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Encyclopedia > Charles Darwin
Charles Robert Darwin

At the age of 51, Charles Darwin had just published
On the Origin of Species.
Born 12 February 1809(1809-02-12)
Mount House, Shrewsbury, Shropshire, England
Died 19 April 1882 (aged 73)
Down House, Kent, England
Residence England
Nationality British
Field Naturalist
Institutions Royal Geographical Society
Alma mater University of Edinburgh
University of Cambridge
Academic advisor   Adam Sedgwick
Known for The Origin of Species
Natural selection
Notable prizes Royal Medal (1853)
Wollaston Medal (1859)
Copley Medal (1864)
Religion Church of England, though Unitarian family background, Agnostic after 1851.

Charles Robert Darwin (12 February 180919 April 1882) was an English naturalist.[I] After becoming eminent among scientists for his field work and inquiries into geology, he proposed and provided scientific evidence that all species of life have evolved over time from one or a few common ancestors through the process of natural selection.[1] The fact that evolution occurs became accepted by the scientific community and the general public in his lifetime, while his theory of natural selection came to be widely seen as the primary explanation of the process of evolution in the 1930s,[1] and now forms the basis of modern evolutionary theory. In modified form, Darwin's scientific discovery remains the foundation of biology, as it provides a unifying logical explanation for the diversity of life.[2] Darwin most commonly refers to: Charles Darwin (1809–1882), renowned naturalist and thinker associated with the theory of evolution by natural selection Darwin, Northern Territory, Australian city and the capital of the Northern Territory Darwin (operating system), a low level computer operating system used as the lower layer of Apple... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Charles Darwins Origin of Species (publ. ... is the 43rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1809 (MDCCCIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar). ... The Mount, is the site of a house in Shrewsbury, officially known as Mount House that belonged to Robert Darwin and was the birthplace of Charles Darwin. ... , Shrewsbury (pronounced either or [1]) is the county town of Shropshire, West Midlands, England. ... Shropshire (pronounced /, -/), alternatively known as Salop[6] or abbreviated Shrops[7], is a county in the West Midlands of England. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... is the 109th day of the year (110th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1882 (MDCCCLXXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Down House, photo by Richard Carter Down House is the former home of the English naturalist Charles Darwin and his family. ... The Kent coat of arms For other uses, see Kent (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Table of natural history, 1728 Cyclopaedia Natural history is an umbrella term for what are now often viewed as several distinct scientific disciplines of integrative organismal biology. ... The Royal Geographical Society is a British learned society founded in 1830 with the name Geographical Society of London for the advancement of geographical science, under the patronage of King William IV. It absorbed the Association for Promoting the Discovery of the Interior Parts of Africa (founded by Sir Joseph... The University of Edinburgh (Scottish Gaelic: ), founded in 1582,[4] is a renowned centre for teaching and research in Edinburgh, Scotland. ... The University of Cambridge (often Cambridge University), located in Cambridge, England, is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world and has a reputation as one of the worlds most prestigious universities. ... Adam Sedgwick (March 22nd, 1785–January 27, 1873) was one of the founders of modern geology. ... Charles Darwins Origin of Species (publ. ... For other uses, see Natural selection (disambiguation). ... The Royal Medals of the Royal Society of London were established by King George IV. They were further supported with certain changes to their conditions, by King William IV and Queen Victoria. ... The Wollaston Medal is a scientific award for geology, the highest award granted by the Geological Society of London. ... The Copley Medal is a scientific award for work in any field of science, the highest award granted by the Royal Society of London. ... The Church of England logo since 1998 The Church of England is the officially established Christian church[1] in England, and acts as the mother and senior branch of the worldwide Anglican Communion, as well as a founding member of the Porvoo Communion. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Unitarianism is the belief... Agnosticism (from the Greek a, meaning without, and Gnosticism or gnosis, meaning knowledge) is the philosophical view that the truth value of certain claims—particularly metaphysical claims regarding theology, afterlife or the existence of God, gods, deities, or even ultimate reality—is unknown or, depending on the form of agnosticism... is the 43rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1809 (MDCCCIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar). ... is the 109th day of the year (110th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1882 (MDCCCLXXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... This article is about the English as an ethnic group and nation. ... Table of natural history, 1728 Cyclopaedia Natural history is an umbrella term for what are now often viewed as several distinct scientific disciplines of integrative organismal biology. ... This article includes a list of works cited but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Part of a scientific laboratory at the University of Cologne. ... For other uses, see Species (disambiguation). ... This article is about evolution in biology. ... Missing link is a term for a transitional form from the fossil record that connects an earlier species to a later one, or which connects two different species to an earlier ancestor. ... For other uses, see Natural selection (disambiguation). ... Evolution is often said to be both theory and fact. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The word theory has a number of distinct meanings in different fields of knowledge, depending on their methodologies and the context of discussion. ... The modern evolutionary synthesis refers to a set of ideas from several biological specialities that were brought together to form a unified theory of evolution accepted by the great majority of working biologists. ... Biology studies the variety of life (clockwise from top-left) E. coli, tree fern, gazelle, Goliath beetle Biology (from Greek: βίος, bio, life; and λόγος, logos, knowledge), also referred to as the biological sciences, is the study of living organisms utilizing the scientific method. ... Logic (from ancient Greek λόγος (logos), meaning reason) is the study of arguments. ... Rainforests are among the most biodiverse ecosystems on earth Biodiversity is the variation of taxonomic life forms within a given ecosystem, biome or for the entire Earth. ...


Darwin developed his interest in natural history while studying first medicine at Edinburgh University, then theology at Cambridge.[3] His five-year voyage on the Beagle established him as a geologist whose observations and theories supported Charles Lyell's uniformitarian ideas, and publication of his journal of the voyage made him famous as a popular author. Puzzled by the geographical distribution of wildlife and fossils he collected on the voyage, Darwin investigated the transmutation of species and conceived his theory of natural selection in 1838. Having seen others attacked as heretics for such ideas, he confided only in his closest friends and continued his extensive research to meet anticipated objections.[4] In 1858, Alfred Russel Wallace sent him an essay describing a similar theory, causing the two to publish their theories early in a joint publication.[5] For the chemical substances known as medicines, see medication. ... The University of Edinburgh (Scottish Gaelic: ), founded in 1582,[4] is a renowned centre for teaching and research in Edinburgh, Scotland. ... Theology finds its scholars pursuing the understanding of and providing reasoned discourse of religion, spirituality and God or the gods. ... The University of Cambridge (often Cambridge University), located in Cambridge, England, is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world and has a reputation as one of the worlds most prestigious universities. ... On its second voyage, much of it chronicled by Charles Darwin in his book, The Voyage of the Beagle, the HMS Beagle crossed the Atlantic towards Tierra Del Fuego, and carried out surveying especially of the West coast of South America, as well as a number of Pacific islands. ... HMS Beagle was a Cherokee class 10-gun brig of the Royal Navy, named after the beagle, a breed of dog. ... This article includes a list of works cited but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Uniformitarianism, in the philosophy of science, is the assumption that the natural processes operating in the past are the same as those that can be observed operating in the present. ... A watercolor by the HMS Beagles draughtsman, Conrad Martens. ... For other uses, see Fossil (disambiguation). ... Transmutation of species refers to the altering of one species into another. ... Look up Heresy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For the Cornish painter, see Alfred Wallis. ...


His 1859 book On the Origin of Species established evolution by common descent as the dominant scientific explanation of diversification in nature. He examined human evolution and sexual selection in The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex, followed by The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals. His research on plants was published in a series of books, and in his final book, he examined earthworms and their effect on soil.[6] Charles Darwins Origin of Species (publ. ... A group of organisms is said to have common descent if they have a common ancestor. ... // For the history of humans on Earth, see History of the world. ... Illustration from The Descent of Man and Selection in Relation to Sex by Charles Darwin showing the Tufted Coquette Lophornis ornatus, female on left, ornamented male on right. ... Title page of the first edition of Charles Darwins The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex. ... The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals is a book by the British naturalist Charles Darwin published in 1872, on how animals and humans express and signal to others their emotions. ... Families   Acanthodrilidae   Ailoscolecidae   Alluroididae   Almidae   Criodrilidae   Eudrilidae   Exxidae   Glossoscolecidae   Lumbricidae   Lutodrilidae   Megascolecidae   Microchaetidae   Ocnerodrilidae   Octochaetidae   Sparganophilidae Earthworm is the common name for the largest members of the Oligochaeta (which is either a class or subclass depending on the author) in the phylum Annelida. ...


In recognition of Darwin's pre-eminence, he was buried in Westminster Abbey, close to John Herschel and Isaac Newton.[7] The Collegiate Church of St Peter, Westminster, which is almost always referred to by its original name of Westminster Abbey, is a mainly Gothic church, on the scale of a cathedral (and indeed often mistaken for one), in Westminster, London, just to the west of the Palace of Westminster. ... John Herschel Sir John Frederick William Herschel (7 March 1792 – 11 May 1871) was an English mathematician and astronomer. ... Sir Isaac Newton FRS (4 January 1643 – 31 March 1727) [ OS: 25 December 1642 – 20 March 1727][1] was an English physicist, mathematician, astronomer, natural philosopher, and alchemist. ...

Contents

Biography

Early life

For more details on this topic, see Charles Darwin's education.
The seven-year-old Charles Darwin in 1816, one year before his mother's death.

Charles Darwin was born in Shrewsbury, Shropshire, England on 12 February 1809 at his family home, the Mount.[8] He was the fifth of six children of wealthy society doctor and financier Robert Darwin, and Susannah Darwin (née Wedgwood). He was the grandson of Erasmus Darwin on his father's side, and of Josiah Wedgwood on his mother's side. Both families were largely Unitarian, though the Wedgwoods were adopting Anglicanism. Robert Darwin, himself quietly a freethinker, made a nod toward convention by having baby Charles baptised in the Anglican Church. Nonetheless, Charles and his siblings attended the Unitarian chapel with their mother, and in 1817, Charles joined the day school, run by its preacher. In July of that year, when Charles was eight years old, his mother died. From September 1818, he attended the nearby Anglican Shrewsbury School as a boarder.[9] Charles Darwins education gave him knowledge of medicine as well as the theology of current faith based ideas. ... Charles Darwin as a 7-year old boy in 1816. ... Charles Darwin as a 7-year old boy in 1816. ... , Shrewsbury (pronounced either or [1]) is the county town of Shropshire, West Midlands, England. ... Shropshire (pronounced /, -/), alternatively known as Salop[6] or abbreviated Shrops[7], is a county in the West Midlands of England. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... is the 43rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1809 (MDCCCIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar). ... The Mount, is the site of a house in Shrewsbury, officially known as Mount House that belonged to Robert Darwin and was the birthplace of Charles Darwin. ... Robert Darwin, from an oil painting by James Pardon. ... Susannah Darwin (née Wedgwood 1765-1817) was the wife of Robert Darwin, and mother of Charles Darwin, and part of the Wedgwood pottery family. ... This article is about Erasmus Darwin who lived 1731–1802; for his descendants with the same name see Erasmus Darwin (disambiguation). ... Josiah Wedgwood Josiah Wedgwood (July 12, 1730 – January 3, 1795, born Burslem, Stoke-on-Trent) was an English potter, credited with the industrialization of the manufacture of pottery. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Unitarianism is the belief... Anglicanism commonly refers to the beliefs and practices of the Anglican Communion, the churches that are in full communion with the see of Canterbury. ... Freethought is a philosophical viewpoint that holds that beliefs should be formed on the basis of science and logical principles and not be compromised by authority, tradition, or any other dogma. ... This article is about the Christian religious act of Baptism. ... Shrewsbury School (formally known as King Edward VI Grammar School, Shrewsbury) is an independent school, located in Shrewsbury, Shropshire, England. ... A boarding school is a usually fee-charging school where some or all pupils not only study, but also live during term time, with their fellow students and possibly teachers. ...


Darwin spent the summer of 1825 helping his father treat the poor of Shropshire as an apprentice doctor. In the autumn, he went to the University of Edinburgh, Scotland, to study medicine, but he was revolted by the brutality of surgery and neglected his medical studies. He learned taxidermy from John Edmonstone, a freed black slave who told him exciting tales of the South American rainforest. Later, in The Descent of Man, he used this experience as evidence that "Negroes and Europeans" were closely related despite superficial differences in appearance.[10] The University of Edinburgh (Scottish Gaelic: ), founded in 1582,[4] is a renowned centre for teaching and research in Edinburgh, Scotland. ... “Surgeon” redirects here. ... A mounted snow leopard. ... John Edmonstone is included in the list of 100 Great Black Britons compile by Patrick Vernon. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... The Daintree Rainforest in Queensland, Australia. ... Title page of the first edition of Charles Darwins The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex. ...


In Darwin's second year, he joined the Plinian Society, a student group interested in natural history.[11] He became a keen pupil of Robert Edmund Grant, a proponent of Jean-Baptiste Lamarck's theory of evolution by acquired characteristics, which Charles's grandfather Erasmus had also advocated. On the shores of the Firth of Forth, Darwin joined in Grant's investigations of the life cycle of marine animals. These studies found evidence for homology, the radical theory that all animals have similar organs which differ only in complexity, thus showing common descent.[12] In March 1827, Darwin made a presentation to the Plinian of his own discovery that the black spores often found in oyster shells were the eggs of a skate leech.[13] He also sat in on Robert Jameson's natural history course, learning about stratigraphic geology, receiving training in classifying plants, and assisting with work on the extensive collections of the University Museum, one of the largest museums in Europe at the time.[14] Table of natural history, 1728 Cyclopaedia Natural history is an umbrella term for what are now often viewed as several distinct scientific disciplines of integrative organismal biology. ... Robert Edmond Grant (1793-1874), born in Edinburgh and educated at Edinburgh University as a doctor, became one of the foremost biologists of the early 19th century at Edinburgh and subsequently a professor at London University, particularly noted for his influence on Charles Darwin. ... Jean-Baptiste Lamarck. ... Lamarckism or Lamarckian evolution is a theory put forward by the French biologist Jean-Baptiste Pierre Antoine de Monet, Chevalier de Lamarck, based on heritability of acquired characteristics, the once widely accepted idea that an organism can pass on characteristics that it acquired during its lifetime to its offspring. ... The inheritance of acquired characters (or characteristics) is the hereditary mechanism by which changes in physiology acquired over the life of an organism (such as muscle enlarged through use) are transmitted to offspring. ... The Firth of Forth from Calton Hill The Forth Bridges cross the Firth Satellite photo of the Firth and the surrounding area Map of the Firth Firth of Forth (Scottish Gaelic: Linne Foirthe) is the estuary or firth of Scotlands River Forth, where it flows into the North Sea... Various species of reef fish in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. ... In biology, homology is any similarity between structures that is due to their shared ancestry. ... The term Radical (latin radix meaning root) was used from the late 18th century for proponents of the Radical Movement and has since been used as a label in political science for those favouring or trying to produce thoroughgoing political reforms which can include changes to the social order to... This article is about the biological unit. ... A group of organisms is said to have common descent if they have a common ancestor. ... For other uses, see Oyster (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Leech (disambiguation). ... For the botanist (1832 - 1908), see Robert Jameson at Gerbera. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article includes a list of works cited but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Taxonomy, sometimes alpha taxonomy, is the science of finding, describing and naming organisms, thus giving rise to taxa. ... The main hall of the Royal Museum of Scotland The Royal Museum is a museum on Chambers Street, in Edinburgh, Scotland. ...


