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Encyclopedia > Chariot
Hittite chariot (drawing of an Egyptian relief)
Hittite chariot (drawing of an Egyptian relief)
Approximate historical map of the spread of the chariot, 2000–500 BC.
Approximate historical map of the spread of the chariot, 2000–500 BC.
A fountain in Madrid depicting Cybele in her chariot drawn by lions, in the Plaza de Cibeles
A fountain in Madrid depicting Cybele in her chariot drawn by lions, in the Plaza de Cibeles

The chariot is the earliest and simplest type of carriage, used in both peace and war as the chief vehicle of many ancient peoples— Assyrians, Babylonians, Egyptians, Indians, Greeks, Romans, ancient Britons and others. Chariots were built in Mesopotamia as early as 3000 BC. and in China during the 2d millennium BC. The original chariot was a fast, light, open, two- or four-wheeled conveyance drawn by two or more horses hitched side by side. The car was little else than a floor with a waist-high semicircular guard in front. The chariot, driven by a charioteer, was used for ancient warfare during the Bronze and Iron Ages, armor being provided by bronze shields. The vehicle continued to be used for travel, processions and in games and races after it had been superseded militarily. Chariot can refer to: Chariot, a horse-drawn vehicle in military use 2000 BC to 300 BC, and in use for Chariot racing until the 7th century Chariot, a light four-wheeled horse carriage popular in the 19th century. ... drawing from an egyptian relief, from Paul Volz: Die biblischen Altertümer (1914), p. ... drawing from an egyptian relief, from Paul Volz: Die biblischen Altertümer (1914), p. ... Relief of Suppiluliuma II, last known king of the Hittite Empire The Hittites were an ancient people from KaneÅ¡ who spoke an Indo-European language, and established a kingdom centered at Hattusa (Hittite URU) in north-central Anatolia from the 18th century BC. In the 14th century BC, the Hittite... Image File history File links by en:User:Dbachmann File links The following pages link to this file: Chariot User talk:Wiglaf ... Image File history File links by en:User:Dbachmann File links The following pages link to this file: Chariot User talk:Wiglaf ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (696x601, 162 KB) Summary Same as Image:Cibeles con Palacio de Linares al fondo. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (696x601, 162 KB) Summary Same as Image:Cibeles con Palacio de Linares al fondo. ... A fountain in Madrid depicting Cybele in her chariot drawn by lions, in the Plaza de Cibeles Originally a Phrygian goddess, Cybele (Greek: Κυβέλη) was a deification of the Earth Mother who was worshipped in Anatolia from Neolithic times. ... Catherine IIs carved, painted and gilded Coronation Coach (Hermitage Museum) George VI and Queen Elizabeth in a landau with footmen and an outrider, Canada 1939 The classic definition of a carriage is a four-wheeled horse drawn private passenger vehicle with leaf springs (elliptical springs in the 19th century... For other uses, see Wheel (disambiguation). ... Who ever deleted my page is a prat and i wil hunt them down on lucy and shout at them loudly! RAAAAARRR! connie sansom ... Ancient warfare is war as conducted from the beginnings of recorded history to the end of the ancient period. ... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ... Iron Age Axe found on Gotland This article is about the archaeological period known as the Iron Age, for the mythological Iron Age see Iron Age (mythology). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... United States Marines on parade. ... For other uses, see Game (disambiguation). ... A modern recreation of chariot racing in Romano-Gaul Chariot racing was one of the most popular ancient Greek and Roman sports. ...


The word "chariot" comes from Latin carrus, which itself was a loan from Gaulish. A chariot of war or of triumph was called a car. In ancient Rome and other ancient Mediterranean countries a biga was a two-horse chariot, a triga utilized three horses and a quadriga was drawn by four horses abreast. Obsolete terms for chariot include chair, charet and wain. Gaulish is name given to the now-extinct Celtic language that was spoken in Gaul before the Romans, the Franks and the British Celts invaded. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... “Ancient” redirects here. ... A quadriga (from the Latin language quadri-, four, and jungere, to yoke) is a four-horse chariot, raced in the Olympic Games and other sacred games, and represented in profile as the usual chariot of gods and heroes on Greek vases and bas-reliefs. ...


