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Encyclopedia > Charles Dickens
Charles Dickens

Charles Dickens is acclaimed as one of history's greatest novelists
Born 7 February 1812(1812-02-07)
Portsmouth, England
Died 9 June 1870 (aged 58)
Gad's Hill Place, Higham, Kent, England
Occupation Novelist
Influences Honoré de Balzac, Miguel de Cervantes, Victor Hugo, William Shakespeare
Influenced T. Coraghessan Boyle, Fyodor Dostoevsky, George Gissing, Thomas Hardy, John Irving, Edgar Allan Poe, Tom Wolfe, G.K. Chesterton, George Orwell, Ray Bradbury

Charles John Huffam Dickens, FRSA (IPA: /ˈtʃɑrlz ˈdɪkɪnz/; 7 February 18129 June 1870), pen-name "Boz", was the foremost English novelist of the Victorian era, as well as a vigorous social campaigner. Considered one of the English language's greatest writers, he was acclaimed for his rich storytelling and memorable characters, and achieved massive worldwide popularity in his lifetime. Image File history File linksMetadata Charles_Dickens_3. ... is the 38th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the overture by Tchaikovsky, see 1812 Overture; For the wars, see War of 1812 (USA - United Kingdom) or Patriotic War of 1812 (France - Russia) For the Siberia Airlines plane crashed over the Black Sea on October 4, 2001, see Siberia Airlines Flight 1812 1812 was a leap year starting... For other places with the same name, see Portsmouth (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... June 9 is the 160th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (161st in leap years), with 205 days remaining. ... 1870 (MDCCCLXX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Gads Hill Place at Higham, Kent was the house where Charles Dickens lived after making his fortune as the most successful British author of his generation. ... Higham is a small village bordering the Hoo Peninsula, in Kent, between Gravesend and Rochester. ... This article is about work. ... Balzac redirects here. ... Cervantes redirects here. ... Victor-Marie Hugo (IPA: (26 February 1802 — 22 May 1885) was a French poet, playwright, novelist, essayist, visual artist, statesman, human rights campaigner, and perhaps the most influential exponent of the Romantic movement in France. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... T. Coraghessan Boyle (also known as T.C. Boyle, born Thomas John Boyle on December 2, 1948) is a U.S. novelist and short story writer. ... Fyodor Mikhailovich Dostoevsky (Russian: Фёдор Миха́йлович Достое́вский, IPA: , sometimes transliterated Dostoyevsky, Dostoievsky, or Dostoevski  ) (November 11 [O.S. October 30] 1821–February 9 [O.S. January 28] 1881) was a Russian novelist and writer of fiction whose works, including Crime and Punishment and The Brothers Karamazov, have had a profound and lasting effect... George Gissing (November 22, 1857 – December 28, 1903) was a British novelist. ... Thomas Hardy redirects here. ... John Winslow Irving (born March 2, 1942 as John Wallace Blunt, Jr. ... Edgar Allan Poe (January 19, 1809 – October 7, 1849) was an American poet, short story writer, playwright, editor, literary critic, essayist and one of the leaders of the American Romantic Movement. ... Tom Wolfe gives a speech at the White House. ... For the town of Chesterton in Cambridgeshire, see Chesterton (Cambridge). ... Eric Arthur Blair (25 June 1903 [1] [2] – 21 January 1950), better known by the pen name George Orwell, was an English author and journalist. ... Ray Douglas Bradbury (born August 22, 1920) is an American literary, fantasy, horror, science fiction, and mystery writer best known for The Martian Chronicles, a 1950 book which has been described both as a short story collection and a novel, and his 1953 dystopian novel Fahrenheit 451, is widely considered... There are several people called Dickens: Charles Dickens (1812-1870), cherished English novelist, whom many regard as the most important of the Victorian era. ... The Royal Society for the encouragement of Arts, Manufactures and Commerce (RSA) is a British multi-disciplinary institution, based in London. ... is the 38th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the overture by Tchaikovsky, see 1812 Overture; For the wars, see War of 1812 (USA - United Kingdom) or Patriotic War of 1812 (France - Russia) For the Siberia Airlines plane crashed over the Black Sea on October 4, 2001, see Siberia Airlines Flight 1812 1812 was a leap year starting... June 9 is the 160th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (161st in leap years), with 205 days remaining. ... 1870 (MDCCCLXX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... A pen name, nom de plume, or nom de guerre, is a pseudonym adopted by an author for various reasons. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... A novel is an extended work of written, narrative, prose fiction, usually in story form; the writer of a novel is a novelist. ... Queen Victoria (shown here on the morning of her ascension to the Throne, 20 June 1837) gave her name to the historic era The Victorian era of the United Kingdom marked the height of the British Industrial Revolution and the apex of the British Empire. ...


Later critics, beginning with George Gissing and G. K. Chesterton, championed his mastery of prose, his endless invention of memorable characters and his powerful social sensibilities, but fellow writers such as George Henry Lewes, Henry James and Virginia Woolf fault his work for sentimentality, implausible occurrence and grotesque characters.[1] George Gissing (November 22, 1857 – December 28, 1903) was a British novelist. ... Gilbert Keith Chesterton (May 29, 1874–June 14, 1936) was an influential English writer of the early 20th century. ... George Henry Lewes (April 18, 1817 – November 28, 1878) was a British philosopher and literary critic. ... For other uses of this name, see Henry James (disambiguation). ... For the American writer, see Virginia Euwer Wolff. ... This article is about the word itself. ...


The popularity of Dickens' novels and short stories has meant that not one has ever gone out of print. Dickens wrote serialised novels, the usual format for fiction at the time, and each new part of his stories was eagerly anticipated by the reading public. Out-of-print books may be found at libraries or specialty book stores. ... The term serial refers to the intrinsic property of a series —namely its order. ...

Contents

Life

Early years

Charles Dickens was born in Landport, Portsmouth in Hampshire, the second of eight children to John Dickens (1786–1851), a clerk in the Navy Pay Office at Portsmouth, and his wife Elizabeth Dickens (née Barrow, 1789–1863) on February 7 1812. When he was five, the family moved to Chatham, Kent. In 1822, when he was ten, the family relocated to 16 Bayham Street, Camden Town in London. Landport is a district located near the centre of Portsea Island and is part of the city of Portsmouth. ... For other places with the same name, see Portsmouth (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Hampshire (disambiguation). ... , Chatham (pronounced chat-um ) is a large town that developed around an important naval dockyard on the east bank of the River Medway to the southeast of London in Kent, England. ... For other uses of Camden, see Camden. ...

Ordnance Terrace, Chatham - Dickens' home from 1817 to 1822
Ordnance Terrace, Chatham - Dickens' home from 1817 to 1822

Although his early years seem to have been an idyllic time, he thought himself then as a "very small and not-over-particularly-taken-care-of boy".[2] He spent his time outdoors, reading voraciously with a particular fondness for the picaresque novels of Tobias Smollett and Henry Fielding. He talked later in life of his extremely poignant memories of childhood and his continuing photographic memory of the people and events that helped to bring his fiction to life. His family was moderately wealthy, and he received some education at the private William Giles' school in Chatham. This time of prosperity came to an abrupt end, however, when his father, after spending far too much money entertaining and retaining his social position, was imprisoned at Marshalsea debtors' prison. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The picaresque novel (Spanish: picaresco, from pícaro, for rogue or rascal) is a popular subgenre of prose fiction which is usually satirical and depicts in realistic and often humorous detail the adventures of a roguish hero of low social class who lives by his or her wits in a... Tobias Smollett Tobias George Smollett (March 19, 1721 - September 17, 1771) was a Scottish author, best known for his picaresque novels, such as Roderick Random and Peregrine Pickle. ... Henry Fielding (April 22, 1707 – October 8, 1754) was an English novelist and dramatist known for his rich earthy humor and satirical prowess and as the author of the novel Tom Jones. ... Photographic memory or eidetic memory is the ability to recall images, sounds, or objects in memory with great accuracy and in seemingly unlimited volume. ... The Marshalsea Marshalsea was a debtors prison in Southwark, London best known for being the place where Charles Dickenss father was imprisoned for debt and as the central location in Dickenss book Little Dorrit. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


The 12-year-old Dickens began working ten hour days in a Warren's boot-blacking factory, located near the present Charing Cross railway station. He earned six shillings a week pasting labels on the jars of thick polish. This money paid for his lodgings in Camden Town and helped him to support his family. The shocking conditions of the factory made an ingrained impression on Dickens. is the employment of children under an age determined by law or custom. ... Charing Cross Charing Cross railway station is a central London railway terminus. ... This article is about coinage. ... For other uses of Camden, see Camden. ...


