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Encyclopedia > Charles Babbage
Charles Babbage

Sketch by Henri Claudet, 1860s [1]
Born 26 December 1791(1791-12-26)
London, England
Died 18 October 1871 (aged 79)
Marylebone, London, England
Nationality United Kingdom
Fields Mathematics, analytic philosophy, computer science
Institutions Trinity College, Cambridge

Charles Babbage FRS (26 December 1791 London, England18 October 1871 Marylebone, London, England)[2] was an English mathematician, philosopher, and mechanical engineer who originated the concept of a programmable computer. Parts of his uncompleted mechanisms are on display in the London Science Museum. In 1991 a perfectly functioning difference engine was constructed from Babbage's original plans. Built to tolerances achievable in the 19th century, the success of the finished engine indicated that Babbage's machine would have worked. Nine years later, the Science Museum completed the printer Babbage had designed for the difference engine, an astonishingly complex device for the 19th century. Babbage is credited with inventing the first mechanical computer that eventually led to more complex designs. Babbage can refer to: Charles Babbage, English mathematician, mechanical engineer, and pioneering computer scientist Babbage crater, on the Moon Charles Babbage Institute, an information technology archive and research center. ... Image File history File links CharlesBabbage. ... is the 360th day of the year (361st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1791 (MDCCXCI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 11-day-slower Julian calendar). ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... is the 291st day of the year (292nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1871 (MDCCCLXXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Marylebone (sometimes written St. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... For other meanings of mathematics or uses of math and maths, see Mathematics (disambiguation) and Math (disambiguation). ... Analytic philosophy (sometimes, analytical philosophy) is a generic term for a style of philosophy that came to dominate English-speaking countries in the 20th century. ... Computer science, or computing science, is the study of the theoretical foundations of information and computation and their implementation and application in computer systems. ... Full name The College of the Holy and Undivided Trinity Motto Virtus vera nobilitas Virtue is true Nobility Named after The Holy Trinity Previous names King’s Hall and Michaelhouse (until merged in 1546) Established 1546 Sister College(s) Christ Church Master The Lord Rees of Ludlow Location Trinity Street... For other uses, see Royal Society (disambiguation). ... is the 360th day of the year (361st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1791 (MDCCXCI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 11-day-slower Julian calendar). ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... is the 291st day of the year (292nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1871 (MDCCCLXXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Marylebone (sometimes written St. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Leonhard Euler, considered one of the greatest mathematicians of all time A mathematician is a person whose primary area of study and research is the field of mathematics. ... A philosopher is a person who thinks deeply regarding people, society, the world, and/or the universe. ... Mechanical engineering is the application of physical principles to the creation of useful devices, objects and machines. ... This article is about the machine. ... Science Museum The Science Museum on Exhibition Road, Kensington, London, is part of the National Museum of Science and Industry. ... Part of Babbages Difference engine, assembled after his death by Babbages son, using parts found in his laboratory. ... A computer printer, or more commonly a printer, produces a hard copy (permanent human-readable text and/or graphics) of documents stored in electronic form, usually on physical print media such as paper or transparencies. ...

Contents

Biography

Birth

The birthplace of Charles Babbage is disputed, but he was most likely born in 44 Crosby Row, Walworth Road, London, England. A blue plaque on the junction of Larcom Street and Walworth Road commemorates the event. Walworth Road is a road in the London Borough of Southwark, running from Elephant and Castle to Camberwell Road (which it becomes at Burgess Park). ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... A blue plaque showing information about The Spanish Barn at Torre Abbey in Torquay. ...


Babbage's date of birth was given in his obituary in The Times as 26 December 1792. However, after the obituary appeared, a nephew wrote to say that Charles Babbage actually was born one year earlier, in 1791. The parish register of St. Mary's Newington, London, shows that Babbage was baptized on 6 January 1792, supporting a birth year of 1791.[3][4][5] is the 360th day of the year (361st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1792 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... A parish register is a book, normally kept in a parish church, in which details of baptisms, marriages and burials are recorded. ... Gabriel delivering the Annunciation to Mary. ... Newington is the name of several places. ... Baptism is a water purification ritual practiced in certain religions such as Christianity, Mandaeanism, Sikhism, and some historic sects of Judaism. ... is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1792 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ...