In 1827, his father, unhappy at his younger son's lack of progress, shrewdly enrolled him in a Bachelor of Arts course at Christ's College, Cambridge to qualify as a clergyman, expecting him to get a good income as an Anglican parson.[15] However, Darwin preferred riding and shooting to studying.[16] Along with his cousin William Darwin Fox, he became engrossed in the craze at the time for the competitive collecting of beetles.[17] Fox introduced him to the Reverend John Stevens Henslow, professor of botany, for expert advice on beetles. Darwin subsequently joined Henslow's natural history course and became his favourite pupil, known to the dons as "the man who walks with Henslow".[18][19] When exams drew near, Darwin focused on his studies and received private instruction from Henslow. Darwin was particularly enthusiastic about the writings of William Paley, including the argument for divine design in nature.[20] It has been argued that Darwin's enthusiasm for Paley's religious adaptationism paradoxically played a role even later, when Darwin formulated his theory of natural selection.[21] In his finals in January 1831, he performed well in theology and, having scraped through in classics, mathematics and physics, came tenth out of a pass list of 178.[22] A B.A. issued from the University of Tennessee. ... College name Christ’s College Named after Jesus Christ Established 1505 Previously named God’s-house (1437-1505) Location St. ... A parson is a member of the Protestant clergy. ... A young rider at a horse show in Australia. ... The shooting sports include those competitive sports involving tests of proficiency (accuracy and speed) using various types of guns such as firearms and airguns (see Archery for more information on shooting sports that make use of bows and arrows). ... William Darwin Fox The Reverend William Darwin Fox (1805-1880) was an English clergyman, naturalist and a 2nd cousin of Charles Robert Darwin. ... For other uses, see Beetle (disambiguation). ... John Stevens Henslow (February 6, 1796 - May 16, 1861) was an English botanist and geologist. ... Pinguicula grandiflora Example of a Cross Section of a Stem [1] Botany is the scientific study of plant life. ... In universities, especially traditiona colleageate universities such as Oxford and Cambridge, a don is traditionally, a fellow or tutor of a college. ... William Paley William Paley (July 1743 – May 25, 1805) was an English divine, Christian apologist, utilitarian, and philosopher. ... A teleological argument, or argument from design, is an argument for the existence of God or a creator based on perceived evidence of order, purpose, design and/or direction in nature. ... Theology finds its scholars pursuing the understanding of and providing reasoned discourse of religion, spirituality and God or the gods. ... For other uses, see Classics (disambiguation). ... Euclid, Greek mathematician, 3rd century BC, as imagined by by Raphael in this detail from The School of Athens. ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ...


Residential requirements kept Darwin at Cambridge until June. Following Henslow's example and advice, he was in no rush to take Holy Orders. Inspired by Alexander von Humboldt's Personal Narrative, he planned to visit the Madeira Islands with some classmates after graduation to study natural history in the tropics. To prepare himself, Darwin joined the geology course of the Reverend Adam Sedgwick and, in the summer, went with him to assist in mapping strata in Wales.[23] After a fortnight with student friends at Barmouth, he returned home to find a letter from Henslow recommending Darwin as a suitable (if unfinished) naturalist for the unpaid position of gentleman's companion to Robert FitzRoy, the captain of HMS Beagle, which was to leave in four weeks on an expedition to chart the coastline of South America. His father objected to the planned two-year voyage, regarding it as a waste of time, but was persuaded by his brother-in-law, Josiah Wedgwood, to agree to his son's participation.[24] Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Catholic deacon... An 1859 portrait of Alexander von Humboldt by the artist Julius Schrader, showing Mount Chimborazo in the background. ... Location Motto of the autonomous region: Das ilhas, as mais belas e livres (Portuguese: Of the islands, the most beautiful and free) Official language Portuguese Capital Funchal Other towns Porto Santo, Machico, Santa Cruz, Câmara de Lobos, Santana, Ribeira Brava, Caniço Area 797 km² Population  - Total (1991)  - Density... A noontime scene from the Philippines on a day when the Sun is almost directly overhead. ... Adam Sedgwick (March 22nd, 1785–January 27, 1873) was one of the founders of modern geology. ... This article is about the country. ... Barmouth (Welsh: Abermaw (formal); Y Bermo (colloquial)) is a town in the administrative county of Gwynedd, traditional county of Merionethshire, north-western Wales, lying on the estuary of the River Mawddach and Cardigan Bay. ... Vice-Admiral Robert FitzRoy (5 July 1805 – 30 April 1865) achieved lasting fame as the captain of HMS Beagle and as a pioneering meteorologist who made accurate weather forecasting a reality, also proving an able surveyor and hydrographer as well as Governor-General of New Zealand. ... HMS Beagle was a Cherokee class 10-gun brig of the Royal Navy, named after the beagle, a breed of dog. ... Josiah Wedgwood II (1769-1843) was Member of Parliament for Stoke-on-Trent. ...


Journey of the Beagle

For more details on this topic, see Second voyage of HMS Beagle.
The voyage of the Beagle.
The voyage of the Beagle.

The Beagle survey took five years, two-thirds of which Darwin spent on land. He carefully noted a rich variety of geological features, fossils and living organisms, and methodically collected an enormous number of specimens, many of them new to science.[1] At intervals during the voyage he sent specimens to Cambridge together with letters about his findings, and these established his reputation as a naturalist. His extensive detailed notes showed his gift for theorising and formed the basis for his later work. The journal he originally wrote for his family, published as The Voyage of the Beagle, summarises his findings and provides social, political and anthropological insights into the wide range of people he met, both native and colonial.[25] On its second voyage, much of it chronicled by Charles Darwin in his book, The Voyage of the Beagle, the HMS Beagle crossed the Atlantic towards Tierra Del Fuego, and carried out surveying especially of the West coast of South America, as well as a number of Pacific islands. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2712x1537, 450 KB)[edit] Summary adapted from http://de. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2712x1537, 450 KB)[edit] Summary adapted from http://de. ... For other uses, see Fossil (disambiguation). ... A watercolor by the HMS Beagles draughtsman, Conrad Martens. ... Anthropology (from Greek: ἀνθρωπος, anthropos, human being; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the study of humanity. ...


While on board the ship, Darwin suffered badly from seasickness.[26] In October 1833 he caught a fever in Argentina, and in July 1834, while returning from the Andes down to Valparaíso, he fell ill and spent a month in bed.[27] Valparaiso National Congress Valparaíso is Chile’s most important seaport and an increasingly vital cultural center. ...


Before they set out, FitzRoy gave Darwin the first volume of Charles Lyell's Principles of Geology, which explained landforms as the outcome of gradual processes over huge periods of time.[II] On their first stop ashore at St Jago, Darwin found that a white band high in the volcanic rock cliffs consisted of baked coral fragments and shells. This matched Lyell's concept of land slowly rising or falling, giving Darwin a new insight into the geological history of the island which inspired him to think of writing a book on geology.[28] He went on to make many more discoveries, some of them particularly dramatic.[1] He saw stepped plains of shingle and seashells in Patagonia as raised beaches, and after experiencing an earthquake in Chile saw mussel-beds stranded above high tide showing that the land had just been raised. High in the Andes he saw several fossil trees that had grown on a sand beach, with seashells nearby. He theorised that coral atolls form on sinking volcanic mountains, and confirmed this when the Beagle surveyed the Cocos (Keeling) Islands.[29] This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Santiago (Portuguese for Saint James), or Santiagu in the local Bádiu language, is the largest island of Cape Verde, its most important agricultural centre and home to half the nations population. ... Ignimbrite is a deposit of a pyroclastic flow. ... Extant Subclasses and Orders Alcyonaria    Alcyonacea    Helioporacea Zoantharia    Antipatharia    Corallimorpharia    Scleractinia    Zoanthidea [1][2]  See Anthozoa for details For other uses, see Coral (disambiguation). ... Patagonia, as most commonly defined (in orange). ... Although this raised beach at Rhossili (Wales) is now used for farmland, it provides evidence of a glacioeustatic rise in the land of this area. ... Subclasses Pteriomorpha (marine mussels) Palaeoheterodonta (freshwater mussels) Heterodonta (zebra mussels) The term mussel is used for several families of bivalve molluscs inhabiting lakes, rivers, and creeks, as well as intertidal areas along coastlines worldwide. ... This article is about the mountain system in South America. ... Portion of a Pacific atoll showing two islets on the ribbon or barrier reef separated by a deep pass between the ocean and the lagoon. ...


In South America, Darwin found and excavated rare fossils of gigantic extinct mammals in strata with modern seashells, indicating recent extinction and no change in climate or signs of catastrophe. Though he correctly identified one as a Megatherium and fragments of armour reminded him of the local armadillo, he assumed his finds were related to African or European species and it was a revelation to him after the voyage when Richard Owen showed that they were closely related to living creatures exclusively found in the Americas.[30] Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass †Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass †Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria Mammals (class Mammalia) are warm-blooded, vertebrate animals characterized by the presence of sweat glands, including those that produce milk, and by the presence of: hair, three middle ear bones used in hearing, and a neocortex... Megatheriinae were a subfamily of elephant-sized ground sloths that lived from 2 million to 8,000 years ago. ... For other uses, see Armadillo (disambiguation). ... Sir Richard Owen KCB (July 20, 1804–December 18, 1892) was an English biologist, comparative anatomist and palaeontologist. ...

As HMS Beagle surveyed the coasts of South America, Darwin began to theorise about the wonders of nature around him.
As HMS Beagle surveyed the coasts of South America, Darwin began to theorise about the wonders of nature around him.

Lyell's second volume, which argued against evolutionism and explained species distribution by "centres of creation", was sent out to Darwin. He puzzled over all he saw, and his ideas went beyond Lyell.[31] In Argentina, he found that two types of rhea had separate but overlapping territories. On the Galápagos Islands, he collected mockingbirds and noted that they were different depending on which island they came from. He also heard that local Spaniards could tell from their appearance on which island tortoises originated, but thought the creatures had been imported by buccaneers.[32] In Australia, the marsupial rat-kangaroo and the platypus seemed so unusual that Darwin thought it was almost as though two distinct Creators had been at work.[33] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1235x821, 71 KB) Summary HMS Beagle in the seaways of Tierra del Fuego, painting by Conrad Martens during the voyage of the Beagle (1831-1836), from The Illustrated Origin of Species by Charles Darwin, abridged and illustrated by Richard Leakey ISBN... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1235x821, 71 KB) Summary HMS Beagle in the seaways of Tierra del Fuego, painting by Conrad Martens during the voyage of the Beagle (1831-1836), from The Illustrated Origin of Species by Charles Darwin, abridged and illustrated by Richard Leakey ISBN... HMS Beagle was a Cherokee class 10-gun brig of the Royal Navy, named after the beagle, a breed of dog. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Species R. americana R. pennata The Rhea, also known as ñandú (pronounced ) in Spanish, or ema in Portuguese, is a large flightless ratite bird native to South America. ... This article is about the islands. ... For other uses, see Mockingbird (disambiguation). ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... This article refers to the type of pirate. ... This article is about mammals. ... The marsupial family Potoridae includes the bettongs, potoroos and rat-kangaroos. ... For other uses, see Platypus (disambiguation). ...


In Cape Town he and FitzRoy met John Herschel, who had recently written to Lyell about that "mystery of mysteries", the origin of species. When organising his notes on the return journey, Darwin wrote that if his growing suspicions about the mockingbirds and tortoises were correct, "such facts undermine the stability of Species", then cautiously added "would" before "undermine".[34] He later wrote that such facts "seemed to me to throw some light on the origin of species".[35] Nickname: Motto: Spes Bona (Latin for Good Hope) Location of the City of Cape Town in Western Cape Province Coordinates: , Country Province Municipality City of Cape Town Metropolitan Municipality Founded 1652 Government [1]  - Type City council  - Mayor Helen Zille  - City manager Achmat Ebrahim Area  - City 2,499 km²  (964. ... John Herschel Sir John Frederick William Herschel (7 March 1792 – 11 May 1871) was an English mathematician and astronomer. ...


Three natives who had been taken from Tierra del Fuego on the Beagle's previous voyage were taken back there to become missionaries. They had become "civilised" in England over the previous two years, yet their relatives appeared to Darwin to be "miserable, degraded savages".[36] A year on, the mission had been abandoned and only Jemmy Button spoke with them to say he preferred his harsh previous way of life and did not want to return to England. Because of this experience, Darwin came to think that humans were not as far removed from animals as his friends then believed, and saw differences as relating to cultural advances towards civilisation rather than being racial. He detested the slavery he saw elsewhere in South America, and was saddened by the effects of European settlement on Aborigines in Australia and Maori in New Zealand.[37] Tierra del Fuego Cerro Sombrero Village, Chile. ... HMS Beagle (centre), watercolour by Owen Stanley (1841) Orundellico, known as Jemmy Button, (c. ... Slave redirects here. ... Languages Several hundred Indigenous Australian languages (many extinct or nearly so), Australian English, Australian Aboriginal English, Torres Strait Creole, Kriol Religions Primarily Christian, with minorities of other religions including various forms of Traditional belief systems based around the Dreamtime Related ethnic groups see List of Indigenous Australian group names Indigenous...