The critical invention that allowed the construction of light, horse-drawn chariots for use in battle was the spoked wheel. Most horses at the time could not support the weight of a man in battle. As horses were gradually bred to be larger and stronger, chariotry (the part of a military force that fought from chariots) gave way to cavalry.[1] A spoke is one of some number of rods radiating from the center of a wheel (the hub where the axle connects), connecting the hub with the round traction surface. ... There are a number of theories regarding the domestication of the horse. ... Not to be confused with Golgotha, which was called Calvary. ...


The earliest spoke-wheeled chariots date to ca. 2000 BC and their usage peaked around 1300 BC (see Battle of Kadesh). Chariots ceased to have military importance in the 4th century BC, but chariot races continued to be popular in Constantinople until the 6th century. Combatants New Kingdom of Egypt Hittite Empire Commanders Ramesses II Muwatalli II Strength 2,000+ chariots[2] and ca. ... A modern recreation of chariot racing in Romano-Gaul Chariot racing was one of the most popular ancient Greek and Roman sports. ... This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ...

Contents

Early wheeled vehicles in Sumer

Relief of early chariots on the Standard of Ur, ca. 2500 BC
Relief of early chariots on the Standard of Ur, ca. 2500 BC

The chariot probably originated in Mesopotamia about 3000 BC. The earliest depiction of vehicles in the context of warfare is on the Standard of Ur in southern Mesopotamia, ca. 2500 BC. These are more properly called wagons or carts, still double-axled and pulled by oxen or tamed asses before the introduction of horses ca. 2000 BC. Although sometimes carrying a spearman along with the charioteer (driver), such heavy proto-chariots, borne on solid wooden wheels and covered with skins, may have been part of the baggage train (e.g., during royal funeral processions) rather than vehicles of battle in themselves. The Sumerians had also a lighter, two-wheeled type of chariot, pulled by four asses, but still with solid wheels. The spoked wheel did not appear in Mesopotamia until the mid-2000s BC. Image File history File links Standard_of_Ur_chariots. ... Image File history File links Standard_of_Ur_chariots. ... the War panel Peace, detail showing lyrist. ... Mesopotamia was a cradle of civilization geographically located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, largely corresponding to modern-day Iraq. ... the War panel Peace, detail showing lyrist. ... For other uses, see Wagon (disambiguation). ... A cart is a vehicle or device, using two wheels and normally one horse, designed for transport. ... Binomial name Equus asinus The donkey or ass (Equus asinus) is a domesticated animal of the horse family, Equidae. ...

Indo-Iranians

Proto-Indo-Iranians

Main article: Ratha
The area of the spoke-wheeled chariot finds within the Sintashta-Petrovka culture is indicated in purple.
The area of the spoke-wheeled chariot finds within the Sintashta-Petrovka culture is indicated in purple.

The earliest fully developed chariots known are from the chariot burials of the Andronovo (Timber-Grave) sites of the Sintashta-Petrovka culture in modern Russia and Kazakhstan from around 2000 BC. This culture is at least partially derived from the earlier Yamna culture. It built heavily fortified settlements, engaged in bronze metallurgy on a scale hitherto unprecedented and practiced complex burial rituals reminiscent of Aryan rituals known from the Rigveda. The Sintashta-Petrovka chariot burials yield spoke-wheeled chariots. The Andronovo culture over the next few centuries spread across the steppes from the Urals to the Tien Shan, likely corresponding to early Indo-Iranian cultures which eventually spread to Iran and India in the course of the 2nd millennium BC. Ratha ( Sanskrit , Avestan raθa) is the Indo-Iranian term for the spoked-wheel chariot of Antiquity. ... Image File history File links by en:User:Dbachmann File links The following pages link to this file: Chariot User talk:Wiglaf Andronovo culture Indo-Iranians ... Image File history File links by en:User:Dbachmann File links The following pages link to this file: Chariot User talk:Wiglaf Andronovo culture Indo-Iranians ... The Andronovo culture in the context of late 3rd millennium Indo-European expansion The Andronovo culture, is a name given by archaeologists to a group of Bronze Age communities who lived in western Siberia, Russia and parts of Kazakhstan during the second and first millennium BC. The culture is named... Chariot burials are tombs in which the deceased was buried together with his chariot, usually including his horses and other possessions. ... Map of the approximate maximal extent of the Andronovo culture. ... The Andronovo culture in the context of late 3rd millennium Indo-European expansion The Andronovo culture, is a name given by archaeologists to a group of Bronze Age communities who lived in western Siberia, Russia and parts of Kazakhstan during the second and first millennium BC. The culture is named... Typical Yamna burial with the skeleton in supine position, with bent knees. ... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ... Aryan (/eÉ™rjÉ™n/ or /ɑːrjÉ™n/, Sanskrit: ) is a Sanskrit and Avestan word meaning noble/spiritual one. ... Rig veda is the oldest text in the world. ... Map of the approximate maximal extent of the Andronovo culture. ... The Ural Mountains, (Russian: Ура́льские го́ры = Ура́л) also known simply as the Urals, are a mountain range that run roughly north and south through western Russia. ... The Tian Shan (Chinese: 天山; Pinyin: Tiān Shān; celestial mountains) mountain range is located in Central Asia, in the border region of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and the Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region of western China. ... Map of the Sintashta-Petrovka culture (red), its expansion into the Andronovo culture during the 2nd millennium BC, showing the overlap with the BMAC in the south. ... The 2nd millennium BC marks the transition from the Middle to the Late Bronze Age. ...


