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Encyclopedia > Charlemagne
Charlemange
Most Serene Augustus, Crowned by God, great and peaceful Emperor, governing the Roman Empire and, by the Mercy of God, king of the Lombards and the Franks

A coin of Charlemagne. Inscription: "KAROLVS IMP AVG".
Reign King of the Franks: 24 September 76828 January 814;
King of the Lombards: 774 – 28 January 814;
Emperor: 25 December 80028 January 814
Coronation King of the Franks: c. June 754, St Denis;
King of the Lombards: 774;
Holy Roman Emperor: 25 December 800, Rome
Titles Patrician of the Romans
Born c. 2 April 742 or 747
Died 28 January 814
Place of death Aachen, Germany
Buried Palatine Chapel in Aachen
Predecessor Pippin the Short
Heirs Apparent Charles the Younger, Pippin of Italy, Louis the Pious
Successor Louis the Pious
Consort Desiderata of Lombardy,
Hildegard,
Fastrada,
Luitgard
Issue Pippin the Hunchback (763-811),
Charles the Younger (772 or 773-811),
Carloman, renamed Pippin (773 or 777-810), King of Italy,
Rotrude (or Hruodrud) (777-810),
Louis the Pious (778-840), King of Aquitaine, later King and Emperor of the Franks,
Bertha (779-823)
Gisela (781-808)
Theodrada (b.784), abbess of Argenteuil
Royal House Carolingian Dynasty
Father Pippin the Short
Mother Bertrada of Laon

Charlemagne (pronounced /ˈʃɑrlɨmeɪn/; Latin: Carolus Magnus or Karolus Magnus, meaning Charles the Great) (742/74728 January 814) was King of the Franks from 768 to his death. He expanded the Frankish kingdoms into a Frankish Empire that incorporated much of Western and Central Europe. During his reign, he conquered Italy and was crowned Imperator Augustus by Pope Leo III on 25 December 800 as a rival of the Byzantine Emperor in Constantinople. His rule is also associated with the Carolingian Renaissance, a revival of art, religion, and culture through the medium of the Catholic Church. Through his foreign conquests and internal reforms, Charlemagne helped define both Western Europe and the Middle Ages. He is numbered as Charles I in the regnal lists of France, Germany, and the Holy Roman Empire. is the 267th day of the year (268th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Death of Pepin the Short (714 - 768), king of the Franks since 751. ... is the 28th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Louis the Pious succeeds Charlemagne as king of the Franks and Emperor. ... is the 28th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Louis the Pious succeeds Charlemagne as king of the Franks and Emperor. ... is the 359th day of the year (360th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events December 25, Rome, coronation of Charles the Great (Charlemagne) as emperor by Pope Leo III. Celtic monks begin work on the Book of Kells on the Island of Iona. ... is the 28th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Louis the Pious succeeds Charlemagne as king of the Franks and Emperor. ... is the 359th day of the year (360th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events December 25, Rome, coronation of Charles the Great (Charlemagne) as emperor by Pope Leo III. Celtic monks begin work on the Book of Kells on the Island of Iona. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... is the 92nd day of the year (93rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Chinese poet Li Po is presented before the emperor and given a position in the Imperial court. ... Events Abu Muslim unites the Abbasid Empire against the Umayyads. ... is the 28th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Louis the Pious succeeds Charlemagne as king of the Franks and Emperor. ... Oche redirects here; in darts the oche is the line from which players must throw. ... Charlemagnes chapel in Aachen. ... Pepin III (714 - September 24, 768) more often known as Pepin the Short (French, Pépin le Bref; German, Pippin der Kleine), was a King of the Franks (751 - 768). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Pippin of Italy (April, 773 – July 8, 810) was the son of Charlemagne and king of Italy (781-810) under the authority of his father. ... Louis the Pious, contemporary depiction from 826 as a miles Christi (soldier of Christ), with a poem of Rabanus Maurus overlaid. ... Louis the Pious, contemporary depiction from 826 as a miles Christi (soldier of Christ), with a poem of Rabanus Maurus overlaid. ... Desiderata was one of four daughters of Desiderius, king of the Lombards, and his queen, Ansa. ... Hildegard (758-783) was the daughter of Count Gerold of Vinzgouw and Imma (Emma) of Alemannia. ... Fastrada (died 794) fourth wife of Charlemagne, married 784. ... Luitgard (died 800) was fifth and last wife of Charlemagne, married 794. ... Charlemagne und Pippin the Hunchback. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Pippin of Italy (April, 773 – July 8, 810) was the son of Charlemagne and king of Italy (781-810) under the authority of his father. ... King of Italy is a title adopted by many rulers after the fall of the Roman Empire. ... Rotrude (or sometimes referred to as Hruodrud) (775 - 8/6/810) was the second daughter of Charlemagne from his marriage to Hildegard of Savoy. ... Louis the Pious, contemporary depiction from 826 as a miles Christi (soldier of Christ), with a poem of Rabanus Maurus overlaid. ... Gisela (781-808) was possibly a daughter of Charlemange and his third wife Hildegard of Savoy. ... Theodrada (b. ... An Abbess (Latin abbatissa, fem. ... Argenteuil is a commune in the northwestern suburbs of Paris, France. ... The following list of Frankish Kings is one of several Wikipedia lists of incumbents. ... Pepin III (714 - September 24, 768) more often known as Pepin the Short (French, Pépin le Bref; German, Pippin der Kleine), was a King of the Franks (751 - 768). ... Bertrada of Laon, also called Bertha of the Big Foot, (720 - July 12, 783) was a Frankish queen. ... Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... Events Chinese poet Li Po is presented before the emperor and given a position in the Imperial court. ... Events Abu Muslim unites the Abbasid Empire against the Umayyads. ... is the 28th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Louis the Pious succeeds Charlemagne as king of the Franks and Emperor. ... The Franks were originally lead by dukes (military leaders) and reguli (petty kings). ... Map of Carolingian Empire The term Carolingian Empire is sometimes used to refer to the realm of the Franks under the dynasty of the Carolingians. ... A current understanding of Western Europe. ... Central Europe is the region lying between the variously and vaguely defined areas of Eastern and Western Europe. ... Infobox Pope| English name=Leo III| image= | birth_name=Unknown| term_start=December 27, 795 | term_end=June 12, 816| predecessor=Adrian I| successor=Stephen IV| birth_date=Date of birth unknown| birthplace=Rome, Italy| dead=dead|death_date=June 12, 816| deathplace=Place of death unknown| other=Leo}} Pope Leo III (died June 12... is the 359th day of the year (360th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events December 25, Rome, coronation of Charles the Great (Charlemagne) as emperor by Pope Leo III. Celtic monks begin work on the Book of Kells on the Island of Iona. ... This is a list of Byzantine Emperors. ... This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ... Sample of Carolingian minuscule, one of the products of the Carolingian Renaissance. ... Catholic Church redirects here. ... A current understanding of Western Europe. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... The following list of German Kings and Emperors is one of several Wikipedia lists of incumbents. ...


The son of King Pippin the Short and Bertrada of Laon, he succeeded his father and co-ruled with his brother Carloman I. The latter got on badly with Charlemagne, but war was prevented by the sudden death of Carloman in 771. Charlemagne continued the policy of his father towards the papacy and became its protector, removing the Lombards from power in Italy, and waging war on the Saracens, who menaced his realm from Spain. It was during one of these campaigns that Charlemagne experienced the worst defeat of his life, at Roncesvalles (778). He also campaigned against the peoples to his east, especially the Saxons, and after a protracted war subjected them to his rule. By forcibly converting them to Christianity, he integrated them into his realm and thus paved the way for the later Ottonian dynasty. Pepin III (714 - September 24, 768) more often known as Pepin the Short (French, Pépin le Bref; German, Pippin der Kleine), was a King of the Franks (751 - 768). ... Bertrada of Laon, also called Bertha of the Big Foot, (720 - July 12, 783) was a Frankish queen. ... The Pope is the Catholic Bishop and patriarch of Rome, and head of the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Catholic Churches. ... The Lombards (Latin Langobardi, whence comes the alternative name Longobards found in older English texts), were a Germanic people originally from Northern Europe that entered the late Roman Empire. ... For the rugby club Saracens see Saracens (rugby club) The term Saracen comes from Greek sarakenoi. ... The Roncevaux Pass (Roncesvaux in English, Roncesvalles in Spanish, Orreaga in Basque) is the site of a famous battle in 778 in which Hroudland (later changed to Roland), prefect of Brittany March was defeated by the Basques. ... For other uses, see Saxon (disambiguation). ...


Today he is not only regarded as the founding father of both French and German monarchies, but as the father of Europe: his empire united most of Western Europe for the first time since the Romans, and the Carolingian renaissance encouraged the formation of a common European identity.[1] Pierre Riché reflects:

. . . he enjoyed an exceptional destiny, and by the length of his reign, by his conquests, legislation and legendary stature, he also profoundly marked the history of western Europe.[2]

Contents

Background

By the 6th century, the Franks were Christianised, and the Frankish Empire ruled by the Merovingians had become the most powerful of the kingdoms which succeeded the Western Roman Empire. But following the Battle of Tertry, the Merovingians declined into a state of powerlessness, for which they have been dubbed do-nothing kings (rois fainéants). Almost all government powers of any consequence were exercised by their chief officer, the mayor of the palace or major domus. This article is about the Frankish people and society. ... By Germanic Christianity is that phase in the history of Northern Europe understood, when the Germanic peoples of the Migration period and Viking Age adopted Christianity. ... The Frankish Empire was the territory of the Franks, from the 5th to the 10th centuries, from 481 ruled by Clovis I of the Merovingian Dynasty, the first king of all the Franks. ... For other uses of the term Merovingian, see Merovingian (disambiguation). ... Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus The Western Roman Empire in 395. ... The Battle of Tertry was an important engagement in Merovingian Gaul between the forces of Austrasia on one side and those of Neustria and Burgundy on the other. ... Roi fainéant is a French language phrase meaning do nothing king. It is primarily used to refer to the later kings of the Merovingian and Carolingian dynasties, after they seemed to have lost their initial energy. ... Mayor of the Palace was an early medieval title and office, also known by the Latin name, maior domus or majordomo, used most notably in the Frankish kingdoms in the 7th and 8th centuries. ...


In 687, Pippin of Herstal, mayor of the palace of Austrasia, ended the strife between various kings and their mayors with his victory at Tertry and became the sole governor of the entire Frankish kingdom. Pippin himself was the grandson of two most important figures of the Austrasian Kingdom, Saint Arnulf of Metz and Pippin of Landen. Pippin the Middle was eventually succeeded by his illegitimate son Charles, later known as Charles Martel (the Hammer). After 737, Charles governed the Franks without a king on the throne but desisted from calling himself "king". Charles was succeeded by his sons Carloman and Pippin the Short, the father of Charlemagne. To curb separatism in the periphery of the realm, the brothers placed on the throne Childeric III, who was to be the last Merovingian king. Pippin of Herstal (or Pepin; Pépin), also known as Pippin the Middle, Pippin the Younger (as with his grandson), or Pippin II, (635 or 640–December 16, 714, Jupille) was the grandson of Pippin (I) the Elder through the marriage of Ansegisel and Begga, the daughter of the Elder. ... Arnulf of Metz (August 13, 582 – August 16, 640) was a Frankish noble who had great influence in the Merovingian kingdoms as a bishop and was later canonized as a saint. ... Pippin of Landen, also known as Pippin the Elder (580 - 640), was the Frankish Mayor of the Palace of Austrasia under the Merovingian kings Clotaire II, Dagobert I and Sigebert III from 615 or 623 to 629. ... Charles Martel (or, in modern English, Charles the Hammer) (23 August 686 – 22 October 741) was proclaimed Mayor of the Palace, ruling the Franks in the name of a titular King, and proclaimed himself Duke of the Franks (the last four years of his reign he did not even bother... Carloman (between 706 and 716[1] – 17 August[2] 754) was the son of Charles Martel, major domo or mayor of the palace and duke of the Franks, and his wife Chrotrud. ... Pepin III (714 - September 24, 768) more often known as Pepin the Short (French, Pépin le Bref; German, Pippin der Kleine), was a King of the Franks (751 - 768). ... Childeric III (died about 754), called either the Idiot or the Phantom King, king of the Franks, was the fourteenth and last king of the Merovingian dynasty. ...


After Carloman resigned his office, Pippin had Childeric III deposed with Pope Zachary's approval. In 751, Pippin was elected and anointed King of the Franks and in 754, Pope Stephen II again anointed him and his young sons, now heirs to the great realm which already covered most of western and central Europe. Thus was the Merovingian dynasty replaced by the Carolingian dynasty, named after Pippin's father Charles Martel. Pope Saint Zachary (Greek Zacharias), pope (741-752). ... Stephen, elected pope in March of 752 to succeed Pope Zacharias, died of apoplexy three days later, before being consecrated. ... Also see: France in the Middle Ages. ...


Under the new dynasty, the Frankish kingdom spread to encompass an area including most of Western Europe. The division of that kingdom formed France and Germany;[3] and the religious, political, and artistic evolutions originating from a centrally-positioned Francia made a defining imprint on the whole of Western Europe. Various Religious symbols, including (first row) Christian, Jewish, Hindu, Bahai, (second row) Islamic, tribal, Taoist, Shinto (third row) Buddhist, Sikh, Hindu, Jain, (fourth row) Ayyavazhi, Triple Goddess, Maltese cross, pre-Christian Slavonic Religion is the adherence to codified beliefs and rituals that generally involve a faith in a spiritual... For other uses, see Politics (disambiguation). ... This article is about the philosophical concept of Art. ...


Personal traits

Charlemagne (left) and Pippin the Hunchback. Tenth-century copy of a lost original from about 830.

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (488x768, 116 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Charlemagne Pippin the Hunchback ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (488x768, 116 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Charlemagne Pippin the Hunchback ...

Date and place of birth

Charlemagne is traditionally believed to have been born on April 2, 742; however, several factors have led to a reconsideration of this date. First, the year 742 was calculated from his age given at death, rather than from attestation in primary sources. Another date is given in the Annales Petarienses, April 1, 747. In that year, April 1 was at Easter. The birth of an emperor at eastertime is a coincidence likely to provoke comment, but there was no such comment documented in 747, leading some to suspect that the Easter birthday was a pious fiction concocted as a way of honoring the Emperor. Other commentators weighing the primary records have suggested that his birth was one year later, in 748. At present, it is impossible to be certain of the date of the birth of Charlemagne. The best guesses include April 1, 747, after April 15, 747, or April 1, 748, in Herstal (where his father was born, a city close to Liège in modern day Belgium), the region from where both the Merovingian and Carolingian families originate. He went to live in his father's villa in Jupille when he was around seven, which caused Jupille to be listed as a possible place of birth in almost every history book. Other cities have been suggested, including, Prüm, Düren, Gauting and Aachen. This article is about the Christian festival. ... is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 105th day of the year (106th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Herstal is a municipality located in the Belgian province of Liège. ... Geography Country Belgium Community French Community Region Walloon Region Province Liège Arrondissement Liège Coordinates , , Area 69. ... Jupille (Jupille-sur-Meuse) is a former Belgian municipality. ... The title of this article contains the character ü. Where it is unavailable or not desired, the name may be represented as Pruem. ... Düren is a town in North Rhine-Westphalia, capital of Düren district. ... Gauting is a municipality in the district of Starnberg, in Bavaria, Germany with a population of approx. ... Oche redirects here; in darts the oche is the line from which players must throw. ...


Language

Charlemagne's native tongue is a matter of controversy. His mother speech was probably a Germanic dialect of the Franks of the time, but linguists differ on the identity and periodisation of the language, some going so far as to say that he did not speak Old Frankish as he was born in 742 or 747, by which time Old Frankish had become extinct. Old Frankish is reconstructed from its descendant, Old Low Franconian, also called Old Dutch, and from loanwords to Old French. Linguists know very little about Old Frankish, as it attested mainly as phrases and words in the law codes of the main Frankish tribes (especially those of the Salian and Ripuarian Franks), which are written in Latin interspersed with Germanic elements.[4] Native Language Music, founded in 1996 by musicians Joe Sherbanee and Theo Bishop, is an independent adult contemporary record company based in Southern California that produces, markets, and distributes premium jazz, world, and new age music. ... For dialects of programming languages, see Programming language dialect. ... For the journal, see Linguistics (journal). ... Old Low Franconian is the language ancestral to the Low Franconian languages, including Dutch. ... Old Dutch (Also Old West Low Franconian) is a branch of Old Low Franconian spoken and written during the early middle ages (c. ... Old French was the Romance dialect continuum spoken in territories corresponding roughly to the northern half of modern France and parts of modern Belgium and Switzerland from around 1000 to 1300. ...