Captain FitzRoy was committed to writing the official Narrative of the Beagle voyages, and near the end of the voyage, he read Darwin's diary and asked him to rewrite this Journal to provide the third volume, on natural history.[38]


Inception of Darwin's evolutionary theory

For more details on this topic, see Inception of Darwin's theory.
While still a young man, Charles Darwin joined the scientific élite.
While still a young man, Charles Darwin joined the scientific élite.

While Darwin was still on the voyage, Henslow fostered his former pupil's reputation by giving selected naturalists access to the fossil specimens and a pamphlet of Darwin's geological letters.[39] When the Beagle returned on 2 October 1836, Darwin was a celebrity in scientific circles. After visiting his home in Shrewsbury and seeing relatives, Darwin hurried to Cambridge to see Henslow, who advised on finding naturalists available to describe and catalogue the collections, and agreed to take on the botanical specimens. Darwin's father organised investments, enabling his son to be a self-funded gentleman scientist, and an excited Darwin went round the London institutions being fêted and seeking experts to describe the collections. Zoologists had a huge backlog of work, and there was a danger of specimens just being left in storage.[40] The inception of Darwins theory began with a search for explanations of contradictions in current Creationist ideas, and led him to formulate his theory of evolution which was eventually published in his book On the Origin of Species. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (511x771, 34 KB) Summary Water-colour portrait of Charles Darwin painted by George Richmond in the late 1830s. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (511x771, 34 KB) Summary Water-colour portrait of Charles Darwin painted by George Richmond in the late 1830s. ... John Stevens Henslow (February 6, 1796 - May 16, 1861) was an English botanist and geologist. ... is the 275th day of the year (276th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1836 (MDCCCXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... This article is about the city in England. ... For other uses, see Gentleman (disambiguation). ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ...


An eager Charles Lyell met Darwin for the first time on 29 October and soon introduced him to the up-and-coming anatomist Richard Owen, who had the facilities of the Royal College of Surgeons at his disposal to work on the fossil bones collected by Darwin. Owen's surprising results included gigantic sloths, a hippopotamus-like skull from the extinct rodent Toxodon, and armour fragments from a huge extinct armadillo (Glyptodon), as Darwin had initially surmised.[41] The fossil creatures were unrelated to African animals, but closely related to living species in South America.[42] This article does not cite any references or sources. ... is the 302nd day of the year (303rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Sir Richard Owen KCB (July 20, 1804–December 18, 1892) was an English biologist, comparative anatomist and palaeontologist. ... The Royal College of Surgeons of England is an independent professional body committed to promoting and advancing the highest standards of surgical care for patients. ... This article is about the South American mammal. ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758[2] Range map[1] The hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibius), from the Greek ‘ιπποπόταμος (hippopotamos, hippos meaning horse and potamos meaning river), often shortened to hippo, is a large, mostly plant-eating African mammal, one of only two extant species in the family Hippopotamidae (the other being the Pygmy... Suborders Sciuromorpha Castorimorpha Myomorpha Anomaluromorpha Hystricomorpha Rodentia is an order of mammals also known as rodents. ... Binomial name Toxodon platensis Owen, 1837 Toxodon is a genus of mammals, similar to the capybara but now extinct, that lived in the late Pliocene and Pleistocene epochs in South America. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ...


In mid-December, Darwin moved to Cambridge to organise work on his collections and rewrite his Journal.[43] He wrote his first paper, showing that the South American landmass was slowly rising, and with Lyell's enthusiastic backing read it to the Geological Society of London on 4 January 1837. On the same day, he presented his mammal and bird specimens to the Zoological Society. The ornithologist John Gould soon revealed that the Galapagos birds that Darwin had thought a mixture of blackbirds, "gross-beaks" and finches, were, in fact, twelve separate species of finches. On 17 February 1837, Darwin was elected to the Council of the Geographical Society, and in his presidential address, Lyell presented Owen's findings on Darwin's fossils, stressing geographical continuity of species as supporting his uniformitarian ideas.[44] The Geological Society of London is a learned society based in England with the aim of investigating the mineral structure of the Earth. It is the oldest national geological society in the world and the largest in Europe with over 9000 Fellows entitled to the postnominal FGS - over 2000 of... is the 4th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Queen Victoria, Queen of the United Kingdom (1837 - 1901) 1837 (MDCCCXXXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... The Zoological Society of London (sometimes known by the abbreviation ZSL) is a learned society founded in April 1826 by Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles, Lord Auckland, Sir Humphry Davy, Joseph Sabine, Nicholas Aylward Vigors and other eminent naturalists. ... John Gould John Gould (14 September 1804 – 3 February 1881) was an English ornithologist. ... Genera 24 genera, see text The Icterids are a group of small to medium, often colourful passerine birds restricted to the New World. ... Grosbeak is the name given to several species of seed-eating passerine bird with large bills, in the finch and cardinal families. ... Genera Many, see text Finches are passerine birds, often seed-eating, found chiefly in the northern hemisphere and Africa. ... Genera Geospiza Camarhynchus Certhidea Pinaroloxias Darwins finches (also known as the Galápagos Finches) are 13 or 14 different but closely related species of finches Charles Darwin collected on the Galápagos Islands during the voyage of the Beagle. ... is the 48th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Queen Victoria, Queen of the United Kingdom (1837 - 1901) 1837 (MDCCCXXXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Uniformitarianism, in the philosophy of science, is the assumption that the natural processes operating in the past are the same as those that can be observed operating in the present. ...

Darwin's first sketch of an evolutionary tree from his First Notebook on Transmutation of Species (1837)
Darwin's first sketch of an evolutionary tree from his First Notebook on Transmutation of Species (1837)

On 6 March 1837, Darwin moved to London to be close to this work, and joined the social whirl around scientists and savants such as Charles Babbage, who thought that God preordained life by natural laws rather than ad hoc miraculous creations. Darwin lived near his freethinking brother Erasmus, who was part of this Whig circle and whose close friend the writer Harriet Martineau promoted the ideas of Thomas Malthus underlying the Whig "Poor Law reforms" aimed at discouraging the poor from breeding beyond available food supplies. John Herschel's question on the origin of species was widely discussed. Medical men including Dr. Gully even joined Grant in endorsing transmutation of species, but to Darwin's scientist friends such radical heresy attacked the divine basis of the social order already under threat from recession and riots.[45] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 353 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (695 × 1181 pixel, file size: 52 KB, MIME type: image/png) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Image:Darwin tree. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 353 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (695 × 1181 pixel, file size: 52 KB, MIME type: image/png) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Image:Darwin tree. ... Darwins work was originally entitled Phylogeny via Oogeny. ... is the 65th day of the year (66th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Queen Victoria, Queen of the United Kingdom (1837 - 1901) 1837 (MDCCCXXXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Look up savant in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Babbage redirects here. ... Natural law or the law of nature (Latin: lex naturalis) is an ethical theory that posits the existence of a law whose content is set by nature and that therefore has validity everywhere. ... Ad hoc is a Latin phrase which means for this [purpose]. It generally signifies a solution that has been tailored to a specific purpose, such as a tailor-made suit, a handcrafted network protocol, and specific-purpose equation and things like that. ... Freethought is a philosophical viewpoint that holds that beliefs should be formed on the basis of science and logical principles and not be compromised by authority, tradition, or any other dogma. ... Erasmus Darwin Stone-cast bust of Erasmus Darwin, by William John Coffee, c 1795, (Crown Derby Modeller and world renown artist) Erasmus Darwin ( December 12, 1731 – April 18, 1802) trained as a physician and wrote extensively on medicine and botany, as well as poetry. ... The Whigs (with the Tories) are often described as one of two political parties in England and later the United Kingdom from the late 17th to the mid 19th centuries. ... Harriet Martineau Harriet Martineau (June 12, 1802 - June 27, 1876) was an English writer and philosopher, renowned in her day as a controversial journalist, political economist, abolitionist and life-long feminist. ... Thomas Robert Malthus, FRS (13th February, 1766 – 29th December, 1834), was an English demographer and political economist. ... This article deals chiefly with the English Poor Laws covering England and Wales. ... John Herschel Sir John Frederick William Herschel (7 March 1792 – 11 May 1871) was an English mathematician and astronomer. ... Dr James Manby Gully (1808 - 1883), was a Victorian medical doctor, well known for practising hydrotherapy, or the water cure. Along with his partner James Wilson, he founded a very successful hydropathy (as it was then called) clinic in Malvern, Worcestershire, which attracted many notable Victorians, including such figures as... Robert Edmond Grant (1793-1874), born in Edinburgh and educated at Edinburgh University as a doctor, became one of the foremost biologists of the early 19th century at Edinburgh and subsequently a professor at London University, particularly noted for his influence on Charles Darwin. ... Transmutation of species refers to the altering of one species into another. ... The term Radical (latin radix meaning root) was used from the late 18th century for proponents of the Radical Movement and has since been used as a label in political science for those favouring or trying to produce thoroughgoing political reforms which can include changes to the social order to...


Gould now revealed that the Galapagos mockingbirds from different islands were separate species, not just varieties, and the "wrens" were yet another species of finches. Darwin had not kept track of which islands the finch specimens were from, but found information from the notes of others on the Beagle, including FitzRoy, who had more carefully recorded their own collections. The zoologist Thomas Bell showed that the Galápagos tortoises were native to the islands. By mid-March, Darwin was convinced that creatures arriving in the islands had become altered in some way to form new species on the different islands, and investigated transmutation while noting his speculations in his "Red Notebook" which he had begun on the Beagle. In mid-July, he began his secret "B" notebook on transmutation, and on page 36 wrote "I think" above his first sketch of an evolutionary tree.[46] For other uses, see Mockingbird (disambiguation). ... Genera Donacobius Campylorhynchus Odontorchilus Salpinctes Catherpes Hylorchilus Cinnycerthia Thryomanes Ferminia Troglodytes Cistothorus Uropsila Thryorchilus Thryothorus Henicorhina Microcerculus Cyphorhinus Wren (Troglodytes troglodytes) Stamp FR 345 of Postverk Føroya, Faroe Islands Issued: 22 February 1999 Artist: Astrid Andreasen The true wrens are members of a mainly New World passerine bird family... Thomas Bell (October 11, 1792 - March 13, 1880) was an English zoologist, surgeon and writer, born in Poole, UK. Bell, like his mother Susan, took a keen interest in natural history which his mother also encouraged in his younger cousin Philip Henry Gosse. ... Binomial name (Quoy & Gaimard, 1824) Synonyms Geochelone elephantopus (Harlan, 1827) The Galápagos tortoise (or Galápagos giant tortoise), is the largest living tortoise, endemic to nine islands of the Galápagos archipelago. ...


Overwork, illness, and marriage

As well as launching into this intensive study of transmutation, Darwin became mired in more work. While still rewriting his Journal, he took on editing and publishing the expert reports on his collections, and with Henslow's help obtained a Treasury grant of £1,000 to sponsor this multi-volume Zoology of the Voyage of H.M.S. Beagle. He agreed to unrealistic dates for this and for a book on South American Geology supporting Lyell's ideas. Darwin finished writing his Journal around 20 June 1837 just as Queen Victoria came to the throne, but then had its proofs to correct.[47] Transmutation of species refers to the altering of one species into another. ... “GBP” redirects here. ... The Zoology of the Voyage of H.M.S. Beagle Under the Command of Captain Fitzroy, R.N., during the Years 1832 to 1836 is a 5-part book published unbound in nineteen numbers as they were ready, between February 1838 and October 1843. ... is the 171st day of the year (172nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Queen Victoria, Queen of the United Kingdom (1837 - 1901) 1837 (MDCCCXXXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... “Queen Victoria” redirects here. ...


Darwin's health suffered from the pressure. On 20 September 1837, he had "palpitations of the heart". On doctor's advice that a month of recuperation was needed, he went to Shrewsbury then on to visit his Wedgwood relatives at Maer Hall, but found them too eager for tales of his travels to give him much rest. His charming, intelligent, and cultured cousin Emma Wedgwood, nine months older than Darwin, was nursing his invalid aunt. His uncle Jos pointed out an area of ground where cinders had disappeared under loam and suggested that this might have been the work of earthworms. This inspired a talk which Darwin gave to the Geological Society on 1 November, the first demonstration of the role of earthworms in soil formation.[48] is the 263rd day of the year (264th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Queen Victoria, Queen of the United Kingdom (1837 - 1901) 1837 (MDCCCXXXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... The large 17th century stone built country house and estate of Maer Hall dominates the village of Maer, Staffordshire. ... Emma Darwin Emma Darwin (née Wedgwood, 2 May 1808–7 October 1896) was the wife and cousin of the English naturalist Charles Darwin and mother to their ten children. ... Josiah Wedgwood II (1769-1843) was Member of Parliament for Stoke-on-Trent. ... Loam is soil composed of a relatively even mixture of three mineral particle size groups: sand, silt, and clay. ... Families   Acanthodrilidae   Ailoscolecidae   Alluroididae   Almidae   Criodrilidae   Eudrilidae   Exxidae   Glossoscolecidae   Lumbricidae   Lutodrilidae   Megascolecidae   Microchaetidae   Ocnerodrilidae   Octochaetidae   Sparganophilidae Earthworm is the common name for the largest members of the Oligochaeta (which is either a class or subclass depending on the author) in the phylum Annelida. ... is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Pedogenesis or soil evolution (formation) is the process by which soil is created. ...


William Whewell pushed Darwin to take on the duties of Secretary of the Geological Society. After first declining this extra work, he accepted the post in March 1838.[49] Despite the grind of writing and editing, remarkable progress was made on transmutation. While keeping his developing ideas secret, Darwin took every opportunity to question expert naturalists and, unconventionally, people with practical experience such as farmers and pigeon fanciers.[1][50] Over time his research drew on information from his relatives and children, the family butler, neighbours, colonists and former shipmates.[51] He included mankind in his speculations from the outset, and on seeing an ape in the zoo on 28 March 1838 noted its child-like behaviour.[52] William Whewell In later life William Whewell (May 24, 1794 – March 6, 1866) was an English polymath, scientist, Anglican priest, philosopher, theologian, and historian of science. ... Doocot at Newark Castle in a converted corner tower of the original outer defensive wall. ... This article is about the biological superfamily. ... is the 87th day of the year (88th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... | Jöns Jakob Berzelius, discoverer of protein 1838 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ...