Charles's father, Benjamin Babbage, was a banking partner of the Praeds who owned the Bitton Estate in Teignmouth. His mother was Betsy Plumleigh Teape. In 1808, the Babbage family moved into the old Rowdens house in East Teignmouth, and Benjamin Babbage became a warden of the nearby St. Michael’s Church. , Teignmouth (IPA: ) is a town on the north bank of the estuary mouth of the River Teign in south Devon, England. ... , Teignmouth (IPA: ) is a town on the north bank of the estuary mouth of the River Teign in south Devon, England. ...


Education

Wikisource has original text related to this article:

His father's money allowed Charles to receive instruction from several schools and tutors during the course of his elementary education. Around the age of eight he was sent to a country school in Alphington near Exeter to recover from a life-threatening fever. His parents ordered that his "brain was not to be taxed too much" and Babbage felt that "this great idleness may have led to some of my childish reasonings." For a short time he attended[citation needed]King Edward VI Grammar School in Totnes, South Devon, but his health forced him back to private tutors for a time. He then joined a 30-student Holmwood academy, in Baker Street, Enfield, Middlesex under Reverend Stephen Freeman. The academy had a well-stocked library that prompted Babbage's love of mathematics. He studied with two more private tutors after leaving the academy. Of the first, a clergyman near Cambridge, Babbage said, "I fear I did not derive from it all the advantages that I might have done." The second was an Oxford tutor from whom Babbage learned enough of the Classics to be accepted to Cambridge. Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ... Alphington is a village in the southwest of Exeter in southwest England. ... The city of Exeter is the county town of Devon, in the southwest of England, also known as the West Country. ... There are many schools in the United Kingdom named King Edward VI Grammar School or King Edward VI School. ... , Totnes (IPA: ) is a market town in South Devon, England. ... For other uses, see Devon (disambiguation). ... This article is about the city in England. ...


Babbage arrived at Trinity College, Cambridge in October 1810. He had read extensively in Leibniz, Joseph Louis Lagrange, Thomas Simpson, and Lacroix and was seriously disappointed in the mathematical instruction available at Cambridge. In response, he, John Herschel, George Peacock, and several other friends formed the Analytical Society in 1812. Babbage, Herschel and Peacock were also close friends with future judge and patron of science Edward Ryan. Ultimately, Babbage and Ryan married sisters.[6] Full name The College of the Holy and Undivided Trinity Motto Virtus vera nobilitas Virtue is true Nobility Named after The Holy Trinity Previous names King’s Hall and Michaelhouse (until merged in 1546) Established 1546 Sister College(s) Christ Church Master The Lord Rees of Ludlow Location Trinity Street... 1810 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Gottfried Leibniz Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz (July 1, 1646 in Leipzig - November 14, 1716 in Hannover) was a German philosopher, scientist, mathematician, diplomat, librarian, and lawyer of Sorb descent. ... Joseph-Louis, comte de Lagrange (January 25, 1736 Turin, Kingdom of Sardinia - April 10, 1813 Paris) was an Italian-French mathematician and astronomer who made important contributions to all fields of analysis and number theory and to classical and celestial mechanics as arguably the greatest mathematician of the 18th century. ... Thomas Simpson (August 20, 1710 – May 14, 1761) was a British mathematician, inventor and eponym of Simpsons rule to approximate definite integrals. ... For the communes that begin with Lacroix, see Croix Christian Lacroix (May 16, 1951 in Arles, France) is a French fashion designer. ... John Herschel Sir John Frederick William Herschel (7 March 1792 – 11 May 1871) was an English mathematician and astronomer. ... George Peacock George Peacock (April 9, 1791 – November 8, 1858) was an English mathematician. ... The Analytical Society was a group of individuals in early-19th century Britain whose aim was to promote the use of Leibnizian or analytical calculus as opposed to Newtonian calculus. ... For other persons named Edward Ryan, see Edward Ryan (disambiguation). ...