The area of Charlemagne's birth does not make determination of his native language easier. Most historians agree he was born around Liège, like his father, but some say he was born in or around Aachen, some fifty kilometres away. At that time, this was an area of great linguistic diversity. If we take Liège (around 750) as the centre, we find Low Franconian in the north and northwest, Gallo-Romance (the ancestor of Old French) in the south and southwest and various Old High German dialects in the east. If Gallo-Romance is excluded, that means he either spoke Old Low Franconian or an Old High German dialect, probably with a strong Frankish influence. Geography Country Belgium Community French Community Region Walloon Region Province Liège Arrondissement Liège Coordinates , , Area 69. ... Oche redirects here; in darts the oche is the line from which players must throw. ... The Gallo-Romance branch of Romance languages includes French, Oïl languages, Catalan, and Occitan, among other languages. ... The (Late Old High) German speaking area of the Holy Roman Empire around 950. ...


Apart from his native language he also spoke Latin "as fluently as his own tongue" and understood a bit of Greek: Grecam vero melius intellegere quam pronuntiare poterat, "He understood Greek better than he could pronounce it."[5] Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ...


Names of Charlemagne

Because of the number of languages spoken within his Empire, and his wide European fame, Charlemagne's name has been preserved in many different languages in different forms. The language of Charlemagne itself does not exist anymore, but evolved into the Franconian languages. Legend:  Dutch. ...


Charlemagne's birth-name, "Charles" was derived from his grandfather, Charles Martel (who was supposedly given the name by his father, Pippin the Middle, as a circumspectory measure to prevent Pippin's wife Plectrude from discovering her husband's infidelity). The name derives from "karl", a Germanic stem meaning "man" or "free man",[6] related to the English "churl". The earliest extant forms of Charlemagne's name are in the Latinate form, "Carolus" or "Karolus". Charles Martel (or, in modern English, Charles the Hammer) (23 August 686 – 22 October 741) was proclaimed Mayor of the Palace, ruling the Franks in the name of a titular King, and proclaimed himself Duke of the Franks (the last four years of his reign he did not even bother... Plectrude or Plectrudis (d. ... A churl, in its earliest Anglo-Saxon meaning, was simply a man, but the word soon came to mean a non-servile peasant, still spelt ceorle, and denoting the lowest rank of freemen. ...


In many Slavic languages, the very word for "king" derives from Charles' Slavicised name.

A portrait of Charlemagne by Albrecht Dürer that was painted several centuries after Charlemagne's death, the coat of arms above him show the German eagle and the French Fleur-de-lis.

Modern variants in Germanic languages (except English) are: Image File history File links Download high resolution version (580x1286, 188 KB) Summary From Greek Wikipedia, see http://upload. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (580x1286, 188 KB) Summary From Greek Wikipedia, see http://upload. ... Albrecht Dürer (pronounced ) (May 21, 1471 – April 6, 1528)[1] was a German painter, printmaker and theorist from Nuremberg, Germany. ... Categories: Stub | German coats of arms ... Fleurs-de-lys on the flag of Quebec The fleur-de-lis (also spelled fleur-de-lys; plural fleurs-de-lis or -lys) is used in heraldry, where it is particularly associated with the France monarchy (see King of France). ... The Germanic languages are a group of related languages constituting a branch of the Indo-European (IE) language family. ...

The Germanic name was Latinised (Latin: Carolus Magnus) and preserved in the modern Romance languages (as well as English): Luxembourgish (Luxembourgish: , French: , German: , Walloon: ), also spelled Luxemburgish, is a West Germanic language spoken in Luxembourg. ... The West Frisian language (Frysk) is a language spoken mostly in the province of Fryslân in the north of the Netherlands. ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... The Romance languages (sometimes referred to as Romanic languages) are a branch of the Indo-European language family that comprises all the languages that descend from Latin, the language of the Roman Empire. ...

Modern variants in and the Slavic languages influenced by the Germanic name are: Catalan IPA: (català IPA: or []) is a Romance language, the national language of Andorra, and a co-official language in the Spanish autonomous communities of Balearic Islands, Catalonia and Valencia, and in the city of LAlguer in the Italian island of Sardinia. ... Old French was the Romance dialect continuum spoken in territories corresponding roughly to the northern half of modern France and parts of modern Belgium and Switzerland from around 1000 to 1300. ... Walloon (Walon) is a regional Romance language spoken as a second language by some in Wallonia (Belgium). ...  Countries where a West Slavic language is the national language  Countries where an East Slavic language is the national language  Countries where a South Slavic language is the national language The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages), a group of closely related languages of the Slavic peoples and a subgroup...

The Breton variant is Karl-Veur. Slovenian or Slovene (slovenski jezik or slovenščina) is an Indo-European language that belongs to the family of South Slavic languages. ... Breton (Brezhoneg) is a Celtic language spoken by some of the inhabitants of Brittany (Breizh) in France. ...


Personal appearance

Though no description from Charlemagne's lifetime exists, his personal appearance is known from a good description by Einhard, author of the biographical Vita Caroli Magni. Einhard tells in his twenty-second chapter: Einhard as scribe Einhard (also Eginhard or Einhart) (c. ...

Charles was large and strong, and of lofty stature, though not disproportionately tall (his height is well known to have been seven times the length of his foot); the upper part of his head was round, his eyes very large and animated, nose a little long, hair fair, and face laughing and merry. Thus his appearance was always stately and dignified, whether he was standing or sitting; although his neck was thick and somewhat short, and his belly rather prominent; but the symmetry of the rest of his body concealed these defects. His gait was firm, his whole carriage manly, and his voice clear, but not so strong as his size led one to expect.

Charles is well known to have been tall, stately, and fair-haired, with a disproportionately thick neck. His skeleton was measured during the 18th century and his height was determined to be 1.93 m (6 ft 4 in [7]). The Roman tradition of realistic personal portraiture was in complete eclipse in his time, where individual traits were submerged in iconic typecastings. Charlemagne, as an ideal ruler, ought to be portrayed in the corresponding fashion, any contemporary would have assumed. The images of enthroned Charlemagne, God's representative on Earth, bear more connections to the icons of Christ in majesty than to modern (or antique) conceptions of portraiture. Charlemagne in later imagery (as in the Dürer portrait) is often portrayed with flowing blond hair, due to a misunderstanding of Einhard, who describes Charlemagne as having canitie pulchra, or "beautiful white hair", which has been rendered as blonde or fair in many translations. This article is about the religious artifacts. ... This page is about the title, office or what is known in Christian theology as the Divine Person. ... Albrecht Dürer (pronounced ) (May 21, 1471 – April 6, 1528)[1] was a German painter, printmaker and theorist from Nuremberg, Germany. ...


Dress

Part of the treasure in Aachen

Charlemagne wore the traditional, inconspicuous and distinctly non-aristocratic costume of the Frankish people, described by Einhard thus: Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 453 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1388 × 1836 pixel, file size: 280 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 453 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1388 × 1836 pixel, file size: 280 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ...

He used to wear the national, that is to say, the Frank dress: next to his skin a linen shirt and linen breeches, and above these a tunic fringed with silk; while hose fastened by bands covered his lower limbs, and shoes his feet, and he protected his shoulders and chest in winter by a close-fitting coat of otter or marten skins.

He wore a blue cloak and always carried a sword with him. The typical sword was of a golden or silver hilt. He wore fancy jewelled swords to banquets or ambassadorial receptions. Nevertheless: Swiss longsword, 15th or 16th century Look up Sword in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... GOLD refers to one of the following: GOLD (IEEE) is an IEEE program designed to garner more student members at the university level (Graduates of the Last Decade). ... This article is about the chemical element. ... See also: Hilt (band) and Peter Hilt Hilt of Szczerbiec The hilt of a sword is its handle, consisting of a guard, grip and pommel. ...

He despised foreign costumes, however handsome, and never allowed himself to be robed in them, except twice in Rome, when he donned the Roman tunic, chlamys, and shoes; the first time at the request of Pope Hadrian, the second to gratify Leo, Hadrian's successor.

He could rise to the occasion when necessary. On great feast days, he wore embroidery and jewels on his clothing and shoes. He had a golden buckle for his cloak on such occasions and would appear with his great diadem, but he despised such apparel, according to Einhard, and usually dressed like the common people. This article is about a type of crown called a diadem; for alternate meanings, see Diadem. ...


Rise to power

Early life

Charlemagne was the eldest child of Pippin the Short (714 – 24 September 768, reigned from 751) and his wife Bertrada of Laon (720 – 12 July 783), daughter of Caribert of Laon and Bertrada of Cologne. Records name only Carloman, Gisela, and a short-lived child named Pippin as his younger siblings. The semi-mythical Redburga, wife of King Egbert of Wessex, is sometimes claimed to be his sister (or sister-in-law or niece), and the legendary material makes him Roland's maternal uncle through a lady Bertha. is the 267th day of the year (268th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Bertrada of Laon, also called Bertha of the Big Foot, (720 - July 12, 783) was a Frankish queen. ... is the 193rd day of the year (194th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Births Deaths July 12: Bertrada, wife of Pippin III Categories: 783 ... Caribert (also spelled Charibert), Count of Laon, is the obscure ancestor of Charlemagne. ... Gisela (757 – 810) was the only daughter of Pippin the Younger and his wife Bertrada of Laon. ... Redburga or Raedburh was the wife of king Egbert of Wessex and may have been the sister-in-law of Charlemagne as the sister of his fourth wife, Luitgarde; other sources describe her as his sister (although Charlemagnes only sister was named Gisela) or his great-granddaughter (which would... Egbert (also Ecgbehrt or Ecgbert, means roughly The shining edge of a blade) (c. ... This article is about the legendary figure. ...


Much of what is known of Charlemagne's life comes from his biographer, Einhard, who wrote a Vita Caroli Magni (or Vita Karoli Magni), the Life of Charlemagne. Einhard says of the early life of Charles: Einhard as scribe Einhard (also Eginhard or Einhart) (c. ...

It would be folly, I think, to write a word concerning Charles' birth and infancy, or even his boyhood, for nothing has ever been written on the subject, and there is no one alive now who can give information on it. Accordingly, I determined to pass that by as unknown, and to proceed at once to treat of his character, his deed, and such other facts of his life as are worth telling and setting forth, and shall first give an account of his deed at home and abroad, then of his character and pursuits, and lastly of his administration and death, omitting nothing worth knowing or necessary to know.

On the death of Pippin, the kingdom of the Franks was divided—following tradition—between Charlemagne and Carloman. Charles took the outer parts of the kingdom, bordering on the sea, namely Neustria, western Aquitaine, and the northern parts of Austrasia, while Carloman retained the inner parts: southern Austrasia, Septimania, eastern Aquitaine, Burgundy, Provence, and Swabia, lands bordering on Italy. Neustria & Austrasia The territory of Neustria originated in A.D. 511, made up of the regions from Aquitaine to the English Channel, approximating most of the north of present-day France, with Paris and Soissons as its main cities. ... (Region flag) (Region logo) Location Administration Capital Regional President Departments Dordogne Gironde Landes Lot-et-Garonne Pyrénées-Atlantiques Arrondissements 18 Cantons 235 Communes 2,296 Statistics Land area1 41,308 km² Population (Ranked 6th)  - January 1, 2006 est. ... Austrasia & Neustria Austrasia formed the north-eastern portion of the Kingdom of the Merovingian Franks, comprising parts of the territory of present-day eastern France, western Germany, Belgium, and the Netherlands. ... Septimania was the western region of the Roman province of Gallia Narbonensis that passed under the control of the Visigothic kingdom in 462, when Septimania was ceded to Theodoric II, king of the Visigoths. ... Coat of arms of the second Duchy of Burgundy and later of the French province of Burgundy Burgundy (French: ; German: ) is a historic region of France, inhabited in turn by Celts (Gauls), Romans (Gallo-Romans), and various Germanic peoples, most importantly the Burgundians and the Franks; the former gave their... Coat of arms of Provence Provence (Provençal Occitan: Provença in classical norm or Prouvènço in Mistralian norm) was a Roman province and now is a region of southeastern France on the Mediterranean Sea adjacent to Italy. ... Germany, showing modern borders. ...


Joint rule

On 9 October, immediately after the funeral of their father, both the kings withdrew from Saint Denis to be proclaimed by their nobles and consecrated by the bishops, Charlemagne in Noyon and Carloman in Soissons. is the 282nd day of the year (283rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Saint Denis can refer to: a Christian saint: see Denis Seine-Saint-Denis a France Several communes in France: Saint-Denis,in the Aude d partement Saint-Denis, in the Gard d partement Saint-Denis, in the Seine-Saint-Denis d partement, home of Saint Denis Basilica Saint-Denis, in... Noyon is a small but historic French city in the Oise département, Picardie, on the Oise Canal, approximately 60 miles north of Paris. ... Soissons is a town and commune in the Aisne département, Picardie, France, located on the Aisne River, about 60 miles northeast of Paris. ...


The first event of the brothers' reign was the rising of the Aquitainians and Gascons, in 769, in that territory split between the two kings. Years before Pippin had suppressed the revolt of Waifer, Duke of Aquitaine. Now, one Hunald (seemingly other than Hunald the duke) led the Aquitainians as far north as Angoulême. Charlemagne met Carloman, but Carloman refused to participate and returned to Burgundy. Charlemagne went to war, leading an army to Bordeaux, where he set up a camp at Fronsac. Hunold was forced to flee to the court of Duke Lupus II of Gascony. Lupus, fearing Charlemagne, turned Hunold over in exchange for peace. He was put in a monastery. Aquitaine was finally fully subdued by the Franks. The Gascon language is an Occitan dialect mostly spoken in Gascony (in the French départements of Pyrénées-Atlantiques, Hautes-Pyrénées, Landes, Gers, Gironde, a part of Lot-et-Garonne, a part of Haute-Garonne, and a part of Ariège), and in the small Spanish... Waifer (a. ... Coat of arms of the duchy of Aquitaine. ... Hunald (a. ... Angoulême is a town and commune in southwestern France, préfecture (capital city) of the Charente département. ... For other uses, see Bordeaux (disambiguation). ... Lop II (also Otsoa (Eu), Lupus (La), Loup (Fr), or Lobo (Sp)) is the first-attested duke of Gascony from 769. ...


The brothers maintained lukewarm relations with the assistance of their mother Bertrada, but in 770 Charlemagne signed a treaty with Duke Tassilo III of Bavaria and married a Lombard Princess (commonly known today as Desiderata), the daughter of King Desiderius, in order to surround Carloman with his own allies. Though Pope Stephen III first opposed the marriage with the Lombard princess, he would soon have little to fear from a Frankish-Lombard alliance. Tassilo III was duke of Bavaria from 748 to 787, the last of the house of the Agilolfings. ... Desiderata was one of four daughters of Desiderius, king of the Lombards, and his queen, Ansa. ... Desiderius, the last king of the Lombards, is chiefly known through his connection with Charlemagne. ... Stephen III (d. ...


Less than a year after his marriage, Charlemagne repudiated Desiderata, and quickly remarried to a 13-year-old Swabian named Hildegard. The repudiated Desiderata returned to her father's court at Pavia. The Lombard's wrath was now aroused and he would gladly have allied with Carloman to defeat Charles. But before war could break out, Carloman died on 5 December 771. Carloman's wife Gerberga fled to Desiderius' court with her sons for protection. Hildegard (758-783) was the daughter of Count Gerold of Vinzgouw and Imma (Emma) of Alemannia. ... For the municipality in the Philippines, see Pavia, Iloilo. ... is the 339th day of the year (340th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events December 4 - Austrasian King Carloman dies, leaving his brother Charlemagne king of the now complete Frank kingdom (Pope Leo III crowned Charlemagne Emperor of the Franks at Rome on Christmas Day, 800). ...