Chariots figure prominently in Indo-Iranian mythology. Chariots are also an important part of both Hindu and Persian mythology, with most of the gods in their pantheon portrayed as riding them. The Sanskrit word for a chariot is ratha, a collective *ret-h- to a Proto-Indo-European word *rot-o- for "wheel" that also resulted in Latin rota and is also known from Germanic, Celtic and Baltic. Hindu mythology is a term used by modern scholarship for a large body of Indian literature that details the lives and times of legendary personalities, deities and divine incarnations on earth interspersed with often large sections of philosophical and ethical discourse. ... The beliefs and practices of the culturally and linguistically related group of ancient peoples who inhabited the Iranian Plateau and its borderlands, as well as areas of Central Asia from the Black Sea to Khotan (modern Ho-tien, China), form Persian mythology. ... A pantheon (from Greek Πάνθειον, temple of all gods, from πᾶν, all + θεός, god) is a set of all the gods of a particular religion or mythology, such as the gods of Hinduism, Norse, Egyptian, Shintoism, Greek, vodun, Yoruba Mythology and Roman mythology. ... Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... The Proto-Indo-European language (PIE) is the hypothetical common ancestor of the Indo-European languages, spoken by the Proto-Indo-Europeans. ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ...


India

There are a few depictions of chariots among the petroglyphs in the sandstone of the Vindhya range. Two depictions of chariots are found in Morhana Pahar, Mirzapur district. One is shows a team of two horses, with the head of a single driver visible. The other one is drawn by four horses, has six-spoked wheels, and shows a driver standing up in a large chariot-box. This chariot is being attacked, with a figure wielding a shield and a mace standing at its path, and another figure armed with bow and arrow threatening its right flank. It has been suggested (Sparreboom 1985:87) that the drawings record a story, most probably dating to the early centuries BC, from some center in the area of the GangesJamuna plain into the territory of still Neolithic hunting tribes. The drawings would then be a representation of foreign technology, comparable to the Arnhem Land Aboriginal rock paintings depicting Westerners. The very realistic chariots carved into the Sanchi stupas are dated to roughly the 1st century. Petroglyphs on a Bishop Tuff tableland Petroglyph on Petroglyph Point Petroglyphs on Petroglyph Point Petroglyphs on Petroglyph Point Petroglyphs on Newspaper Rock State Historic Monument Petroglyphs from Scandinavia (Häljesta, Västmanland in Sweden). ... The Vindhya Range is a range of hills in central India, which geographically separates The Indian subcontinent into northern India and Southern India. ... , Mirzapur   is a city in the heart of North India, nearly 650 km between Delhi and Kolkata and also equidistant from Allahabad and Varanasi. ... Ganga redirects here. ... Jamuna may refer to: Jamuna River in Bangladesh. ... Arnhem Land is an area of 97,000 km² in the north-eastern corner of the Northern Territory, Australia. ... Language(s) Several hundred Indigenous Australian languages (many extinct or nearly so), Australian English, Australian Aboriginal English, Torres Strait Creole, Kriol Religion(s) Primarily Christian, with minorities of other religions including various forms of Traditional belief systems based around the Dreamtime Related ethnic groups see List of Indigenous Australian group... , Sanchi is a small village in India, located 46 km north east of Bhopal, and 10 km from Besnagar and Vidisha in the central part of the state of Madhya Pradesh. ... The Great Stupa at Sanchi. ...


