 1340. ... For other uses, see Bruges (disambiguation). ...


Early battles

On April 12, 1465, Philip relinquished government to Charles, who spent the next summer prosecuting the Burgundian Wars against Louis XI. Charles was left master of the field at the Battle of Montlhéry (July 13, 1465), where he was wounded, but this neither prevented the King from re-entering Paris nor assured Charles a decisive victory. He succeeded, however, in forcing upon Louis the Treaty of Conflans (4 October 1465), by which the King restored to him the towns on the Somme, the counties of Boulogne and Guines, and various other small territories. During the negotiations for the Treaty, his wife Isabella died suddenly at Les Quesnoy on 25 September, making a political marriage suddenly possible. As part of the treaty Louis promised him the hand of his infant daughter Anne, with Champagne and Ponthieu as dowry, but no marriage took place. April 12 is the 102nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (103rd in leap years). ... Events July 13 - Battle of Montlhéry Troops of King Louis XI of France fight inconclusively against an army of the great nobles organized as the League of the Public Weal. ... The Burgundy Wars were a conflict between the House of Habsburg and the Valois Dynasty, in which the Old Swiss Confederacy got involved and would play a decisive role. ... July 13 is the 194th day (195th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 171 days remaining. ... Events July 13 - Battle of Montlhéry Troops of King Louis XI of France fight inconclusively against an army of the great nobles organized as the League of the Public Weal. ... The Eiffel Tower has become the symbol of Paris throughout the world. ... The Treaty of Conflans (or the Peace of Conflans) was signed on October 1465 between King Louis XI of France and Count Charles of Charolais. ... Events July 13 - Battle of Montlhéry Troops of King Louis XI of France fight inconclusively against an army of the great nobles organized as the League of the Public Weal. ... Somme is a French département, named after the Somme River, located in the north of France. ... Champagne is often consumed as part of a celebration Champagne is a sparkling wine produced by inducing the in-bottle secondary fermentation of wine to effect carbonation. ... Ponthieu is a former province of northern France. ... A dowry (also known as trousseau) is a gift of money or valuables given by the brides family to the grooms at the time of their marriage. ...


In the meanwhile, Charles obtained the surrender of Ponthieu. The revolt of Liège against his father and his brother in law, Louis of Bourbon, the Prince-Bishop of Liège, and a desire to punish the town of Dinant, intervened to divert his attention from the affairs of France. During the previous summer's wars, Dinant had celebrated a false rumour that Charles had been defeated at Montlheury by burning him in effigy, and chanting that he was the bastard of Duchess Isabel and John of Heinsburg, the previous Bishop of Liege (d.1455). On 25 August 1466, Charles marched into Dinant, determined to avenge this slur on the honour of his mother, and sacked the city, killing every man, woman and child within; perhaps not surprisingly, he also successfully negotiated at the same time with the Bishopric of Liège. After the death of his father, Philip the Good (June 15, 1467), the Bishopric of Liège renewed hostilities, but Charles defeated them at Sint-Truiden, and made a victorious entry into Liège, whose walls he dismantled and deprived the city of some of its privileges. Ponthieu is a former province of northern France. ... The city of Liège (Dutch: Luik, German: Lüttich) on the Meuse River is a municipality located in the Belgian province of Liège, of which it is the capital. ... The tower of Notre-Dame, seen from the citadel Dinant is a municipality located on the River Meuse in the Belgian province of Namur, Wallonia. ... August 25 is the 237th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (238th in leap years), with 128 days remaining. ... Events Chimú Empire conquered by troops of the Inca End of term for Regent of Sweden Jöns Bengtsson Oxenstierna. ... The Bishopric of Liège or Prince-Bishopric of Liège was a state of the Lower Rhenish-Westphalian Circle of the Holy Roman Empire in present Belgium. ... June 15 is the 166th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (167th in leap years), with 199 days remaining. ... Events October 29 - Battle of Brusthem: Charles the Bold defeats Liege Beginning of the Sengoku Period in Japan. ... Sint-Truiden (also Saint-Trond) is a municipality located in the Belgian province of Limburg, near the town of Hasselt and Tongeren (Tongres). ...