Italian campaigns

Conquest of Lombardy

The Frankish king Charlemagne was a devout Catholic who maintained a close relationship with the papacy throughout his life. In 772, when Pope Hadrian I was threatened by invaders, the king rushed to Rome to provide assistance. Shown here, the pope asks Charlemagne for help at a meeting near Rome

At the succession of Pope Hadrian I in 772, he demanded the return of certain cities in the former exarchate of Ravenna as in accordance with a promise of Desiderius' succession. Desiderius instead took over certain papal cities and invaded the Pentapolis, heading for Rome. Hadrian sent embassies to Charlemagne in autumn requesting he enforce the policies of his father, Pippin. Desiderius sent his own embassies denying the pope's charges. The embassies both met at Thionville and Charlemagne upheld the pope's side. Charlemagne promptly demanded what the pope had demanded and Desiderius promptly swore never to comply. Charlemagne and his uncle Bernard crossed the Alps in 773 and chased the Lombards back to Pavia, which they then besieged. Charlemagne temporarily left the siege to deal with Adelchis, son of Desiderius, who was raising an army at Verona. The young prince was chased to the Adriatic littoral and he fled to Constantinople to plead for assistance from Constantine V Copronymus, who was waging war with the Bulgars. Image File history File links Title: Charlemagne and the Pope Description: The Frankish king Charlemagne was a devout Catholic who maintained a close relationship with the papacy throughout his life. ... Image File history File links Title: Charlemagne and the Pope Description: The Frankish king Charlemagne was a devout Catholic who maintained a close relationship with the papacy throughout his life. ... Charlemagne comes to the aid of Pope Adrian I Adrian, or Hadrian I, (died December 25, 795) was pope from 772 to 795. ... Charlemagne comes to the aid of Pope Adrian I Adrian, or Hadrian I, (died December 25, 795) was pope from 772 to 795. ... The Exarchate of Ravenna was a center of Byzantine power in Italy, from the end of the 6th century to 751 A.D., when the last Exarch was put to death by the Emperors enemies in Italy, the Lombards. ... A Pentapolis, from the Greek words penta five and polis city(-state) is geographic and/or institutional grouping of five cities. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... Thionville (German: , Luxembourgish: Diedennuewen), is a town and commune in the Moselle département, in the Lorraine région, France. ... Bernard or Bernhard (b. ... Alp redirects here. ... The battle of Pavia was fought in 773–774 in what is now northern Italy, and resulted the victory of French under Charlemagne against the Lombards under King Didier, better known as Desiderius (meaning desire in Latin, and the same root as the current Italian name Desiderio). ... Adalgis (d. ... This article is about the city in Italy. ... The Adriatic Sea is an arm of the Mediterranean Sea separating the Apennine peninsula (Italy) from the Balkan peninsula, and the system of the Apennine Mountains from that of the Dinaric Alps and adjacent ranges. ... This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ... Constantine V with his father Leo III the Isaurian. ... Not to be confused with Bulgarians. ...


The siege lasted until the spring of 774, when Charlemagne visited the pope in Rome. There he confirmed his father's grants of land, with some later chronicles claiming—falsely—that he also expanded them, granting Tuscany, Emilia, Venice, and Corsica. The pope granted him the title patrician. He then returned to Pavia, where the Lombards were on the verge of surrendering. For other uses, see Tuscany (disambiguation). ... Emilia Jager, daughter of Cathy and John Jager, has been aproved that her French Rose has been awarded painting of the year. The Centre house, Lane Cove community have been very proud of this young 14 yr old girl. ... For other uses, see Venice (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Corsica (disambiguation). ... This article is about the social and political class in ancient Rome. ...


In return for their lives, the Lombards surrendered and opened the gates in early summer. Desiderius was sent to the abbey of Corbie and his son Adelchis died in Constantinople a patrician. Charles, unusually, had himself crowned with the Iron Crown and made the magnates of Lombardy do homage to him at Pavia. Only Duke Arechis II of Benevento refused to submit and proclaimed independence. Charlemagne was now master of Italy as king of the Lombards. He left Italy with a garrison in Pavia and few Frankish counts in place that very year. Bold textTHIS IS THE PAGE THAT A.S. REALLY NEEDS!! THIS IS NOW MARKED!!! ] ps i like A.O. This article is about an abbey as a Christian monastic community. ... Corbie is a commune of the Somme département, in northern France. ... The Iron Crown of Lombardy (Corona Ferrea) is both a reliquary and one of the most ancient royal insignia of Europe. ... Arechis II (also Aretchis, Arichis, or Aregis) (d. ...


There was still instability, however, in Italy. In 776, Dukes Hrodgaud of Friuli and Hildeprand of Spoleto rebelled. Charlemagne rushed back from Saxony and defeated the duke of Friuli in battle. The duke was slain. The duke of Spoleto signed a treaty. Their co-conspirator, Arechis, was not subdued and Adelchis, their candidate in Byzantium, never left that city. Northern Italy was now faithfully his. Hrodgaud was the Duke of Friuli from 774 to 776. ... Hildeprand was the Duke of Spoleto from 774 to 789. ... Location Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DED Capital Dresden Minister-President Georg Milbradt (CDU) Governing parties CDU / SPD Votes in Bundesrat 4 (from 69) Basic statistics Area  18,416 km² (7,110 sq mi) Population 4,252,000 (11/2006)[1]  - Density 231 /km... Byzantium (Greek: Βυζάντιον) was an ancient Greek city, which, according to legend, was founded by Greek colonists from Megara in 667 BC and named after their king Byzas or Byzantas (Βύζας or Βύζαντας in Greek). ...


Southern Italy

In 787 Charlemagne directed his attention towards Benevento, where Arechis was reigning independently. He besieged Salerno and Arechis submitted to vassalage. However, with his death in 792, Benevento again proclaimed independence under his son Grimoald III. Grimoald was attacked by armies of Charles' or his sons' many times, but Charlemagne himself never returned to the Mezzogiorno and Grimoald never was forced to surrender to Frankish suzerainty. Benevento is a town and comune of Campania, Italy, capital of the province of Benevento, 50 km northeast of Naples. ... Salerno is a town in Campania, south-western Italy, the capital of the province of the same name. ... A vassal, in European medieval feudalism terminology, is one who through a commendation ceremony (composed of homage and fealty) enters into mutual obligations with a lord, usually military conscription and mutual protection, in exchange for a fief. ... Grimoald III was the Lombard prince of Benevento from the death of his father, the first independent duke, Arechis II, in 788 to his own death in 806. ... The Mezzogiorno is generally viewed as encompassing Basilicata, Campania, Calabria, Apulia, and Sicily, which lie in Italys south, as well as Molise and Abruzzo, which are geographically in central or south-central Italy. ... Suzerainty (pronounced or ) is a situation in which a region or people is a tributary to a more powerful entity which allows the tributary some limited domestic autonomy to control its foreign affairs. ...


Charles and his children

During the first peace of any substantial length (780–782), Charles began to appoint his sons to positions of authority within the realm, in the tradition of the kings and mayors of the past. In 781 he made his two younger sons kings, having them crowned by the Pope. The elder of these two, Carloman, was made king of Italy, taking the Iron Crown which his father had first worn in 774, and in the same ceremony was renamed "Pippin". The younger of the two, Louis, became king of Aquitaine. He ordered Pippin and Louis to be raised in the customs of their kingdoms, and he gave their regents some control of their subkingdoms, but real power was always in his hands, though he intended each to inherit their realm some day. Nor did he tolerate insubordination in his sons: in 792, he banished his eldest, though illegitimate, son, Pippin the Hunchback, to the monastery of Prüm, because the young man had joined a rebellion against him. Pepin (April 773 – 8 July 810) was the son of Charlemagne and king of Italy (781-810) under the authority of his father. ... King of Italy is a title adopted by many rulers after the fall of the Roman Empire. ... Louis the Pious, contemporary depiction from 826 as a miles Christi (soldier of Christ), with a poem of Rabanus Maurus overlaid. ... The persons who held the title of Duke of Aquitaine (French: Duc dAquitaine}, which became part of France in 1449 but was an independent duchy before that date, with the years they held it, were: // Dukes of Aquitaine Edward III claimed the title of King of France in 1339... Charlemagne und Pippin the Hunchback. ...


The sons fought many wars on behalf of their father when they came of age. Charles was mostly preoccupied with the Bretons, whose border he shared and who insurrected on at least two occasions and were easily put down, but he was also sent against the Saxons on multiple occasions. In 805 and 806, he was sent into the Böhmerwald (modern Bohemia) to deal with the Slavs living there (Czechs). He subjected them to Frankish authority and devastated the valley of the Elbe, forcing a tribute on them. Pippin had to hold the Avar and Beneventan borders, but also fought the Slavs to his north. He was uniquely poised to fight the Byzantine Empire when finally that conflict arose after Charlemagne's imperial coronation and a Venetian rebellion. Finally, Louis was in charge of the Spanish March and also went to southern Italy to fight the duke of Benevento on at least one occasion. He took Barcelona in a great siege in the year 797 (see below). For other uses, see Bohemia (disambiguation). ... Czechs (Czech: ÄŒeÅ¡i) are a western Slavic people of Central Europe, living predominantly in the Czech Republic. ... Late Avar period Map showing the location of Avar Khaganate, c. ... The Slavic peoples are the most numerous ethnic and linguistic body of peoples in Europe. ... Byzantine redirects here. ... “Venetia” redirects here. ... The Marca Hispanica (Spanish Mark or March) was a buffer zone beyond the province of Septimania, first set up by Charlemagne in 795 as a defensive barrier to keep the Muslim Moors out of the Frankish Kingdom. ...


Charlemagne's attitude toward his daughters has been the subject of much discussion. He kept them at home with him, and refused to allow them to contract sacramental marriages – possibly to prevent the creation of cadet branches of the family to challenge the main line, as had been the case with Tassilo of Bavaria – yet he tolerated their extramarital relationships, even rewarding their common-law husbands, and treasured the bastard grandchildren they produced for him. He also, apparently, refused to believe stories of their wild behaviour. After his death the surviving daughters were banished from the court by their brother, the pious Louis, to take up residence in the convents they had been bequeathed by their father. At least one of them, Bertha, had a recognised relationship, if not a marriage, with Angilbert, a member of Charlemagne's court circle. Tassilo III was duke of Bavaria from 748 to 787, the last of the house of the Agilolfings. ... Angilbert, (died February 18, 814), was a Frank who served Charlemagne as a diplomat, abbot, and semi_son_in_law. ...


Spanish campaigns

Roncesvalles campaign

Roland pledges his fealty to Charlemagne in an illlustration taken from a manuscript of a chanson de geste

According to the Muslim historian Ibn al-Athir, the Diet of Paderborn had received the representatives of the Muslim rulers of Zaragoza, Gerona, Barcelona, and Huesca. Their masters had been cornered in the Iberian peninsula by Abd ar-Rahman I, the Umayyad emir of Córdoba. These Moorish or "Saracen" rulers offered their homage to the great king of the Franks in return for military support. Seeing an opportunity to extend Christendom and his own power and believing the Saxons to be a fully conquered nation, he agreed to go to Spain. Roland pledges his fealty to Charlemagne. ... Roland pledges his fealty to Charlemagne. ... Roland pledges his fealty to Charlemagne; from a manuscript of a chanson de geste. ... Roland pledges his fealty to Charlemagne; from a manuscript of a chanson de geste. ... Izz ad-DÄ«n Hassan Karam pour AthÄ«r (1160–1233), was a 13th century Iranian/Persian historian born in Cizre in Northern Kurdistan province. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... For other uses, see Zaragoza (disambiguation). ... Girona (Catalan: Girona, Spanish: Gerona, French: Gérone) is a city located in the northwest of Catalonia, Spain on the confluence of the rivers Ter and Onyar. ... Location Coordinates : Time Zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer: CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name Barcelona (Catalan) Spanish name Barcelona Nickname Ciutat Comtal (City of Counts) Postal code 08001–08080 Area code 34 (Spain) + 93 (Barcelona) Website http://www. ... Huesca (Aragonese Uesca, Catalan Osca) is a city in Aragon, Spain. ... The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe, and includes modern day Spain, Portugal, Andorra and Gibraltar. ... Abd ar-Rahman I Arabic: (عبد الرحمن الداخل), (known as the Falcon of Andalus or The Falcon of the Quraish)[1] (born 731; ruled from 756 through his death circa 788) was the founder of a Muslim dynasty that ruled the greater part of Iberia for nearly three centuries. ... The Courtyard of the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus, one of the grandest architectural legacies of the Umayyads. ... The interior of the Great Mosque in Córdoba, now a Christian cathedral. ... For the terrain type see Moor Moors is used in this article to describe the medieval Muslim inhabitants of al-Andalus and the Maghreb, whose culture is often called Moorish. For other meanings look at Moors (Meaning) or Blackamoors. ... This T-and-O map, which abstracts the known world to a cross inscribed within an orb, remakes geography in the service of Christian iconography. ...


In 778, he led the Neustrian army across the Western Pyrenees, while the Austrasians, Lombards, and Burgundians passed over the Eastern Pyrenees. The armies met at Zaragoza and received the homage of Sulayman al-Arabi and Kasmin ibn Yusuf, the foreign rulers. Zaragoza did not fall soon enough for Charlemagne, however. Indeed, Charlemagne was facing the toughest battle of his career and, in fear of losing, he decided to retreat and head home. He could not trust the Moors, nor the Basques, whom he had subdued by conquering Pamplona. He turned to leave Iberia, but as he was passing through the Pass of Roncesvalles one of the most famous events of his long reign occurred. The Basques fell on his rearguard and baggage train, utterly destroying it. The Battle of Roncevaux Pass, less a battle than a mere skirmish, left many famous dead: among which were the seneschal Eggihard, the count of the palace Anselm, and the warden of the Breton March, Roland, inspiring the subsequent creation of the Song of Roland (Chanson de Roland). Thus ended the Spanish campaign in complete disaster. Pic de Bugatetin the Néouvielle Natural Reserve Central Pyrenees For the mountains in Victoria, Australia, see Pyrenees (Victoria). ... For other uses, see Zaragoza (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Basque people. ... For other meanings, see Pamplona (disambiguation). ... Roncesvalles (French: Roncevaux, Basque: Orreaga) is a small village of northern Spain (Navarre Cities), in the province of Navarre; situated on the small river Urrobi, at an altitude of 2,950 ft. ... Combatants Franks Basques Commanders Charlemagne Roland†, Eginhard, Anselmus Unknown (speculated: Duke Lop of Vasconia) Strength Major army Unknown (guerrilla party) Casualties Massacre of the Frankish rearguard but safety for the main force Unknown The Roncevaux Pass (French and English spelling, Roncesvalles in Spanish, Orreaga in Basque) is the site of... A seneschal was an officer in the houses of important nobles in the Middle Ages. ... ... The marches of Neustria were creations of the Carolingian king of West Francia covering the ancient Merovingian kingdom of Neustria. ... This article is about the legendary figure. ... The Song of Roland (La Chanson de Roland) is an 11th century Old French epic poem about the Battle of Roncevaux Pass (or Roncesvalles) fought by Roland of the Brittany Marches and his fellow paladins. ...


Wars with the Moors

The conquest of Italy brought Charlemagne in contact with the Saracens who, at the time, controlled the Mediterranean. Pippin, his son, was much occupied with Saracens in Italy. Charlemagne conquered Corsica and Sardinia at an unknown date and in 799 the Balearic Islands. The islands were often attacked by Saracen pirates, but the counts of Genoa and Tuscany (Boniface) kept them at bay with large fleets until the end of Charlemagne's reign. Charlemagne even had contact with the caliphal court in Baghdad. In 797 (or possibly 801), the caliph of Baghdad, Harun al-Rashid, presented Charlemagne with an Asian elephant named Abul-Abbas and a mechanical clock[citation needed], out of which came a mechanical bird to announce the hours. Saracens was a term used in the Middle Ages for those who professed the religion of Islam. ... Mediterranean redirects here. ... For other uses, see Corsica (disambiguation). ... Sardinia (pronounced ; Italian: ; Sardinian: or ) is the second-largest island in the Mediterranean Sea (after Sicily). ... Capital Palma de Mallorca Official languages Catalan and Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 17th  4,992 km²  1. ... Look up pirate and piracy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Genoa (disambiguation). ... Boniface I (died 823) was appointed governor of Italy by Charlemagne after the death of King Pepin. ... For main article see: Caliphate The Caliph (pronounced khaleef in Arabic) is the head of state in a Caliphate, and the title for the leader of the Islamic Ummah, an Islamic community ruled by the Sharia. ... Baghdad (Arabic: ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ... Bold textItalic text == Headline text ==He was born a 4 headed man but 3 of his 4 heads died along with all but one of his 90 hearts. ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 Asian Elephant range The Asian or Asiatic Elephant (Elephas maximus), sometimes known by the name of its nominate subspecies (the Indian Elephant), is one of the three living species of elephant, and the only living species of the genus Elephas. ... The first historically recorded elephant in northern Europe was Abul-Abbas, an Asian elephant given to Emperor Charlemagne by the caliph of Baghdad, Harun al-Rashid, in 797. ...


In Hispania, the struggle against the Moors continued unabated throughout the latter half of his reign. His son Louis was in charge of the Spanish border. In 785, his men captured Gerona permanently and extended Frankish control into the Catalan littoral for the duration of Charlemagne's reign (and much longer, it remained nominally Frankish until the Treaty of Corbeil in 1258). The Muslim chiefs in the northeast of Islamic Spain were constantly revolting against Córdoban authority and they often turned to the Franks for help. The Frankish border was slowly extended until 795, when Gerona, Cardona, Ausona, and Urgel were united into the new Spanish March, within the old duchy of Septimania. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Iberian Peninsula. ... This article is about the Spanish Autonomous Community. ... The Treaty of Corbeil was an agreement signed on May 11, 1258, in Corbeil (today Corbeil-Essonnes, in the region of ÃŽle-de-France) between Louis IX of France and James I of Aragon. ... Al-Andalus is the Arabic name given the Iberian Peninsula by its Muslim conquerors; it refers to both the Caliphate proper and the general period of Muslim rule (711–1492). ... The Castle of Cardona: last redoubt of the Catalonian supporters of Charles VI of Austria in the War of the Spanish Succession, in 1714 Cardona is a town ìn Catalonia, Spain, in the province of Barcelona; about 90 km northwest of the city of Barcelona, on a hill almost surrounded... Urgell is one of the historical Catalan counties, bordering on the counties of Pallars and Cerdanya. ... The Marca Hispanica (Spanish Mark or March) was a buffer zone beyond the province of Septimania, first set up by Charlemagne in 795 as a defensive barrier to keep the Muslim Moors out of the Frankish Kingdom. ... Septimania was the western region of the Roman province of Gallia Narbonensis that passed under the control of the Visigothic kingdom in 462, when Septimania was ceded to Theodoric II, king of the Visigoths. ...