In 1812 Babbage transferred to Peterhouse, Cambridge. He was the top mathematician at Peterhouse, but failed to graduate with honors. He instead received an honorary degree without examination in 1814. College name Peterhouse Named after Saint Peter Established 1284 Previously named The Scholars of the Bishop of Ely Saint Peter’s College Location Trumpington Street Admittance Men and women Master The Lord Wilson of Tillyorn Undergraduates 284 Graduates 130 Sister college Merton College, Oxford Official website Boat Club website Peterhouse...


Marriage, family, death

Grave of Charles Babbage at Kensal Green Cemetery
Grave of Charles Babbage at Kensal Green Cemetery

On July 25, 1814, Babbage married Georgiana Whitmore at St. Michael's Church in Teignmouth, Devon. The couple lived at 5 Devonshire Street, Portland Place, London. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 531 pixelsFull resolution (1515 × 1005 pixel, file size: 314 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Personal photo taken in 1986; no rights claimed I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 531 pixelsFull resolution (1515 × 1005 pixel, file size: 314 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Personal photo taken in 1986; no rights claimed I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Kensal Green Cemetery Kensal Green Cemetery, located in Kensal Green, London, England, was incorporated in 1832, and is the oldest of the Magnificent Seven cemeteries still in operation. ... is the 206th day of the year (207th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1814 (MDCCCXIV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ...


Charles and Georgiana had eight children[7], but only three — Benjamin Herschel, Georgiana Whitmore, and Henry Prevost — survived to adulthood. Georgiana died in Worcester on September 1, 1827. Charles' father, wife, and at least two sons all died in 1827. These deaths caused Babbage to go into a mental breakdown which delayed the construction of his machines. This article is about the city of Worcester in England. ...


Babbage died at age 79 on October 18, 1871, and was buried in London's Kensal Green Cemetery. According to Horsley, Babbage died "of renal inadequacy, secondary to cystitis."[8] In 1983 the autopsy report for Charles Babbage was discovered and later published by one of his descendants.[9][10] A copy of the original is also available.[11] Babbage's brain is preserved at the Science Museum in London.[12][13] Kensal Green Cemetery Kensal Green Cemetery, located in Kensal Green, London, England, was incorporated in 1832, and is the oldest of the Magnificent Seven cemeteries still in operation. ...


Design of computers

Babbage sought a method by which mathematical tables could be calculated mechanically, removing the high rate of human error. Three different factors seem to have influenced him: a dislike of untidiness; his experience working on logarithmic tables; and existing work on calculating machines carried out by Wilhelm Schickard, Blaise Pascal, and Gottfried Leibniz. He first discussed the principles of a calculating engine in a letter to Sir Humphry Davy in 1822. Look up logarithm in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Wilhelm Schickard Wilhelm Schickard (April 22, 1592 – October 23, 1635) was a German polymath who built the first computer in 1623. ... Blaise Pascal (pronounced ), (June 20 [[1624 // ]] – August 19, 1662) was a French mathematician, physicist, and religious philosopher. ... Leibniz redirects here. ... Sir Humphry Davy, 1st Baronet FRS (17 December 1778 – 29 May 1829) was a British chemist and physicist. ...

Part of Babbage's difference engine, assembled after his death by Babbage's son, using parts found in his laboratory.
Part of Babbage's difference engine, assembled after his death by Babbage's son, using parts found in his laboratory.

Babbage's engines were among the first mechanical computers, although they were not actually completed, largely because of funding problems and personality issues. He directed the building of some steam-powered machines that achieved some success, suggesting that calculations could be mechanized. Although Babbage's machines were mechanical and unwieldy, their basic architecture was very similar to a modern computer. The data and program memory were separated, operation was instruction based, the control unit could make conditional jumps and the machine had a separate I/O unit. Part of Charles Babbages Difference Engine assembled after his death by Babbages son, using parts found in his laboratory. ... Part of Charles Babbages Difference Engine assembled after his death by Babbages son, using parts found in his laboratory. ... Energy Input: The energy placed into a reaction. ...