Treaty of Péronne

Alarmed by these early successes of the new Duke of Burgundy, and anxious to settle various questions relating to the execution of the treaty of Conflans, Louis requested a meeting with Charles and daringly placed himself in his hands at Péronne. In the course of the negotiations the Duke was informed of a fresh revolt of the Bishopric of Liège secretly fomented by Louis. After deliberating for four days how to deal with his adversary, who had thus maladroitly placed himself at his mercy, Charles decided to respect the parole he had given and to negotiate with Louis (October 1468), at the same time forcing him to assist in quelling the revolt. The town was carried by assault and the inhabitants were massacred, Louis not intervening on behalf of his former allies. The Treaty of Péronne was signed at Péronne on October 14, 1468 between Duke Charles I of Burgundy and Louis XI of France. ... Péronne is the name or part of the name of several communes in France: Péronne, in the Saône-et-Loire département Péronne, in the Somme département Péronne-en-Mélantois, in the Nord département This is a disambiguation page — a list of... The Bishopric of Liège or Prince-Bishopric of Liège was a state of the Lower Rhenish-Westphalian Circle of the Holy Roman Empire in present Belgium. ... Events Baeda Maryam succeeds his father Zara Yaqob as Emperor of Ethiopia Births February 29 - Pope Paul III (died 1549) Juan del Encina, Spanish poet, dramatist and composer Charles I of Savoy John, Elector of Saxony (died 1532) Juan de Zumárraga, Spanish Franciscan prelate and first bishop of Mexico...


At the expiry of the one year's truce which followed the Treaty of Péronne, the King accused Charles of treason, cited him to appear before the parlement, and seized some of the towns on the Somme (1471). The Duke retaliated by invading France with a large army, taking possession of Nesle and massacring its inhabitants. He failed, however, in an attack on Beauvais, and had to content himself with ravaging the country as far as Rouen, eventually retiring without having attained any useful result. The Treaty of Péronne was signed at Péronne on October 14, 1468 between Duke Charles I of Burgundy and Louis XI of France. ... Traitor redirects here. ... Parlements (pronounced in French) in ancien régime France — contrary to what their name would suggest to the modern reader — were not democratic or political institutions, but law courts . ... This article is about the year 1471, not the BT caller ID service accessible by dialling 1-4-7-1. ... Nesle is a commune of the Somme département, in northern France. ... Beauvais is a town and commune of northern France, préfecture (capital) of the Oise département. ... Rouen Cathedral The entrance to Rouen Cathedral Abbey church of Saint-Ouen, (chevet) in Rouen Rouen, medieval house Rouen (pronounced in French, sometimes also ) is the historical capital city of Normandy, in northwestern France on the River Seine, and presently the capital of the Haute-Normandie (Upper Normandy) région. ...


Domestic policies

Other matters, moreover, engaged his attention. Relinquishing, if not the stately magnificence, at least some of the extravagance which had characterized the court of Burgundy under his father, he had bent all his efforts towards the development of his military and political power. Since the beginning of his reign he had employed himself in reorganizing his army and the administration of his territories. While retaining the principles of feudal recruiting, he had endeavoured to establish a system of rigid discipline among his troops, which he had strengthened by taking into his pay foreign mercenaries, particularly Englishmen and Italians, and by developing his artillery. Motto: (French for God and my right) Anthem: God Save the King/Queen Capital London Largest city London Official language(s) English (de facto) Unification    - by Athelstan AD 927  Area    - Total 130,395 km² (1st in UK)   50,346 sq mi  Population    - 2005 est. ... Historically, artillery (from French artillerie) refers to any engine used for the discharge of projectiles during war. ...


Building a kingdom

Furthermore, he had lost no opportunity of extending his power. In 1469, the Archduke of Austria, Sigismund, had sold him the county of Ferrette, the Landgraviate of Alsace, and some other towns, reserving to himself the right to repurchase. Events July 26 - Battle of Edgecote Moor October 17 - Prince Ferdinand of Aragon wed princess Isabella of Castile. ... Look up Archduke in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... An engraving by W. Killian, 1623 Sigismund of Austria (October 26, 1427 in Innsbruck – March 4, 1496 ibid) was a Habsburg archduke of Austria and regent of Tirol from 1446 to 1490. ... Location Administration Capital Strasbourg Regional President Adrien Zeller (UMP) (since 1996) Départements Bas-Rhin Haut-Rhin Arrondissements 13 Cantons 75 Communes 903 Statistics Land area1 8,280 km² Population (Ranked 14th)  - January 1, 2005 est. ...