In 797 Barcelona, the greatest city of the region, fell to the Franks when Zeid, its governor, rebelled against Córdoba and, failing, handed it to them. The Umayyad authority recaptured it in 799. However, Louis of Aquitaine marched the entire army of his kingdom over the Pyrenees and besieged it for two years, wintering there from 800 to 801, when it capitulated. The Franks continued to press forwards against the emir. They took Tarragona in 809 and Tortosa in 811. The last conquest brought them to the mouth of the Ebro and gave them raiding access to Valencia, prompting the Emir al-Hakam I to recognise their conquests in 812. Location Coordinates : Time Zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer: CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name Barcelona (Catalan) Spanish name Barcelona Nickname Ciutat Comtal (City of Counts) Postal code 08001–08080 Area code 34 (Spain) + 93 (Barcelona) Website http://www. ... The Courtyard of the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus, one of the grandest architectural legacies of the Umayyads. ... Pic de Bugatetin the Néouvielle Natural Reserve Central Pyrenees For the mountains in Victoria, Australia, see Pyrenees (Victoria). ... Entrance to the emirs palace in Bukhara. ... For the municipality in the Philippines, see Tarragona, Davao Oriental. ... A view of Tortosa Tortosa (Latin Dertusa, Arabic طرطوشة Ṭurá¹­Å«Å¡ah) is the capital of the comarca of Baix Ebre, in the province of Tarragona, in Catalonia, Spain, located at 12 metres above the sea, by the Ebre river. ... For the Spanish truck maker of the same name, see Ebro trucks. ... History of Spain Series Prehistoric Spain Roman Spain Medieval Spain Age of Reconquest Age of Expansion Age of Enlightenment Reaction and Revolution First Spanish Republic The Restoration Second Spanish Republic Spanish Civil War The Dictatorship Modern Spain Topics Economic History Military History Social History The Aragonese Empire was the regime... Al-Hakam Ibn Hisham Ibn Abd-ar-Rahman I was an Umayyad Emir of Cordoba. ...


Eastern campaigns

Saxon Wars

Charlemagne was engaged in almost constant battle throughout his reign, often at the head of his elite scara bodyguard squadrons, with his legendary sword Joyeuse in hand. After thirty years of war and eighteen battles—the Saxon Wars—he conquered Saxonia and proceeded to convert the conquered to Roman Catholicism, using force where necessary. A scara was a contingent or unit of soldiers, possibly cavalry, in Carolingian armies. ... The St-Denis Joyeuse Joyeuse was the name of Charlemagnes personal sword. ... The Saxon Wars were the campaigns and insurrections of the more than thirty years from 772, when Charlemagne first entered Saxony with the intent to conquer, to 804, when the last rebellion of disaffected tribesmen was crushed. ... With an area of 18,400 sq. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ...


The Saxons were divided into four subgroups in four regions. Nearest to Austrasia was Westphalia and furthest away was Eastphalia. In between these two kingdoms was that of Engria and north of these three, at the base of the Jutland peninsula, was Nordalbingia. For other places named Westphalia, see Westphalia (disambiguation). ... ... Angria, Engria, or Engern (German: ) is a historical region in present-day western German states of Lower Saxony and North Rhine-Westphalia. ... Jutland Peninsula Jutland (Danish: Jylland; German: Jütland; Frisian Jutlân; Low German Jötlann) is the western, continental part of Denmark as well as one of the three historical Lands of Denmark, dividing the North Sea from the Kattegat and the Baltic Sea. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


In his first campaign, Charlemagne forced the Engrians in 773 to submit and cut down an Irminsul pillar near Paderborn. The campaign was cut short by his first expedition to Italy. He returned in the year 775, marching through Westphalia and conquering the Saxon fort of Sigiburg. He then crossed Engria, where he defeated the Saxons again. Finally, in Eastphalia, he defeated a Saxon force, and its leader Hessi converted to Christianity. He returned through Westphalia, leaving encampments at Sigiburg and Eresburg, which had, up until then, been important Saxon bastions. All Saxony but Nordalbingia was under his control, but Saxon resistance had not ended. Detail of the bent Irminsul on the Externsteine relief. ... Paderborn is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, capital of the Paderborn district. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... Eresburg Also referred to as Eresburg Castle, is know today as the community of Obermarsberg, Nordrhein-Westfalen, Germany. ...


Following his campaign in Italy subjugating the dukes of Friuli and Spoleto, Charlemagne returned very rapidly to Saxony in 776, where a rebellion had destroyed his fortress at Eresburg. The Saxons were once again brought to heel, but their main leader, duke Widukind, managed to escape to Denmark, home of his wife. Charlemagne built a new camp at Karlstadt. In 777, he called a national diet at Paderborn to integrate Saxony fully into the Frankish kingdom. Many Saxons were baptised. Widukind or Wittekind was a Saxon leader, duke of Saxony and one of the heads of the nobility of Westphalia. ... Karlstadt, a town in Bavaria, Germany, is the capital of the Landkreis Main-Spessart (Main-Spessart county). ...


In the summer of 779, he again invaded Saxony and reconquered Eastphalia, Engria, and Westphalia. At a diet near Lippe, he divided the land into missionary districts and himself assisted in several mass baptisms (780). He then returned to Italy and, for the first time, there was no immediate Saxon revolt. In 780 Charlemagne decreed the death penalty for all Saxons who failed to be baptised, who failed to keep Christian festivals, and who cremated their dead. Saxony had peace from 780 to 782. This article is about the district Lippe. ...


He returned in 782 to Saxony and instituted a code of law and appointed counts, both Saxon and Frank. The laws were draconian on religious issues, and the indigenous forms of Germanic polytheism were gravely threatened by Christianisation. This stirred a renewal of the old conflict. That year, in autumn, Widukind returned and led a new revolt, which resulted in several assaults on the church. In response, at Verden in Lower Saxony, Charlemagne allegedly ordered the beheading of 4,500 Saxons who had been caught practising their native paganism after conversion to Christianity, known as the Massacre of Verden. The massacre triggered two years of renewed bloody warfare (783-785). During this war the Frisians were also finally subdued and a large part of their fleet was burned. The war ended with Widukind accepting baptism. Germanic paganism refers to the religion of the Germanic nations preceding Christianization. ... Verden is a town in Lower Saxony, Germany. ... With an area of 47,618 km and nearly eight million inhabitants, Lower Saxony (German Niedersachsen) lies in north-western Germany and is second in area and fourth in population among the countrys sixteen Bundesl nder (federal states). ... The Massacre of Verden (German: ) was an alleged massacre of Saxons in 782 near the present town of Verden in Lower Saxony, Germany, ordered by Charlemagne during the Saxon Wars. ... The Frisians are an ethnic group of northwestern Europe, inhabiting an area known as Frisia. ...


Thereafter, the Saxons maintained the peace for seven years, but in 792 the Westphalians once again rose against their conquerors. The Eastphalians and Nordalbingians joined them in 793, but the insurrection did not catch on and was put down by 794. An Engrian rebellion followed in 796, but Charlemagne's personal presence and the presence of Christian Saxons and Slavs quickly crushed it. The last insurrection of the independence-minded people occurred in 804, more than thirty years after Charlemagne's first campaign against them. This time, the most unruly of them, the Nordalbingians, found themselves effectively disempowered from rebellion. According to Einhard: Distribution of Slavic people by language The Slavic peoples are a linguistic and ethnic branch of Indo-European peoples, living mainly in Europe, where they constitute roughly a third of the population. ...

The war that had lasted so many years was at length ended by their acceding to the terms offered by the King; which were renunciation of their national religious customs and the worship of devils, acceptance of the sacraments of the Christian faith and religion, and union with the Franks to form one people.

The heathen resistance in Saxony was at an end.


Submission of Bavaria

In 788, Charlemagne turned his attention to Bavaria. He claimed Tassilo was an unfit ruler on account of his oath-breaking. The charges were trumped up, but Tassilo was deposed anyway and put in the monastery of Jumièges. In 794, he was made to renounce any claim to Bavaria for himself and his family (the Agilolfings) at the synod of Frankfurt. Bavaria was subdivided into Frankish counties, like Saxony. For other uses, see Bavaria (disambiguation). ... The ruins of the abbey of Jumièges still exemplify the Romanesque style of architecture. ... The Agilolfings were a family of Frankish or Bavarian nobility that ruled the historical teritory of Bavaria on behalf of their Frankish overlords from about 550 until 788. ... A synod (also known as a council) is a council of a church, usually a Christian church, convened to decide an issue of doctrine, administration or application. ... For other uses, see Frankfurt (disambiguation). ...


Avar campaigns

In 788, the Avars, a pagan Asian horde which had settled down in what is today Hungary (Einhard called them Huns), invaded Friuli and Bavaria. Charles was preoccupied until 790 with other things, but in that year, he marched down the Danube into their territory and ravaged it to the Raab. Then, a Lombard army under Pippin marched into the Drava valley and ravaged Pannonia. The campaigns would have continued if the Saxons had not revolted again in 792, breaking seven years of peace. Late Avar period Map showing the location of Avar Khaganate, c. ... For other uses, see Hun (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Danube River. ... The German name Raab can refer to several things: The German name for Győr, Hungary The German name for the Rába River in Austria and Hungary Ben Raab Chris Raab, also known as Raab Himself Julius Raab Kurt Raab Stefan Raab See also Raabe This is a disambiguation... The Drava at Drávaszabolcs, Hungary The Drava at Vízvár, Hungary The Drava at Maribor, Slovenia Drava or Drave (German: Drau, Slovenian, Croatian and Italian: Drava, Hungarian: Dráva) is a river in southern Central Europe, a tributary of the Danube. ... For other uses, see Pannonia (disambiguation). ...


For the next two years, Charles was occupied with the Slavs against the Saxons. Pippin and Duke Eric of Friuli continued, however, to assault the Avars' ring-shaped strongholds. The great Ring of the Avars, their capital fortress, was taken twice. The booty was sent to Charlemagne at his capital, Aachen, and redistributed to all his followers and even to foreign rulers, including King Offa of Mercia. Soon the Avar tuduns had thrown in the towel and travelled to Aachen to subject themselves to Charlemagne as vassals and Christians. This Charlemagne accepted and sent one native chief, baptised Abraham, back to Avaria with the ancient title of khagan. Abraham kept his people in line, but in 800 the Bulgarians under Krum had swept the Avar state away. In the 10th century, the Magyars settled the Pannonian plain and presented a new threat to Charlemagne's descendants. Eric (died 799) was the Duke of Friuli from 789 to his death. ... Oche redirects here; in darts the oche is the line from which players must throw. ... This article is about Offa of Mercia. ... A tudun was a governor resident in a town or other settlement in Anciant Bulgarian Avar Gokturk empires, particularly those of the Bulgars]] and the Khazars. ... Khagan or Great Khan (Old Turkic ; Mongolian: ; Chinese: ; pinyin: ; alternatively spelled Chagan, Khaghan, Kagan, KaÄŸan, Qagan, Qaghan), is a title of imperial rank in the Turkic and Mongolian languages equal to the status of emperor and someone who rules a Khaganate (empire, greater than an ordinary Khan, but often... Krum (died April 13, 814) was a Khan of Bulgaria, of the Dulo clan, from 802 to 814. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Slav expeditions

In 789, in recognition of his new pagan neighbours, the Slavs, Charlemagne marched an Austrasian-Saxon army across the Elbe into Abotrite territory. The Slavs immediately submitted under their leader Witzin. He then accepted the surrender of the Wiltzes under Dragovit and demanded many hostages and the permission to send, unmolested, missionaries into the pagan region. The army marched to the Baltic before turning around and marching to the Rhine with much booty and no harassment. The tributary Slavs became loyal allies. In 795, the peace broken by the Saxons, the Abotrites and Wiltzes rose in arms with their new master against the Saxons. Witzin died in battle and Charlemagne avenged him by harrying the Eastphalians on the Elbe. Thrasuco, his successor, led his men to conquest over the Nordalbingians and handed their leaders over to Charlemagne, who greatly honoured him. The Abotrites remained loyal until Charles' death and fought later against the Danes. Distribution of Slavic people by language The Slavic peoples are a linguistic and ethnic branch of Indo-European peoples, living mainly in Europe, where they constitute roughly a third of the population. ... This article is about a river in Central Europe. ... The Obotrites (German: Abodriten, Polish: Obodryci) were a group of Slavic peoples related to the Wends. ... The Veleti (German: ; Polish: ) or Wilzi(ans) (also Wiltzes; German: Wilzen) were a group of medieval West Slavic tribes within the territory of modern northeastern Germany; see Polabian Slavs. ... Population density in the wider Baltic region. ...


Charlemagne also directed his attention to the Slavs to the south of the Avar khaganate: the Carantanians and Slovenes. These people were subdued by the Lombards and Bavarii and made tributaries, but never incorporated into the Frankish state.  Countries where a South Slavic language is the national language The South Slavs are a southern branch of the Slavic peoples that live in the Balkans mainly in former Yugoslavia which actually translates Yugo: South - Slavia: Slavs (Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovens), which is situated in the southern Pannonian... Karantania (also Carantania, Carentania, in old Slovenian onomastics Korotan, or Karantanija) was a Slavic principality that emerged in the 7th century and was centered on the territory of contemporary Carinthia. ...


Imperium

Imperial diplomacy

Matters of Charlemagne's reign came to a head in late 800. In 799, Pope Leo III had been mistreated by the Romans, who tried to put out his eyes and tear out his tongue. Leo escaped, and fled to Charlemagne at Paderborn, asking him to intervene in Rome and restore him. Charlemagne, advised by Alcuin of York, agreed to travel to Rome, doing so in November 800 and holding a council on December 1. On December 23 Leo swore an oath of innocence. At Mass, on Christmas Day (December 25), when Charlemagne knelt the altar to pray, the pope crowned him Imperator Romanorum ("Emperor of the Romans") in Saint Peter's Basilica. In so doing, the pope was effectively attempting to transfer the office from Constantinople to Charles. Einhard says that Charlemagne was ignorant of the pope's intent and did not want any such coronation: Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1050x1400, 636 KB)Top floor of Aachen cathedral Photographed by Bala Amavasai File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1050x1400, 636 KB)Top floor of Aachen cathedral Photographed by Bala Amavasai File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Charlemagnes chapel in Aachen. ... The Aachen Cathedral, frequently referred to as the Imperial Cathedral (in German: Kaiserdom) is a Roman catholic church in Aachen, western Germany. ... Infobox Pope| English name=Leo III| image= | birth_name=Unknown| term_start=December 27, 795 | term_end=June 12, 816| predecessor=Adrian I| successor=Stephen IV| birth_date=Date of birth unknown| birthplace=Rome, Italy| dead=dead|death_date=June 12, 816| deathplace=Place of death unknown| other=Leo}} Pope Leo III (died June 12... Flaccus Albinus Alcuin (about 735 - May 19, 804) was a monk from York, England. ... is the 335th day of the year (336th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 357th day of the year (358th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Mass (disambiguation). ... is the 359th day of the year (360th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Drawing of Old Saint Peters Basilica at about 1450. ... This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ...

[H]e at first had such an aversion that he declared that he would not have set foot in the Church the day that they [the imperial titles] were conferred, although it was a great feast-day, if he could have foreseen the design of the Pope.

Many modern scholars suggest that Charlemagne was indeed aware of the coronation; certainly he cannot have missed the bejeweled crown waiting on the altar when he came to pray. In any event, he would now use these circumstances to claim that he was the renewer of the Roman Empire, which had apparently fallen into degradation under the Byzantines. However, Charles would after 806 style himself, not Imperator Romanorum ("Emperor of the Romans", a title reserved for the Byzantine emperor), but rather Imperator Romanum gubernans Imperium ("Emperor ruling the Roman Empire"). Byzantine redirects here. ...