Difference engine

Main article: Difference engine

In Babbage’s time numerical tables were calculated by humans who were called ‘computers,’ meaning "one who computes," much as a conductor is "one who conducts." At Cambridge he saw the high error rate of this human-driven process and started his life’s work of trying to calculate the tables mechanically. He began in 1822 with what he called the difference engine, made to compute values of polynomial functions. Unlike similar efforts of the time, Babbage's difference engine was created to calculate a series of values automatically. By using the method of finite differences, it was possible to avoid the need for multiplication and division. Part of Babbages Difference engine, assembled after his death by Babbages son, using parts found in his laboratory. ... A finite difference is a mathematical expression of the form f(x + b) − f(x + a). ...

The London Science Museum's replica Difference Engine, built from Babbage's design.
The London Science Museum's replica Difference Engine, built from Babbage's design.

The first difference engine was composed of around 25,000 parts, weighed fifteen tons (13,600 kg), and stood 8 ft (2.4 m) high. Although he received ample funding for the project, it was never completed. He later designed an improved version, "Difference Engine No. 2", which was not constructed until 1989-1991, using Babbage's plans and 19th–century manufacturing tolerances. It performed its first calculation at the London Science Museum returning results to 31 digits, far more than the average modern pocket calculator. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The Science Museum on Exhibition Road, South Kensington, London is part of the National Museum of Science and Industry. ... Look up replica in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The short ton is a unit of mass equal to 907. ...


Printer

Babbage designed a printer for the second difference engine which supported line-wrapping, variable column and row width, and programmable output formatting.


Replicas

Two full scale replicas of the Difference Engine are known to exist. One is owned by the London Science Museum, the other is owned by tech millionaire Nathan Myhrvold (who commissioned London's Science Museum to create it). Nathan Myhrvold, formerly Chief Technology Officer at Microsoft, is co-founder of Intellectual Ventures, which is seeking to build a large invention portfolio. ...


A replica of the Difference Engine is on display at the Computer History Museum [14] The Computer History Museum in Mountain View. ...


Analytical engine

Main article: Analytical engine

Soon after the attempt at making the difference engine crumbled, Babbage started designing a different, more complex machine called the Analytical Engine. The engine is not a single physical machine but a succession of designs that he tinkered with until his death in 1871. The main difference between the two engines is that the Analytical Engine could be programmed using punch cards, an idea unheard of in his time. He realized that programs could be put on similar cards so the person had to only create the program initially, and then put the cards in the machine and let it run. The analytical engine was also proposed to use loops of Jacquard's punched cards to control a mechanical calculator, which could formulate results based on the results of preceding computations. This machine was also intended to employ several features subsequently used in modern computers, including sequential control, branching, and looping, and would have been the first mechanical device to be Turing-complete. The analytical engine, an important step in the history of computers, was the design of a mechanical general-purpose computer by the British professor of mathematics Charles Babbage. ... The analytical engine, an important step in the history of computers, was the design of a mechanical general-purpose computer by the British professor of mathematics Charles Babbage. ... The punch card (or Hollerith card) is a recording medium for holding information for use by automated data processing machines. ... Jacquard loom on display at Museum of Science and Industry in Manchester, England The Jacquard Loom is a mechanical loom, invented by Joseph Marie Jacquard in 1801, that has holes punched in pasteboard, each row of which corresponds to one row of the design. ... In computability theory a programming language or any other logical system is called Turing-complete if it has a computational power equivalent to a universal Turing machine. ...