After a few months, his family was able to leave Marshalsea, but their financial situation did not improve until later, partly due to money inherited from his father's family. Dickens's mother did not immediately remove him from the boot-blacking factory, owned by a relation of hers, and he never forgave her for this. Resentment of his situation and the conditions under which working-class people lived became major themes of his works, championing the causes of the poor and oppressed. As Dickens wrote in David Copperfield, his personal favorite as well as his most patently autobiographical novel,[3] "I had no advice, no counsel, no encouragement, no consolation, no assistance, no support, of any kind, from anyone, that I can call to mind, as I hope to go to heaven!" He eventually attended the Wellington House Academy in North London. For David Copperfield the illusionist, see David Copperfield (illusionist). ... North London is that part of London which is north of the River Thames. ...


In May 1827, Dickens began work in the office of Ellis and Blackmore as a law clerk. This was a junior office position, but it came with the potential of helping him up to the Bar. It was here that he gained his detailed knowledge of the law and the poor's suffering at the hands of its many injustices, together with a loathing of inefficient bureaucracy which stayed with him for the rest his life. He showed his contempt for the lawyer's profession in his many literary works. In the United States, Canada and Brazil, a law clerk is a person who provides assistance to a judge in researching issues before the court and in writing opinions. ...


At the age of seventeen, he became a court stenographer and, in 1830, met his first love, Maria Beadnell. It is believed that she was the model for the character Dora in David Copperfield. Maria's parents disapproved of the courtship and effectively ended the relationship when they sent her to school in Paris. Shorthand is a writing method that can be done at speed because an abbreviated or symbolic form of language is used. ... For David Copperfield the illusionist, see David Copperfield (illusionist). ... This article is about the capital of France. ...


Journalism and early novels

A young Charles Dickens
A young Charles Dickens

In 1834, Dickens became a political journalist, reporting on parliamentary debate and traveling across Britain by stagecoach to cover election campaigns for the Morning Chronicle. His journalism, in the form of sketches which appeared in periodicals from 1833, formed his first collection of pieces Sketches by Boz which were published in 1836 and led to the serialization of his first novel, The Pickwick Papers, in March 1836. He continued to contribute to and edit journals throughout much of his subsequent literary career. Dickens's keen perceptiveness, intimate knowledge and understanding of the people and tale-spinning genius was quickly to gain him world renown and wealth. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (900x1486, 756 KB) Scan from 1858 book cyclopedia of Wit and Humor edited by William E. Burton. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (900x1486, 756 KB) Scan from 1858 book cyclopedia of Wit and Humor edited by William E. Burton. ... The Morning Chronicle, a newspaper in London, England, was founded in 1769 and published under various owners until 1862. ... Sketches by Boz is a collection of short pieces published by Charles Dickens in 1836. ... The Posthumous Papers of the Pickwick Club, better known as The Pickwick Papers, is the first novel by Charles Dickens. ...


On 2 April 1836, he married Catherine Thompson Hogarth (1816–1879), the daughter of George Hogarth, editor of the Evening Chronicle. After a brief honeymoon in Chalk, Kent, they set up home in Bloomsbury, where they produced ten children: The Evening Chronicle is a daily, evening newspaper produced in Newcastle upon Tyne, covering Tyne and Wear, southern Northumberland and northern County Durham. ... Chalk is a village lying to east of Gravesend, Kent, and now virtually part of the town area. ... Londons Charles Dickens Museum is in Doughty Street in the district of Bloomsbury. ...

Catherine's sister Mary entered Dickens's Doughty Street household to offer support to her newly married sister and brother-in-law. It was not unusual for the unwedded sister of a new wife to either live with and help a newly married couple. Dickens became very attached to Mary and she died after a brief illness in his arms in 1837. She became a character in many of his books, and her death is fictionalized as the death of Little Nell.[4] Charles Culliford Boz Dickens (born 6 January 1837; died 1896) was the eldest son of the novelist Charles Dickens. ... is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Queen Victoria, Queen of the United Kingdom (1837 - 1901) 1837 (MDCCCXXXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Charles Dickens, Jr, born Charles Culliford Boz Dickens (6 January 1837 – 1896), was the first child of the novelist Charles Dickens (1812–1870). ... All the Year Round was a weekly magazine edited by Charles Dickens which was published between 1859 and 1859. ... Charles Dickens, Jr, born Charles Culliford Boz Dickens (6 January 1837 – 1896), was the first child of the novelist Charles Dickens (1812–1870). ... is the 65th day of the year (66th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... | Jöns Jakob Berzelius, discoverer of protein 1838 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... is the 302nd day of the year (303rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1839 (MDCCCXXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... is the 39th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1841 is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... Francis Jeffrey Dickens Francis Dickens (January 15, 1844 – June 11, 1886) was the third son of Victorian novelist Charles Dickens and his wife Catherine. ... is the 15th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Jan. ... is the 301st day of the year (302nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1845 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... is the 108th day of the year (109th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1847 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... is the 15th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1849 (MDCCCXLIX) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Monica Enid Dickens (May 10, 1915 London - December 25, 1992 Reading, Berkshire) was a British writer, the great-granddaughter of Charles Dickens. ... is the 228th day of the year (229th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the game, see: 1850 (board game) 1850 (MDCCCL) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday [1] of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Edward Bulwer Lytton Dickens (13 March 1852 – 23 January 1902) was an Australian politician and member of the New South Wales Legislative Assembly. ... is the 72nd day of the year (73rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1852 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... is the 23rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1902 (MCMII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... NSW redirects here. ... Moree is a large town in northern New South Wales, Australia. ...


Also in 1836, Dickens accepted the job of editor of Bentley's Miscellany, a position that he would hold until 1839, when he fell out with the owner. His success as a novelist continued, however, producing Oliver Twist (1837-39), Nicholas Nickleby (1838-39), The Old Curiosity Shop and, finally, Barnaby Rudge as part of the Master Humphrey's Clock series (1840-41) -- all published in monthly instalments before being made into books. Dickens had a pet raven named Grip; it died in 1841 and Dickens had it stuffed (it is now at The Free Library of Philadelphia).[1] Bentleys Miscellany was a literary magazine started by Richard Bentley. ... Oliver Twist (1838) is Charles Dickens second novel. ... The Life and Adventures of Nicholas Nickleby, (or Nicholas Nickleby for short) is a comic novel of Charles Dickens. ... The Old Curiosity Shop is a novel by Charles Dickens. ... Barnaby Rudge: A Tale of the Riots of Eighty is a historical novel by the author Charles Dickens. ... Master Humphreys Clock was a weekly periodical edited and written entirely by Charles Dickens from April 4, 1840— December 4, 1841. ... The Free Library of Philadelphia headquarters at Logan Square The Free Library of Philadelphia is the public library system serving Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. ...


In 1842, Dickens travelled with his wife to the United States and Canada, a journey which was successful in spite of his support for the abolition of slavery. The trip is described in the short travelogue American Notes for General Circulation and is also the basis of some of the episodes in Martin Chuzzlewit. Shortly thereafter, he began to show interest in Unitarian Christianity, although he remained an Anglican, at least nominally, for the rest of his life. [2] Dickens's work continued to be popular, especially A Christmas Carol written in 1843, the first of his Christmas books, which was reputedly written in a matter of weeks. Travel literature is literature which records the people, events, sights and feelings of an author who is touring a foreign place for the pleasure of travel. ... American Notes for General Circulation is a travelogue by Charles Dickens detailing his trip to North America in January to June 1842. ... Martin Chuzzlewit is a novel by Charles Dickens, considered the last of his picaresque novels, which was written and serialized in 1843-1844. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Unitarianism is the belief... The term Anglican describes those people and churches following the religious traditions of the Church of England, especially following the Reformation. ... A Christmas Carol in Prose, Being a Ghost Story of Christmas (commonly known as A Christmas Carol ) is what Charles Dickens described as his little Christmas Book and was first published on December 19, 1843 with illustrations by John Leech. ...