The Iconoclasm of the Isaurian Dynasty and resulting religious conflicts with the Empress Irene, sitting on the throne in Constantinople in 800, were probably the chief causes of the pope's desire to formally acclaim Charles as Roman Emperor. He also most certainly desired to increase the influence of the papacy, honour his saviour Charlemagne, and solve the constitutional issues then most troubling to European jurists in an era when Rome was not in the hands of an emperor. Thus, Charlemagne's assumption of the imperial title was not an usurpation in the eyes of the Franks or Italians. It was though in Byzantium, where it was protested by Irene and her successor Nicephorus I — neither of whom had any great effect in enforcing their protests. A simple cross: example of iconoclast art in the Hagia Irene Church in Istanbul Iconoclasm is the deliberate destruction within a culture of the cultures own religious icons and other symbols or monuments, usually for religious or political motives. ... Leo the Isaurian and his son Constantine V. Leo III the Isaurian or the Syrian (Greek: Λέων Γ΄, Leōn III ), (c. ... This solidus struck under Irene reports the legend bASILISSH, Basilissa. ... Nicephorus I and his son and successor, Stauracius. ...


The Byzantines, however, still held several territories in Italy: Venice (what was left of the Exarchate of Ravenna), Reggio (Calabria, the toe), Brindisi (Apulia, the heel), and Naples (the Ducatus Neapolitanus). These regions remained outside of Frankish hands until 804, when the Venetians, torn by infighting, transferred their allegiance to the Iron Crown of Pippin, Charles' son. The Pax Nicephori ended. Nicephorus ravaged the coasts with a fleet and the only instance of war between the Byzantines and the Franks, as it was, began. It lasted until 810, when the pro-Byzantine party in Venice gave their city back to the Byzantine Emperor and the two emperors of Europe made peace: Charlemagne received the Istrian peninsula and in 812 Emperor Michael I Rhangabes recognised his status as Emperor. For other uses, see Venice (disambiguation). ... The Exarchate of Ravenna was a center of Byzantine power in Italy, from the end of the 6th century to 751 A.D., when the last Exarch was put to death by the Emperors enemies in Italy, the Lombards. ... Reggio Calabria (officially Reggio di Calabria, Rìggiu in Calabrian dialect, Righi in Greek-Calabrian), is the largest and the oldest city in Calabria, Italy, dating back to the 8th century BC (see history below). ... For other uses, see Calabria (disambiguation). ... Brindisi is an ancient city in the Italian region of Puglia, the capital of the province of Brindisi. ... This article is bad because of the Italian region. ... Location of the city of Naples (red dot) within Italy. ... The Duchy of Naples (Latin: Ducatus Neapolitanus), born as a Byzantine province governed by a military commander (dux), rapidly became a de facto independent state, lasting more than five centuries during the Early and High Middle Ages. ... The Pax Nicephori was an 803 peace treaty concluded between the two emperors of Europe, Charlemagne in the West, and Nicephorus I in the East. ... Istria (Croatian and Slovenian: Istra, Venetian and Italian: Istria), formerly Histria (Latin), is the largest peninsula in the Adriatic Sea. ... Michael I on a contemporary coin Michael I Rhangabes, an obscure nobleman who had married Procopia, the daughter of Nicephorus I, and been made master of the palace. ...


Danish attacks

After the conquest of Nordalbingia, the Frankish frontier was brought into contact with Scandinavia. The pagan Danes, "a race almost unknown to his ancestors, but destined to be only too well known to his sons" as Charles Oman described them, inhabiting the Jutland peninsula had heard many stories from Widukind and his allies who had taken refuge with them about the dangers of the Franks and the fury which their Christian king could direct against pagan neighbours. For other uses, see Scandinavia (disambiguation). ... Norse paganism is a term used to describe the religious traditions which were common amongst the Germanic tribes living in Nordic countries prior to and during the process of the Christianization in Northern Europe. ... The Danish nation is a concept closely connected to 19th century ethnic nationalism. ... Sir Charles William Chadwick Oman (January 12, 1860 - June 23, 1946) was a notable British military historian of the early 20th century. ... Jutland Peninsula Jutland (Danish: Jylland; German: Jütland; Frisian Jutlân; Low German Jötlann) is the western, continental part of Denmark as well as one of the three historical Lands of Denmark, dividing the North Sea from the Kattegat and the Baltic Sea. ...


In 808, the king of the Danes, Godfred, built the vast Danevirke across the isthmus of Schleswig. This defence, last employed in the Danish-Prussian War of 1864, was at its beginning a 30 km long earthenwork rampart. The Danevirke protected Danish land and gave Godfred the opportunity to harass Frisia and Flanders with pirate raids. He also subdued the Frank-allied Wiltzes and fought the Abotrites. King Godfrid (ruled 804 - 810), was a Danish or Viking king, the younger son of King Sigfred. ... // For the town in New Zealand, see Dannevirke. ... For other uses, see Isthmus (disambiguation). ... The region of Schleswig (former English name: Sleswick, Danish: Sønderjylland or Slesvig, Low German: Sleswig, North Frisian: Slaswik or Sleesweg) covers the area about 60 km north and 70 km south of the border between Germany and Denmark. ... Satellite view of the German Bight (the Frisian Coast). ... For other uses, see Flanders (disambiguation). ...


Godfred invaded Frisia and joked of visiting Aachen, but was murdered before he could do any more, either by a Frankish assassin or by one of his own men. Godfred was succeeded by his nephew Hemming and he concluded the Treaty of Heiligen with Charlemagne in late 811. Apart from secondary sources, King Hemming (810-811) of Denmark is only known from three annals of the Frankish Empire; the annals of 810, 811 and 812. ... The Treaty of Heiligen was signed at Heiligen in 811 between King Hemming of Denmark and Charlemagne. ...


Death

Persephone sarcophagus of Charlemagne

In 813, Charlemagne called Louis the Pious, king of Aquitaine, his only surviving legitimate son, to his court. There he crowned him with his own hands as co-emperor and sent him back to Aquitaine. He then spent the autumn hunting before returning to Aachen on 1 November. In January, he fell ill with pleurisy (Einhard 59). He took to his bed on 21 January and as Einhard tells it: Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 258 pixelsFull resolution (2883 × 929 pixel, file size: 455 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 258 pixelsFull resolution (2883 × 929 pixel, file size: 455 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... This article is about the Greek goddess. ... The Etruscan Sarcophagus of the Spouses, at the National Etruscan Museum. ... Louis the Pious, contemporary depiction from 826 as a miles Christi (soldier of Christ), with a poem of Rabanus Maurus overlaid. ... (Region flag) (Region logo) Location Administration Capital Regional President Departments Dordogne Gironde Landes Lot-et-Garonne Pyrénées-Atlantiques Arrondissements 18 Cantons 235 Communes 2,296 Statistics Land area1 41,308 km² Population (Ranked 6th)  - January 1, 2006 est. ... is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Pleurisy, also known as pleuritis, is an inflammation of the pleura, the lining of the pleural cavity surrounding the lungs, which can cause painful respiration (also called pleuritic chest pain) and other symptoms. ... is the 21st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

He died January twenty-eighth, the seventh day from the time that he took to his bed, at nine o'clock in the morning, after partaking of the Holy Communion, in the seventy-second year of his age and the forty-seventh of his reign. The Eucharist is either the Christian sacrament of consecrated bread and wine or the ritual surrounding it. ...

He was buried on the day of his death, in Aachen Cathedral, although the cold weather and the nature of his illness made such a hurried burial unnecessary. A later story, told by Otho of Lomello, Count of the Palace at Aachen in the time of Otto III, would claim that he and Emperor Otto had discovered Charlemagne's tomb: the emperor, they claimed, was seated upon a throne, wearing a crown and holding a sceptre, his flesh almost entirely incorrupt. In 1165, Frederick I re-opened the tomb again, and placed the emperor in a sarcophagus beneath the floor of the cathedral.[8] In 1215 Frederick II would re-inter him in a casket made of gold and silver. The Aachen Cathedral, frequently referred to as the Imperial Cathedral (in German: Kaiserdom) is a Roman catholic church in Aachen, western Germany. ... Otto III in a medieval manuscript Otto III (980 – January 23, 1002, Paterno, Italy) was the fourth ruler of the Saxon or Ottonian dynasty. ... Frederick Barbarossa in a 13th century chronicle. ... See: Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor (1194-1250, king 1211/12-1250, emperor since 1220) Frederick II of Austria (?-1246, duke of Austria 1230-1246) Frederick II of Sicily (1272-1337) - who called himself Frederick III - see the article for details. ...


Charlemagne's death greatly affected many of his subjects, particularly those of the literary clique who had surrounded him at Aachen. An anonymous monk of Bobbio lamented:

From the lands where the sun rises to western shores, People are crying and wailing...the Franks, the Romans, all Christians, are stung with mourning and great worry...the young and old, glorious nobles, all lament the loss of their Caesar...the world laments the death of Charles...O Christ, you who govern the heavenly host, grant a peaceful place to Charles in your kingdom. Alas for miserable me.[9]

He was succeeded by his surviving son, Louis, who had been crowned the previous year. His empire lasted only another generation in its entirety; its division, according to custom, between Louis's own sons after their father's death laid the foundation for the modern states of France and Germany.


Administration

As an administrator, Charlemagne stands out for his many reforms: monetary, governmental, military, cultural and ecclesiastical. He is the main protagonist of the "Carolingian Renaissance". Moneys is an agreement within a community, to use something as a medium of exchange, which acts as an intermediary market good. ... For the government in parliamentary systems, see Executive (government) A government is a body that has the power to make and the authority to enforce rules and laws within a civil, corporate, religious, academic, or other organization or group . ... This article is about the Christian buildings of worship. ...


Economic and monetary reforms

Monogram of Charlemagne, from the subscription of a royal diploma: "Signum (monogr.: KAROLVS) Caroli gloriosissimi regis"

Charlemagne had an important role in determining the immediate economic future of Europe. Pursuing his father's reforms, Charlemagne abolished the monetary system based on the gold sou, and he and the Anglo-Saxon King Offa of Mercia took up the system set in place by Pippin. There were strong pragmatic reasons for this abandonment of a gold standard, notably a shortage of gold itself, a direct consequence of the conclusion of peace with Byzantium and the ceding of Venice and Sicily, and the loss of their trade routes to Africa and to the east. This standardisation also had the effect of economically harmonising and unifying the complex array of currencies in use at the commencement of his reign, thus simplifying trade and commerce. Image File history File links Karldergrossesignatur. ... Image File history File links Karldergrossesignatur. ... The Chi-Rho, a monogram of the first two letters in the Greek word for Christ E and L embroider for clothes and bedding, for a wife by the initials E L or L E A monogram is a motif made by overlapping or combining two or more letters or... A solidus (the Latin word for solid) was originally a gold coin issued by the Romans. ... The foremost of the kings of Anglo-Saxon England was Ælle of Sussex in 477, who was much later followed by Alfred the Great (who took the place of Ethelred) in 871. ... This article is about Offa of Mercia. ...


He established a new standard, the livre carolinienne (from the Latin libra, the modern pound), and based upon a pound of silver – a unit of both money and weight – which was worth 20 sous (from the Latin solidus (which was primarily an accounting device, and never actually minted), the modern shilling) or 240 deniers (from the Latin denarius, the modern penny). During this period, the livre and the sou were counting units, only the denier was a coin of the realm. The livre was the currency of France until 1795. ... The ancient Roman units of measurement were built on the Greek system with Egyptian influences. ... The pound, a unit of currency, originated (at least in Britain) as the value of a pound mass of silver. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... Julian solidus, ca. ... This article is about coinage. ... A denier is a type of French coin created by Charlemagne. ... First row : c. ... This article is about the coin. ...


Charlemagne instituted principles for accounting practice by means of the Capitulare de villis of 802, which laid down strict rules for the way in which incomes and expenses were to be recorded. Accountancy (profession)[1] or accounting (methodology) is the measurement, statement or provision of assurance about financial information primarily used by managers, investors, tax authorities and other decision makers to make resource allocation decisions within companies, organizations, and public agencies. ...


The lending of money for interest was prohibited, strengthened in 814, when Charlemagne introduced the Capitulary for the Jews, a draconian prohibition on Jews engaging in money-lending. The Capitulary for the Jews is a piece of legislation attributed to Charlemagne and dated to 814 AD. It prescribes a set of prohibitions (together with punishments for infractions) against Jews engaging in money-lending. ...


In addition to this macro-management of the economy of his empire, Charlemagne also performed a significant number of acts of micro-management, such as direct control of prices and levies on certain goods and commodities.


Charlemagne applied the system to much of the European continent, and Offa's standard was voluntarily adopted by much of England. After Charlemagne's death, continental coinage degraded and most of Europe resorted to using the continued high quality English coin until about 1100. For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ...


Education reforms

A part of Charlemagne's success as warrior and administrator can be traced to his admiration for learning. His reign and the era it ushered in are often referred to as the Carolingian Renaissance because of the flowering of scholarship, literature, art, and architecture which characterise it. Charlemagne, brought into contact with the culture and learning of other countries (especially Visigothic Spain, Anglo-Saxon England and Lombard Italy) due to his vast conquests, greatly increased the provision of monastic schools and scriptoria (centres for book-copying) in Francia. Most of the surviving works of classical Latin were copied and preserved by Carolingian scholars. Indeed, the earliest manuscripts available for many ancient texts are Carolingian. It is almost certain that a text which survived to the Carolingian age survives still. The pan-European nature of Charlemagne's influence is indicated by the origins of many of the men who worked for him: Alcuin, an Anglo-Saxon from York; Theodulf, a Visigoth, probably from Septimania; Paul the Deacon, Lombard; Peter of Pisa and Paulinus of Aquileia, Italians; and Angilbert, Angilramm, Einhard and Waldo of Reichenau, Franks. Sample of Carolingian minuscule, one of the products of the Carolingian Renaissance. ... This article is about scholarship (noun) and scholarship as a form of financial aid. ... For other uses, see Literature (disambiguation). ... This article is about the philosophical concept of Art. ... This article is about building architecture. ... This article is about the scholar Alcuin of York. ... For other uses, see Anglo-Saxon. ... For other uses, see York (disambiguation). ... Theodulf, Bishop of Orléans, France, (born about A.D. 760 - died at Angers, France, December 18, 821), a Visigoth either from a still-Christian portion of Spain (which had been conquered by Muslims after 710) or the South of France (which was a former possession of the Visigoths), came... A votive crown belonging to Reccesuinth (653–672) The Visigoths (Latin: ) were one of two main branches of the Goths, an East Germanic tribe, the Ostrogoths being the other. ... Septimania was the western region of the Roman province of Gallia Narbonensis that passed under the control of the Visigothic kingdom in 462, when Septimania was ceded to Theodoric II, king of the Visigoths. ... Paul the Deacon (c. ... Look up Lombard in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Saint Paulinus II (c. ... Angilbert, (died February 18, 814), was a Frank who served Charlemagne as a diplomat, abbot, and semi_son_in_law. ... Einhard as scribe Einhard (also Eginhard or Einhart) (c. ... Waldo of Reichenau (sometimes Walto) (c. ...


Charlemagne took a serious interest in scholarship, promoting the liberal arts at the court, ordering that his children and grandchildren be well-educated, and even studying himself under the tutelage of Paul the Deacon, from whom he learned grammar, Alcuin, with whom he studied rhetoric, dialect and astronomy (he was particularly interested in the movements of the stars), and Einhard, who assisted him in his studies of arithmetic. His great scholarly failure, as Einhard relates, was his inability to write: when in his old age he began attempts to learn – practicing the formation of letters in his bed during his free time on books and wax tablets he hid under his pillow – "his effort came too late in life and achieved little success", and his ability to read – which Einhard is silent about, and which no contemporary source supports – has also been called into question.[10] In the history of education, the seven liberal arts comprise two groups of studies, the trivium and the quadrivium. ...


Writing reforms

Page from the Lorsch Gospels of Charlemagne's reign

During Charles' reign, the Roman half uncial script and its cursive version, which had given rise to various continental minuscule scripts, were combined with features from the insular scripts that were being used in Irish and English monasteries. Carolingian minuscule was created partly under the patronage of Charlemagne. Alcuin of York, who ran the palace school and scriptorium at Aachen, was probably a chief influence in this. The revolutionary character of the Carolingian reform, however, can be over-emphasised; efforts at taming the crabbed Merovingian and Germanic hands had been underway before Alcuin arrived at Aachen. The new minuscule was disseminated first from Aachen, and later from the influential scriptorium at Tours, where Alcuin retired as an abbot. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (730x1024, 129 KB) Codex Aureus of Lorsch File links The following pages link to this file: Charlemagne Codex Aureus of Lorsch ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (730x1024, 129 KB) Codex Aureus of Lorsch File links The following pages link to this file: Charlemagne Codex Aureus of Lorsch ... Folio 72 verso of the Codex Aureus of Lorsch contain an illumination of Christ in Majesty. ... The Book of Kells, c. ... Cursive is any style of handwriting which is designed for writing down notes and letters by hand. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Letter case. ... The beginning of the Gospel of Mark from the Book of Durrow. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Example from 10th century manuscript Carolingian or Caroline minuscule is a script developed as a writing standard in Europe so that the Roman alphabet could be easily recognized by the small literate class from one region to another. ... A Scriptorium was a room or building, usually within a Christian monastery where, during medieval times, manuscripts were written. ... Tours is a city in France, the préfecture (capital city) of the Indre-et-Loire département, on the lower reaches of the river Loire, between Orléans and the Atlantic coast. ...