Ada Lovelace, an impressive mathematician and one of the few people who fully understood Babbage's ideas, created a program for the Analytical Engine. Had the Analytical Engine ever actually been built, her program would have been able to calculate a sequence of Bernoulli numbers. Based on this work, Lovelace is now widely credited with being the first computer programmer. In 1979, a contemporary programming language was named Ada in her honour. Shortly afterward, in 1981, a satirical article by Tony Karp in the magazine Datamation described the Babbage programming language as the "language of the future". Augusta Ada King, Countess of Lovelace (December 10, 1815 London, England – November 27, 1852 Marylebone, London, England [1]), born Augusta Ada Byron, is mainly known for having written a description of Charles Babbages early mechanical general-purpose computer, the analytical engine. ... In mathematics, the Bernoulli numbers Bn were first discovered in connection with the closed forms of the sums for various fixed values of n. ... A programmer or software developer is someone who programs computers, that is, one who writes computer software. ... Ada is a structured, statically typed imperative computer programming language designed by a team led by Jean Ichbiah of CII Honeywell Bull during 1977–1983. ...


Modern adaptations

While the abacus and mechanical calculator have been replaced by electronic calculators using microchips, the recent advances in MEMS and nanotechnology have led to recent high-tech experiments in mechanical computation. The benefits suggested include operation in high radiation or high temperature environments. An integrated circuit (IC) is a thin chip consisting of at least two interconnected semiconductor devices, mainly transistors, as well as passive components like resistors. ... A mite next to a gear set produced using MEMS. Courtesy Sandia National Laboratories, SUMMiTTM Technologies, www. ... Nanotechnology refers to a field of applied science and technology whose theme is the control of matter on the atomic and molecular scale, generally 100 nanometers or smaller, and the fabrication of devices that lie within that size range. ...


These modern versions of mechanical computation were highlighted in magazine The Economist for their special "end of the millennium" black cover issue in an article entitled Babbage's Last Laugh . The article highlighted work done at University of California Berkeley by Ezekiel Kruglick. In this Doctoral Dissertation the researcher reports mechanical logic cells and architectures sufficient to implement the Babbage Analytical engine (see above) or any general logic circuit. Carry-shift digital adders and various logic elements are detailed as well as modern analysis on required performance for microscopic mechanical logic. The Economist is an English-language weekly news and international affairs publication owned by The Economist Newspaper Ltd and edited in London. ... The University of California, Berkeley (also known as Cal, UC Berkeley, UCB, or simply Berkeley) is a prestigious, public, coeducational university situated in the foothills of Berkeley, California to the east of San Francisco Bay, overlooking the Golden Gate and its bridge. ...


Other accomplishments

In 1824, Babbage won the Gold Medal of the Royal Astronomical Society "for his invention of an engine for calculating mathematical and astronomical tables." Gold Medal awarded to Asaph Hall The Gold Medal is the highest award of the Royal Astronomical Society. ...


From 1828 to 1839 Babbage was Lucasian Professor of Mathematics at Cambridge. He contributed largely to several scientific periodicals, and was instrumental in founding the Astronomical Society in 1820 and the Statistical Society in 1834. However, he dreamt of designing mechanical calculating machines. The incumbent of the Lucasian Chair of Mathematics, the Lucasian Professor is the holder of a mathematical professorship at Cambridge University. ...

“... I was sitting in the rooms of the Analytical Society, at Cambridge, my head leaning forward on the table in a kind of dreamy mood, with a table of logarithms lying open before me. Another member, coming into the room, and seeing me half asleep, called out, "Well, Babbage, what are you dreaming about?" to which I replied "I am thinking that all these tables" (pointing to the logarithms) "might be calculated by machinery. "

In 1837, responding to the Bridgewater Treatises, of which there were eight, he published his Ninth Bridgewater Treatise, "On the Power, Wisdom and Goodness of God, as manifested in the Creation", putting forward the thesis that God had the omnipotence and foresight to create as a divine legislator, making laws (or programs) which then produced species at the appropriate times, rather than continually interfering with ad hoc miracles each time a new species was required. The book is a work of natural theology, and incorporates extracts from correspondence he had been having with John Herschel on the subject. Natural theology is the attempt to find evidence of a God or intelligent designer without recourse to any special or supposedly supernatural revelation. ... Ad hoc is a Latin phrase which means for this [purpose]. It generally signifies a solution that has been tailored to a specific purpose, such as a tailor-made suit, a handcrafted network protocol, and specific-purpose equation and things like that. ... Natural theology is the knowledge of God accessible to all rational human beings without recourse to any special or supposedly supernatural revelation. ... John Herschel Sir John Frederick William Herschel (7 March 1792 – 11 May 1871) was an English mathematician and astronomer. ...