After living briefly abroad in Italy (1844) and Switzerland (1846), Dickens continued his success with Dombey and Son (1848); David Copperfield (1849-50); Bleak House (1852-53); Hard Times (1854); Little Dorrit (1857); A Tale of Two Cities (1859); and Great Expectations (1861). Dickens was also the publisher and editor of, and a major contributor to, the journals Household Words (1850–1859) and All the Year Round (1858-1870). Dombey and Son is a novel by the Victorian author Charles Dickens. ... For David Copperfield the illusionist, see David Copperfield (illusionist). ... Bleak House is the ninth novel by Charles Dickens, published in 20 monthly parts between March 1852 and September 1853. ... Hard Times is a novel by Charles Dickens, first published in 1854. ... Little Dorrit is a serial novel by Charles Dickens published originally between 1855 and 1857. ... For other uses, see A Tale of Two Cities (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Great Expectations (disambiguation). ... Front cover of volume XI Household Words was a weekly magazine edited by Charles Dickens which took its name from the line from Shakespeare Familiar in his mouth as household words—Henry V. It was published between 1850 and 1859. ... All the Year Round was a weekly magazine edited by Charles Dickens which was published between 1859 and 1859. ...


Middle years

In 1856, his popularity had allowed him to buy Gad's Hill Place. This large house in Higham, Kent, had a particular meaning to Dickens as he had walked past it as a child and had dreamed of living in it. The area was also the scene of some of the events of Shakespeare's Henry IV, part 1 and this literary connection pleased him. Gads Hill Place at Higham, Kent was the house where Charles Dickens lived after making his fortune as the most successful British author of his generation. ... Higham is a small village bordering the Hoo Peninsula, in Kent, between Gravesend and Rochester. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Title page of the first quarto (1598) Henry IV, Part 1 is a history play by William Shakespeare. ...


In 1857, in preparation for public performances of The Frozen Deep, a play on which he and his protégé Wilkie Collins had collaborated, Dickens hired professional actresses to play the female parts. With one of these, Ellen Ternan, Dickens formed a bond which was to last the rest of his life. The exact nature of their relationship is unclear, as both Dickens and Ternan burned each other's letters, but it was clearly central to Dickens's personal and professional life. On his death, he settled an annuity on her which made her a financially independent woman. Claire Tomalin's book, The Invisible Woman, set out to prove that Ellen Ternan lived with Dickens secretly for the last 13 years of his life, and has subsequently been turned into a play by Simon Gray called Little Nell. The Frozen Deep was a play, originally staged as an amateur theatrical, written by Wilkie Collins along with the substantial guidance of Charles Dickens. ... Wilkie Collins William Wilkie Collins (8 January 1824 – 23 September 1889) was an English novelist, playwright, and writer of short stories. ... Ellen Ternan. ...


When Dickens separated from his wife in 1858, divorce was almost unthinkable, particularly for someone as famous as he was, and so he continued to maintain her in a house for the next 20 years until she died. Although they appeared to be initially happy together, Catherine did not seem to share quite the same boundless energy for life which Dickens had. Nevertheless, her job of looking after their ten children, and the pressure of living with a world-famous novelist and keeping house for him, certainly did not help.


An indication of his marital dissatisfaction was when, in 1855, he went to meet his first love, Maria Beadnell. Maria was by this time married as well, but seemed to have fallen short of Dickens's romantic memory of her.


Rail accident and last years

On 9 June 1865, while returning from France with Ternan, Dickens was involved in the Staplehurst rail crash in which the first seven carriages of the train plunged off a bridge that was being repaired. The only first-class carriage to remain on the track was the one in which Dickens was travelling. Dickens spent some time tending the wounded and the dying before rescuers arrived. Before leaving, he remembered the unfinished manuscript for Our Mutual Friend, and he returned to his carriage to retrieve it. Typically, Dickens later used this experience as material for his short ghost story The Signal-Man in which the central character has a premonition of his own death in a rail crash. He based the story around several previous rail accidents, such as the Clayton Tunnel rail crash of 1861. The Staplehurst rail crash was a railway accident at Staplehurst, Kent, England, remembered for its effects on Charles Dickens. ... Our Mutual Friend (written in the years 1864–65) is the last novel completed by Charles Dickens. ... The Signal-Man is a short story by Charles Dickens, first published as part of the Mugby Junction collection in the 1866 Christmas edition of All the Year Round. ... The Clayton Tunnel rail crash, which took place in 1861, five miles from Brighton on the south coast of England, was the worst accident to occur up to that time on the British railway system. ...

Statue of Dickens in Philadelphia
Statue of Dickens in Philadelphia

Dickens managed to avoid an appearance at the inquiry into the crash, as it would have become known that he was travelling that day with Ellen Ternan and her mother, which could have caused a scandal. Ellen had been Dickens's companion since the breakdown of his marriage, and, as he had met her in 1857, she was most likely the ultimate reason for that breakdown. She continued to be his companion, and likely mistress, until his death. The dimensions of the affair were unknown until the publication of Dickens and Daughter, a book about Dickens's relationship with his daughter Kate, in 1939. Kate Dickens worked with author Gladys Storey on the book prior to her death in 1929, and alleged that Dickens and Ternan had a son who died in infancy, though no contemporary evidence exists. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (600x900, 1197 KB) Dickens Statue in Philadelphia Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Charles Dickens ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (600x900, 1197 KB) Dickens Statue in Philadelphia Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Charles Dickens ...


Dickens, though unharmed, never really recovered from the Staplehurst crash, and his normally prolific writing shrank to completing Our Mutual Friend and starting the unfinished The Mystery of Edwin Drood after a long interval. Much of his time was taken up with public readings from his best-loved novels. Dickens was fascinated by the theatre as an escape from the world, and theatres and theatrical people appear in Nicholas Nickleby. The travelling shows were extremely popular and, after three tours of British Isles, Dickens gave his first public reading in the United States at a New York City theatre on 2 December 1867. Our Mutual Friend (written in the years 1864–65) is the last novel completed by Charles Dickens. ... The Mystery of Edwin Drood is the final novel by Charles Dickens. ... The Life and Adventures of Nicholas Nickleby, (or Nicholas Nickleby for short) is a comic novel of Charles Dickens. ... This article describes the archipelago in north-western Europe. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ...


The effort and passion he put into these readings with individual character voices is also thought to have contributed to his death. When he undertook another English tour of readings (1869–1870), he became ill and five years to the day after the Staplehurst crash, on 9 June 1870, he died at home at Gad's Hill Place after suffering a stroke, after a full, interesting and varied life. He was mourned by all his readers. For other uses, see Stroke (disambiguation). ...


Contrary to his wish to be buried in Rochester Cathedral, he was laid to rest in the Poets' Corner of Westminster Abbey. The inscription on his tomb reads: "He was a sympathiser to the poor, the suffering, and the oppressed; and by his death, one of England's greatest writers is lost to the world." Dickens's will stipulated that no memorial be erected to honour him. The only life-size bronze statue of Dickens, cast in 1891 by Francis Edwin Elwell, is located in Clark Park in the Spruce Hill neighbourhood of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania in the United States. Poets corner Poets Corner is the name traditionally given to a section of the South Transept of Westminster Abbey due to the number of poets, playwrights and writers now buried and commemorated there. ... The Collegiate Church of St Peter, Westminster, which is almost always referred to by its original name of Westminster Abbey, is a mainly Gothic church, on the scale of a cathedral (and indeed often mistaken for one), in Westminster, London, just to the west of the Palace of Westminster. ... Dickens and Little Nell (1890), a statue of Charles Dickens in Clark Park in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Francis Edwin Elwell (also cited as Frank Edwin Elwell) (1858-1922) was an American sculptor. ... Statue of Dickens in Philadelphia Clark Park is a city-owned park in the Spruce Hill section of West Philadelphia. ... Spruce Hill is a neighborhood located in the West Philadelphia section of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. ... Nickname: City of Brotherly Love, Philly, the Quaker City Motto: Philadelphia maneto (Let brotherly love continue) Location in Pennsylvania Coordinates: Country United States State Pennsylvania County Philadelphia Founded October 27, 1682 Incorporated October 25, 1701 Mayor John F. Street (D) Area    - City 369. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ...