In October 1470, his brother in law, Edward IV of England, the King of England, and many Yorkist followers, took refuge in the Burgundian Court while the deposed Henry VI was placed back on the throne in the Readeption of Henry VI. The following March, with Burgundian support, Edward landed back in England and by May had reclaimed the crown. The text below is generated by a template, which has been proposed for deletion. ... The House of York was a dynasty of English kings. ... Henry VI (December 6, 1421 – May 21, 1471) was King of England from 1422 to 1461 (though with a Regent until 1437) and then from 1470 to 1471, and King of France from 1422 to 1453. ... The Readeption is the technical term given to the restoration of Henry VI to the throne of England. ...


In 1472-1473, Charles bought the reversion of the Duchy of Guelders (ie the right to succeed to it) from its old Duke, Arnold, whom he had supported against the rebellion of his son. Not content with being "the Grand Duke of the West," he conceived the project of forming a kingdom of Burgundy or Aries with himself as independent sovereign, and even persuaded the Emperor Frederick to assent to crown him king at Trier. The ceremony, however, did not take place owing to the Emperor's precipitate flight by night (September 1473), occasioned by his displeasure at the Duke's attitude. February 20 - Orkney and Shetland are returned by Norway to Scotland, due to a defaulted dowry payment Possible discovery of Bacalao (possibly Newfoundland, North America) by João Vaz Corte-Real. ... Events Ottoman sultan Mehmed II defeats the White Sheep Turkmens lead by Uzun Hasan at Otlukbeli Axayacatl, Aztec ruler of Tenochtitlan invades the territory of neighboring Aztec city of Tlatelolco. ... For the present province also called Guelders in English, see Gelderland. ... Arnold of Egmond (1410 – 1473) Duke of Guelders, Count of Zuetphen. ... Detail of Aeneas Piccolomini Introduces Eleonora of Portugal to Frederick III by Pinturicchio (1454-1513) Frederick III of Habsburg (Innsbruck, September 21, 1415 – August 19, 1493 in Linz) was elected as German King as the successor of Albert II in 1440. ... The city of Trier (Latin: Augusta Treverorum; French: ; Luxembourgish Tréier; Italian: ; Spanish: ) is situated on the western bank of the Moselle River in a valley between low vine-covered hills of ruddy sandstone. ...


Downfall

Charles the Bold, a much later portrait by Peter Paul Rubens.
Charles the Bold, a much later portrait by Peter Paul Rubens.

In the following year Charles involved himself in a series of difficulties and struggles which ultimately brought about his downfall. He embroiled himself successively with the Archduke Sigismund of Austria, to whom he refused to restore his possessions in Alsace for the stipulated sum; with the Swiss, who supported the free towns of Upper Rhine in their revolt against the tyranny of the ducal governor, Peter von Hagenbach (who was condemned by a special international tribunal and executed in May 1474); and finally, with René II, Duke of Lorraine, with whom he disputed the succession of Lorraine, the possession of which had united the two principal portions of Charles's territories— Flanders and the Low Countries and the Duchy and County of Burgundy. All these enemies, incited and supported as they were by Louis, were not long in joining forces against their common adversary. Download high resolution version (1544x1804, 667 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1544x1804, 667 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Rubens and Isabella Brant in the Honeysuckle Bower Alte Pinakothek Peter Paul Rubens (June 28, 1577 – May 30, 1640) was the most popular and prolific Flemish and European painter of the 17th century. ... An engraving by W. Killian, 1623 Sigismund of Austria (October 26, 1427 in Innsbruck – March 4, 1496 ibid) was a Habsburg archduke of Austria and regent of Tirol from 1446 to 1490. ... The Burgundy Wars were a conflict between the House of Habsburg and the Valois Dynasty, in which the Old Swiss Confederacy got involved and would play a decisive role. ... Events December 12 - Upon the death of Henry IV of Castile a civil war ensues between his designated successor Isabella I of Castile and her sister Juana who was supported by her husband, Alfonso V of Portugal. ... René II (Angers, May 2, 1451 – December 10, 1508, Fains) was Count of Vaudémont from 1470, Duke of Lorraine from 1473, and Duke of Bar from 1483 to 1508. ... The Duchy of Lorraine or Duchy of Lotharingia was an independent duchy from around 925 to its partition in 959. ... Flanders (Dutch: ) has several main meanings: the social, cultural and linguistical, scientific and educational, economical and political community of the Flemings; some prefer to call this the Flemish community (others refer to this as the Flemish nation) which is, with over 6 million inhabitants, the majority of all Belgians; a... The Low Countries, the historical region of de Nederlanden, are the countries (see Country) on low-lying land around the delta of the Rhine, Scheldt, and Meuse (Maas) rivers. ... The County of Burgundy was a medieval county, within the traditional province and modern French region Franche-Comté, whose very name is reminiscent of the unusual title of its count : Freigraf (free count, or franc comte in french, hence the term franc(he) comté for his feudal principiality). ...