Political reforms

Charlemagne engaged in many reforms of Frankish governance, but he continued also in many traditional practices, such as the division of the kingdom among sons.


Organisation

The Carolingian king exercised the bannum, the right to rule and command. He had supreme jurisdiction in judicial matters, made legislation, led the army, and protected both the Church and the poor. His administration was an attempt to organise the kingdom, church and nobility around him, however, it was entirely dependent upon the efficiency, loyalty and support of his subjects. This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...


Imperial coronation

Throne of Charlemagne in Aachen Cathedral

Historians have debated for centuries whether Charlemagne was aware of the Pope's intent to crown him Emperor prior to the coronation (Charlemagne declared that he would not have entered Saint Peter's had he known), but that debate has often obscured the more significant question of why the Pope granted the title and why Charlemagne chose to accept it once he did. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 599 pixels Full resolution (1024 × 767 pixel, file size: 224 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) La bildo estas kopiita de wikipedia:de. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 599 pixels Full resolution (1024 × 767 pixel, file size: 224 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) La bildo estas kopiita de wikipedia:de. ...


Roger Collins points out (Charlemagne, pg. 147) "That the motivation behind the acceptance of the imperial title was a romantic and antiquarian interest in reviving the Roman empire is highly unlikely.". For one thing, such romance would not have appealed either to Franks or Roman Catholics at the turn of the ninth century, both of whom viewed the Classical heritage of the Roman Empire with distrust. The Franks took pride in having "fought against and thrown from their shoulders the heavy yoke of the Romans" and "from the knowledge gained in baptism, clothed in gold and precious stones the bodies of the holy martyrs whom the Romans had killed by fire, by the sword and by wild animals", as Pippin III described it in a law of 763 or 764 (Collins 151). Furthermore, the new title — carrying with it the risk that the new emperor would "make drastic changes to the traditional styles and procedures of government" or "concentrate his attentions on Italy or on Mediterranean concerns more generally" (Collins 149) — risked alienating the Frankish leadership. Classical antiquity is a broad term for a long period of cultural history centered on the Mediterranean Sea, which begins roughly with the earliest-recorded Greek poetry of Homer (7th century BC), and continues through the rise of Christianity and the fall of the Western Roman Empire (5th century AD...


For both the Pope and Charlemagne, the Roman Empire remained a significant power in European politics at this time, and continued to hold a substantial portion of Italy, with borders not very far south of the city of Rome itself — this is the empire historiography has labelled the Byzantine Empire, for its capital was Constantinople (ancient Byzantium) and its people and rulers were Greek; it was a thoroughly Hellenic state. Indeed, Charlemagne was usurping the prerogatives of the Roman Emperor in Constantinople simply by sitting in judgement over the Pope in the first place:

By whom, however, could he [the Pope] be tried? Who, in other words, was qualified to pass judgement on the Vicar of Christ? In normal circumstances the only conceivable answer to that question would have been the Emperor at Constantinople; but the imperial throne was at this moment occupied by Irene. That the Empress was notorious for having blinded and murdered her own son was, in the minds of both Leo and Charles, almost immaterial: it was enough that she was a woman. The female sex was known to be incapable of governing, and by the old Salic tradition was debarred from doing so. As far as Western Europe was concerned, the Throne of the Emperors was vacant: Irene's claim to it was merely an additional proof, if any were needed, of the degradation into which the so-called Roman Empire had fallen.

John Julius Norwich, Byzantium: The Early Centuries, pg. 378
Coronation of an idealised king, depicted in the Sacramentary of Charles the Bald (about 870)

For the Pope, then, there was "no living Emperor at the that time" (Norwich 379), though Henri Pirenne (Mohammed and Charlemagne, pg. 234n) disputes this saying that the coronation "was not in any sense explained by the fact that at this moment a woman was reigning in Constantinople." Nonetheless, the Pope took the extraordinary step of creating one. The papacy had since 727 been in conflict with Irene's predecessors in Constantinople over a number of issues, chiefly the continued Byzantine adherence to the doctrine of iconoclasm, the destruction of Christian images; while from 750, the secular power of the Byzantine Empire in central Italy had been nullified. By bestowing the Imperial crown upon Charlemagne, the Pope arrogated to himself "the right to appoint ... the Emperor of the Romans, ... establishing the imperial crown as his own personal gift but simultaneously granting himself implicit superiority over the Emperor whom he had created.". And "because the Byzantines had proved so unsatisfactory from every point of view—political, military and doctrinal—he would select a westerner: the one man who by his wisdom and statesmanship and the vastness of his dominions ... stood out head and shoulders above his contemporaries.". John Julius Cooper, 2nd Viscount Norwich CVO (born 15 September 1929) is an English historian, travel writer and television personality known as John Julius Norwich. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1166x1540, 1379 KB) Karl I. der Große (Charles the great, Charlemagne, Carolus Magnus) with Popes Gelasisus I. and Gregory I. from the sacramentary of Charles the bald (ca. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1166x1540, 1379 KB) Karl I. der Große (Charles the great, Charlemagne, Carolus Magnus) with Popes Gelasisus I. and Gregory I. from the sacramentary of Charles the bald (ca. ... Charles the Bald[1] (numbered Charles II of France and the Holy Roman Emperor) (French: , German: ) (13 June 823 – 6 October 877), Holy Roman Emperor (875–877) and king of West Francia (840–877), was the youngest son of Emperor Louis the Pious, by his second wife Judith. ... Henri Pirenne (December 23, 1862, Verviers - October 25, 1935, Uccle) was a leading Belgian historian. ...

A depiction of the imperial coronation of Charlemagne

With Charlemagne's coronation, therefore, "the Roman Empire remained, so far as either of them [Charlemagne and Leo] were concerned, one and indivisible, with Charles as its Emperor", though there can have been "little doubt that the coronation, with all that it implied, would be furiously contested in Constantinople." (Norwich, Byzantium: The Apogee, pg. 3) How realistic either Charlemagne or the Pope felt it to be that the people of Constantinople would ever accept the King of the Franks as their Emperor, we cannot know; Alcuin speaks hopefully in his letters of an Imperium Christianum ("Christian Empire"), wherein, "just as the inhabitants of the [Roman Empire] had been united by a common Roman citizenship", presumably this new empire would be united by a common Christian faith (Collins 151), certainly this is the view of Pirenne when he says "Charles was the Emperor of the ecclesia as the Pope conceived it, of the Roman Church, regarded as the universal Church" (Pirenne 233). Image File history File links Charlemagne1. ... Image File history File links Charlemagne1. ...


What we do know, from the Byzantine chronicler Theophanes (Collins 153), is that Charlemagne's reaction to his coronation was to take the initial steps toward securing the Constantinopolitan throne by sending envoys of marriage to Irene, and that Irene reacted somewhat favorably to them. Only when the people of Constantinople reacted to Irene's failure to immediately rebuff the proposal by deposing her and replacing her with one of her ministers, Nicephorus I, did Charlemagne drop any ambitions toward the Byzantine throne and begin minimising his new Imperial title, and instead return to describing himself primarily as rex Francorum et Langobardum. Theophanes (died 817 or 818) was a Byzantine monk and chronicler. ...


The title of emperor remained in his family for years to come, however, as brothers fought over who had the supremacy in the Frankish state. The papacy itself never forgot the title nor abandoned the right to bestow it. When the family of Charles ceased to produce worthy heirs, the pope gladly crowned whichever Italian magnate could best protect him from his local enemies. This devolution led, as could have been expected, to the dormancy of the title for almost forty years (924-962). Finally, in 962, in a radically different Europe from Charlemagne's, a new Roman Emperor was crowned in Rome by a grateful pope. This emperor, Otto the Great, brought the title into the hands the kings of Germany for almost a millennium, for it was to become the Holy Roman Empire, a true imperial successor to Charles, if not Augustus. Otto I at his victory over Berengar of Friuli Grave of Otto I in Magdeburg Otto I the Great (November 23, 912 - May 7, 973), son of Henry I the Fowler, king of the Germans, and Matilda of Ringelheim, was Duke of Saxony, King of the Germans and arguably the... For other persons named Octavian, see Octavian (disambiguation). ...


Divisio regnorum

In 806, Charlemagne first made provision for the traditional division of the empire on his death. For Charles the Younger he designated Austrasia and Neustria, Saxony, Burgundy, and Thuringia. To Pippin he gave Italy, Bavaria, and Swabia. Louis received Aquitaine, the Spanish March, and Provence. There was no mention of the imperial title however, which has led to the suggestion that, at that particular time, Charlemagne regarded the title as an honorary achievement which held no hereditary significance. The Free State of Thuringia (German: Freistaat Thüringen) is located in central Germany and is considered one of the smaller of Germanys sixteen Bundesländer (federal states), with an area of 16,200 km² and 2. ... Germany, showing modern borders. ... Coat of arms of Provence Provence (Provençal Occitan: Provença in classical norm or Prouvènço in Mistralian norm) was a Roman province and now is a region of southeastern France on the Mediterranean Sea adjacent to Italy. ...


This division may have worked, but it was never to be tested. Pippin died in 810 and Charles in 811. Charlemagne then reconsidered the matter, and in 813, crowned his youngest son, Louis, co-emperor and co-King of the Franks, granting him a half-share of the empire and the rest upon Charlemagne's own death. The only part of the Empire which Louis was not promised was Italy, which Charlemagne specifically bestowed upon Pippin's illegitimate son Bernard. Bernard (d. ...


Cultural significance

The Coronation of Charlemagne, by assistants of Raphael , circa 1516-1517

Charlemagne had an immediate afterlife. The author of the Visio Karoli Magni written around 865 uses facts gathered apparently from Einhard and his own observations on the decline of Charlemagne's family after the dissensions of civil war (840–43) as the basis for a visionary tale of Charles' meeting with a prophetic spectre in a dream. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (920x775, 171 KB) Summary Permission from www. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (920x775, 171 KB) Summary Permission from www. ... The Coronation of Charlemagne is a painting by the workshop of the Italian renaissance artist Raphael. ... This article is about the Renaissance artist. ...


Charlemagne, being a model knight as one of the Nine Worthies, enjoyed an important afterlife in European culture. One of the great medieval literary cycles, the Charlemagne cycle or the Matter of France, centres on the deeds of Charlemagne—the King with the Grizzly Beard of Roland fame—and his historical commander of the border with Brittany, Roland, and the paladins who are analogous to the knights of the Round Table or King Arthur's court. Their tales constitute the first chansons de geste. Oldest known sculptures of the Nine Worthies at the old city hall Cologne, Germany. ... Literary cycles are groups of stories grouped around common figures, based on mythical figures or loosely on historic ones. ... The Matter of France is a body of mythology and legend that springs from the Old French medieval literature of the chansons de geste. ... The Matter of France, also known as the Carolingian cycle is a body of legendary history that springs from the Old French medieval literature of the chansons de geste. ... The Song of Roland (La Chanson de Roland) is an 11th century Old French epic poem about the Battle of Roncevaux Pass (or Roncesvalles) fought by Roland of the Brittany Marches and his fellow paladins. ... This article is about the historical kingdom, duchy and French province, as well as one of the Celtic nations. ... This article is about the legendary figure. ... For other uses, see Paladin (disambiguation). ... King Arthur presides the Round Table. ... For other uses, see King Arthur (disambiguation). ... Roland pledges his fealty to Charlemagne; from a manuscript of a chanson de geste. ...


Charlemagne himself was accorded sainthood inside the Holy Roman Empire after the twelfth century. His canonisation by Antipope Paschal III, to gain the favour of Frederick Barbarossa in 1165, was never recognised by the Holy See, which annulled all of Paschal's ordinances at the Third Lateran Council in 1179. However, he has been acknowledged as cultus confirmed. Saints redirects here. ... This article discusses the process of declaring saints. ... Antipope Paschal III (or Paschal III) was Antipope from 1164 to September 20, 1168. ... Frederick in a 13th century Chronicle Frederick I (German: Friedrich I. von Hohenstaufen)(1122 – June 10, 1190), also known as Friedrich Barbarossa (Frederick Redbeard) was elected king of Germany on March 4, 1152 and crowned Holy Roman Emperor on June 18, 1155. ... The Third Council of the Lateran met in March, 1179 as the 11th ecumenical council. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The process of beatification and canonization has undergone various changes in the history of the Catholic Church. ...


Charlemagne is sometimes credited with supporting the insertion of the filioque into the Nicene Creed. The Franks had inherited a Visigothic tradition of referring to the Holy Spirit as deriving from God the Father and Son (Filioque), and under Charlemagne, the Franks challenged the 381 Council of Constantinople proclamation that the Holy Spirit proceeded from the Father alone. Pope Leo III rejected this notion, and had the Nicene Creed carved into the doors of Old St. Peter's Basilica without the offending phrase; the Frankish insistence lead to bad relations between Rome and Francia. Later, the Roman Catholic Church would adopt the phrase, leading to dispute between Rome and Constantinople. Some see this as one of many pre-cursors to the East-West Schism centuries later.[11] In Christian theology the filioque clause (and the Son) is a disputed part of the Nicene Creed. ... Icon depicting the Holy Fathers of the First Council of Nicaea holding the Nicene Creed. ... Infobox Pope| English name=Leo III| image= | birth_name=Unknown| term_start=December 27, 795 | term_end=June 12, 816| predecessor=Adrian I| successor=Stephen IV| birth_date=Date of birth unknown| birthplace=Rome, Italy| dead=dead|death_date=June 12, 816| deathplace=Place of death unknown| other=Leo}} Pope Leo III (died June 12... Nineteenth century drawing of Old Saint Peters Basilica as it is thought to have looked around 1450. ... Catholic Church redirects here. ... The Second Ecumenical Council whose contributions to the Nicene Creed lay at the heart of the famous theological disputes underlying the East-West Schism. ...


In the Divine Comedy the spirit of Charlemagne appears to Dante in the Heaven of Mars, among the other "warriors of the faith". For other uses see The Divine Comedy (disambiguation), Dantes Inferno (disambiguation), and The Inferno (disambiguation) Dante shown holding a copy of The Divine Comedy, next to the entrance to Hell, the seven terraces of Mount Purgatory and the city of Florence, with the spheres of Heaven above, in Michelino...


According to folk etymology, Charlemagne was commemorated in the old name Charles's Wain for the Big Dipper in the constellation of Ursa Major. Folk etymology is a term used in two distinct ways: A commonly held misunderstanding of the origin of a particular word, a false etymology. ... Big Dipper map A group of the brightest stars of the constellation Ursa Major, the Great Bear, form a well-known asterism that has been recognized as a distinct grouping in many cultures from time immemorial. ... This article is about the constellation. ...


French volunteers in the Wehrmacht and later Waffen-SS during the World War II were organised in a unit called 33rd Waffen Grenadier Division of the SS Charlemagne (1st French). A German Waffen-SS unit used "Karl der Große" for some time in 1943, but then chose the name 10th SS Panzer Division Frundsberg instead. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The 10. ...


The city of Aachen has, since 1949, awarded an international prize (called the Karlspreis der Stadt Aachen) in honour of Charlemagne. It is awarded annually to "personages of merit who have promoted the idea of western unity by their political, economic and literary endeavours."[12] Winners of the prize include Count Richard Coudenhove-Kalergi, the founder of the pan-European movement, Alcide De Gasperi, and Winston Churchill. Bill Clinton received the Karlspreis in 2000. ... Richard Nikolaus Graf Coudenhove-Kalergi (en: Count Richard Nikolaus von Coudenhove-Kalergi ja:リヒャルト・ニコラウス・栄次郎(his japanese name is Eijiro)・クーデンホーフ=カレルギー), (Tokyo, November 16, 1894 - Schruns, Vorarlberg, July 27, 1972) was an Austrian politician and geopolitician. ... Alcide De Gasperi (3 April 1881 – 19 August 1954) was an Italian statesman and politician. ... Churchill redirects here. ...


Charlemagne is memorably quoted by Henry Jones (played by Sean Connery) in the film, Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade. Immediately after using his umbrella to induce a flock of seagulls to smash through the glass cockpit of a pursuing German fighter plane, Henry Jones remarks "I suddenly remembered my Charlemagne: 'Let my armies be the rocks and the trees and the birds in the sky'." Despite the quote's popularity since the movie, there is no evidence that Charlemagne actually said this. [2] Sir Thomas Sean Connery (born August 25, 1930) is an Academy Award-, Golden Globe-, and BAFTA Award-winning Scottish actor and producer who is perhaps best known as the first actor to portray James Bond in cinema, starring in seven Bond films. ... This article is about the film. ... An umbrella or parasol (sometimes colloquially, gamp, brolly, or bumbershoot) is a canopy designed to protect against precipitation or sunlight. ... Genera Pagophila Larus Rissa Creagus Xema Rhodostethia Gulls are seabirds in the family Laridae and subfamily Lari. ...