The strain took its toll, and by June he was being laid up for days on end with stomach problems, headaches and heart symptoms.[53] For the rest of his life, he was repeatedly incapacitated with episodes of stomach pains, vomiting, severe boils, palpitations, trembling and other symptoms, particularly during times of stress, such as when attending meetings or dealing with controversy over his theory. The cause of Darwin's illness was unknown during his lifetime, and attempts at treatment had little success. Recent attempts at diagnosis have suggested Chagas disease caught from insect bites in South America, Ménière's disease, or various psychological illnesses as possible causes, without any conclusive results.[54] Boil or furuncle is a skin disease caused by the inflammation of hair follicles, thus resulting in the localized accumulation of pus and dead tissues. ... Charles Darwin (1809-1882) For much of his adult life Charles Darwins illness repeatedly affected him with an uncommon combination of symptoms, leaving him severely debilitated for long periods of time, incapable of normal life and intellectual production, staying in bed most of the time for months. ... Ménières disease (or syndrome, since its cause is unknown) is named after the French physician Prosper Ménière, who first reported that vertigo was caused by inner ear disorders in an article published in 1861. ...


On 23 June 1838, he took a break from the pressure of work and went "geologising" in Scotland. He visited Glen Roy in glorious weather to see the parallel "roads", horizontal ledges cut into the hillsides. He thought that these were raised beaches: they were later shown to have been shorelines of a glacial lake.[55] is the 174th day of the year (175th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... | Jöns Jakob Berzelius, discoverer of protein 1838 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Glen Roy in the Lochaber area of the Highlands of Scotland is a National Nature Reserve and is noted for the geological puzzle of the three roads. ... Although this raised beach at Rhossili (Wales) is now used for farmland, it provides evidence of a glacioeustatic rise in the land of this area. ... The Seven Rila Lakes in Rila, Bulgaria are typical representatives of lakes with glacial origin A glacial lake is a lake with origins in a melted glacier. ...

Charles chose to marry his cousin, Emma Wedgwood.
Charles chose to marry his cousin, Emma Wedgwood.

Fully recuperated, he returned to Shrewsbury in July. Used to jotting down daily notes on animal breeding, he scrawled rambling thoughts about career and prospects on two scraps of paper, one with columns headed "Marry" and "Not Marry". Advantages included "constant companion and a friend in old age ... better than a dog anyhow", against points such as "less money for books" and "terrible loss of time."[56] Having decided in favour, he discussed it with his father, then went to visit Emma on 29 July 1838. He did not get around to proposing, but against his father's advice he mentioned his ideas on transmutation.[57] Emma Darwin. ... Emma Darwin. ... Emma Darwin Emma Darwin (née Wedgwood, 2 May 1808–7 October 1896) was the wife and cousin of the English naturalist Charles Darwin and mother to their ten children. ... is the 210th day of the year (211th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... | Jöns Jakob Berzelius, discoverer of protein 1838 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ...


Continuing his research in London, Darwin's wide reading now included "for amusement" the 6th edition of Malthus's An Essay on the Principle of Population which calculates from the birth rate that human population could double every 25 years, but in practice growth is kept in check by death, disease, wars and famine.[1][58] Darwin was well prepared to see at once that this also applied to de Candolle's "warring of the species" of plants and the struggle for existence among wildlife, explaining how numbers of a species kept roughly stable. As species always breed beyond available resources, favourable variations would make organisms better at surviving and passing the variations on to their offspring, while unfavourable variations would be lost. This would result in the formation of new species.[59] On 28 September 1838 he noted this insight, describing it as a kind of wedging, forcing adapted structures into gaps in the economy of nature as weaker structures were thrust out.[1] He now had a theory by which to work, and over the following months compared farmers picking the best breeding stock to a Malthusian Nature selecting from variants thrown up by "chance" so that "every part of [every] newly acquired structure is fully practised and perfected", and thought this analogy "the most beautiful part of my theory".[60] Thomas Robert Malthus, FRS (13th February, 1766 – 29th December, 1834), was an English demographer and political economist. ... An Essay on the Principle of Population was first published anonymously in 1798. ... A. P. de Candolle A. P. de Candolle (February 4, 1778 - September 9, 1841) was one of the great botanists of all time. ... is the 271st day of the year (272nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... | Jöns Jakob Berzelius, discoverer of protein 1838 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ...


On 11 November, he returned to Maer and proposed to Emma, once more telling her his ideas. She accepted, then in exchanges of loving letters she showed how she valued his openness, but her upbringing as a very devout Anglican led her to express fears that his lapses of faith could endanger her hopes to meet in the afterlife.[61] While he was house-hunting in London, bouts of illness continued and Emma wrote urging him to get some rest, almost prophetically remarking "So don't be ill any more my dear Charley till I can be with you to nurse you." He found what they called "Macaw Cottage" (because of its gaudy interiors) in Gower Street, then moved his "museum" in over Christmas. The marriage was arranged for 24 January 1839, but the Wedgwoods set the date back. On the 24th, Darwin was honoured by being elected as Fellow of the Royal Society.[62] is the 315th day of the year (316th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Anglicanism commonly refers to the beliefs and practices of the Anglican Communion, the churches that are in full communion with the see of Canterbury. ... Gower Street Gower Street is a street in Bloomsbury, central London, England, running between Euston Road to the north and Montague Place to the south. ... is the 24th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1839 (MDCCCXXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... The Fellowship of the Royal Society was founded in 1660. ... For other uses, see Royal Society (disambiguation). ...


On 29 January 1839, Darwin and Emma Wedgwood were married at Maer in an Anglican ceremony arranged to suit the Unitarians, then immediately caught the train to London and their new home.[63] is the 29th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1839 (MDCCCXXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ...


Preparing the theory of natural selection for publication

For more details on this topic, see Development of Darwin's theory.

Darwin had found the basis of his theory of natural selection, but was aware of how much work remained to make it credible to his fiercely critical scientific colleagues. As Secretary of the Geological Society at its meeting on 19 December 1838, he saw Owen and Buckland display their hatred of evolution when destroying the reputation of his old Lamarckian teacher Grant.[64] Work on his Beagle findings continued, and as well as consulting animal husbanders he carried out extensive experiments with plants, trying to find evidence answering all the arguments he anticipated when his theory was made public.[65] When FitzRoy's Narrative was published in May 1839, Darwin's Journal and Remarks (The Voyage of the Beagle) as the third volume was such a success that later that year it was published on its own.[66] The Development of Darwins theory began with a search for explanations of contradictions in current faith based ideas, and led him to formulate his theory of evolution which was eventually published in his book On the Origin of Species, a turning point in the history of evolutionary thought. ... For other uses, see Natural selection (disambiguation). ... is the 353rd day of the year (354th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... | Jöns Jakob Berzelius, discoverer of protein 1838 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Sir Richard Owen KCB (July 20, 1804–December 18, 1892) was an English biologist, comparative anatomist and palaeontologist. ... William Buckland (12 March 1784 - 24 August 1856) was a prominent English geologist and palaeontologist who wrote the first full account of a fossil dinosaur, a proponent of Old Earth creationism and Flood geology who later became convinced by the glaciation theory of Louis Agassiz. ... Lamarckism or Lamarckian evolution is a theory put forward by the French biologist Jean-Baptiste Pierre Antoine de Monet, Chevalier de Lamarck, based on heritability of acquired characteristics, the once widely accepted idea that an organism can pass on characteristics that it acquired during its lifetime to its offspring. ... Robert Edmond Grant (1793-1874), born in Edinburgh and educated at Edinburgh University as a doctor, became one of the foremost biologists of the early 19th century at Edinburgh and subsequently a professor at London University, particularly noted for his influence on Charles Darwin. ... Shepherd with his sheep in Făgăraş Mountains, Romania. ... A watercolor by the HMS Beagles draughtsman, Conrad Martens. ...


Early in 1842, Darwin sent a letter about his ideas to Lyell, who was dismayed that his ally now denied "seeing a beginning to each crop of species". In May, Darwin's book on coral reefs was published after more than three years of work, and he then wrote a "pencil sketch" of his theory.[67] To escape the pressures of London, the family moved to rural Down House in November.[68] On 11 January 1844 Darwin wrote to his botanist friend Joseph Dalton Hooker about his theory, saying it was like confessing "a murder", but to his relief Hooker thought that "there might have been a gradual change of species" and expressed interest in Darwin's explanation. By July, Darwin had expanded his "sketch" into a 230-page "Essay".[69] His fears that his ideas would be dismissed as Lamarckian Radicalism were reawakened by controversy over the anonymous publication in October of Vestiges of the Natural History of Creation, which was severely attacked by establishment scientists. However, the book was a best-seller and widened middle-class interest in transmutation, paving the way for Darwin as well as reminding him of the need to answer all difficulties before making his theory public. Darwin completed his third geological book in 1846, and embarked on a huge study of barnacles with the assistance of Hooker. In 1847, Hooker read the "Essay" and sent notes that provided Darwin with the calm critical feedback that he needed, but would not commit himself and questioned Darwin's opposition to continuing acts of Creation.[70] This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Some of the biodiversity of a coral reef, in this case the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. ... Down House, photo by Richard Carter Down House is the former home of the English naturalist Charles Darwin and his family. ... is the 11th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Jan. ... Joseph Dalton Hooker Joseph Dalton Hooker Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker, GCSI, OM, FRS, MD (June 30, 1817 – December 10, 1911) was an English botanist and traveller. ... Jean-Baptiste Lamarck. ... The term Radical (latin radix meaning root) was used from the late 18th century for proponents of the Radical Movement and has since been used as a label in political science for those favouring or trying to produce thoroughgoing political reforms which can include changes to the social order to... Vestiges of the Natural History of Creation was a book published anonymously in England in 1844. ... Superorders Acrothoracica Thoracica Rhizocephala A barnacle is a type of arthropod belonging to infraclass Cirripedia in the subphylum Crustacea and is hence distantly related to crabs and lobsters. ... Creation (theology) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ...


In an attempt to improve his chronic ill health, Darwin went to a spa in Malvern in 1849. To his surprise, he found that two months of water treatment helped.[71] Then his treasured daughter Annie fell ill, reawakening his fears that his illness might be hereditary. After a long series of crises, she died and Darwin lost all faith in a beneficent God.[72] Great Malvern is a town in Worcestershire, England positioned at the foot of, and partly on the sides of, the Malvern Hills. ... In the philosophy of religion and theology, the problem of evil is the problem of reconciling the existence of evil or suffering in the world with the existence of a god. ...


Darwin's eight years of work on barnacles (Cirripedia) found "homologies" that supported his theory by showing that slightly changed body parts could serve different functions to meet new conditions.[73] In 1853 it earned him the Royal Society's Royal Medal, and it made his reputation as a biologist.[74] In 1854 he resumed work on his theory of species, and in November realised that divergence in the character of descendants could be explained by them becoming adapted to "diversified places in the economy of nature".[75] In biology, homology is any similarity between structures that is due to their shared ancestry. ... For other uses, see Royal Society (disambiguation). ... Biology studies the variety of life (clockwise from top-left) E. coli, tree fern, gazelle, Goliath beetle Biology (from Greek: βίος, bio, life; and λόγος, logos, knowledge), also referred to as the biological sciences, is the study of living organisms utilizing the scientific method. ...


Publication of the theory of natural selection

For more details on this topic, see Publication of Darwin's theory.
Darwin was forced into early publication of his theory of natural selection.
Darwin was forced into early publication of his theory of natural selection.

By the start of 1856, Darwin was investigating whether eggs and seeds could survive travel across seawater to spread species across oceans. Hooker increasingly doubted the traditional view that species were fixed, but their young friend Thomas Henry Huxley was firmly against evolution. Lyell was intrigued by Darwin's speculations without realising their extent. When he read a paper by Alfred Russel Wallace on the Introduction of species, he saw similarities with Darwin's thoughts and urged him to publish to establish precedence. Though Darwin saw no threat, he began work on a short paper. Finding answers to difficult questions held him up repeatedly, and he expanded his plans to a "big book on species" titled Natural Selection. He continued his researches, obtaining information and specimens from naturalists worldwide including Wallace who was working in Borneo. In December 1857, Darwin received a letter from Wallace asking if the book would examine human origins. He responded that he would avoid that subject, "so surrounded with prejudices", while encouraging Wallace's theorising and adding that "I go much further than you."[76] The publication of Darwins theory followed on from the development of Darwins theory of evolution and culminated in the publication of his book On the Origin of Species. ... This is a file from the Wikimedia Commons, a repository of free content hosted by the Wikimedia Foundation. ... This is a file from the Wikimedia Commons, a repository of free content hosted by the Wikimedia Foundation. ... For other uses, see Natural selection (disambiguation). ... A ripe red jalapeño cut open to show the seeds For other uses, see Seed (disambiguation). ... Joseph Dalton Hooker Joseph Dalton Hooker Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker, GCSI, OM, FRS, MD (June 30, 1817 – December 10, 1911) was an English botanist and traveller. ... Thomas Henry Huxley PC, FRS (4 May 1825 Ealing – 29 June 1895 Eastbourne, Sussex) was an English biologist, known as Darwins Bulldog for his advocacy of Charles Darwins theory of evolution. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For the Cornish painter, see Alfred Wallis. ... Charles Darwin in 1854 The British naturalist Charles Darwin had correspondence with numerous other scientific luminaries of his age and members of his family. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Kalimantan. ...


Darwin's book was half way when, on 18 June 1858, he received a paper from Wallace describing natural selection. Though shocked that he had been "forestalled", Darwin sent it on to Lyell, as requested, and, though Wallace had not asked for publication, offered to send it to any journal that Wallace chose. His family was in crisis with children in the village dying of scarlet fever, and he put matters in the hands of Lyell and Hooker. They agreed on a joint presentation at the Linnean Society on 1 July of On the Tendency of Species to form Varieties; and on the Perpetuation of Varieties and Species by Natural Means of Selection; however, Darwin's baby son died of the scarlet fever and he was too distraught to attend.[77] is the 169th day of the year (170th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1858 (MDCCCLVIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Linnean Society of London is the worlds premier society for the study and dissemination of taxonomy. ... is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Two scientific papers; On the Tendency of Species to form Varieties by Alfred Russel Wallace and on the Perpetuation of Varieties and Species by Natural Means of Selection by Charles Darwin were presented to the Linnean Society of London in 1858 that first publicised Darwin — Wallace theory of evolution...