Charles suffered a first rebuff in endeavouring to protect his kinsman, the Archbishop of Cologne, against his rebel subjects. He spent ten months (July 1474 – June 1475) in besieging the little town of Neuss on the Rhine (the Siege of Neuss), but was compelled by the approach of a powerful imperial army to raise the siege. Moreover, the expedition he had persuaded his brother-in-law, Edward IV of England, to undertake against Louis was stopped by the Treaty of Picquigny (August 29, 1475). He was more successful in Lorraine, where he seized Nancy (November 30, 1475). The Archbishopric of Cologne was one of the major ecclesiastical principalities of the Holy Roman Empire. ... In 1509 Balboa tried to join a Spanish expedition but could not because he owed so many debts January 10—Stephen III of Moldavia defeats the Ottoman Empire at the Battle of Vaslui. ... Neuss is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. ... Loreley At 1,320 kilometres (820 miles) and an average discharge of more than 2,000 cubic meters per second, the Rhine (Dutch Rijn, French Rhin, German Rhein, Italian: Reno, Romansch: Rein, ) is one of the longest and most important rivers in Europe. ... The Siege of Neuss, from 1473–1474, was part of the Burgundy Wars. ... Edward IV (April 28, 1442 – April 9, 1483) was King of England from March 4, 1461 to April 9, 1483, with a break of a few months in the period 1470–1471. ... The Treaty of Picquigny was negotiated in 1475 between England and France. ... August 29 is the 241st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (242nd in leap years), with 124 days remaining. ... In 1509 Balboa tried to join a Spanish expedition but could not because he owed so many debts January 10—Stephen III of Moldavia defeats the Ottoman Empire at the Battle of Vaslui. ... Location within France Nancy (pronounced in French) (German: Nanzig) is a city and commune which is the préfecture (capital) of the Meurthe-et-Moselle département, in the Lorraine région of northeastern France. ... November 30 is the 334th day (335th on leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 31 days remaining. ...


From Nancy he marched against the Swiss, hanging and drowning the garrison of Grandson, a possession of the Savoyard Jacques de Romont, a close ally of Charles, which the Confederates had invested shortly before, and in spite of their capitulation. Some days later, however, he was attacked before Grandson by the confederate army in the Battle of Grandson and suffered a shameful defeat, being compelled to fly with a handful of attendants, and leaving his artillery and an immense booty in the hands of the allies (March 1476). Grandson is a municipality in the canton of Vaud, Switzerland, seat of the district of the same name. ... The Battle of Grandson, took place on 2 March 1476, was part of the Burgundian Wars (Burgundy Wars), and resulted in a major defeat for Charles the Bold, Duke of Burgundy. ... Events March 2 - Battle of Grandson. ...