The Economist, the weekly news and international affairs newspaper, features a one page article every week entitled "Charlemagne", focusing on European government. The Economist is an English-language weekly news and international affairs publication owned by The Economist Newspaper Ltd and edited in London. ...


Family

Marriages and heirs

Charlemagne had twenty children over the course of his life with eight of his ten known wives or concubines.

  • His first relationship was with Himiltrude. The nature of this relationship is variously described as concubinage, a legal marriage or as a Friedelehe.[13] Charlemagne put her aside when he married Desiderata. The union produced two children:

Himiltrude was Charlemagnes first wife. ... A swampy marsh area ... Charlemagne und Pippin the Hunchback. ... Desiderata was one of four daughters of Desiderius, king of the Lombards, and his queen, Ansa. ... Desiderius, the last king of the Lombards, is chiefly known through his connection with Charlemagne. ... The Lombards (Latin Langobardi, whence comes the alternative name Longobards found in older English texts), were a Germanic people originally from Northern Europe that entered the late Roman Empire. ... Hildegard (758-783) was the daughter of Count Gerold of Vinzgouw and Imma (Emma) of Alemannia. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... is the 338th day of the year (339th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events July 26 - Battle of Pliska: Nicephorus I is defeated by the Bulgar khan Krum, and is succeeded by Stauracius as Byzantine emperor. ... The following list of Frankish Kings is one of several Wikipedia lists of incumbents. ... Pippin of Italy (April, 773 – July 8, 810) was the son of Charlemagne and king of Italy (781-810) under the authority of his father. ... is the 189th day of the year (190th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 8-10 is also going to be the Toronto Raptors record as of Dec. ... King of Italy is a title adopted by many rulers after the fall of the Roman Empire. ... Rotrude (or sometimes referred to as Hruodrud) (775 - 8/6/810) was the second daughter of Charlemagne from his marriage to Hildegard of Savoy. ... is the 157th day of the year (158th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 8-10 is also going to be the Toronto Raptors record as of Dec. ... Louis the Pious, contemporary depiction from 826 as a miles Christi (soldier of Christ), with a poem of Rabanus Maurus overlaid. ... is the 171st day of the year (172nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... After the death of Louis the Pious, his sons Lothar, Charles the Bald and Louis the German fight over the division of the Holy Roman Empire, with Lothar succeeding as Emperor. ... The persons who held the title of Duke of Aquitaine (French: Duc dAquitaine}, which became part of France in 1449 but was an independent duchy before that date, with the years they held it, were: // Dukes of Aquitaine Edward III claimed the title of King of France in 1339... The Holy Roman Emperor was, with some variation, the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire, the predecessor of modern Germany, during its existence from the 10th century until its collapse in 1806. ... Events Charlemagne fights the Moors in Spain. ... is the 37th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Offa of Mercia beats Cynewulf of Wessex and takes Bensington. ... Events Constantine VI becomes Byzantine Emperor with Irene as guardian. ... Gisela (781-808) was possibly a daughter of Charlemange and his third wife Hildegard of Savoy. ... Fastrada (died 794) fourth wife of Charlemagne, married 784. ... Theodrada (b. ... An Abbess (Latin abbatissa, fem. ... Argenteuil is a commune in the northwestern suburbs of Paris, France. ... Luitgard (died 800) was fifth and last wife of Charlemagne, married 794. ...

Concubinages and illegitimate children

  • His first known concubine was Gersuinda. By her he had:
    • Adaltrude (b.774)
  • His second known concubine was Madelgard. By her he had:
  • His third known concubine was Amaltrud of Vienne. By her he had:
    • Alpaida (b.794)
  • His fourth known concubine was Regina. By her he had:
  • His fifth known concubine was Ethelind. By her he had:
    • Richbod (805-844), Abbott of Saint-Riquier
    • Theodoric (b. 807)

An Abbess (Latin abbatissa, fem. ... The Abbey of Faremoutiers (French: ) was founded circa 620 by Burgundofara (Saint Fara). ... Regina (born c. ... Drogo, also known as Dreux or Drogon (June 17, 801-December 8, 855) was an illegitimate son of Frankish emperor Charlemagne by the concubine Regina. ... The (Roman Catholic) Diocese of Metz is an territorial subdivision of the catholic church in France. ... Luxeuil Abbey was one of the oldest and best-known monasteries in Burgundy, located in the département of Haute-Saône in Franche-Comté, France. ... Hugh (802-844) was the illegitimate son of Charlemagne and his concubine Regina, with whom he had one other son: Bishop Drogo of Metz (801-855). ... // History (Latin Archicancellarius) Effective An archichancellor is the highest chancellor of a major chancery See also Grand chancellor Honorary In the Holy Roman empire, the style Erzkanzler (literally archchancellor) was one of the Erzamter awarded as high profile sinecures to the Prince-Electors, and the only one with multiple incidence...

References

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Notes

  1. ^ Riché, Preface xviii
  2. ^ Riché, xviii.
  3. ^ Oman, Charles. The Dark Ages 476–919 Rivingtons: London, 1914. Regards Charlemagne's grandsons as the first kings of France and Germany, which at the time comprised the whole of the Carolingian Empire save Italy.
  4. ^ Original text of the Salic law.
  5. ^ Einhard, Life, 25.
  6. ^ Etymology of "Charles/Karl/Karel"
  7. ^ chronique.com: [1]
  8. ^ Chamberlin, Russell, The Emperor Charlemagne, pp. 222–224
  9. ^ Dutton, PE, Carolingian Civilization: A Reader
  10. ^ Dutton, Paul Edward, Charlemagne's Mustache
  11. ^ Riche, Pierre, The Carolingians, p.124
  12. ^ Chamberlin, Russell, The Emperor Charlemagne, p. ???
  13. ^ Charlemagne's biographer Einhard (Vita Karoli Magni, ch. 20) calls her a "concubine" and Paulus Diaconus speaks of Pippin's birth "before legal marriage", whereas a letter by Pope Stephen III refers to Charlemagne and his brother Carloman as being already married (to Himiltrude and Gerberga), and advises them not to dismiss their wives. Historians have interpreted the information in different ways. Some, such as Pierre Riché (The Carolingians, p.86.), follow Einhard in describing Himiltrude as a concubine. Others, for example Dieter Hägemann (Karl der Große. Herrscher des Abendlands, p. 82f.), consider Himiltrude a wife in the full sense. Still others subscribe to the idea that the relationship between the two was "something more than concubinage, less than marriage" and describe it as a Friedelehe, a form of marriage unrecognized by the Church and easily dissolvable. Russell Chamberlin (The Emperor Charlemagne, p. 61.), for instance, compared it with the English system of common-law marriage. This form of relationship is often seen in a conflict between Christian marriage and more flexible Germanic concepts.
  14. ^ Gerd Treffer, Die französischen Königinnen. Von Bertrada bis Marie Antoinette (8.-18. Jahrhundert) p. 30.
  15. ^ "By [Hildigard] Charlemagne had four sons and four daughters, according to Paul the Deacon: one son, the twin of Lewis, called Lothar, died as a baby and is not mentioned by Einhard; two daughters, Hildigard and Adelhaid, died as babies, so that Einhard appears to err in one of his names, unless there were really five daughters." Thorpe, Lewis, Two Lives of Charlemagne, p.185

Einhard as scribe Einhard (also Eginhard or Einhart) (c. ... Paul the Deacon (c. ... Stephen III (d. ...

Bibliography

  • Riché, Pierre (1993). The Carolingians: A Family Who Forged Europe. University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 0-8122-1342-4
  • Einhard [1880] (1960). The Life of Charlemagne, trans. Samuel Epes Turner, Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. ISBN 0-472-06035-X. 
  • Oman, Charles (1914). The Dark Ages, 476-918, 6th ed., London: Rivingtons. 
  • Painter, Sidney (1953). A History of the Middle Ages, 284-1500. New York: Knopf. 
  • Santosuosso, Antonio (2004). Barbarians, Marauders, and Infidels: The Ways of Medieval Warfare. Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press. ISBN 0-8133-9153-9. 
  • Scholz, Bernhard Walter; with Barbara Rogers (1970). Carolingian Chronicles: Royal Frankish Annals and Nithard's Histories. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. ISBN 0-472-08790-8.  Comprises the Annales regni Francorum and The History of the Sons of Louis the Pious
  • Charlemagne: Biographies and general studies, from Encyclopædia Britannica, full-article, latest edition.
  • Barbero, Alessandro (2004). Charlemagne: Father of a Continent, trans. Allan Cameron, Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-23943-1. 
  • Becher, Matthias (2003). Charlemagne, trans. David S. Bachrach, New Haven: Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-09796-4. 
  • Ganshof, F. L. (1971). The Carolingians and the Frankish Monarchy: Studies in Carolingian History, trans. Janet Sondheimer, Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press. ISBN 0-8014-0635-8. 
  • Langston, Aileen Lewers; and J. Orton Buck, Jr (eds.) (1974). Pedigrees of Some of the Emperor Charlemagne's Descendants. Baltimore: Genealogical Pub. Co.. 
  • Pirenne, Henri (1939). Mohammed and Charlemagne, trans. Bernard Miall, New York: Norton. 
  • Sypeck, Jeff (2006). Becoming Charlemagne: Europe, Baghdad, and The Empires of A.D. 800. New York: Ecco/HarperCollins. ISBN 0-06-079706-1. 
  • Wilson, Derek (2005). Charlemagne: The Great Adventure. London: Hutchinson. ISBN 0-09-179461-7. 