The scythed chariot was invented by the King of Magadha, Ajatashatru around 475 BC. He used these chariots against the Licchavis. A scythed chariot was a war chariot with a sharp, sickle-shaped blade or blades mounted on each end of the axle. The blades, used as weapons, extended horizontally for a meter on the sides of the chariot. The charge of the Persian scythed chariots at the battle of Gaugamela, by Andre Castaigne (1898-1899). ... Magadha was an ancient kingdom of India, mentioned in both the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. ... Ajatasatrus stupa in Rajgir, where his ashes were interred Ajātashatru (Sanskrit अजातशत्रु; ruled 491-461 BCE) was a king of the Magadha empire that ruled north India. ... Licchavi (also Lichchhavi, Lichavi) was an ancient kingdom in Nepal, which existed in the Kathmandu Valley from approximately 400 to 750. ... A traditional wooden scythe A scythe (IPA: , most likely from Old English siðe, sigði) is an agricultural hand tool for mowing and reaping grass or crops. ... An axle is a central shaft for a rotating wheel or gear. ...


Persia

The Persians succeeded Elam in the mid 1st millennium. They may have been the first to yoke four horses (rather than two) to their chariots. They also used scythed chariots. Cyrus the Younger employed these chariots in large numbers. Herodotus mentions that the Libyans and the Indus satrapy supplied cavalry and chariots to Xerxes' army. However, by this time cavalry was far more effective and agile than the chariot, and the defeat of Darius III at the Battle of Gaugamela (331 BC), where the army of Alexander simply opened their lines and let the chariots pass and attacked them from behind, marked the end of the era of chariot warfare. Persia redirects here. ... Elam (Persian: تمدن ایلام) is one of the oldest recorded civilizations. ... Cyrus the Younger, son of Darius II and Parysatis, was a Persian prince and general. ... Herodotus of Halicarnassus (Greek: HÄ“ródotos Halikarnāsseús) was a Greek historian who lived in the 5th century BC (ca. ... ‹ The template below (Citations missing) is being considered for deletion. ... Satrap (Greek σατράπης satrápēs, from Old Persian xšaθrapā(van), i. ... Xerxes may refer to these Persian kings: Xerxes I, reigned 485–465 BC, also known as Xerxes the Great. ... Not to be confused with Golgotha, which was called Calvary. ... Darius III or Codomannus (c. ... Combatants Macedon Achaemenid Persia Commanders Alexander the Great Darius III Strength 9,000 peltasts,[1] 31,000 hoplites,[1][2] 7,000 cavalry[2] 1,000,000 total (See Size of Persian army) Casualties 4,000 40,000[3] The Battle of Gaugamela (IPA: ) took place in 331 BC between...


Near East

Some scholars argue that the chariot was most likely a product of the ancient Near East early in the 2nd millennium BC.[2]


Armenia

In the Armenian Kingdom of Van (Urartu), the chariot was used by the nobility and the military. In Yerevan,Armenia king Argishti of Urartu is depicted riding on a a chariot which is dragged by two horses. The chariot has two wheels and each wheel has about eight spokes. This type of chariot was used around 800 BC. Urartu at its greatest extent 743 BC Urartu (Biainili in Urartian) was an ancient kingdom in the mountainous plateau between Asia Minor, Mesopotamia, and Caucasus mountains, later known as the Armenian Highland, and it centered around Lake Van (present-day eastern Turkey). ...