There was little immediate attention to this announcement of the theory; the president of the Linnean remarked in May 1859 that the year had not been marked by any revolutionary discoveries.[78] Later, Darwin could only recall one review; Professor Haughton of Dublin claimed that "all that was new in them was false, and what was true was old."[79] Darwin struggled for thirteen months to produce an abstract of his "big book", suffering from ill health but getting constant encouragement from his scientific friends. Lyell arranged to have it published by John Murray.[80] John Murray is a British publishing house, renowned for the roster of authors it has published in its history, including Jane Austen, Lord Byron and Charles Darwin. ...


On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or The Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life (usually abbreviated to The Origin of Species) proved unexpectedly popular, with the entire stock of 1,250 copies oversubscribed when it went on sale to booksellers on 22 November 1859.[81] In the book, Darwin set out "one long argument" of detailed observations, inferences and consideration of anticipated objections.[82] His only allusion to human evolution was the understatement that "light will be thrown on the origin of man and his history".[83] He avoided the then controversial term "evolution", but at the end of the book concluded that "endless forms most beautiful and most wonderful have been, and are being, evolved."[84] His theory is simply stated in the introduction: Charles Darwins Origin of Species (publ. ... is the 326th day of the year (327th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1859 (MDCCCLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

As many more individuals of each species are born than can possibly survive; and as, consequently, there is a frequently recurring struggle for existence, it follows that any being, if it vary however slightly in any manner profitable to itself, under the complex and sometimes varying conditions of life, will have a better chance of surviving, and thus be naturally selected. From the strong principle of inheritance, any selected variety will tend to propagate its new and modified form.[85]

A typical satire was the later caricature in Hornet magazine portraying Darwin with an ape body and the bushy beard he grew in 1866.
A typical satire was the later caricature in Hornet magazine portraying Darwin with an ape body and the bushy beard he grew in 1866.

Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...

Reaction to the publication

For more details on this topic, see Reaction to Darwin's theory.

There was wide public interest in Charles Darwin's book and a controversy which he monitored closely, keeping press cuttings of reviews, articles, satires, parodies and caricatures.[86] Critical reviewers were quick to pick out the unstated implications of "men from monkeys", while amongst favourable responses Huxley's reviews included swipes at Richard Owen, leader of the scientific establishment Huxley was trying to overthrow. Owen's verdict was unknown until his April review condemned the book.[87] The reaction to Darwins theory came quickly after the publication of Darwins theory which had followed twenty years of development of Darwins theory of evolution. ... Look up Review in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Essay (disambiguation). ... 1867 edition of the satirical magazine Punch, a British satirical magazine, ground-breaking on popular literature satire. ... In contemporary usage, a parody (or lampoon) is a work that imitates another work in order to ridicule, ironically comment on, or poke some affectionate fun at the work itself, the subject of the work, the author or fictional voice of the parody, or another subject. ... For the book of comics by Daniel Clowes see Caricature (Daniel Clowes collection) A caricature of film comedian Charlie Chaplin. ... Approximate worldwide distribution of monkeys. ... Sir Richard Owen KCB (July 20, 1804–December 18, 1892) was an English biologist, comparative anatomist and palaeontologist. ...


The Church of England scientific establishment, including Darwin's old Cambridge tutors Sedgwick and Henslow, reacted against the book, though it was well received by a younger generation of professional naturalists. In 1860, the publication of Essays and Reviews by seven liberal Anglican theologians diverted clerical attention away from Darwin. An explanation of higher criticism and other heresies, it included the argument that miracles broke God's laws, so belief in them was atheistic—and praise for "Mr Darwin's masterly volume [supporting] the grand principle of the self-evolving powers of nature".[88] The Church of England logo since 1998 The Church of England is the officially established Christian church[1] in England, and acts as the mother and senior branch of the worldwide Anglican Communion, as well as a founding member of the Porvoo Communion. ... Adam Sedgwick (March 22nd, 1785–January 27, 1873) was one of the founders of modern geology. ... John Stevens Henslow (February 6, 1796 - May 16, 1861) was an English botanist and geologist. ... Essays and Reviews, published in 1860, is a collection of seven essays on religion, covering topics including the Biblical researches of the German critics, the evidences of Christianity, religious thought in England, and the cosmology of Genesis. ... Clergy is the generic term used to describe the formal religious leadership within a given religion. ... Higher criticism, also known as historical criticism, is a branch of literary analysis that attempts to investigate the origins of a text, especially the text of the Bible. ... Look up Heresy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A miracle, derived from the old Latin word miraculum meaning something wonderful, is a striking interposition of divine intervention by God in the universe by which the ordinary course and operation of Nature is overruled, suspended, or modified. ... “Atheist” redirects here. ...


The most famous confrontation took place at a meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of Science in Oxford. Professor John William Draper delivered a long lecture about Darwin and social progress, then Samuel Wilberforce, the Bishop of Oxford, argued against Darwin. In the ensuing debate Joseph Hooker argued strongly for Darwin and Thomas Huxley established himself as "Darwin's bulldog" – the fiercest defender of evolutionary theory on the Victorian stage. Both sides came away feeling victorious, but Huxley went on to make much of his claim that on being asked by Wilberforce whether he was descended from monkeys on his grandfather's side or his grandmother's side, Huxley muttered: "The Lord has delivered him into my hands" and replied that he "would rather be descended from an ape than from a cultivated man who used his gifts of culture and eloquence in the service of prejudice and falsehood".[89] The British Association or the British Association for the Advancement of Science or the BA is a learned society with the object of promoting science, directing general attention to scientific matters, and facilitating intercourse between scientific workers. ... This article is about the city of Oxford in England. ... John William Draper (5 May 1811, St Helens, Merseyside – 4 January 1882, Hastings, New York) was a U.S. (English-born) chemist, botanist, historian and photographer. ... A photo of Samuel Wilberforce by Lewis Carroll Samuel Wilberforce (September 7, 1805 - July 19, 1873), English bishop, third son of William Wilberforce, was born at Clapham Common, London. ... The Bishop of Oxford is the Ordinary of the Church of England Diocese of Oxford in the Province of Canterbury. ... Joseph Dalton Hooker Joseph Dalton Hooker Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker, GCSI, OM, FRS, MD (June 30, 1817 – December 10, 1911) was an English botanist and traveller. ... Thomas Henry Huxley PC, FRS (4 May 1825 Ealing – 29 June 1895 Eastbourne, Sussex) was an English biologist, known as Darwins Bulldog for his advocacy of Charles Darwins theory of evolution. ...


Darwin's illness kept him away from the public debates, though he read eagerly about them and mustered support through correspondence. Asa Gray persuaded a publisher in the United States to pay royalties, and Darwin imported and distributed Gray's pamphlet Natural Selection is not inconsistent with Natural Theology.[90] In Britain, friends including Hooker[91] and Lyell[92] took part in the scientific debates which Huxley pugnaciously led to overturn the dominance of clergymen and aristocratic amateurs under Owen in favour of a new generation of professional scientists. Owen made the mistake of (wrongly) claiming certain anatomical differences between ape and human brains, and accusing Huxley of advocating "Ape Origin of Man". Huxley gladly did just that, and his campaign over two years was devastatingly successful in ousting Owen and the "old guard".[93] Darwin's friends formed The X Club and helped to gain him the honour of the Royal Society's Copley Medal in 1864.[92] Charles Darwin in 1854 The British naturalist Charles Darwin had correspondence with numerous other scientific luminaries of his age and members of his family. ... Asa Gray (1810-1888) Asa Gray (November 18, 1810 - January 30, 1888) is considered the most important American botanist of the 19th century. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Natural theology is the knowledge of God accessible to all rational human beings without recourse to any special or supposedly supernatural revelation. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The human brain controls the central nervous system (CNS), by way of the cranial nerves and spinal cord, the peripheral nervous system (PNS) and regulates virtually all human activity. ... The X Club was an influential 19th century dining club. ... For other uses, see Royal Society (disambiguation). ...


Broader public interest had already been stimulated by Vestiges, and the Origin of Species was translated into many languages and went through numerous reprints, becoming a staple scientific text accessible both to a newly curious middle class and to "working men" who flocked to Huxley's lectures.[94] Darwin's theory also resonated with various movements at the time[III] and became a key fixture of popular culture.[IV] Vestiges of the Natural History of Creation was a book published anonymously in England in 1844. ...


Descent of Man, sexual selection, and botany

More detailed articles cover Darwin's life from Orchids to Variation, from Descent of Man to Emotions and from Insectivorous plants to Worms
Julia Margaret Cameron's portrait of Darwin
Julia Margaret Cameron's portrait of Darwin

Despite repeated bouts of illness during the last twenty-two years of his life, Darwin pressed on with his work. He had published an abstract of his theory, but more controversial aspects of his "big book" were still incomplete, including explicit evidence of humankind's descent from earlier animals, and exploration of possible causes underlying the development of society and of human mental abilities. He had yet to explain features with no obvious utility other than decorative beauty. His experiments, research and writing continued. The life and work of Darwin from Orchids to Variation followed the reaction to Darwins theory which ensued after the publication of Darwins theory following twenty years of development of Darwins theory of evolution. ... The life and work of Darwin from Descent of Man to Emotions was the next stage after the work of Darwin from Orchids to Variation. ... The life and work of Darwin from Insectiverous plants to Worms followed after the work of Darwin from Descent of Man to Emotions. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Charles_Darwin_by_Julia_Margaret_Cameron. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Charles_Darwin_by_Julia_Margaret_Cameron. ... A portrait of Julia Jackson who was Camerons niece and favorite subject, an albumen silver print by Julia Margaret Cameron, taken in 1867. ...


When Darwin's daughter fell ill, he set aside his experiments with seedlings and domestic animals to accompany her to a seaside resort where he became interested in wild orchids. This developed into an innovative study of how their beautiful flowers served to control insect pollination and ensure cross fertilisation. As with the barnacles, homologous parts served different functions in different species. Back at home, he lay on his sickbed in a room filled with experiments on climbing plants. A reverent Ernst Haeckel who had spread the gospel of Darwinismus in Germany visited him.[95] Wallace remained supportive, though he increasingly turned to spiritualism.[96] Orchid re-directs here; for alternate uses see Orchid (disambiguation) Genera Over 800 See List of Orchidaceae genera. ... Carpenter bee with pollen collected from Night-blooming cereus Pollination is an important step in the reproduction of seed plants: the transfer of pollen grains (male gametes) to the plant carpel, the structure that contains the ovule (female gamete). ... Heterosis is increased strength of different characteristics in hybrids; the possibility to obtain a better individual by combining the virtues of its parents. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... // By 1853, when the popular song Spirit Rappings was published, Spiritualism was an object of intense curiosity. ...


Variation of Plants and Animals Under Domestication, the first part of Darwin's planned "big book" (expanding on his "abstract" published as The Origin of Species), grew to two huge volumes, forcing him to leave out human evolution and sexual selection, and sold briskly despite its size.[97] A further book of evidence, dealing with natural selection in the same style, was largely written, but remained unpublished until transcribed in 1975.[98] // For the history of humans on Earth, see History of the world. ... Illustration from The Descent of Man and Selection in Relation to Sex by Charles Darwin showing the Tufted Coquette Lophornis ornatus, female on left, ornamented male on right. ...

Punch's almanac for 1882, published shortly before Darwin's death, depicts him amidst evolution from chaos to Victorian gentleman with the title Man Is But A Worm.
Punch's almanac for 1882, published shortly before Darwin's death, depicts him amidst evolution from chaos to Victorian gentleman with the title Man Is But A Worm.

The question of human evolution had been taken up by his supporters (and detractors) shortly after the publication of The Origin of Species,[99] but Darwin's own contribution to the subject came more than ten years later with the two-volume The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex published in 1871. In the second volume, Darwin introduced in full his concept of sexual selection to explain the evolution of human culture, the differences between the human sexes, and the differentiation of human races, as well as the beautiful (and seemingly non-adaptive) plumage of birds.[100] A year later Darwin published his last major work, The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals, which focused on the evolution of human psychology and its continuity with the behaviour of animals. He developed his ideas that the human mind and cultures were developed by natural and sexual selection,[101] an approach which has been revived in the last three decades with the emergence of evolutionary psychology.[102] As he concluded in Descent of Man, Darwin felt that, despite all of humankind's "noble qualities" and "exalted powers": "Man still bears in his bodily frame the indelible stamp of his lowly origin."[103] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 543 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1101 × 1216 pixel, file size: 250 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) 1882 caricature of Darwins theory (image reference) (image source) The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 543 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1101 × 1216 pixel, file size: 250 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) 1882 caricature of Darwins theory (image reference) (image source) The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the... Punch was a British weekly magazine of humour and satire published from 1841 to 1992 and from 1996 to 2002. ... An almanac (also spelled almanack, especially in Commonwealth English) is an annual publication containing tabular information in a particular field or fields often arranged according to the calendar. ... Charles Darwins Origin of Species (publ. ... Title page of the first edition of Charles Darwins The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex. ... For other uses, see Culture (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Race (disambiguation). ... The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals is a book by the British naturalist Charles Darwin published in 1872, on how animals and humans express and signal to others their emotions. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Mind (disambiguation). ... Evolutionary psychology (abbreviated EP) is a theoretical approach to psychology that attempts to explain mental and psychological traits—such as memory, perception, or language—as adaptations, i. ...


His evolution-related experiments and investigations culminated in books on the movement of climbing plants, insectivorous plants, the effects of cross and self fertilisation of plants, different forms of flowers on plants of the same species, and The Power of Movement in Plants. In his last book, he returned to the effect earthworms have on soil formation. Nepenthes mirabilis in flower, growing on a road cut in Palau Carnivorous plants (sometimes called insectivorous plants) are plants that derive some or most of their nutrients (but not energy) from trapping and consuming animals or protozoans, most focusing on insects and other arthropods. ... Heterosis is increased strength of different characteristics in hybrids; the possibility to obtain a better individual by combining the virtues of its parents. ... Production of new individuals along a leaf margin of the air plant, Kalanchoë pinnata. ... The Power of Movement in Plants is an 1880 book by Charles Darwin and his son Francis on phototrophism in plants, i. ... Families   Acanthodrilidae   Ailoscolecidae   Alluroididae   Almidae   Criodrilidae   Eudrilidae   Exxidae   Glossoscolecidae   Lumbricidae   Lutodrilidae   Megascolecidae   Microchaetidae   Ocnerodrilidae   Octochaetidae   Sparganophilidae Earthworm is the common name for the largest members of the Oligochaeta (which is either a class or subclass depending on the author) in the phylum Annelida. ...