Literary style

Dickens's writing style is florid and poetic, with a strong comic touch. His satires of British aristocratic snobbery — he calls one character the "Noble Refrigerator" — are often popular. Comparing orphans to stocks and shares, people to tug boats, or dinner-party guests to furniture are just some of Dickens's acclaimed flights of fancy. Many of his character's names provide the reader with a hint as to the roles played in advancing the storyline, such as Miss Murdstone in the novel David Copperfield, which is clearly a combination of "murder" and stony coldness. His literary style is also a mixture of fantasy and realism.


Characters

Charles Dickens used his rich imagination, sense of humour and detailed memories, particularly of his childhood, to enliven his fiction.

The characters are among the most memorable in English literature; certainly their names are. The likes of Ebenezer Scrooge, Fagin, Mrs Gamp, Charles Darnay, Oliver Twist, Micawber, Abel Magwitch, Samuel Pickwick, Miss Havisham, Wackford Squeers and many others are so well known and can be believed to be living a life outside the novels that their stories have been continued by other authors. Public domain image from http://www. ... Public domain image from http://www. ... Ebenezer Scrooge encounters Ignorance and Want in A Christmas Carol Ebenezer Scrooge is the main character in Charles Dickens 1843 novel, A Christmas Carol. ... An etching by George Cruikshank titled Fagin in the condemned Cell, November 1838. ... Charles Darnay or St. ... Oliver Twist (1838) is Charles Dickens second novel. ... Wilkins Micawber is a fictional character from Charles Dickens novel David Copperfield. ... Magwitch. ... Samuel Pickwick is the hero of Dickenss Pickwick Papers, a character distinguished for his general goodness and his honest simplicity. ... Miss Havisham has sick fancies. ...


Dickens loved the style of 18th century gothic romance, though it had already become a target for parody — Jane Austen's Northanger Abbey being a well known example — and while some of his characters are grotesques, their eccentricities do not usually overshadow the stories. One 'character' most vividly drawn throughout his novels is London itself. From the coaching inns on the outskirts of the city to the lower reaches of the Thames, all aspects of the capital are described over the course of his corpus. The gothic novel is an English literary genre, which can be said to have been born with The Castle of Otranto (1764) by Horace Walpole. ... 1873 engraving of Jane Austen, based on a portrait drawn by her sister Cassandra. ... For films named Northanger Abbey, see Northanger Abbey (1986 film) or Northanger Abbey (2007 TV drama). ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Several places exist with the name Thames, and the word is also used as part of several brand and company names Most famous is the River Thames in England, on which the city of London stands Other Thames Rivers There is a Thames River in Canada There is a Thames...


Episodic writing

As noted above, most of Dickens's major novels were first written in monthly or weekly instalments in journals such as Master Humphrey's Clock and Household Words, later reprinted in book form. These instalments made the stories cheap, accessible and the series of regular cliff-hangers made each new episode widely anticipated. American fans even waited at the docks in New York, shouting out to the crew of an incoming ship, "Is Little Nell dead?" Part of Dickens's great talent was to incorporate this episodic writing style but still end up with a coherent novel at the end. The monthly numbers were illustrated by, amongst others, "Phiz" (a pseudonym for Hablot Browne). Among his best-known works are Great Expectations, David Copperfield, Oliver Twist, A Tale of Two Cities, Bleak House, Nicholas Nickleby, The Pickwick Papers, and A Christmas Carol. Master Humphreys Clock was a weekly periodical edited and written entirely by Charles Dickens from April 4, 1840— December 4, 1841. ... Front cover of volume XI Household Words was a weekly magazine edited by Charles Dickens which took its name from the line from Shakespeare Familiar in his mouth as household words—Henry V. It was published between 1850 and 1859. ... Hablot Knight Browne (June 11, 1815 - July 8, 1882), English artist, famous as Phiz, the illustrator of the best-known books by Charles Dickens, Charles Lever and Harrison Ainsworth in their original editions. ... Hablot Knight Browne (June 11, 1815 - July 8, 1882), English artist, famous as Phiz, the illustrator of the best-known books by Charles Dickens, Charles Lever and Harrison Ainsworth in their original editions. ... For other uses, see Great Expectations (disambiguation). ... For David Copperfield the illusionist, see David Copperfield (illusionist). ... Oliver Twist (1838) is Charles Dickens second novel. ... For other uses, see A Tale of Two Cities (disambiguation). ... Bleak House is the ninth novel by Charles Dickens, published in 20 monthly parts between March 1852 and September 1853. ... The Life and Adventures of Nicholas Nickleby, (or Nicholas Nickleby for short) is a comic novel of Charles Dickens. ... The Posthumous Papers of the Pickwick Club, better known as The Pickwick Papers, is the first novel by Charles Dickens. ... A Christmas Carol in Prose, Being a Ghost Story of Christmas (commonly known as A Christmas Carol ) is what Charles Dickens described as his little Christmas Book and was first published on December 19, 1843 with illustrations by John Leech. ...


Dickens's technique of writing in monthly or weekly instalments (depending on the work) can be understood by analysing his relationship with his illustrators. The several artists who filled this role were privy to the contents and intentions of Dickens's instalments before the general public. Thus, by reading these correspondences between author and illustrator, the intentions behind Dickens's work can be better understood. What was hidden in his art is made plain in these letters. These also reveal how the interests of the reader and author do not coincide. A great example of that appears in the monthly novel Oliver Twist. At one point in this work, Dickens had Oliver become embroiled in a robbery. That particular monthly instalment concludes with young Oliver being shot. Readers expected that they would be forced to wait only a month to find out the outcome of that gunshot. In fact, Dickens did not reveal what became of young Oliver in the succeeding number. Rather, the reading public was forced to wait two months to discover if the boy lived.


Another important impact of Dickens's episodic writing style was his exposure to the opinions of his readers. Since Dickens did not write the chapters very far ahead of their publication, he was allowed to witness the public reaction and alter the story depending on those public reactions. A fine example of this process can be seen in his weekly serial The Old Curiosity Shop, which is a chase story. In this novel, Little Nell and her Grandfather are fleeing the villain Quilp. The progress of the novel follows the gradual success of that pursuit. As Dickens wrote and published the weekly instalments, his friend John Forster pointed out: "You know you're going to have to kill her, don't you." Why this end was necessary can be explained by a brief analysis of the difference between the structure of a comedy versus a tragedy. In a comedy, the action covers a sequence "You think they're going to lose, you think they're going to lose, they win." In tragedy, it's: "You think they're going to win, you think they're going to win, they lose". The dramatic conclusion of the story is implicit throughout the novel. So, as Dickens wrote the novel in the form of a tragedy, the sad outcome of the novel was a foregone conclusion. If he had not caused his heroine to lose, he would not have completed his dramatic structure. Dickens admitted that his friend Forster was right and, in the end, Little Nell died. [5] The Old Curiosity Shop is a novel by Charles Dickens. ...