Babbage also achieved notable results in cryptography. He broke Vigenère's autokey cipher as well as the much weaker cipher that is called Vigenère cipher today. The autokey cipher was generally called "the undecipherable cipher", though owing to popular confusion, many thought that the weaker polyalphabetic cipher was the "undecipherable" one. Babbage's discovery was used to aid English military campaigns, and was not published until several years later; as a result credit for the development was instead given to Friedrich Kasiski, a Prussian infantry officer, who made the same discovery some years after Babbage.[15] The German Lorenz cipher machine, used in World War II for encryption of very high-level general staff messages Cryptography (or cryptology; derived from Greek κρυπτός kryptós hidden, and the verb γράφω gráfo write or λεγειν legein to speak) is the study of message secrecy. ... A tabula recta for use with an autokey cipher An autokey cipher is a cipher which incorporates the message (the plaintext) into the key. ... The Vigenère cipher is named for Blaise de Vigenère (pictured), although Giovan Batista Belaso had invented the cipher earlier. ... Major Friedrich Wilhelm Kasiski (29 November 1805–22 May 1881) was a Prussian infantry officer, cryptographer and archeologist. ...


In 1838, Babbage invented the pilot (also called a cow-catcher), the metal frame attached to the front of locomotives that clears the tracks of obstacles. He also constructed a dynamometer car and performed several studies on Isambard Kingdom Brunel's Great Western Railway in about 1838. Babbage's eldest son, Benjamin Herschel Babbage, worked as an engineer for Brunel on the railways before emigrating to Australia in the 1850s. In railroading, the pilot is the device mounted at the front of a locomotive to deflect obstacles from the track that might otherwise derail the train. ... Isambard Kingdom Brunel, FRS (9 April 1806 – 15 September 1859) (IPA: ), was a British engineer. ... The original Bristol Temple Meads station, first terminus of the GWR, is the building to the left of this picture The Great Western Railway (GWR) was a British railway company, linking South West England, the West Country and South Wales with London. ...


Babbage is also credited with the invention of standard railroad gauge, uniform postal rates, occulting lights for lighthouses, the heliograph, and the ophthalmoscope.[citation needed] As railways developed and expanded one of the key issues to be decided was that of the rail gauge (the distance between the two rails of the track) which should be used. ... The Penny Post is any one of several postal systems in which normal letters could be sent for one penny. ... An occulting Light[1] is a rhythmic light in which the total duration of light in each period is clearly longer than the total duration of the darkness and in which the intervals of darkness (occultations) are all of equal duration. ... Signaling with heliograph, 1910 A heliograph uses a mirror to reflect sunlight to a distant observer. ... The ophthalmoscope, invented by Hermann von Helmholtz, is an instrument used to examine the eye. ...


Babbage twice stood for Parliament as a candidate for the borough of Finsbury. In 1832 he came in third among five candidates, but in 1834 he finished last among four.[16][17][18] Finsbury is a place in the south of the London Borough of Islington. ...


In On the Economy of Machine and Manufacture, Babbage described what is now called the Babbage principle, which describes certain advantages with division of labour. Babbage noted that highly skilled - and thus generally highly paid - workers spend parts of their job performing tasks that are 'below' their skill level. If the labour process can be divided among several workers, it is possible to assign only high-skill tasks to high-skill and -cost workers and leave other working tasks to less-skilled and paid workers, thereby cutting labour costs. This principle was criticised by Karl Marx who argued that it caused labour segregation and contributed to alienation. The Babbage principle is an inherent assumption in Frederick Winslow Taylor's scientific management. Karl Heinrich Marx (May 5, 1818 – March 14, 1883) was a 19th century philosopher, political economist, and revolutionary. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Frederick Winslow Taylor Frederick Winslow Taylor (March 20, 1856 to March 21, 1915) was an American mechanical engineer who sought to improve industrial efficiency. ... Taylorism redirects here. ...