Einhard as scribe Einhard (also Eginhard or Einhart) (c. ... Sir Charles William Chadwick Oman (January 12, 1860 - June 23, 1946) was a notable British military historian of the early 20th century. ... Sidney Painter (1902-1960) was a twentieth-century American medievalist at Johns Hopkins University. ... Antonio Santosuosso (born 1936) is a Professor Emeritus of History at the University of Western Ontario in London, Ontario. ... The Encyclopædia Britannica is a general English-language encyclopaedia published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. ... François-Louis Ganshof (1895-1980) was a Belgian historian of the middle ages. ... Henri Pirenne (December 23, 1862, Verviers - October 25, 1935, Uccle) was a leading Belgian historian. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Carolus Magnus
Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Emperor Charles I the Great
Died: 28 January 814
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Pippin the Short
King of the Franks
768 – 814
with Carloman I (768 – 771)
Charles the Younger (800 – 811)
Succeeded by
Louis the Pious
New title
Title granted by
Pope Leo III
(Holy) Roman Emperor
800 – 814
with Louis the Pious (813 – 814)
Preceded by
Desiderius
King of the Lombards
774 – 814
with Pippin of Italy as King of Italy (781 – 810)
Succeeded by
Bernard of Italy
as King of Italy
Persondata
NAME Charlemagne
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Carolus Magnus
SHORT DESCRIPTION King of the Franks
DATE OF BIRTH April, 742/747
PLACE OF BIRTH Liège, Belgium
DATE OF DEATH January 28, 814
PLACE OF DEATH Aachen, Germany
Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is one of a family of wiki-based projects run by the Wikimedia Foundation, running on MediaWiki software. ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... The Latin Library is a website that collects public domain Latin texts. ... WorldCat is the worlds largest bibliographic database, the merged catalogs of over 50,000 OCLC member libraries in over 90 countries. ... The following list of Frankish Kings is one of several Wikipedia lists of incumbents. ... Pepin III (714 - September 24, 768) more often known as Pepin the Short (French, Pépin le Bref; German, Pippin der Kleine), was a King of the Franks (751 - 768). ... The Franks were originally lead by dukes (military leaders) and reguli (petty kings). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Louis the Pious, contemporary depiction from 826 as a miles Christi (soldier of Christ), with a poem of Rabanus Maurus overlaid. ... Infobox Pope| English name=Leo III| image= | birth_name=Unknown| term_start=December 27, 795 | term_end=June 12, 816| predecessor=Adrian I| successor=Stephen IV| birth_date=Date of birth unknown| birthplace=Rome, Italy| dead=dead|death_date=June 12, 816| deathplace=Place of death unknown| other=Leo}} Pope Leo III (died June 12... The following list of Holy Roman Emperors is one of several Wikipedia lists of incumbents. ... Louis the Pious, contemporary depiction from 826 as a miles Christi (soldier of Christ), with a poem of Rabanus Maurus overlaid. ... Desiderius, the last king of the Lombards, is chiefly known through his connection with Charlemagne. ... The Lombards (Latin Langobardi, whence comes the alternative name Longobards found in older English texts), were a Germanic people originally from Northern Europe that entered the late Roman Empire. ... Pippin of Italy (April, 773 – July 8, 810) was the son of Charlemagne and king of Italy (781-810) under the authority of his father. ... Bernard (d. ... King of Italy is a title adopted by many rulers after the fall of the Roman Empire. ... It has been suggested that Regents: France and French States be merged into this article or section. ... Also see: France in the Middle Ages. ... Pépin le Bref [1] (714 – September 24, 768), often known as Pepin the Younger or Pepin III, was the King of the Franks from 751 to 768 and is best known for being the father of Charlemagne, or Charles the Great. ... Events Pippin the Short is elected as king of the Franks by the Frankish nobility, marking the end of the Merovingian and beginning of the Carolingian dynasty. ... // Death of Pepin the Short (714 - 768), king of the Franks since 751. ... // Death of Pepin the Short (714 - 768), king of the Franks since 751. ... Events December 4 - Austrasian King Carloman dies, leaving his brother Charlemagne king of the now complete Frank kingdom (Pope Leo III crowned Charlemagne Emperor of the Franks at Rome on Christmas Day, 800). ... // Death of Pepin the Short (714 - 768), king of the Franks since 751. ... Events Louis the Pious succeeds Charlemagne as king of the Franks and Emperor. ... Louis the Pious, contemporary depiction from 826 as a miles Christi (soldier of Christ), with a poem of Rabanus Maurus overlaid. ... Events Louis the Pious succeeds Charlemagne as king of the Franks and Emperor. ... After the death of Louis the Pious, his sons Lothar, Charles the Bald and Louis the German fight over the division of the Holy Roman Empire, with Lothar succeeding as Emperor. ... For other uses, see Interregnum (disambiguation). ... After the death of Louis the Pious, his sons Lothar, Charles the Bald and Louis the German fight over the division of the Holy Roman Empire, with Lothar succeeding as Emperor. ... Events Treaty of Verdun divides the Carolingian empire between the 3 sons of Louis the Pious. ... Charles the Bald[1] (numbered Charles II of France and the Holy Roman Emperor) (French: , German: ) (13 June 823 – 6 October 877), Holy Roman Emperor (875–877) and king of West Francia (840–877), was the youngest son of Emperor Louis the Pious, by his second wife Judith. ... Events Treaty of Verdun divides the Carolingian empire between the 3 sons of Louis the Pious. ... The Danes take Exeter Indravarman II succeeds Jayavarman III as ruler of the Khmer Empire. ... Louis the Stammerer (November 1, 846 — April 10, 879; French: ), was the eldest son of Charles the Bald and Ermentrude of Orléans. ... The Danes take Exeter Indravarman II succeeds Jayavarman III as ruler of the Khmer Empire. ... Events Wilfred the Hairy, Count of Barcelona, founded the benedictine monastery at Ripoll. ... Louis III (c. ... Events Wilfred the Hairy, Count of Barcelona, founded the benedictine monastery at Ripoll. ... Events Carloman, King of the West Franks becomes sole king upon the death of his brother. ... Events Wilfred the Hairy, Count of Barcelona, founded the benedictine monastery at Ripoll. ... Events May 15 - Pope Marinus I dies. ... Romantic portrait of Charles. ... Events May 15 - Pope Marinus I dies. ... This article is about the year A.D. 888. ... For the Direct Capetians, who ruled France 987–1328, see the House of Capet. ... Odo (or Eudes) (c. ... Events Emperor Uda ascends to the throne of Japan Births Deaths September 18 - Pietro I Candiano, Doge of Venice (killed in battle) Emperor Koko of Japan Categories: 887 ... Events Accession of Pope John IX Accession of King Kasyapa IV of Sri Lanka Magyar army headed by Álmos besieges Kiev Magyar tribes found state of Szekesfahervar in Hungary Bologna joins Italian Kingdom End of Yodit era in Ethiopia Foundation of Bhaktapur in Nepal Births Deaths Category: ... Charles the Simple or Charles (September 17, 879 - October 7, 929) was a member of the Carolingian dynasty. ... Events Accession of Pope John IX Accession of King Kasyapa IV of Sri Lanka Magyar army headed by Álmos besieges Kiev Magyar tribes found state of Szekesfahervar in Hungary Bologna joins Italian Kingdom End of Yodit era in Ethiopia Foundation of Bhaktapur in Nepal Births Deaths Category: ... Events Births Deaths March 26 - Al-Hallaj, Sufi writer and teacher Categories: 922 ... Robert I (c. ... Events Births Deaths March 26 - Al-Hallaj, Sufi writer and teacher Categories: 922 ... Events June 15 - Battle of Soissons: King Robert I of France is killed, King Charles the Simple is arrested by the supporters of Duke Rudolph of Burgundy. ... Cross of Burgundy Flag The Duchy of Burgundy, today Bourgogne, has its origin in the small portion of traditional lands of Burgundians west of river Saône which in 843 was allotted to Charles the Balds kingdom of West Franks. ... Rudolph (also Radulf, Ralph, or Raoul) (died 15 January 936) was the duke of Burgundy between 921 and 923 and king of France from thereafter to his death. ... Events June 15 - Battle of Soissons: King Robert I of France is killed, King Charles the Simple is arrested by the supporters of Duke Rudolph of Burgundy. ... Events King Taejo of Goryeo (Wanggeon) defeats Hubaekje. ... Louis IV dOutremer: King of France 936 to 954, member of the Carolingian dynasty. ... Events King Taejo of Goryeo (Wanggeon) defeats Hubaekje. ... Events King Malcolm I of Scotland is killed in battle against Highlanders. ... Lothair (941-986), king of France, son of Louis IV and Gerberge of Saxony, succeeded his father in 954, and was at first under the guardianship of Hugh the Great, duke of the Franks, and then under that of his maternal uncle Bruno, archbishop of Cologne. ... Events King Malcolm I of Scotland is killed in battle against Highlanders. ... Events March 2 - Louis V becomes King of the Franks End of the reign of Emperor Kazan of Japan Emperor Ichijo ascends to the throne of Japan Explorer Bjarni Herjólfsson becomes the first inhabitant of the Old World to sight North America Births Deaths March 2 - Lothair, King of... Louis V (c. ... Events March 2 - Louis V becomes King of the Franks End of the reign of Emperor Kazan of Japan Emperor Ichijo ascends to the throne of Japan Explorer Bjarni Herjólfsson becomes the first inhabitant of the Old World to sight North America Births Deaths March 2 - Lothair, King of... Events Hugh Capet, Count of Paris, crowned King of France Kukulcan conquers Chichen Itza Births Deaths May 21 King Louis V of France Categories: 987 ... Hugh Capet[1] (c. ... Events March 2 - Louis V becomes King of the Franks End of the reign of Emperor Kazan of Japan Emperor Ichijo ascends to the throne of Japan Explorer Bjarni Herjólfsson becomes the first inhabitant of the Old World to sight North America Births Deaths March 2 - Lothair, King of... Events Hugh Capet, Count of Paris, crowned King of France Kukulcan conquers Chichen Itza Births Deaths May 21 King Louis V of France Categories: 987 ... The Division of the Carolingian Empire: Verdun 843 and Mersen, 870 (Col) Source: Adapted from Muirs Historical Atlas: (1911) Public domain image, taken from digitized copy at Internet Medieval Sourcebook[1] This image is in the public domain in the United States and possibly other jurisdictions. ... The House of Savoy was a dynasty of nobles who traditionally had their domain in Savoy (a small region between Piedmont, Italy, and France). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article deals with the continental Ostrogoths. ... Theodoric the Great (454 - August 30, 526), known to the Romans as Flavius Theodoricus, was king of the Ostrogoths (488-526), ruler of Italy (493-526), and regent of the Visigoths (511-526). ... Athalaric (516 - 2 October 534), king of the Ostrogoths in Italy, grandson of Theodoric the Great, became king on his grand-fathers death (526). ... Theodahad (d. ... Witiges or Vitiges (d. ... Ildibad (or Heldebadus) (d. ... Eraric (d. ... Totila, born in Treviso, was king of the Ostrogoths, chosen after the death of his uncle Ildibad, having engineered the assassination of Ildibads short-lived successor his cousin Eraric in 541. ... Teia (d. ... Byzantine redirects here. ... This article is about the Roman emperor. ... Look up Lombard in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Alboin or Alboïn (d. ... Cleph or Clef (in Italian, Clefi) was king of the Lombards from 572 or 573 to 574 or 575. ... The Rule of the Dukes was the decade-long interregnum from 574 or 575 which affected the Lombard kingdom in Italy after the death of Cleph. ... Authari was the king of the Lombards. ... Agilulf was duke of Turin and Lombard king of Italy. ... Adaloald (602 – 626) was the Lombard king of Italy from 616 to 626. ... Arioald was the Lombard king of Italy from 626 to 636. ... Rothari of the house of Arodus was king of the Lombards from 636 to 652; previously he had been duke of Brescia. ... Events April 20 - Battle of Yarmuk - Byzantine Empire loses Syria to the Arabs The Arabs invade Persia Rothari marries queen Gundeparga, becomes king of the Lombards city of Basra Iraq founded by caliph Omar on a canal. ... Events Khazaria becomes an independent state (approximate date) Rodoald succeeds his father Rothari as king of the Lombards Births Clotaire III, king of the Franks Deaths Abbas ibn Abd al-Muttalib, uncle of Muhammed, progenitor of the Abbasids Saint Ida of Nivelles, widow of Pippin of Landen, monastic foundress Rothari... Rodoald (or Rodwald) was a Lombard king of Italy, who succeeded his father Rothari on the throne in 652. ... Aripert I (also spelled Aribert) was king of the Lombards (653-661) in Italy. ... Godepert (also Gundipert, Godebert, Godipert, Godpert, Gotebert, Gotbert, Gotpert, Gosbert, or Gottbert) was king of the Lombards (661), eldest son and successor of Aripert I. He was an Arian who governed from the ancient capital, Pavia, while his brother, Perctarit, a Roman Catholic, governed from Milan. ... Perctarit (also Berthari) was king of the Lombards from 661 to 662 the first time and later from 671 to 688. ... Grimoald I (c. ... Garibald was the young son of Grimoald I of Benevento, king of the Lombards, and Theodota, daughter of Aripert I. After his fathers death in 671, he reigned briefly for three months until the numerous adherents of Perctarit, his uncle, who had been exiled by Grimoald nine years earlier... Perctarit (also Berthari) was king of the Lombards from 661 to 662 the first time and later from 671 to 688. ... Cunipert (also Cunibert or Cunincpert) was king of the Lombards from 688 to 700. ... Alahis or Alagis was duke of Trent and Brescia before becoming king of the Lombards after his successful rebellion in 688. ... Cunipert (also Cunibert or Cunincpert) was king of the Lombards from 688 to 700. ... Liutpert or Liutbert (d. ... Raginpert was king of the Lombards in 701. ... Aripert II was king of the Lombards from 701 to 712. ... Ansprand (c. ... Liutprand was the king of the Lombards from 712 to 744 and is chiefly remembered for his Donation of Sutri, in 728, and his long reign which brought him into conflicts, mostly successful, with most of Italy at some time or other. ... Hildeprand was king of the Lombards in 744 and grandson (or uncle) and successor of Liutprand. ... Ratchis was duke of Friuli (739-744) and king of the Lombards (744-749). ... Aistulf, also called Aistulf of Friuli, (d. ... Desiderius, the last king of the Lombards, is chiefly known through his connection with Charlemagne. ... Also see: France in the Middle Ages. ... Pepin (April 773 – 8 July 810) was the son of Charlemagne and king of Italy (781-810) under the authority of his father. ... Bernard (d. ... Lothair I Lothair I (German: Lothar, French: Lothaire, Italian: Lotario) (795 – 2 March 855), king of Italy (818 – 855) and Holy Roman Emperor (840 – 855), was the eldest son of the emperor Louis the Pious and his wife Ermengarde of Hesbaye, daughter of Ingerman, duke of Hesbaye. ... Charles the Bald - Detail from a painting in the First Bible of Charles the Bald, painted ca. ... Carloman (830-880) was the eldest son of Louis the German, king of East Francia (Germany), and Emma, daughter of the count Welf. ... Romantic portrait of Charles. ... Later romantic portrait of Arnulf. ... Berengar of Friuli (? – 16 April 924) was the Margrave of Friuli from 874, King of Italy from 888, and Holy Roman Emperor from 915 until his death. ... The Guideschi or Guidoni (German: ) were an Italian family of Frankish origin prominent in the ninth century. ... Guy III (d. ... Lambert of Spoleto (?–October 15, 898) was a Duke of Spoleto (as Lambert II, 894–898), King of Italy (892–898) and Emperor (894-898). ... The elder House of Welf was a dynasty of European rulers in the 9th through 11th centuries. ... Rudolf II (died July 11, 937) King of Upper Burgundy (912–937), King of Lower Burgundy (Provence) (933–937), King of Italy (effective, 922–926 – claim abandoned 933). ... Louis the Blind (c. ... Hugh of Arles or Hugh of Provence (before 887 – 10 April 948[1]) was King of Italy from 924 until his death. ... Lothar II of Arles was King of Italy from 947 to 950. ... The Anscarids (sometimes House of Ivrea) were a medieval dynasty of Burgundian origin which rose to prominence in Italy in the tenth century, even briefly holding the Italian throne. ... The Lombard Berengar of Ivrea (?-966), sometimes also referred to as Berengar II of Italy, was margrave of Ivrea. ... Adalbert (c. ... The Holy Roman Emperor was, with some variation, the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire, the predecessor of modern Germany, during its existence from the 10th century until its collapse in 1806. ... Map of Carolingian Empire The term Carolingian Empire is sometimes used to refer to the realm of the Franks under the dynasty of the Carolingians. ... Louis the Pious, contemporary depiction from 826 as a miles Christi (soldier of Christ), with a poem of Rabanus Maurus overlaid. ... Charles the Bald[1] (numbered Charles II of France and the Holy Roman Emperor) (French: , German: ) (13 June 823 – 6 October 877), Holy Roman Emperor (875–877) and king of West Francia (840–877), was the youngest son of Emperor Louis the Pious, by his second wife Judith. ... Romantic portrait of Charles. ... Guy III (d. ... Lambert of Spoleto (?–October 15, 898) was a Duke of Spoleto (as Lambert II, 894–898), King of Italy (892–898) and Emperor (894-898). ... Later romantic portrait of Arnulf. ... Louis the Blind (c. ... Berengar of Friuli (? – 16 April 924) was the Margrave of Friuli from 874, King of Italy from 888, and Holy Roman Emperor from 915 until his death. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... This article is about the medieval empire. ... For others with the same name, see Otto I (disambiguation). ... Otto II and Theophano. ... Otto III in a medieval manuscript Otto III (980 – January 23, 1002, Paterno, Italy) was the fourth ruler of the Saxon or Ottonian dynasty. ... Henry II in an illuminated miniature from an imperial sacramentary. ... Conrad II (c. ... Henry III, from a miniature of 1040. ... Henry IV (November 11, 1050–August 7, 1106) was King of Germany from 1056 and Holy Roman Emperor from 1084 until his forced abdication in 1105. ... Henry IV (left) and son Henry V (right). ... Seal of Lothair III. on a deed from 1131 Lothair III of Supplinburg (1075 – 1137), was Duke of Saxony (1106), King of Germany (1125), and Holy Roman Emperor from 1133 to 1137. ... Frederick Barbarossa in a 13th century chronicle. ... Henry VI (November 1165 – 28 September 1197) was King of Germany from 1190 to 1197, Holy Roman Emperor from 1191 to 1197 and King of Sicily from 1194 to 1197. ... Otto IV of Brunswick (died 1218) was King of Germany (1208-1215) and Holy Roman Emperor from 1209 - 1215. ... Frederick II (December 26, 1194 – December 13, 1250), of the Hohenstaufen dynasty, was a pretender to the title of King of the Romans from 1212 and unopposed holder of that monarchy from 1215. ... Henry VII, (In German: Heinrich; in Italian: Arrigo), ca. ... Emperor Louis IV Louis IV of Bavaria (also known as Ludwig the Bavarian) of the House of Wittelsbach (April 1, 1282 – October 11, 1347) was duke of Bavaria from 1294/1301 together with his brother Rudolf I, also count of the Palatinate until 1329 and, German king since 1314 and... Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor. ... Sigismund, aged approximately 50, depicted by unknown artist in the 1420s — the only contemporary portrait. ... Emperor Frederick III Frederick III of Habsburg (Innsbruck, September 21, 1415 – August 19, 1493 in Linz) was elected as German King as the successor of Albert II in 1440. ... Maximilian I of Habsburg (March 22, 1459 – January 12, 1519) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1508 until his death. ... For the Carlist claimant King Carlos V, see Infante Carlos, Count of Molina. ... Ferdinand in 1531, the year of his election as King of the Romans Ferdinand I (10 March 1503 – 25 July 1564) was an Austrian monarch from the House of Habsburg. ... Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian II. His Coat of Arms Maximilian II, Holy Roman Emperor of the Habsburg dynasty (July 31, 1527 – October 12, 1576) was king of Bohemia from 1562, king of Hungary from 1563 and emperor of the Holy Roman Empire from 1564 until his death. ... Holy Roman Emperor Rudolf II Rudolph IIs personal imperial crown, later crown of the Austrian Empire Rudolf II Habsburg was an emperor of the Holy Roman Empire, king of Bohemia, and king of Hungary. ... Holy Roman Emperor Matthias Matthias (February 24, 1557 - March 20, 1619) of the House of Habsburg reigned as Holy Roman Emperor from 1612-1619, as King of Hungary from 1608-1619 (as Matthias II), and as King of Bohemia from 1611-1617. ... Emperor Ferdinand II Ferdinand II (July 9, 1578 – February 15, 1637), of the House of Habsburg, reigned as Holy Roman Emperor from 1620-1637. ... Ferdinand III, Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand III, Holy Roman Emperor (July 13, 1608 – April 2, 1657), ruled February 15, 1637 – 1657. ... Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor Silver coin of Leopold I, 3 Kreuzers, dated 1670. ... Joseph I. Joseph I (July 26, 1678 – April 17, 1711), Holy Roman Emperor, King of Hungary and Bohemia, Archduke of Austria, was the elder son of the emperor Leopold I and his third wife, Eleanora, Countess Palatine, daughter of Philip William of Neuburg, Elector Palatine. ... Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI Charles VI, (German Karl VI; in full Karl Josef Franz)Holy Roman Emperor (October 1, 1685 – October 20, 1740) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1711 to 1740 and the second son of Leopold I with his third wife, Eleonore-Magdalena of Pfalz-Neuburg. ... Holy Roman Emperor Charles VII Emperor Charles VII Albert (Brussels August 6, 1697 – January 20, 1745 in Munich), a member of the Wittelsbach family, was Prince-elector of Bavaria from 1726 and Holy Roman Emperor from January 24, 1742 until his death in 1745. ... Francis I Silver coin of Francis I, dated 1754. ... Joseph II (full name: Joseph Benedikt August Johannes Anton Michel Adam; March 13, 1741 – February 20, 1790) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1765 to 1790 and ruler of the Habsburg lands from 1780 to 1790. ... Leopold II (born Peter Leopold Joseph) (May 5, 1747 – March 1, 1792) was the penultimate Holy Roman Emperor from 1790 to 1792 and Grand Duke of Tuscany. ... Francis I in Austrian coronation regalia, 1832 Austrian thaler of Francis II, dated 1821. ... The following list of Frankish Kings is one of several Wikipedia lists of incumbents. ... Geography Country Belgium Community French Community Region Walloon Region Province Liège Arrondissement Liège Coordinates , , Area 69. ... is the 28th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Louis the Pious succeeds Charlemagne as king of the Franks and Emperor. ... Oche redirects here; in darts the oche is the line from which players must throw. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Charlemagne - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (7432 words)
Charlemagne was the eldest child of Pippin the Short (714 – 24 September 768, reigned from 751) and his wife Bertrada of Laon (720 – 12 July 783), daughter of Caribert of Laon and Bertrada of Cologne.
Thus, Charlemagne's assumption of the title of Augustus, Constantine, and Justinian was not an usurpation in the eyes of the Franks or Italians.
Charlemagne's marriage and relationship politics and ethics did, however, result in a fairly large number of descendants, all of whom had far better life expectancies than is usually the case for children in that time period.
Charlemagne (965 words)
Charlemagne had married the daughter of the Lombard king Desiderius in 770 to maintain an alliance with the former enemy of the Franks.
During Charlemagne's reign, some of these foot soldiers formed the beginnings of the medieval mounted knights and fought from horseback with long swords that were superior to other countries' weapons of the period.
Charlemagne did not maintain his army full-time; rather, he called his soldiers from their farms and towns on a seasonal basis, usually in the spring, to conduct campaigns lasting three to six months.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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