Social commentary

Dickens's novels were, among other things, works of social commentary. He was a fierce critic of the poverty and social stratification of Victorian society. Dickens's second novel, Oliver Twist (1839), shocked readers with its images of poverty and crime and was responsible for the clearing of the actual London slum that was the basis of the story's Jacob's Island. In addition, with the character of the tragic prostitute, Nancy, Dickens "humanised" such women for the reading public; women who were regarded as "unfortunates," inherently immoral casualties of the Victorian class/economic system. Bleak House and Little Dorrit elaborated expansive critiques of the Victorian institutional apparatus: the interminable lawsuits of the Court of Chancery that destroyed people's lives in Bleak House and a dual attack in Little Dorrit on inefficient, corrupt patent offices and unregulated market speculation. Social commentary is the act of expressing an opinion on the nature of society. ... Oliver Twist (1838) is Charles Dickens second novel. ... A rookery (also sometimes described as a stew) was the colloquial name historically given to a city slum or ghetto frequented by poor people, criminals and prostitutes. ... Jacobs Island was a notorious rookery in Bermondsey, on the south bank of the River Thames in London. ... Nancy is the sympathetic lover of Bill Sykes in the novel Oliver Twist, in its film versions, and in the stage and film version of the musical Oliver!. She was corrupted at the age of six by Fagin, the seemingly lovable but heartless villain who persuades otherwise innocent youths to... Bleak House is the ninth novel by Charles Dickens, published in 20 monthly parts between March 1852 and September 1853. ... Little Dorrit is a serial novel by Charles Dickens published originally between 1855 and 1857. ...


Literary techniques

Dickens is often described as using 'idealised' characters and highly sentimental scenes to contrast with his caricatures and the ugly social truths he reveals. The extended death scene of Little Nell in The Old Curiosity Shop (1841) was received as incredibly moving by contemporary readers but viewed as ludicrously sentimental by Oscar Wilde:"You would need to have a heart of stone," he declared in one of his famous witticisms, "not to laugh at the death of Little Nell."[6] In 1903 Chesterton said, "It is not the death of Little Nell, but the life of Little Nell, that I object to." [7] The Old Curiosity Shop is a novel by Charles Dickens. ... Oscar Fingal OFlahertie Wills Wilde (October 16, 1854 – November 30, 1900) was an Irish playwright, novelist, poet, and author of short stories. ...


In Oliver Twist Dickens provides readers with an idealised portrait of a young boy so inherently and unrealistically 'good' that his values are never subverted by either brutal orphanages or coerced involvement in a gang of young pickpockets (similar to Tiny Tim in A Christmas Carol). While later novels also centre on idealised characters (Esther Summerson in Bleak House and Amy Dorrit in Little Dorrit) this idealism serves only to highlight Dickens's goal of poignant social commentary. Many of his novels are concerned with social realism, focusing on mechanisms of social control that direct people's lives (for instance, factory networks in Hard Times and hypocritical exclusionary class codes in Our Mutual Friend). Oliver Twist (1838) is Charles Dickens second novel. ... A Christmas Carol in Prose, Being a Ghost Story of Christmas (commonly known as A Christmas Carol ) is what Charles Dickens described as his little Christmas Book and was first published on December 19, 1843 with illustrations by John Leech. ... Bleak House is the ninth novel by Charles Dickens, published in 20 monthly parts between March 1852 and September 1853. ... Little Dorrit is a serial novel by Charles Dickens published originally between 1855 and 1857. ... Hard Times is a novel by Charles Dickens, first published in 1854. ... Our Mutual Friend (written in the years 1864–65) is the last novel completed by Charles Dickens. ...


Dickens also employs incredible coincidences (e.g. Oliver Twist turns out to be the lost nephew of the upper class family that randomly rescues him from the dangers of the pickpocket group). Such coincidences are a staple of eighteenth century picaresque novels such as Henry Fielding's Tom Jones that Dickens enjoyed so much. But to Dickens these were not just plot devices but an index of the humanism that led him to believe that good wins out in the end and often in unexpected ways. The picaresque novel (Spanish: picaresca, from pícaro, for rogue or rascal) is a popular subgenre of prose fiction which is usually satirical and depicts in realistic and often humorous detail the adventures of a roguish hero of low social class who lives by his or her wits in a... The History of Tom Jones, a Foundling (often known simply as Tom Jones) is a comic novel by Henry Fielding. ...


Legacy

A scene from Oliver Twist, from an early 20th century edition.
A scene from Oliver Twist, from an early 20th century edition.

Charles Dickens was a well-known personality and his novels were immensely popular during his lifetime. His first full novel, The Pickwick Papers (1837), brought him immediate fame and this continued right through his career. Although rarely departing greatly from his typical "Dickensian" method of always attempting to write a great "story" in a somewhat conventional manner (the dual narrators of Bleak House are a notable exception), he experimented with varied themes, characterisations and genres. Some of these experiments have proved more popular than others and the public's taste and appreciation of his many works have varied over time. He was usually keen to give his readers what they wanted, and the monthly or weekly publication of his works in episodes meant that the books could change as the story proceeded at the whim of the public. A good example of this are the American episodes in Martin Chuzzlewit which were put in by Dickens in response to lower than normal sales of the earlier chapters. In Our Mutual Friend, the inclusion of the character of Riah was a positive portrayal of a Jewish character after he was criticised for the depiction of Fagin in Oliver Twist. Drawing of Oliver asking for more, from website with explicit permission for free use. ... Drawing of Oliver asking for more, from website with explicit permission for free use. ... A genre [], (French: kind or sort from Greek: γένος (genos)) is a loose set of criteria for a category of literary composition; the term is also used for any other form of art or utterance. ... Martin Chuzzlewit is a novel by Charles Dickens, considered the last of his picaresque novels, which was written and serialized in 1843-1844. ... The word Jew ( Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination... An etching by George Cruikshank titled Fagin in the condemned Cell, November 1838. ... Oliver Twist (1838) is Charles Dickens second novel. ...


His popularity has waned little since his death and he is still one of the best known and most read of English authors. At least 180 motion pictures and TV adaptations based on Dickens's works help confirm his success.[citation needed] Many of his works were adapted for the stage during his own lifetime and as early as 1913 a silent film of The Pickwick Papers was made. His characters were often so memorable that they took on a life of their own outside his books. Gamp became a slang expression for an umbrella from the character Mrs Gamp and Pickwickian, Pecksniffian and Gradgrind all entered dictionaries due to Dickens's original portraits of such characters who were quixotic, hypocritical or emotionlessly logical. Sam Weller, the carefree and irreverent valet of The Pickwick Papers, was an early superstar, perhaps better known than his author at first. It is likely that A Christmas Carol is his best-known story, with new adaptations almost every year. It is also the most-filmed of Dickens's stories, many versions dating from the early years of cinema. This simple morality tale with both pathos and its theme of redemption, for many, sums up the true meaning of Christmas and eclipses all other Yuletide stories in not only popularity, but in adding archetypal figures (Scrooge, Tiny Tim, the Christmas ghosts) to the Western cultural consciousness. Some historians consider this book to have played a major factor in redefining the holiday and its major sentiments.[citation needed] A Christmas Carol was written by Dickens in an attempt to forestall financial disaster as a result of flagging sales of his novel Martin Chuzzlewit. Years later, Dickens shared that he was "deeply affected" in writing A Christmas Carol and the novel rejuvenated his career as a renowned author. Martin Chuzzlewit is a novel by Charles Dickens, considered the last of his picaresque novels, which was written and serialized in 1843-1844. ... Quixotism (IPA: [ˈkwɪksəˌtɪzm]) is the description of a person or an act that is caught up in the romance of noble deeds and the pursuit of unreachable goals. ... Sam Weller is a fictional character in The Pickwick Papers, the first novel by Charles Dickens, and is allegedly the character that made Dickens famous. ... Morality plays are a type of theatrical allegory in which the protagonist is met by personifications of various moral attributes who try to prompt him to choose a godly life over one of evil. ...