Hittites

The oldest testimony of chariot warfare in the Ancient Near East is the Old Hittite Anitta text (18th century BC), mentioning 40 teams of horses (40 ?Í-IM-DÌ ANŠE.KUR.RA?I.A) at the siege of Salatiwara. Since only teams are mentioned rather than explicitly chariots, so the presence of chariots in the 18th century is considered somewhat uncertain. The first certain attestation of chariots in the Hittite Empire dates to the late 17th century (Hattusili I). A Hittite horse training text survives, attributed to Kikkuli the Mitanni (15th century BC). Hittite is the extinct language once spoken by the Hittites, a people who created an empire centered on ancient Hattusas (modern BoÄŸazkale) in north-central Anatolia (modern Turkey). ... Anitta, son of Pithana, was a semi-legendary king of the Hittites at Kussara, a city that has yet to be identified. ... Salatiwara was a city of Bronze Age Anatolia. ... Labarna II was the first king of the Hittite empire to reign from Hattusa (while the earlier kings had been at NeÅ¡a), and taking the throne name of Hattusili I on that occasion. ... Kikkuli, horse trainer (assussanni) of the land Mitanni (LÚA-AÅ -Å U-UÅ -Å A-AN-NI Å A KUR URUMI-IT-TA-AN-NI, virtually Sanskrit ) is known as the author of Middle Hittite horse training texts, dating to the Hittite New Kingdom (around 1400 BC). ...


The Hittites were renowned charioteers. They developed a new chariot design, which had lighter wheels, with four spokes rather than eight, and which held three warriors instead of two. Hittite prosperity largely depended on their control of trade routes and natural resources, specifically metals. As the Hittites gained dominion over Mesopotamia, tensions flared among the neighboring Assyrians, Hurrians and Egyptians. Under Suppiluliuma I, the Hittites conquered Kadesh and eventually the whole of Syria. The Battle of Kadesh in 1299 BC is likely to have been the largest chariot battle ever fought, involving some five thousand chariots.

Relief of Suppiluliuma II, last known king of the Hittite Empire The Hittites were an ancient people from Kaneš who spoke an Indo-European language, and established a kingdom centered at Hattusa (Hittite URU) in north-central Anatolia from the 18th century BC. In the 14th century BC, the Hittite... It has been suggested that Assyrian people be merged into this article or section. ... The word Hurrian may refer to: An ancient people of the Near East, the Hurrians. ... Suppiluliuma I (Shuppiluliuma) was king of the Hittites (ca. ... This article is about Kadesh in Syria, see also Kadesh (South of Israel) or Kedesh Kadesh (the most popular spelling; more accurately Qadesh) was an ancient city of the Levant, located on the Orontes River, probably identical to the remains at Tell Nebi Mend,[1] about 24 km southwest of... Combatants New Kingdom of Egypt Hittite Empire Commanders Ramesses II Muwatalli II Strength 2,000+ chariots[2] and ca. ...

Relief of Ramses II located in Abu Simbel, depicted fighting at the Battle of Kadesh; note that there are two archers riding in the chariot, one with the reins tied around the waist, to free both hands
Relief of Ramses II located in Abu Simbel, depicted fighting at the Battle of Kadesh; note that there are two archers riding in the chariot, one with the reins tied around the waist, to free both hands

Ramses II at the Battle of Kadesh (relief at Abu Simbel) The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... Ramses II at the Battle of Kadesh (relief at Abu Simbel) The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... Usermaatre-setepenre The Justice of Re is Powerful, Chosen of Re Nomen Ramesses (meryamun) Born of Re, (Beloved of Amun) Horus name Kanakht Merymaa Nebty name Mekkemetwafkhasut Golden Horus Userrenput-aanehktu Consort(s) Isetnofret, Nefertari Maathorneferure Issues Bintanath, Khaemweset, Merneptah, Amun-her-khepsef Meritamen Father Seti I Mother Queen Tuya... Model showing the relative positions of the Abu Simbel temples before and after relocation Categories: Ancient Egypt stubs | Wonders of the World ... Combatants New Kingdom of Egypt Hittite Empire Commanders Ramesses II Muwatalli II Strength 2,000+ chariots[2] and ca. ...

Egypt

The chariot, together with the horse itself, was introduced to Egypt by the Hyksos invaders in the 16th century BC and undoubtedly contributed to their military success. In the remains of Egyptian and Assyrian art there are numerous representations of chariots, from which it may be seen with what richness they were sometimes ornamented. The chariots of the Egyptians and Assyrians, with whom the bow was the principal arm of attack, were richly mounted with quivers full of arrows. The Egyptians invented the yoke saddle for their chariot horses in ca. 1500 BC. The best preserved examples of Egyptian chariots are the four specimens from the tomb of Tutankhamun. An image representing the Egyptian pharaoh Ahmose I defeating the Hyksos in battle. ... For other uses, see Assyria (disambiguation). ... King Tut redirects here. ...