Eccentricities

  • Babbage once counted all the broken panes of glass of a factory, publishing in 1857 a "Table of the Relative Frequency of the Causes of Breakage of Plate Glass Windows": Of 464 broken panes, 14 were caused by "drunken men, women or boys".[19][20][21]
  • Babbages's distaste for commoners ("the Mob") included writing "Observations of Street Nuisances" in 1864, as well as tallying up 165 "nuisances" over a period of 80 days; he especially hated street music, and in particular the music of organ grinders, against whom he railed in various venues. The following quotation is typical:
It is difficult to estimate the misery inflicted upon thousands of persons, and the absolute pecuniary penalty imposed upon multitudes of intellectual workers by the loss of their time, destroyed by organ-grinders and other similar nuisances.[22]
Every moment dies a man,
Every moment one is born.
... If this were true, the population of the world would be at a standstill. In truth, the rate of birth is slightly in excess of that of death. I would suggest [that the next version of your poem should read]:
Every moment dies a man,
Every moment 1 1/16 is born.
Strictly speaking, the actual figure is so long I cannot get it into a line, but I believe the figure 1 1/16 will be sufficiently accurate for poetry."[23]

Busking is the practice of doing live performances in public places to entertain people, usually to solicit donations and tips. ... An Austrian organ grinder (locally called Werklmann) with his paper-roll driven Berlin style barrel organ in Vienna The organ grinder was a musical novelty street performer of the 19th century and the early part of the 20th century, and refers to the operator of a street organ. ... Lord Tennyson, Poet Laureate Alfred Tennyson, 1st Baron Tennyson (August 6, 1809 - October 6, 1892) is generally regarded as one of the greatest English poets. ...

Quotations

On two occasions I have been asked, – "Pray, Mr. Babbage, if you put into the machine wrong figures, will the right answers come out?" In one case a member of the Upper, and in the other a member of the Lower, House put this question. I am not able rightly to apprehend the kind of confusion of ideas that could provoke such a question.[24]

Commemoration

Babbage has been commemorated by a number of references, as shown on this list. In particular, the Babbage crater, on the Moon, and the Charles Babbage Institute, an information technology archive and research center, were named after him. The large Babbage lecture theatre at Cambridge University, used for undergraduate science lectures, commemorates his time at the university. Babbage can refer to: Charles Babbage, English mathematician, mechanical engineer, and pioneering computer scientist Babbage crater, on the Moon Charles Babbage Institute, an information technology archive and research center. ... Babbage is an ancient lunar crater that is located near the northwest limb of the Moon, named after Charles Babbage. ... This article is about Earths moon. ... The Charles Babbage Institute (also titled the Center for the History of Information Technology) is a research center specializing in the history of information technology, particularly the post-World War II history of digital computing, programming/software, and computer networking. ... The University of Cambridge is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world, with one of the most selective sets of entry requirements in the United Kingdom. ...


Publications

Wikisource has original works written by or about:
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
  • Babbage, Charles (1826). A Comparative View of the Various Institutions for the Assurance of Lives. London: J. Mawman. 
  • Babbage, Charles (1830). Reflections on the Decline of Science in England, and on Some of Its Causes. London: B. Fellowes. 
  • Babbage, Charles (1835). On the Economy of Machinery and Manufactures, 4, London: Charles Knight. 
  • Babbage, Charles (1837). The Ninth Bridgewater Treatise, a Fragment. London: John Murray. 
  • Babbage, Charles (1841). Table of the Logarithms of the Natural Numbers from 1 to 108000. London: William Clowes and Sons. 
  • Babbage, Charles (1851). The Exposition of 1851. London: John Murray. 
  • Babbage, Charles (1864). Passages from the Life of a Philosopher. London: Longman. 

Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ...

References

  1. ^ NPG Ax18347
  2. ^ GRO Register of Deaths: DEC 1871 1a 383 MARYLEBONE - Charles Babbage, aged 79
  3. ^ Hyman, Charles (1982). Charles Babbage, Pioneer of the Computer. Princeton University Press, 5. 
  4. ^ Moseley, Maboth (1964). Irascible Genius, The Life of Charles Babbage. Henry Regnery Company (Chicago), 29. 
  5. ^ "The Late Mr. Charles Babbage, F.R.S.", The Times. 
  6. ^ Wilkes (2002) p.355
  7. ^ Valerie Bavidge-Richardson. Babbage Family Tree 2005. Retrieved on 2007-10-22.
  8. ^ Horsley, Victor (1909). "Description of the Brain of Mr. Charles Babbage, F.R.S". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Containing Papers of a Biological Character 200: 117 – 132. doi:10.1098/rstb.1909.0003. Retrieved on 2007-12-07. - subscription required
  9. ^ Babbage, Neville (1991). "Autopsy Report on the Body of Charles Babbage ("the father of the computer")". Medical Journal of Australia 154. 
  10. ^ Williams, Michael R. (1998). "The "Last Word" on Charles Babbage". IEEE Annals of the History of Computing 20: 10 – 14. doi:10.1109/85.728225. - subscription required
  11. ^ Postmortem report by John Gregory Smith, F.R.C.S. (anatomist)
  12. ^ Babbage's brain
  13. ^ Babbage's brain
  14. ^ http://www.computerhistory.org/babbage/
  15. ^ Kahn, David L. (1996). The Codebreakers: The Story of Secret Writing. New York: Scribner. ISBN 978-0-684-83130-5. 
  16. ^ Crowther, J. G. (1968). Scientific Types. London: Barrie & Rockliff, 266. 
  17. ^ Hyman Anthony (1982). Charles Babbage, Pioneer of the Computer. Princeton, New Jersey: Prineton University Press, 82 – 87. 
  18. ^ Moseley (1964). Irascible Genius, The Life of Charles Babbage. Chicago: Henery Regnery, 120 – 121. - Note some confusion as to the dates.
  19. ^ Babbage, Charles (1857). "Table of the Relative Frequency of Occurrence of the Causes of Breaking of Plate Glass Windows". Mechanics Magazine 66: 82. 
  20. ^ Babbage, Charles (1989). in Martin Campbell: The Works of Charles Babbage, Volume V. London: William Pickering, 137. 
  21. ^ See this web site for Babbage's table of causes of broken glass panes.
  22. ^ Babbage, Charles (1864) Passages from the Life of a Philosopher, London: Longman, Green, Longman, Roberts, & Green, Chapter 26, page 342. ISBN 1-85196-040-6
  23. ^ See Swade, Doron (2000). The Difference Engine. New York: Viking, 77. 
  24. ^ Babbage, Charles (1864) Passages from the Life of a Philosopher, London: Longman, Green, Longman, Roberts, & Green, Chapter 5, page 67. ISBN 1-85196-040-6

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  Results from FactBites:
 
Charles Babbage (3782 words)
Charles Babbage was born in Devonshire in 1791.
Babbage argued that miracles were not, as Hume write, violations of laws of nature, but could exist in a mechanistic world.
Babbage's unflagging fascination with statistics occasionally overwhelmed him, as is seen in the animation of his Smithsonian proposal.
Charles Babbage - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1844 words)
From 1828 to 1839 Babbage was Lucasian professor of mathematics at Cambridge.
Babbage's discovery was used to aid English military campaigns, and was not published until several years later; as a result credit for the development was instead given to Friedrich Kasiski, who made the same discovery some years after Babbage.
Babbage once counted all the broken panes of glass of a factory, publishing in 1857 a "Table of the Relative Frequency of the Causes of Breakage of Plate Glass Windows": 14 of 464 were caused by "drunken men, women or boys".
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