At a time when Britain was the major economic and political power of the world, Dickens highlighted the life of the forgotten poor and disadvantaged at the heart of empire. Through his journalism he campaigned on specific issues — such as sanitation and the workhouse — but his fiction was probably all the more powerful in changing public opinion in regard to class inequalities. He often depicted the exploitation and repression of the poor and condemned the public officials and institutions that allowed such abuses to exist. His most strident indictment of this condition is in Hard Times (1854), Dickens's only novel-length treatment of the industrial working class. In that work, he uses both vitriol and satire to illustrate how this marginalised social stratum was termed "Hands" by the factory owners, that is, not really "people" but rather only appendages of the machines that they operated. His writings inspired others, in particular journalists and political figures, to address such problems of class oppression. For example, the prison scenes in Little Dorrit and The Pickwick Papers were prime movers in having the Marshalsea and Fleet Prisons shut down. As Karl Marx said, Dickens, and the other novelists of Victorian England, "…issued to the world more political and social truths than have been uttered by all the professional politicians, publicists and moralists put together…".[8] The exceptional popularity of his novels, even those with socially oppositional themes (Bleak House, 1853; Little Dorrit, 1857; Our Mutual Friend, 1865) underscored not only his almost preternatural ability to create compelling storylines and unforgettable characters, but also insured that the Victorian public confronted issues of social justice that had commonly been ignored. E. Coli bacteria under magnification Sanitation is the hygienic disposal or recycling of waste, as well as the policy and practice of protecting health through hygienic measures. ... Former workhouse at Nantwich, dating from 1780 A workhouse was a place where people who were unable to support themselves could go to live and work. ... The Marshalsea Marshalsea was a debtors prison in Southwark, London best known for being the place where Charles Dickenss father was imprisoned for debt and as the central location in Dickenss book Little Dorrit. ... Pray remember ye poor debtors: inmates of the Fleet Prison beg passers by for alms. ... Karl Heinrich Marx (May 5, 1818 – March 14, 1883) was a 19th century philosopher, political economist, and revolutionary. ...


His fiction, with often vivid descriptions of life in nineteenth century England, has inaccurately and anachronistically come to globally symbolise Victorian society (1837–1901) as uniformly "Dickensian," when in fact, his novels' time span is from the 1770s to the 1860s. In the decade following his death in 1870, a more intense degree of socially and philosophically pessimistic perspectives invested British fiction; such themes were in contrast to the religious faith that ultimately held together even the bleakest of Dickens's novels. Later Victorian novelists such as Thomas Hardy and George Gissing were influenced by Dickens, but their works display a greater willingness to confront and challenge the Victorian institution of religion. They also portray characters caught up by social forces (primarily via lower-class conditions) but which usually steer them to tragic ends beyond their control. Queen Victoria (shown here on the morning of her ascension to the Throne, 20 June 1837) gave her name to the historic era The Victorian era of the United Kingdom marked the height of the British Industrial Revolution and the apex of the British Empire. ... Thomas Hardy redirects here. ... George Gissing (November 22, 1857 – December 28, 1903) was a British novelist. ... A social class is, at its most basic, a group of people that have similar social status. ...


Novelists continue to be influenced by his books; for example, such disparate current writers as Anne Rice, Tom Wolfe and John Irving evidence direct Dickensian connections. Humorist James Finn Garner even wrote a tongue-in-cheek "politically correct" version of A Christmas Carol, and other affectionate parodies include the Radio 4 comedy Bleak Expectations. Anne Rice (born on October 4, 1941) is a best-selling American author of gothic and later religious themed books. ... Tom Wolfe gives a speech at the White House. ... John Winslow Irving (born March 2, 1942 as John Wallace Blunt, Jr. ... A Christmas Carol in Prose, Being a Ghost Story of Christmas (commonly known as A Christmas Carol ) is what Charles Dickens described as his little Christmas Book and was first published on December 19, 1843 with illustrations by John Leech. ... Bleak Expectations is a 6-part 2007 Radio 4 comedy series, first broadcast at 11. ...


Although Dickens's life has been the subject of at least two TV miniseries and two famous one-man shows, he has never been the subject of a Hollywood "big screen" biography. In performing arts and entertainment, a One Man Show or Solo Show is frequently performed by, but not limited to, stand-up comedians. ... ...


Adaptations of readings

There have been several performances of Dickens readings by Emlyn Williams, Bransby Williams and also Simon Callow in the Mystery of Charles Dickens by Peter Ackroyd. George Emlyn Williams CBE (26 November 1905–25 September 1987), known as Emlyn Williams, was a Welsh dramatist and actor. ... Simon Philip Hugh Callow, CBE (born June 15, 1949 in London, England) is a highly-regarded British actor of stage, film and television, and a biographer of Orson Welles and Charles Laughton. ... Peter Ackroyd (born October 5, 1949, London) is an English author. ...


Museums and festivals

Bleak House in Broadstairs, Kent, where Dickens wrote some of his novels. The house was for many years a Dickens museum, and visitors would leave notes addressed to him in the desk-drawer in his former study, overlooking harbour and sea.

There are museums and festivals celebrating Dickens's life and works in many of the towns with which he was associated. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1668x1188, 615 KB) Summary Bleak House, Broadstairs, England. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1668x1188, 615 KB) Summary Bleak House, Broadstairs, England. ... , Broadstairs is a coastal town on The Isle Of Thanet in East Kent, England, 76 miles east of London with excellent and first class road links (1 hour from the M25) with a population of about 22,000. ...

  • The Charles Dickens Museum, in Doughty Street, Holborn is the only one of Dickens's London homes to survive. He lived there only two years but in this time wrote The Pickwick Papers, Oliver Twist and Nicholas Nickleby. It contains a major collection of manuscripts, original furniture and memorabilia.
  • Charles Dickens' Birthplace Museum in Portsmouth is the house in which Dickens was born. It has been re-furnished in the likely style of 1812 and contains Dickens memorabilia.
  • The Dickens House Museum in Broadstairs is the house of Miss Mary Pearson Strong, the basis for Miss Betsey Trotwood in David Copperfield. It is visible across the bay from the original Bleak House (also a museum until 2005) where David Copperfield was written. The museum contains memorabilia, general Victoriana and some of Dickens's letters. Broadstairs has held a Dickens Festival annually since 1937.
  • The Charles Dickens Centre in Eastgate House, Rochester, closed in 2004, but the garden containing the author's Swiss chalet is still open. The 16th century house, which appeared as Westgate House in The Pickwick Papers and the Nun's House in Edwin Drood, is now used as a wedding venue.[9] The city's annual Dickens Festival (summer) and Dickensian Christmas celebrations continue unaffected.
The Cashier's Office, Chatham Dockyard.
The Cashier's Office, Chatham Dockyard.
  • The Dickens World themed attraction, covering 71,500 square feet (6,643 m²), and including a cinema and restaurants, opened in Chatham on 25 May 2007.[10] It stands on a small part of the site of the former naval dockyard where Dickens's father had once worked in the Navy Pay Office.
  • Dickens Festival in Rochester, Kent. Summer Dickens is held at the end of May or in the first few days of June, it commences with an invitation only ball on the Thursday and then continues with street entertainment, and many costumed characters, on the Friday, Saturday and Sunday.Christmas Dickens is the first weekend in December- Saturday and Sunday only.

Dickens festivals are also held across the world. Londons Charles Dickens Museum is in Doughty Street in the district of Bloomsbury. ... Doughty Street is a small street in the Holborn district of the London Borough of Camden. ... Holborn (pronounced ho-bun or ho-burn) is a place in London, named after a tributary to the river Fleet that flowed through the area, the Hole-bourne (the stream in the hollow). ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... For other places with the same name, see Portsmouth (disambiguation). ... , Broadstairs is a coastal town on The Isle Of Thanet in East Kent, England, 76 miles east of London with excellent and first class road links (1 hour from the M25) with a population of about 22,000. ... The Betsey Trotwood is a pub on Farringdon Road in Clerkenwell, in the City of London. ... For David Copperfield the illusionist, see David Copperfield (illusionist). ... , Rochester is a town in Kent, England, at the lowest bridging point of the River Medway about 30 miles (50 km) from London. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2016 × 1512 pixel, file size: 693 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Source Self Date 22 September Author Clem Rutter, Rochester Kent Permission (Reusing this image) Own work, attribution required (Multi-license with GFDL and Creative Commons... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2016 × 1512 pixel, file size: 693 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Source Self Date 22 September Author Clem Rutter, Rochester Kent Permission (Reusing this image) Own work, attribution required (Multi-license with GFDL and Creative Commons... Chatham Dockyard, located on the River Medway in Kent, England, came into existence at the time when, following the Reformation, relations with the Catholic countries of Europe had worsened, and thus requiring added defences. ... Dickens World is a themed attraction located at Chatham Dockyard, Kent. ... , Chatham (pronounced chat-um ) is a large town that developed around an important naval dockyard on the east bank of the River Medway to the southeast of London in Kent, England. ... is the 145th day of the year (146th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Chatham Dockyard, located on the River Medway in Kent, England, came into existence at the time when, following the Reformation, relations with the Catholic countries of Europe had worsened, and thus requiring added defences. ... , Rochester is a town in Kent, England, at the lowest bridging point of the River Medway about 30 miles (50 km) from London. ...