He died in Downe, Kent, England, on 19 April 1882. He had expected to be buried in St Mary's churchyard at Downe, but at the request of Darwin's colleagues, William Spottiswoode (President of the Royal Society) arranged for Darwin to be given a state funeral and buried in Westminster Abbey, close to John Herschel and Isaac Newton.[104] The Kent coat of arms For other uses, see Kent (disambiguation). ... is the 109th day of the year (110th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1882 (MDCCCLXXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... William Spottiswoode William Spottiswoode (January 11, 1825, London - June 27, 1883)was an English mathematician and physicist. ... For other uses, see Royal Society (disambiguation). ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... The Collegiate Church of St Peter, Westminster, which is almost always referred to by its original name of Westminster Abbey, is a mainly Gothic church, on the scale of a cathedral (and indeed often mistaken for one), in Westminster, London, just to the west of the Palace of Westminster. ... John Herschel Sir John Frederick William Herschel (7 March 1792 – 11 May 1871) was an English mathematician and astronomer. ... Sir Isaac Newton FRS (4 January 1643 – 31 March 1727) [ OS: 25 December 1642 – 20 March 1727][1] was an English physicist, mathematician, astronomer, natural philosopher, and alchemist. ...


Darwin's children

Darwin and his eldest son William Erasmus Darwin in 1842.
Darwin's Children
William Erasmus Darwin (27 December 1839–1914)
Anne Elizabeth Darwin (2 March 184122 April 1851)
Mary Eleanor Darwin (23 September 184216 October 1842)
Henrietta Emma "Etty" Darwin (25 September 1843–1929)
George Howard Darwin (9 July 18457 December 1912)
Elizabeth "Bessy" Darwin (8 July 1847–1926)
Francis Darwin (16 August 184819 September 1925)
Leonard Darwin (15 January 185026 March 1943)
Horace Darwin (13 May 185129 September 1928)
Charles Waring Darwin (6 December 185628 June 1858)

The Darwins had ten children: two died in infancy, and Annie's death at the age of ten had a devastating effect on her parents. Charles was a devoted father and uncommonly attentive to his children.[3] Whenever they fell ill he feared that they might have inherited weaknesses from inbreeding due to the close family ties he shared with his wife and cousin, Emma Wedgwood. He examined this topic in his writings, contrasting it with the advantages of crossing amongst many organisms.[105] Despite his fears, most of the surviving children went on to have distinguished careers as notable members of the prominent Darwin-Wedgwood family.[106] Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... The Darwin — Wedgwood family was a prominent English family, descended from Erasmus Darwin and Josiah Wedgwood, the most notable member of which was Charles Darwin. ... December 27 is the 361st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (362nd in leap years). ... 1839 (MDCCCXXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Annie Darwin Anne Elizabeth Annie Darwin (2 March 1841_22 April 1851) was the second child and eldest daughter of Charles and Emma Darwin. ... is the 61st day of the year (62nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1841 is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... is the 112th day of the year (113th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1851 (MDCCCLI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1842 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... is the 289th day of the year (290th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1842 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Darwins family tree The Darwin -- Wedgwood family was a prominent English family, descended from Erasmus Darwin and Josiah Wedgwood, the most notable member of which was Charles Darwin. ... is the 268th day of the year (269th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1843 (MDCCCXLIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... George Howard Darwin Sir George Howard Darwin, F.R.S. (July 9, 1845 – December 7, 1912) was a British astronomer and mathematician, the second son and fifth child of Charles and Emma Darwin. ... is the 190th day of the year (191st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1845 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... is the 341st day of the year (342nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday in the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The Darwin — Wedgwood family was a prominent English family, descended from Erasmus Darwin and Josiah Wedgwood, the most notable member of which was Charles Darwin. ... is the 189th day of the year (190th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1847 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Sir Francis Darwin, F.R.S. (August 16th 1848 - 19th September 1925) was the botanist son of Charles Darwin. ... is the 228th day of the year (229th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1848 (MDCCCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 262nd day of the year (263rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1925 (MCMXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Leonard Darwin Leonard as a boy with his mother, Emma Darwin Major Leonard Darwin (15 January 1850 — 26 March 1943), a son of the British naturalist Charles Darwin, was variously a soldier, politician, economist, eugenicist and mentor of the statistician and evolutionary biologist Ronald Fisher. ... is the 15th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the game, see: 1850 (board game) 1850 (MDCCCL) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday [1] of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... March 26 is the 85th day of the year (86th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Sir Horace Darwin, F.R.S. (13th May 1851 - 29th September 1928), a son of the British naturalist Charles Darwin, was a civil engineer. ... is the 133rd day of the year (134th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1851 (MDCCCLI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 272nd day of the year (273rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1928 (MCMXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Darwin — Wedgwood family. ... December 6 is the 340th day of the year (341st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1856 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... is the 179th day of the year (180th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1858 (MDCCCLVIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... It has been suggested that inbreeding depression be merged into this article or section. ... Emma Darwin Emma Darwin (née Wedgwood, 2 May 1808–7 October 1896) was the wife and cousin of the English naturalist Charles Darwin and mother to their ten children. ... The Darwin — Wedgwood family was a prominent English family, descended from Erasmus Darwin and Josiah Wedgwood, the most notable member of which was Charles Darwin. ...


Of his surviving children, George, Francis and Horace became Fellows of the Royal Society, distinguished as astronomer,[107] botanist and civil engineer, respectively.[108] His son Leonard, on the other hand, went on to be a soldier, politician, economist, eugenicist and mentor of the statistician and evolutionary biologist Ronald Fisher.[109] George Howard Darwin Sir George Howard Darwin, F.R.S. (July 9, 1845 – December 7, 1912) was a British astronomer and mathematician, the second son and fifth child of Charles and Emma Darwin. ... Sir Francis Darwin, F.R.S. (August 16th 1848 - 19th September 1925) was the botanist son of Charles Darwin. ... Sir Horace Darwin, F.R.S. (13th May 1851 - 29th September 1928), a son of the British naturalist Charles Darwin, was a civil engineer. ... An astronomer or astrophysicist is a person whose area of interest is astronomy or astrophysics. ... Botany is the scientific study of plant life. ... A civil engineer is a person who practices civil engineering. ... Leonard Darwin Leonard as a boy with his mother, Emma Darwin Major Leonard Darwin (15 January 1850 — 26 March 1943), a son of the British naturalist Charles Darwin, was variously a soldier, politician, economist, eugenicist and mentor of the statistician and evolutionary biologist Ronald Fisher. ... This article is about a military rank. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A politician is an individual who is a formally recognized and active member of a government, or a person who influences the way a society is governed through an understanding of political power and group dynamics. ... Face-to-face trading interactions on the New York Stock Exchange trading floor. ... Eugenics is the self-direction of human evolution: Logo from the Second International Congress of Eugenics, 1921, depicting it as a tree which unites a variety of different fields. ... Sir Ronald Aylmer Fisher, FRS (17 February 1890 – 29 July 1962) was an English statistician, evolutionary biologist, and geneticist. ...


Religious views

For more details on this topic, see Charles Darwin's views on religion.

Though Charles Darwin's family background was Nonconformist, and his father, grandfather and brother were Freethinkers,[110] at first he did not doubt the literal truth of the Bible.[111] He attended a Church of England school, then at Cambridge studied Anglican theology to become a clergyman.[112] He was convinced by William Paley's teleological argument that design in nature proved the existence of God,[113] but during the Beagle voyage he questioned, for example, why beautiful deep-ocean creatures had been created where no one could see them, or how the ichneumon wasp paralysing caterpillars as live food for its eggs could be reconciled with Paley's vision of beneficent design.[114] He was still quite orthodox and would quote the Bible as an authority on morality, but did not trust the history in the Old Testament.[115] Charles Darwin (1809 — 1882), who proposed the theory of evolution by means of natural selection. ... Non conformism is the term of KKK ... Freethought is a philosophical viewpoint that holds that beliefs should be formed on the basis of science and logical principles and not be compromised by authority, tradition, or any other dogma. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Biblical inerrancy is the doctrinal position... This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library. ... The Church of England logo since 1998 The Church of England is the officially established Christian church[1] in England, and acts as the mother and senior branch of the worldwide Anglican Communion, as well as a founding member of the Porvoo Communion. ... Anglicanism commonly refers to the beliefs and practices of the Anglican Communion, the churches that are in full communion with the see of Canterbury. ... William Paley William Paley (July 1743 – May 25, 1805) was an English divine, Christian apologist, utilitarian, and philosopher. ... A teleological argument, or argument from design, is an argument for the existence of God or a creator based on perceived evidence of order, purpose, design and/or direction in nature. ... Arguments for and against the existence of God have been proposed by philosophers, theologians, and others. ... Families Braconidae Ichneumonidae The Ichneumon wasps are insects classified in the parasitica group of the suborder Apocrita within the Order Hymenoptera. ... This article is about a form of an insect. ... “Orthodox” redirects here. ... Morality (from the Latin manner, character, proper behaviour) has three principal meanings. ... Note: Judaism commonly uses the term Tanakh to refer to its canon, which corresponds to the Protestant Old Testament. ...

The 1851 death of Darwin's daughter, Annie, was the final step in pushing an already doubting Darwin away from the idea of a beneficent God.

When investigating transmutation of species he knew that his naturalist friends thought this a bestial heresy undermining miraculous justifications for the social order, the kind of radical argument then being used by Dissenters and atheists to attack the Church of England's privileged position as the established church.[116] Though Darwin wrote of religion as a tribal survival strategy, he still believed that God was the ultimate lawgiver.[117] His belief dwindled, and with the death of his daughter Annie in 1851, Darwin finally lost all faith in Christianity. He continued to help the local church with parish work, but on Sundays would go for a walk while his family attended church.[118] He now thought it better to look at pain and suffering as the result of general laws rather than direct intervention by God.[119] When asked about his religious views, he wrote that he had never been an atheist in the sense of denying the existence of a God, and that generally "an Agnostic would be the more correct description of my state of mind."[120] Annie Darwin, daughter of Charles Darwin and Emma Darwin This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Annie Darwin Anne Elizabeth Annie Darwin (2 March 1841_22 April 1851) was the second child and eldest daughter of Charles and Emma Darwin. ... Transmutation of species refers to the altering of one species into another. ... The term Radical (latin radix meaning root) was used from the late 18th century for proponents of the Radical Movement and has since been used as a label in political science for those favouring or trying to produce thoroughgoing political reforms which can include changes to the social order to... The term dissenter (from the Latin dissentire, to disagree), labels one who dissents or disagrees in matters of opinion, belief, etc. ... “Atheist” redirects here. ... In English history, the Established Church is the Church of England, the church which is established by the Government, supported by it, and of which the monarch is the titular head; until 1920 it also held the same position in Wales. ... http://www. ... Annie Darwin Anne Elizabeth Annie Darwin (2 March 1841_22 April 1851) was the second child and eldest daughter of Charles and Emma Darwin. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... Agnosticism (from the Greek a, meaning without, and Gnosticism or gnosis, meaning knowledge) is the philosophical view that the truth value of certain claims—particularly metaphysical claims regarding theology, afterlife or the existence of God, gods, deities, or even ultimate reality—is unknown or, depending on the form of agnosticism...


The "Lady Hope Story", published in 1915, claimed that Darwin had reverted back to Christianity on his sickbed. The claims were refuted by Darwin's children and have been dismissed as false by historians.[121] His daughter, Henrietta, who was at his deathbed, said that he did not convert to Christianity.[122] His last words were, in fact, directed at Emma: "Remember what a good wife you have been."[123]
Lady Hope in 1887 Lady Elizabeth Reid Hope (née Cotton; December 9, 1842–8 March 1922) was a British evangelist who is generally believed to be the Lady Hope who claimed in 1915 that she had visited the British naturalist Charles Darwin shortly before his death in 1882. ...


Political interpretations

Caricature from 1871 "Vanity Fair"

Darwin's theories and writings, combined with Gregor Mendel's genetics (the "modern synthesis"), form the basis of all modern biology.[124] However, Darwin's fame and popularity led to his name being associated with ideas and movements which at times had only an indirect relation to his writings, and sometimes went directly against his express comments. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 362 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (498 × 824 pixel, file size: 133 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Faithful reproductions of two-dimensional original works cannot attract copyright in the U.S. according to the rule in Bridgeman Art Library v. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 362 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (498 × 824 pixel, file size: 133 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Faithful reproductions of two-dimensional original works cannot attract copyright in the U.S. according to the rule in Bridgeman Art Library v. ... “Mendel” redirects here. ... This article is about the general scientific term. ... The modern evolutionary synthesis (often referred to simply as the modern synthesis), neo-Darwinian synthesis or neo-Darwinism, brings together Charles Darwins theory of the evolution of species by natural selection with Gregor Mendels theory of genetics as the basis for biological inheritance. ...


Eugenics

For more details on this topic, see Eugenics.

Following Darwin's publication of the Origin, his cousin, Francis Galton, applied the concepts to human society, starting in 1865 with ideas to promote "hereditary improvement" which he elaborated at length in 1869.[125] In The Descent of Man Darwin agreed that Galton had demonstrated the probability that "talent" and "genius" in humans was inherited, but dismissed the social changes Galton proposed as too utopian.[126] Neither Galton nor Darwin supported government intervention and thought that, at most, heredity should be taken into consideration by people seeking potential mates.[127] In 1883, after Darwin's death, Galton began calling his social philosophy Eugenics.[128] In the 20th century, eugenics movements gained popularity in a number of countries and became associated with reproduction control programmes such as compulsory sterilisation laws,[129] then were stigmatised after their usage in the rhetoric of Nazi Germany in its goals of genetic "purity".[V] Eugenics is the self-direction of human evolution: Logo from the Second International Congress of Eugenics, 1921, depicting it as a tree which unites a variety of different fields. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Descent of Man and Selection in Relation to Sex by British naturalist Charles Darwin was first published in 1871. ... For other uses, see Utopia (disambiguation). ... See Heredity (disambiguation) for other meanings. ... Eugenics is the self-direction of human evolution: Logo from the Second International Congress of Eugenics, 1921, depicting it as a tree which unites a variety of different fields. ... Compulsory sterilization programs are government policies which attempt to force people to undergo surgical sterilization. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ...


Social Darwinism

For more details on this topic, see Social Darwinism.