He succeeded in raising a fresh army of 30,000 men, with which he attacked Morat, but he was again defeated by the Swiss army, assisted by the cavalry of René II, Duke of Lorraine (June 22, 1476). On this occasion, and unlike the debacle at Grandson, little booty was lost, but Charles certainly lost about one third of his entire army, the unfortunate losers being pushed into the nearby lake where they were drowned or shot at whilst trying to swim to safety on the opposite shore. On October 6 Charles lost Nancy, which René re-entered. Combatants Duchy of Burgundy Swiss Confederation Commanders Duke Charles, René II, Duke of Lorraine, Jacques, Duke of Savoy Hans von Hallwyl, Hans Waldmann, Adrian von Bubenberg Strength c. ... René II (Angers, May 2, 1451 – December 10, 1508, Fains) was Count of Vaudémont from 1470, Duke of Lorraine from 1473, and Duke of Bar from 1483 to 1508. ... June 22 is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 192 days remaining. ... Events March 2 - Battle of Grandson. ... October 6 is the 279th day of the year (280th in leap years). ...


Death at Nancy

Depiction of finding his body after the Battle of Nancy.
Depiction of finding his body after the Battle of Nancy.

Making a last effort, Charles formed a new army and arrived in the depth of winter before the walls of Nancy. Having lost many of his troops through the severe cold, it was with only a few thousand men that he met the joint forces of the Lorrainers and the Swiss, who had come to the relief of the town, at the Battle of Nancy (January 5, 1477). He himself perished in the fight, his naked body being discovered some days afterwards, the face so mutilated by wild animals that only his physician was able to identify him by old scars on his body. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2292x1695, 1150 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Charles I, Duke of Burgundy Battle of Nancy Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2292x1695, 1150 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Charles I, Duke of Burgundy Battle of Nancy Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the... Despite the disasters of 1476 Charles the Bold, [[Duke of Burgundy]], remained confident that 1477 would bring an upturn in the fortunes of his beloved Burgundy. ... January 5 is the 5th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 5 - Battle of Nancy - Charles the Bold of Burgundy is again defeated, and this time is killed. ...


Legacy

Charles left his unmarried nineteen year-old daughter as his heir; clearly her marriage would have enormous implications for the political balance of Europe. Both Louis and the Emperor had unmarried eldest sons; Charles had made some movements towards arranging a marriage between the Emperor's son, Maximilian, before his own death. Louis unwisely concentrated on seizing militarily the border territories, in particular the Duchy of Burgundy (a French fief). This naturally made negotiations for a marriage difficult. He later admitted to his councillor Comminges that this was his greatest mistake. In the meantime the Hapsburg Emperor moved faster and more purposefully and secured the match for his son, the future Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor, with the aid of Mary's step-mother, Margaret. Portrait by Albrecht Dürer, 1519 (Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna). ...


Charles the Bold has often been regarded as the last representative of the feudal spirit—a man who possessed no other quality than a blind bravery.


Marriages and Children

References

Encyclopædia Britannica, the 11th edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ... The Catholic Encyclopedia, also referred to today as the Old Catholic Encyclopedia, is an English-language encyclopedia published in 1913 by The Encyclopedia Press. ... Charles the Bold Charles, called the Bold (French: Charles le Téméraire) (November 10, 1433 – January 5, 1477) was Duke of Burgundy from 1467 to 1477. ...

See also

Coat of arms of the 2nd duchy of Burgundy and later of the French province of Burgundy Burgundy (French: Bourgogne) is a historic region of France, inhabited in turn by Celts (Gauls), Romans (Gallo-Romans), and various Germanic peoples , most importantly the Burgundians and the Franks. ... In the history of the Low Countries, the Burgundian Netherlands refers to the period when the dukes of Burgundy ruled the area, as well as Luxembourg and northern France from 1384 to 1477. ... The Burgundy Wars were a conflict between the House of Habsburg and the Valois Dynasty, in which the Old Swiss Confederacy got involved and would play a decisive role. ... Jacques, Duke of Savoy Jacques of Savoy (November 12, 1450 - January 30, 1486), was Count of Romont and Lord of Vaud Son of Louis, Duke of Savoy and Anne de Lusignan. ... This is a family tree of the Dukes of Burgundy, from the 9th century to 1482. ...

External links

Wikisource has an original article from the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica about:
Burgundy
Preceded by
Philip the Good
Duke of Burgundy, Brabant, Limburg, Lothier, and Luxembourg
Margrave of Namur
Count of Artois, Franche-Comte, Flanders, Hainaut, Holland, and Zeeland

1467–1477
Succeeded by
Mary of Burgundy
Preceded by
Arnold of Egmond
Duke of Guelders
Count of Zutphen

1473–1477


 
 

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