Four notable ones in the United States are:

  • The Riverside Dickens Festival in Riverside, California, includes literary studies as well as entertainments.
  • The Great Dickens Christmas Fair (http://www.dickensfair.com/) has been held in San Francisco, California, since the 1970s. During the four or five weekends before Christmas, over 500 costumed performers mingle with and entertain thousands of visitors amidst the recreated full-scale blocks of Dickensian London in over 90,000 square feet (8,000 m²) of public area. This is the oldest, largest, and most successful of the modern Dickens festivals outside England. Many (including the Martin Harris who acts in the Rochester festival and flies out from London to play Scrooge every year in SF) say it is the most impressive in the world.
  • Dickens on The Strand in Galveston, Texas, is a holiday festival held on the first weekend in December since 1974, where bobbies, Beefeaters and the "Queen" herself are on hand to recreate the Victorian London of Charles Dickens. Many festival volunteers and attendees dress in Victorian attire and bring the world of Dickens to life.

Nickname: Location in the state of California Coordinates: , Country State County Riverside Government  - Mayor Ron Loveridge Area  - City  78. ... San Francisco redirects here. ... Galveston redirects here. ... For other uses, see Texas (disambiguation). ... The Incorporated Village of Port Jefferson is located in the town of Brookhaven in Suffolk County, New York on the North Shore of Long Island. ...

Notable works by Charles Dickens

Main article: Bibliography of Charles Dickens

Charles Dickens published over a dozen major novels, a large number of short stories (including a number of Christmas-themed stories), a handful of plays, and several nonfiction books. Dickens's novels were initially serialised in weekly and monthly magazines, then reprinted in standard book formats. The bibliography of Charles Dickens includes more than a dozen major novels, a large number of short stories (including a number of Christmas-themed stories), a handful of plays, several nonfiction books, and individual essays and articles. ...


Novels

The Posthumous Papers of the Pickwick Club, better known as The Pickwick Papers, is the first novel by Charles Dickens. ... Oliver Twist (1838) is Charles Dickens second novel. ... The Life and Adventures of Nicholas Nickleby, (or Nicholas Nickleby for short) is a comic novel of Charles Dickens. ... The Old Curiosity Shop is a novel by Charles Dickens. ... Barnaby Rudge: A Tale of the Riots of Eighty is a historical novel by the author Charles Dickens. ... A Christmas Carol in Prose, Being a Ghost Story of Christmas (commonly known as A Christmas Carol ) is what Charles Dickens described as his little Christmas Book and was first published on December 19, 1843 with illustrations by John Leech. ... The Chimes is a novel by Charles Dickens. ... The Cricket on the Hearth is a novella by Charles Dickens, written in 1845. ... The Battle of Life is a novel by Charles Dickens, published in 1846. ... Published in 1848, The Haunted Man and the Ghosts Bargain was the fifth and final novel of Charles Dickenss Christmas Books, although the holiday is very marginal to the plot of the book. ... Martin Chuzzlewit is a novel by Charles Dickens, considered the last of his picaresque novels, which was written and serialized in 1843-1844. ... Dombey and Son is a novel by the Victorian author Charles Dickens. ... For David Copperfield the illusionist, see David Copperfield (illusionist). ... Bleak House is the ninth novel by Charles Dickens, published in 20 monthly parts between March 1852 and September 1853. ... Hard Times is a novel by Charles Dickens, first published in 1854. ... Little Dorrit is a serial novel by Charles Dickens published originally between 1855 and 1857. ... For other uses, see A Tale of Two Cities (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Great Expectations (disambiguation). ... Our Mutual Friend (written in the years 1864–65) is the last novel completed by Charles Dickens. ... No Thoroughfare is a stage play and novel by Charles Dickens and Wilkie Collins, both released in December 1867. ... Wilkie Collins William Wilkie Collins (8 January 1824 – 23 September 1889) was an English novelist, playwright, and writer of short stories. ... The Mystery of Edwin Drood is the final novel by Charles Dickens. ...

Short story collections

  • Sketches by Boz (1836)
  • Boots at the Holly-tree Inn: And Other Stories (1858)
  • Reprinted Pieces (1861)
  • The Haunted House (1862) (with Wilkie Collins, Elizabeth Gaskell, Adelaide Proctor, George Sala and Hesba Setton)
  • The Mudfog Papers (1880) aka Mudfog and Other Sketches
  • To Be Read At Dusk (1898)

Sketches by Boz is a collection of short pieces published by Charles Dickens in 1836. ...

Selected nonfiction, poetry, and plays

  • The Life of Our Lord: As written for his children (1849)
  • A Child's History of England (1853)
  • The Frozen Deep (play, 1857)
  • Speeches, Letters and Sayings (1870)

American Notes for General Circulation is a travelogue by Charles Dickens detailing his trip to North America in January to June 1842. ... Pictures from Italy is a book by Charles Dickens, written in 1846. ... A Childs History of England is a book by Charles Dickens. ...

Dickens as a character in fiction

Image File history File links Emblem-important. ... Roy Dotrice (born May 26, 1925) is a British actor. ... Simon Philip Hugh Callow, CBE (born June 15, 1949 in London, England) is a highly-regarded British actor of stage, film and television, and a biographer of Orson Welles and Charles Laughton. ... This article is about the television series. ... The Unquiet Dead is an episode in the British science-fiction television series Doctor Who that was first broadcast on April 9, 2005. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Henry James, "Our Mutual Friend", The Nation, 21 December 1865- a scathing review
  2. ^ John Forster, The Life of Charles Dickens, Book 1, Chapter 1
  3. ^ eNotes.com "Charles Dickens", accessed November 15, 2007
  4. ^ victorianweb.org - Mary Scott Hogarth, 1820-1837: Dickens's Beloved Sister-in-Law and Inspiration
  5. ^ Dickens, Charles (1987). Dickens' working notes for his novels. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0226145905. 
  6. ^ In conversation with Ada Leverson. Quoted in Richard Ellmann, Oscar Wilde (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1988), p. 469.
  7. ^ G. K. Chesterton, Appreciations and Criticisms of the Works of Charles Dickens, Chapter 6: Curiosity Shop
  8. ^ Marx, Karl (August 1, 1954). The English Middle Classes. New York Tribune. Marxists Internet Archive. Retrieved on 2007-06-10.
  9. ^ http://www.medway.gov.uk/index/community/weddings/weddingvenues/50362.htm
  10. ^ Hart, Christopher (May 20, 2007). What, the Dickens World?. The Sunday Times. Times Online. Retrieved on 2007-06-02.
  11. ^ Serial publication dates from Chronology of Novels by E. D. H. Johnson, Holmes Professor of Belles Lettres, Princeton University. Accessed June 11, 2007.

is the 355th day of the year (356th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1865 (MDCCCLXV) is a common year starting on Sunday. ... Ada Leverson (1862-August 1933), nee Beddington, was a British writer, now known as a novelist. ... Gilbert Keith Chesterton (May 29, 1874–June 14, 1936) was an influential English writer of the early 20th century. ... is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The New York Tribune building - today the site of Pace Universitys building complex of One Pace Plaza in New York City The New York Tribune was established by Horace Greeley in 1841 and was long considered one of the leading newspapers in the United States. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 161st day of the year (162nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 140th day of the year (141st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 153rd day of the year (154th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

  • Ackroyd, Peter, Dickens, (2002), Vintage, ISBN 0-09-943709-0
  • Drabble, Margaret (ed.), The Oxford Companion to English Literature, (1997), London: Oxford University Press.
  • Slater, Michael, "Dickens, Charles John Huffam (1812–1870)", Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, Sept 2004; online edn, May 2006 accessed 6 June 2006
  • Peter R Lewis, Disaster on the Dee: Robert Stephenson's Nemesis of 1847, Tempus (2007) for a discussion of the Staplehurst accident, and its influence on Dickens.
  • Glavin, John (ed.) Dickens on Screen,(2003),New York: Cambridge University Press.
  • Robert L. Patten (ed.) The Pickwick Papers (Introduction), (1978), Penguin Books.