The ideas of Thomas Malthus and Herbert Spencer which applied ideas of evolution and "survival of the fittest" to societies, nations and businesses became popular in the late 19th and early 20th century, and were used to defend various, sometimes contradictory, ideological perspectives including laissez-faire economics,[130] colonialism,[131] racism and imperialism.[131] The term "Social Darwinism" originated around the 1890s, but became popular as a derogatory term in the 1940s with Richard Hofstadter's critique of laissez-faire conservatism.[132] The concepts predate Darwin's publication of the Origin in 1859:[131][133] Malthus died in 1834[134] and Spencer published his books on economics in 1851 and on evolution in 1855.[135] Darwin himself insisted that social policy should not simply be guided by concepts of struggle and selection in nature,[136] and that sympathy should be extended to all races and nations.[137][VI] Social Darwinism is the idea that Charles Darwins theory can be extended and applied to the social realm, i. ... Thomas Robert Malthus, FRS (13th February, 1766 – 29th December, 1834), was an English demographer and political economist. ... For other persons named Herbert Spencer, see Herbert Spencer (disambiguation). ... Herbert Spencer coined the phrase, survival of the fittest. ... Laissez-faire (lÉ›ze fÉ›r) is short for laissez faire, laissez aller, laissez passer, a French phrase meaning let do, let go, let pass. ... It has been suggested that Benign colonialism be merged into this article or section. ... This box:      Racism has many definitions, the most common and widely accepted is that members of one race are intrinsically superior or inferior to members of other races. ... The term New Imperialism refers to the colonial expansion adopted by Europes powers and, later, Japan and the United States, during the late 19th and early 20th centuries; approximately from the Franco-Prussian War to World War I (c. ... Richard Hofstadter (August 6, 1916 - October 24, 1970) was an American historian and DeWitt Clinton Professor of American History at Columbia University. ...


Commemoration

Darwin in 1880, still working on his contributions to evolutionary thought which had an enormous effect on many fields of science.
Darwin in 1880, still working on his contributions to evolutionary thought which had an enormous effect on many fields of science.

During Darwin's lifetime, many species and geographical features were given his name. An expanse of water adjoining the Beagle Channel was named Darwin Sound by Robert FitzRoy after Darwin's prompt action, along with two or three of the men, saved them from being marooned on a nearby shore when a collapsing glacier caused a large wave that would have swept away their boats,[138] and the nearby Mount Darwin in the Andes was named in celebration of Darwin's 25th birthday.[139] When the Beagle was surveying Australia in 1839, Darwin's friend John Lort Stokes sighted a natural harbour which the ship's captain Wickham named Port Darwin.[140] The settlement of Palmerston founded there in 1869 was officially renamed Darwin in 1911. It became the capital city of Australia's Northern Territory,[140] which also boasts Charles Darwin University[141] and Charles Darwin National Park.[142] Darwin College, Cambridge, founded in 1964, was named in honour of the Darwin family, partially because they owned some of the land it was on.[143] Charles Darwin in 1880, as an old gentleman. ... Sea lions on La Isla de Los Lobos in the Beagle Channel Glacier on the north shore of the Beagle Channel Beagle Channel is a strait separating islands of the Tierra del Fuego archipelago, in extreme southern South America. ... The Darwin Sound forms a westward continuation of the Beagle Channel and links it to the Pacific Ocean at Londonderry Island and Stewart Island, not far from the southern tip of South America. ... Vice-Admiral Robert FitzRoy (5 July 1805 – 30 April 1865) achieved lasting fame as the captain of HMS Beagle and as a pioneering meteorologist who made accurate weather forecasting a reality, also proving an able surveyor and hydrographer as well as Governor-General of New Zealand. ... This article is about the geological formation. ... Mount Darwin, the highest peak in Tierra del Fuego at 8,163 feet (2,488m), forms part of the Cordillera of the Andes, South America, just to the north of the Beagle Channel. ... This article is about the mountain system in South America. ... HMS Beagle was a Cherokee class 10-gun brig of the Royal Navy, named after the beagle, a breed of dog. ... Admiral John Lort Stokes (1812 - June 11, 1885) was an officer in the Royal Navy who travelled on the HMS Beagle for close to 18 years. ... John Clements Wickham (December 21, 1798-January 6, 1864) was Captain of the HMS Beagle (the vessel occupied by Charles Darwin during his voyage of discovery) and conducted various maritime expeditions and scientific surveys along the Australian coastline during 1837-41. ... Central Darwin, circa 1986 Darwin is the capital of the Northern Territory, and is a city of 109,419 people (2001 census) on Australias far north-western coastline. ... Palmerston is an Australian city. ... The history of Darwin has been a colourful and often tragic one; the Australian citys location has meant that it has been a victim of man-made disasters, such as World War Two and also natural ones, such as Cyclone Tracy. ... “Port Darwin” redirects here. ... Slogan or Nickname: The Territory, The NT, The Top End Motto(s): none Other Australian states and territories Capital Darwin Government Constitutional monarchy Administrator Ted Egan Chief Minister Clare Martin (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 2  - Senate seats 2 Gross Territorial Product (2004-05)  - Product ($m)  $10,418 (8th)  - Product... Charles Darwin University Charles Darwin University (CDU) is located in Darwin, Northern Territory, Australia. ... Charles Darwin National Park is located in the Northern Territory (Australia), 4 km southeast of Darwin. ... Full name Darwin College Motto - Named after The Darwin Family Previous names - Established 1964 Sister College(s) Wolfson College Master Prof. ...


The 14 species of finches he collected in the Galápagos Islands are affectionately named "Darwin's Finches" in honour of his legacy.[144] In 1992, Darwin was ranked #16 on Michael H. Hart's list of the most influential figures in history.[145] Darwin came fourth in the 100 Greatest Britons poll sponsored by the BBC and voted for by the public.[146] In 2000 Darwin's image appeared on the Bank of England ten pound note, replacing Charles Dickens. His impressive, luxuriant beard (which was reportedly difficult to forge) was said to be a contributory factor to the bank's choice.[147] Genera Many, see text Finches are passerine birds, often seed-eating, found chiefly in the northern hemisphere and Africa. ... This article is about the islands. ... Genera Geospiza Camarhynchus Certhidea Pinaroloxias Darwins finches (also known as the Galápagos Finches) are 13 or 14 different but closely related species of finches Charles Darwin collected on the Galápagos Islands during the voyage of the Beagle. ... Michael H. Hart (born April 28, 1932 in New York City) is an American astrophysicist turned author and activist. ... The cover of the 1992 edition. ... // In 2002, the BBC conducted a vote to determine whom the general public considers the 100 Greatest Britons of all time. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... Headquarters Coordinates , , Governor Mervyn King Central Bank of United Kingdom Currency Pound sterling ISO 4217 Code GBP Base borrowing rate 5. ... British banknotes are the banknotes of the United Kingdom and British Islands, denominated in pounds sterling (GBP). ... “Dickens” redirects here. ...


As a humorous celebration of evolution, the annual Darwin Award is bestowed on individuals who "improve our gene pool by removing themselves from it."[148] The Darwin Awards website logo A Darwin Award is a tongue-in-cheek honor named after evolutionary theorist Charles Darwin. ...


Darwin has been the subject of many exhibitions, including the "Darwin" exhibition organised by the American Museum of Natural History in New York City in 2006 and shown in various cities in the US.[149] Numerous biographies of Darwin have appeared, and the 1980 biographical novel The Origin by Irving Stone gives a closely researched fictional account of Darwin's life from the age of 22 onwards. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... The Origin is a biographical novel of the life of Charles Darwin written by Irving Stone. ... Irving Stone (July 14, 1903 – August 26, 1989) was an American writer known for his biographical novels of famous historical personalities. ...


Works

For more details on this topic, see List of works by Charles Darwin.

Darwin was a prolific author, and even without publication of his works on evolution would have had a considerable reputation as the author of The Voyage of the Beagle, as a geologist who had published extensively on South America and had solved the puzzle of the formation of coral atolls, and as a biologist who had published the definitive work on barnacles. While The Origin of Species dominates perceptions of his work, The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex and The Expression of Emotions in Man and Animals had considerable impact, and his books on plants including The Power of Movement in Plants were innovative studies of great importance, as was his final work on The Formation of Vegetable Mould Through the Action of Worms.[150] This is a partial list of the writings of Charles Darwin, including his main works. ... A watercolor by the HMS Beagles draughtsman, Conrad Martens. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... Atoll in the western Pacific Ocean Photo: www. ... Superorders Acrothoracica Thoracica Rhizocephala A barnacle is a type of arthropod belonging to infraclass Cirripedia in the subphylum Crustacea and is hence distantly related to crabs and lobsters. ... Charles Darwins Origin of Species (publ. ... Title page of the first edition of Charles Darwins The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex. ... The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals is a book by the British naturalist Charles Darwin published in 1872, on how animals and humans express and signal to others their emotions. ... The Power of Movement in Plants is an 1880 book by Charles Darwin and his son Francis on phototrophism in plants, i. ...


His writings are currently available at The Complete Work of Charles Darwin Online – the Table of Contents provides links to all of his publications, including alternative editions, contributions to books & periodicals, correspondence, life and letters, autobiography, as well as a complete bibliography and catalogue of his manuscripts. The works are free to read, but not public domain, and include publications still under copyright. For unencumbered versions of his major works, see Works by Charles Darwin at Project Gutenberg. The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ... Not to be confused with copywriting. ... Project Gutenberg, abbreviated as PG, is a volunteer effort to digitize, archive and distribute cultural works. ...


See also

  • Darwin's Frog – a species of frog named after Charles Darwin.
  • Harriet – a Galápagos tortoise, possibly collected by Darwin; died 23 June 2006 at an estimated age of 175.
  • List of coupled cousins
  • Patrick Matthew – an amateur evolutionary theorist and contemporary of Darwin.
  • Randal Keynes – the great-great grandson of Charles Darwin who wrote a book about him, his daughter, and human evolution

Binomial name Rhinoderma darwinii (Duméril & Bibron, 1841) Darwins Frog (Rhinoderma darwinii) is a frog native to Chile and Argentina. ... Distribution of frogs (in black) Suborders Archaeobatrachia Mesobatrachia Neobatrachia - List of Anuran families The frogness babe is an amphibian in the order Anura (meaning tail-less from Greek an-, without + oura, tail), formerly referred to as Salientia (Latin saltare, to jump). ... Harriet, 2002 Harriet is a Galápagos tortoise believed to be, at an estimated 175 years, the oldest known living animal in the world. ... is the 174th day of the year (175th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... // This is a list of prominent individuals who have been romantically or maritally coupled with a cousin, niece, nephew, aunt or uncle. ... Patrick Matthew Patrick Matthew (20 October 1790 — 8 June 1874) was a Scottish fruit grower who had proposed the principle of natural selection as a mechanism of evolution over a quarter-century earlier than did Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace. ... Randal Keynes is a English author and the great-great-grandson of Charles Darwin. ...

Notes

I. ^  Darwin was eminent as a naturalist, geologist, biologist, and author; after working as a physician's assistant and two years as a medical student was educated as a clergyman; and was trained in taxidermy.-1... The Geologist by Carl Spitzweg A geologist is a contributor to the science of geology, studying the physical structure and processes of the Earth and planets of the solar system (see planetary geology). ... A biologist is a scientist devoted to and producing results in biology through the study of organisms. ... For other uses, see Author (disambiguation). ... Medical school generally refers to a tertiary educational institution (or part of such an institution) which is involved in the education of future medical practitioners (medical doctors). ... see also Holy Orders The following terms have traditional meanings for the Anglican Church, and possibly beyond: A churchman is in principle a member of a church congregation, in practice someone in holy orders. ... A mounted snow leopard. ...


II. ^  Robert FitzRoy was to become known after the voyage for biblical literalism, but at this time he had considerable interest in Lyell's ideas, and they met before the voyage when Lyell asked for observations to be made in South America. FitzRoy's diary during the ascent of the River Santa Cruz in Patagonia recorded his opinion that the plains were raised beaches, but on return, newly married to a very religious lady, he recanted these ideas.[151] Vice-Admiral Robert FitzRoy (5 July 1805 – 30 April 1865) achieved lasting fame as the captain of HMS Beagle and as a pioneering meteorologist who made accurate weather forecasting a reality, also proving an able surveyor and hydrographer as well as Governor-General of New Zealand. ... Patagonia, as most commonly defined (in orange). ... Although this raised beach at Rhossili (Wales) is now used for farmland, it provides evidence of a glacioeustatic rise in the land of this area. ...


III. ^  See, for example, WILLA volume 4, Charlotte Perkins Gilman and the Feminization of Education by Deborah M. De Simone: "Gilman shared many basic educational ideas with the generation of thinkers who matured during the period of "intellectual chaos" caused by Darwin's Origin of the Species. Marked by the belief that individuals can direct human and social evolution, many progressives came to view education as the panacea for advancing social progress and for solving such problems as urbanisation, poverty, or immigration."


IV. ^  See, for example, the song "A lady fair of lineage high" from Gilbert and Sullivan's Princess Ida, which describes the descent of man (but not woman!) from apes. W. S. Gilbert Arthur Sullivan Gilbert and Sullivan refers to the Victorian era partnership of librettist W. S. Gilbert (1836–1911) and composer Arthur Sullivan (1842–1900). ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Princess Ida Wikisource has original text related to this article: The Princess (Tennyson) Princess Ida, or Castle Adamant, is the eighth operetta written by Gilbert and Sullivan. ...


V. ^  The Nazi eugenics policies are discussed in a number of sources. A few of the more definitive ones are Robert Proctor, Racial hygiene: Medicine under the Nazis (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1988) and Dieter Kuntz, ed., Deadly medicine: creating the master race (Washington, D.C.: United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, 2004) (online exhibit). On the development of the racial hygiene movement before National Socialism, see Paul Weindling, Health, race and German politics between national unification and Nazism, 1870–1945 (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1989). Racial hygiene (often labeled a form of scientific racism) is the selection, by a government, of the most physical, intellectual and moral persons to raise the next generation (selective breeding) and a close alignment of public health with eugenics. ...


VI. ^  See Darwin 1887, p. 23:

Early in the voyage at Bahia, in Brazil, FitzRoy defended and praised slavery, which I abominated, and told me that he had just visited a great slave-owner, who had called up many of his slaves and asked them whether they were happy, and whether they wished to be free, and all answered "No." I then asked him, perhaps with a sneer, whether he thought that the answer of slaves in the presence of their master was worth anything? This made him excessively angry, and he said that as I doubted his word we could not live any longer together.

See also Darwin 1845, pp. 207–208 on the Fuegians: Look up E, e in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Fitzroy or FitzRoy is an Anglo-Norman name originally meaning son of the king - it usually refers to a bastard son of the king, or a descendant thereof. ... Picture of a Fuegian (possibly a Yaghan) from the voyage of FitzRoys ship, HMS Beagle. ...

It seems yet wonderful to me, when I think over all his many good qualities, that he should have been of the same race, and doubtless partaken of the same character, with the miserable, degraded savages whom we first met here.

Citations

  1. ^ a b c d e f g van Wyhe 2006.
  2. ^ The Complete Works of Darwin Online - Biography. darwin-online.org.uk. Retrieved on 2006-12-15.
       Dobzhansky 1973
  3. ^ a b Leff 2000.
  4. ^ Desmond & Moore 1991, p. 210, 263–274, 284–287.
  5. ^ Darwin - At last. American Museum of Natural History. Retrieved on 2007-03-21.
  6. ^ Freeman 1977
  7. ^ Browne 2002, p. 497.
  8. ^ The Mount House, Shrewsbury, England (Charles Darwin), Baruch College - Darwin and Darwinism. Retrieved on 2006-12-15.
  9. ^ Desmond & Moore 1991, p. 12–15.
  10. ^ Darwin 1871, p 232.
  11. ^ Browne 1995, p. 72.
  12. ^ Desmond & Moore 1991, p. 33–40.
  13. ^ Browne 1995, p. 82.
  14. ^ Desmond & Moore 1991, p. 42–43.
  15. ^ Desmond & Moore 1991, p. 47–48
  16. ^ Darwin 1887, pp. 10, 14, 15, 17.
  17. ^ Darwin 1887, p. 18
  18. ^ Desmond & Moore 1991, p. 80–81
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Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 80th day of the year (81st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The MacTutor history of mathematics archive is a website hosted by University of St Andrews in Scotland. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 344th day of the year (345th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The National Portrait Gallery is an art gallery in central London which was opened in 1856. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... BBC News is the department within the BBC responsible for the corporations news-gathering and production of news programmes on BBC television, radio and online. ... is the 311th day of the year (312th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 207th day of the year (208th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 335th day of the year (336th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

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The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 52nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 363rd day of the year (364th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1834 (MDCCCXXXIV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 52nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Professor Janet Browne is known principally as the author of Charles Darwin: Voyaging and The Power of Place. ... Professor Janet Browne is known principally as the author of Charles Darwin: Voyaging and The Power of Place. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A watercolor by the HMS Beagles draughtsman, Conrad Martens. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A watercolor by the HMS Beagles draughtsman, Conrad Martens. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Charles Darwins Origin of Species (publ. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Descent of Man and Selection in Relation to Sex by British naturalist Charles Darwin was first published in 1871. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Sir Francis Darwin, F.R.S. (August 16th 1848 - 19th September 1925) was the botanist son of Charles Darwin. ... The Autobiography of Charles Darwin is the autobiography of the British naturalist Charles Darwin which was published in 1887, five years after his death. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Emma Nora Barlow (née Darwin; 1885 -1989), granddaughter of the British naturalist Charles Darwin, edited and published previously unseen examples of her grandfathers work. ... The Autobiography of Charles Darwin is the autobiography of the British naturalist Charles Darwin which was published in 1887, five years after his death. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... James Moore, philosopher of science at the University of Cambridge and visiting scholar at Harvard University, is noted as the author of several biographies of Charles Darwin. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Vice-Admiral Robert FitzRoy (5 July 1805 – 30 April 1865) achieved lasting fame as the captain of HMS Beagle and as a pioneering meteorologist who made accurate weather forecasting a reality, also proving an able surveyor and hydrographer as well as Governor-General of New Zealand. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 79th day of the year (80th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 80th day of the year (81st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Michael Hart, Mike Hart, or Mickey Hart may refer to: Hardt, Michael, U.S. literary theorist and political philosopher Hart, Michael (born 1956), academic at Exeter College, Oxford Hart, Michael (born 1971), recording artist from Wisconsin Hart, Michael, British rower Hart, Michael, Scottish football (soccer) player Hart, Michael H. (born... Thomas Henry Huxley, FRS (4 May 1825 – 29 June 1895) [1] was an English biologist, known as Darwins Bulldog for his advocacy of Charles Darwins theory of evolution. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Thomas Henry Huxley, FRS (4 May 1825 – 29 June 1895) [1] was an English biologist, known as Darwins Bulldog for his advocacy of Charles Darwins theory of evolution. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Thomas Robert Malthus, FRS (13th February, 1766 – 29th December, 1834), was an English demographer and political economist. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... James Moore, philosopher of science at the University of Cambridge and visiting scholar at Harvard University, is noted as the author of several biographies of Charles Darwin. ... James Moore, philosopher of science at the University of Cambridge and visiting scholar at Harvard University, is noted as the author of several biographies of Charles Darwin. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Sir Richard Owen KCB (July 20, 1804–December 18, 1892) was an English biologist, comparative anatomist and palaeontologist. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 253rd day of the year (254th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

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  • The Complete Work of Charles Darwin Online
  • The Friends of Charles Darwin
  • A Pictorial Biography of Charles Darwin
  • Darwin's work on orchids
  • Darwin Correspondence Project
  • The Darwin Digital Library of Evolution
  • Institut Charles Darwin International
  • Darwin's portrait on £10 note
  • Twelve different portraits of Charles Darwin, National Portrait Gallery, U.K.
  • BBC: "Darwin family repeat flower count"
  • Mis-portrayal of Darwin as a Racist
  • Listing of the significant places in Shrewsbury relevant to Darwin's early life.
  • Digitized titles by Charles Darwin in Botanicus.org
  • 1871 Caricature of Charles Darwin by Thomas Nast, Harper's Weekly
  • Charles Darwin at the Open Directory Project
  • Free LibriVox Audiobook: On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection
  • Darwin200, an organisation to celebrate Darwin’s bicentenary in February 2009.
Persondata
NAME Darwin, Charles Robert
ALTERNATIVE NAMES
SHORT DESCRIPTION Naturalist
DATE OF BIRTH February 12, 1809
PLACE OF BIRTH Mount House, Shrewsbury, Shropshire, England
DATE OF DEATH April 19, 1882
PLACE OF DEATH Down House, Kent, England

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiquote-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links WikiNews-Logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiversity-logo-Snorky. ... The Open Directory Project (ODP), also known as dmoz (from , its original domain name), is a multilingual open content directory of World Wide Web links owned by Netscape that is constructed and maintained by a community of volunteer editors. ... On its second voyage, much of it chronicled by Charles Darwin in his book, The Voyage of the Beagle, the HMS Beagle crossed the Atlantic towards Tierra Del Fuego, and carried out surveying especially of the West coast of South America, as well as a number of Pacific islands. ... The inception of Darwins theory began with a search for explanations of contradictions in current Creationist ideas, and led him to formulate his theory of evolution which was eventually published in his book On the Origin of Species. ... The Development of Darwins theory began with a search for explanations of contradictions in current faith based ideas, and led him to formulate his theory of evolution which was eventually published in his book On the Origin of Species, a turning point in the history of evolutionary thought. ... The publication of Darwins theory followed on from the development of Darwins theory of evolution and culminated in the publication of his book On the Origin of Species. ... The reaction to Darwins theory came quickly after the publication of Darwins theory which had followed twenty years of development of Darwins theory of evolution. ... The life and work of Darwin from Orchids to Variation followed the reaction to Darwins theory which ensued after the publication of Darwins theory following twenty years of development of Darwins theory of evolution. ... The life and work of Darwin from Descent of Man to Emotions was the next stage after the work of Darwin from Orchids to Variation. ... The life and work of Darwin from Insectiverous plants to Worms followed after the work of Darwin from Descent of Man to Emotions. ... The Darwin—Wedgwood family was a prominent English family, descended from Erasmus Darwin and Josiah Wedgwood, the most notable member of which was Charles Darwin. ... Charles Darwin (1809 — 1882), who proposed the theory of evolution by means of natural selection. ... Charles Darwin (1809-1882) For much of his adult life Charles Darwins illness repeatedly affected him with an uncommon combination of symptoms, leaving him severely debilitated for long periods of time, incapable of normal life and intellectual production, staying in bed most of the time for months. ... This is a partial list of the writings of Charles Darwin, including his main works. ... A watercolor by the HMS Beagles draughtsman, Conrad Martens. ... The Zoology of the Voyage of H.M.S. Beagle Under the Command of Captain Fitzroy, R.N., during the Years 1832 to 1836 is a 5-part book published unbound in nineteen numbers as they were ready, between February 1838 and October 1843. ... Two scientific papers; On the Tendency of Species to form Varieties by Alfred Russel Wallace and on the Perpetuation of Varieties and Species by Natural Means of Selection by Charles Darwin were presented to the Linnean Society of London in 1858 that first publicised Darwin &#8212; Wallace theory of evolution... Charles Darwins Origin of Species (publ. ... Title page of the first edition of Charles Darwins The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex. ... The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals is a book by the British naturalist Charles Darwin published in 1872, on how animals and humans express and signal to others their emotions. ... The Power of Movement in Plants is an 1880 book by Charles Darwin and his son Francis on phototrophism in plants, i. ... The Autobiography of Charles Darwin is the autobiography of the British naturalist Charles Darwin which was published in 1887, five years after his death. ... Charles Darwin in 1854 The British naturalist Charles Darwin had correspondence with numerous other scientific luminaries of his age and members of his family. ... While on board HMS Beagle, Charles Darwin collected numerous specimens, many new to science, which supported his later theory of evolution by natural selection. ... The mechanisms and processes of evolutionary change includes natural selection, genetic drift, gene flow, mutation, adaptation and speciation. ... For other uses, see Adaptation (disambiguation). ... Macroevolution refers to evolution that occurs at or above the level of species, in contrast with microevolution, which refers to smaller evolutionary changes (typically described as changes in allele frequencies) within a species or population. ... Microevolution is the occurrence of small-scale changes in allele frequencies in a population, over a few generations, also known as change at or below the species level. ... Charles Darwins first sketch of an evolutionary tree from his First Notebook on Transmutation of Species (1837) Speciation is the evolutionary process by which new biological species arise. ... Population genetics is the study of the distribution of and change in allele frequencies under the influence of the four evolutionary forces: natural selection, genetic drift, mutation, and migration. ... For other uses, see Natural selection (disambiguation). ... In population genetics, genetic drift is the statistical effect that results from the influence that chance has on the success of alleles (variants of a gene). ... In population genetics, gene flow (also known as gene migration) is the transfer of alleles of genes from one population to another. ... It has been suggested that mutant be merged into this article or section. ... Evolutionary developmental biology (evolution of development or informally, evo-devo) is a field of biology that compares the developmental processes of different animals in an attempt to determine the ancestral relationship between organisms and how developmental processes evolved. ... We dont have an article called Phenotypic plasticity Start this article Search for Phenotypic plasticity in. ... Norms of reaction for two genotypes. ... Many organisms consist of modules, both anatomically and in their metabolism. ... Anagenesis is the progressive evolution of species involving a change in gene frequency in an entire population rather than a cladogenetic branching event. ... Catagenesis is an archaic term from evolutionary biology referring to evolutionary directions that were considered retrogressive. ... Cladogenesis is an evolutionary splitting event in which each branch and its smaller branches is a clade; an evolutionary mechanism and a process of adaptive evolution that leads to the development of a greater variety of animals or plants. ... Evolutionary thought has roots in antiquity as philosophical ideas conceived during the Ancient Greek and Roman eras, but until the 18th century, biological thought was dominated by essentialism, the idea that living forms are static and unchanging in time. ... Charles Darwins Origin of Species (publ. ... The modern evolutionary synthesis refers to a set of ideas from several biological specialities that were brought together to form a unified theory of evolution accepted by the great majority of working biologists. ... The evolutionary history of life and the origin of life are fields of ongoing geological and biological research. ... Ecological genetics is the study of genetics (itself a field of biology) from an ecological perspective. ... // For the history of humans on Earth, see History of the world. ... Molecular evolution is the process of the genetic material in populations of organisms changing over time. ... Phylogenetic groups, or taxa, can be monophyletic, paraphyletic, or polyphyletic. ... Biological systematics is the study of the diversity of life on the planet earth, both past and present, and the relationships among living things through time. ... This is a list of topics in evolutionary biology and evolution. ... This timeline of the evolution of life outlines the major events in the development of life on the planet Earth. ... Table of natural history, 1728 Cyclopaedia Natural history is an umbrella term for what are now often viewed as several distinct scientific disciplines of integrative organismal biology. ... is the 43rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1809 (MDCCCIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar). ... The Mount, is the site of a house in Shrewsbury, officially known as Mount House that belonged to Robert Darwin and was the birthplace of Charles Darwin. ... , Shrewsbury (pronounced either or [1]) is the county town of Shropshire, West Midlands, England. ... Shropshire (pronounced /, -/), alternatively known as Salop[6] or abbreviated Shrops[7], is a county in the West Midlands of England. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... is the 109th day of the year (110th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1882 (MDCCCLXXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Down House, photo by Richard Carter Down House is the former home of the English naturalist Charles Darwin and his family. ... The Kent coat of arms For other uses, see Kent (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Charles Darwin - MSN Encarta (1066 words)
Charles Darwin (1809-1882), British scientist, who laid the foundation of modern evolutionary theory with his concept of the development of all forms of life through the slow-working process of natural selection.
Darwin’s theory was first announced in 1858 in a paper presented at the same time as one by Alfred Russel Wallace, a young naturalist who had come independently to the theory of natural selection.
Darwin’s theory of evolution by natural selection is essentially that, because of the food-supply problem described by Malthus, the young born to any species intensely compete for survival.
Charles Darwin - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (6940 words)
Charles Darwin was born in Shrewsbury, Shropshire, England on 12 February 1809 at his family home, the Mount House.
Darwin preferred the respectability of his friends the Cambridge Dons, even though his ideas were pushing beyond their belief that natural history must justify religion and social order.
Charles Darwin recounted in his biography of his grandfather Erasmus Darwin how false stories were circulated claiming that Erasmus had called for Jesus on his deathbed.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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