Peter Ackroyd (born October 5, 1949, London) is an English author. ... Margaret Drabble (born June 5, 1939) is an English novelist. ...

External links

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Charles Dickens
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  • Source Collections
  • Reference Resources
    • The Dickens Search Engine Search Dickens's books
    • A Charles Dickens Journal Timeline of Dickens's Life
    • A genealogical tree of the Dickens family
    • Dickens’ Characters some of the estimated 989 characters in Dickens
    • Dickens’ London Map Learn more about the London locations Dickens wrote about
  • General Portals
    • David Pardue's Charles Dickens Page
    • The Dickens Fellowship
    • A Dickens web page with both original content and links to many other Dickens pages.
    • The Dickens Page, a comprehensive Dickens portal.
    • Charles Dickens — Gad’s Hill Place Daily Dickens information.
    • Charles Dickens: A Comprehensive Resource, Biography, Life and Literature.
  • Illustrations
    • Scenes and characters from the works of Charles Dickens; being eight hundred and sixty-six drawings, large collection of drawings.
    • Dickens and his illustrators (1899).
  • Commentary
    • Appreciations and Criticisms of the Works of Charles Dickens by G. K. Chesterton
    • Charles Dickens's Themes An analysis of The Mystery of Edwin Drood, Nicholas Nickleby and A Trial For Murder
    • Life of Charles Dickens, by Frank Marzials, at Project Gutenberg. 1887 publication with lengthy bibliography.
    • Charles Dickens: The Life of the Author a seminar by Kenneth Benson from the New York Public Library
    • Charles Dickens by Pen and Pencil A scanned, full-text version of the 19th century book on Charles Dickens's Life
  • 1991 interview on Charles Dickens with Peter Ackroyd by Don Swaim at Wired for Books.
  • Locations
    • Dickens Museum Situated in a former Dickens House, 48 Doughty Street, London, WC1
    • Dickens Birthplace Museum Old Commercial Road, Portsmouth
    • Dickens House Museum 2 Victoria Parade, Broadstairs, Kent
    • the Dutch Dickens Museum 2, Onderstraat, Bronkhorst (Netherlands)
    • Charles Dickens in south-west London Twickenham and Richmond
    • History of the Dickens Statue, the only full-sized statue of Dickens in the world located in Clark Park, West Philadelphia.
  • Events
    • Broadstairs Dickens Festival
    • International Dickens Festival
    • Dickens Christmas Fair in San Francisco
  • Miscellaneous


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Persondata
NAME Dickens, Charles
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Dickens, Charles John Huffam; Boz; Dickens, Karol; Dickens, Charlz; Sparks, Timothy; Dickens, Charles Huffam
SHORT DESCRIPTION English novelist
DATE OF BIRTH 7 February 1812(1812-02-07)
PLACE OF BIRTH Portsmouth, Hampshire, England
DATE OF DEATH 9 June 1870
PLACE OF DEATH Gad's Hill Place, Higham, Kent, England

The Posthumous Papers of the Pickwick Club, better known as The Pickwick Papers, is the first novel by Charles Dickens. ... Oliver Twist (1838) is Charles Dickens second novel. ... The Life and Adventures of Nicholas Nickleby, (or Nicholas Nickleby for short) is a comic novel by Charles Dickens. ... The Old Curiosity Shop is a novel by Charles Dickens. ... A Christmas Carol in Prose, Being a Ghost Story of Christmas (commonly known as A Christmas Carol ) is what Charles Dickens described as his little Christmas Book and was first published on December 19, 1843 with illustrations by John Leech. ... Martin Chuzzlewit is a novel by Charles Dickens, considered the last of his picaresque novels, which was written and serialized in 1843-1844. ... The Chimes is a novel by Charles Dickens. ... The Cricket on the Hearth is a novella by Charles Dickens, written in 1845. ... The Battle of Life is a novel by Charles Dickens, published in 1846. ... Dombey and Son is a novel by the Victorian author Charles Dickens. ... Published in 1848, The Haunted Man and the Ghosts Bargain was the fifth and final novel of Charles Dickenss Christmas Books, although the holiday is very marginal to the plot of the book. ... For David Copperfield the illusionist, see David Copperfield (illusionist). ... Bleak House is the ninth novel by Charles Dickens, published in 20 monthly parts between March 1852 and September 1853. ... Hard Times is a novel by Charles Dickens, first published in 1854. ... Little Dorrit is a serial novel by Charles Dickens published originally between 1855 and 1857. ... For other uses, see A Tale of Two Cities (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Great Expectations (disambiguation). ... Our Mutual Friend (written in the years 1864–65) is the last novel completed by Charles Dickens. ... The Mystery of Edwin Drood is the final novel by Charles Dickens. ... Image File history File links Charles_Dickens_-_Project_Gutenberg_eText_13103. ... A Message from the Sea was a short story by Charles Dickens written in 1860. ... Mugby Junction was a short story by Charles Dickens written in 1866. ... The Signal-Man is a short story by Charles Dickens, first published as part of the Mugby Junction collection in the 1866 Christmas edition of All the Year Round. ... The four authors (clockwise from top left): Dickens, Collins, Procter and Gaskell. ... The Long Voyage is a New Years Eve short story by Charles Dickens. ... Sketches by Boz is a collection of short pieces published by Charles Dickens in 1836. ... Master Humphreys Clock was a weekly periodical edited and written entirely by Charles Dickens from April 4, 1840&#8212; December 4, 1841. ... American Notes for General Circulation is a travelogue by Charles Dickens detailing his trip to North America in January to June 1842. ... Pictures from Italy is a book by Charles Dickens, written in 1846. ... A Childs History of England is a book by Charles Dickens. ... The Uncommercial Traveller is a collection of literary sketches and reminiscences written by Charles Dickens. ... is the 38th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the overture by Tchaikovsky, see 1812 Overture; For the wars, see War of 1812 (USA - United Kingdom) or Patriotic War of 1812 (France - Russia) For the Siberia Airlines plane crashed over the Black Sea on October 4, 2001, see Siberia Airlines Flight 1812 1812 was a leap year starting... For other places with the same name, see Portsmouth (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Hampshire (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... June 9 is the 160th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (161st in leap years), with 205 days remaining. ... 1870 (MDCCCLXX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Gads Hill Place at Higham, Kent was the house where Charles Dickens lived after making his fortune as the most successful British author of his generation. ... Higham is a small village bordering the Hoo Peninsula, in Kent, between Gravesend and Rochester. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Charles Dickens - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (4301 words)
Dickens wrote serialised novels, which was the usual format for fiction at the time, and each new part of his stories would be eagerly anticipated by the reading public.
Dickens managed to avoid an appearance at the inquiry into the crash, as it would have become known that he was travelling that day with Ellen Ternan and her mother, which could have caused a scandal.
Dickens on The Strand in Galveston, Texas, is a holiday festival held on the first weekend in December since 1974, where bobbies, Beefeaters and the "Queen" herself are on hand to recreate the Victorian London of Charles Dickens.
Encyclopedia4U - Charles Dickens - Encyclopedia Article (944 words)
Charles was born in Portsmouth, England, to John Dickens, a naval pay clerk, and his wife Elizabeth Barrow.
Dickens, it should be remembered, lived in a society which pre-existed the Holocaust, and it can be argued that he was writing for dramatic effect: Fagin, when all is said and done, is a caricature, one of the great pantomime villains of fictions.
Dickens died in 1870, and was buried in the Poet's Corner of Westminster Abbey.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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