Chariots in the Bible

See also Merkabah.

Chariots are frequently mentioned in the Old Testament, particularly by the prophets, as instruments of war or as symbols of power or glory. First mentioned in the story of Joseph (Genesis 50:9), "Iron chariots" are mentioned also in Joshua (17:16,18) and Judges (1:19,4:3,13) as weapons of the Canaanites. 1 Samuel 13:5 mentions chariots of the Philistines, who are sometimes identified with the Sea Peoples or early Greeks. Such examples from the KJV here include: This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Note: Judaism... Joseph interprets the dream of the Pharaoh. ... For other uses, see Genesis (disambiguation). ... The Book of Joshua is the sixth book in both the Hebrew Tanakh and the Old Testament of the Christian Bible. ... Book of Judges (Hebrew: Sefer Shoftim ספר שופטים) is a book of the Bible originally written in Hebrew. ... Map of Canaan For other uses, see Canaan (disambiguation). ... The Books of Samuel (Hebrew: Sefer Shmuel ספר שמואל), are part of the Tanakh (part of Judaisms Hebrew Bible) and also of the Old Testament (of Christianity). ... Map showing the location of Philistine land and cities of Gaza, Ashdod, and Ashkelon Map of the southern Levant, c. ... The Budgie People is the term used for a confederacy of seafaring raiders who sailed into the eastern shores of the Mediterranean, caused political unrest, and attempted to enter or control Egyptian territory during the late 19th dynasty, and especially during Year 8 of Ramesses III of the 20th Dynasty. ... Mycenaean Greece, the last phase of the Bronze Age in ancient Greece, is the historical setting of the epics of Homer and much other Greek mythology. ... This page is about the version of the Bible; for the Harvey Danger album, see King James Version (album). ...

  • 2 Chronicles 1:14 And Solomon gathered chariots and horsemen: and he had a thousand and four hundred chariots, and twelve thousand horsemen, which he placed in the chariot cities, and with the king at Jerusalem.
  • Song of Solomon 1:9 I have compared thee, O my love, to a company of horses in Pharaoh's chariots.
  • Isaiah 2:7 Their land also is full of silver and gold, neither is there any end of their treasures; their land is also full of horses, neither is there any end of their chariots.
  • Jeremiah 4:13 Behold, he shall come up as clouds, and his chariots shall be as a whirlwind: his horses are swifter than eagles. Woe unto us! for we are spoiled.

For other uses, see Song of Solomon (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Book of Isaiah. ... The Book of Jeremiah, or Jeremiah (יִרְמְיָהוּ Yirməyāhū in Hebrew), is part of the Hebrew Bible, Judaisms Tanakh, and later became a part of Christianitys Old Testament. ...

China

The earliest chariot burial site in China, discovered in 1933 at Hougang, Anyang of central China's Henan Province, dates to the rule of King Wu Ding of the late Shang Dynasty (ca. 1200 BC). But chariots may have been known before, from as early as the Xia Dynasty (17th century BC) [1]. During the Shang dynasty, members of the royalty were buried with a complete household and servants, including a chariot, horses, and a charioteer. Shang chariot was often drawn by two horses, but four are occasionally found in burials. The crew consisted of an archer, a driver, and sometimes a third armed with a spear or dagger-axe. During the 8th to 5th centuries, Chinese use of chariots reached its peak, they appeared in greater number, but infantry often defeated them in battle. Hougang Mall Shopping Centre Hougang is an urban planning area and a suburb in the north-eastern region of the city-state of Singapore. ... Henan (Chinese: 河南; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Ho-nan), is a province of the Peoples Republic of China, located in the central part of the country. ... Wǔ Dīng 武丁, ruled around 1200 BC, 22nd ruler of the Shang Dynasty. ... Remnants of advanced, stratified societies dating back to the Shang period have been found in the Yellow River Valley. ... For the Sixteen Kingdoms Period state, see Xia (Sixteen Kingdoms). ... The dagger-axe (Traditional Chinese: 戈; Simplified Chinese: 戈; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: ko; sometimes confusingly translated halberd) is a type of weapon that was in use from Shang dynasty until at least Han dynasty China. ...


The chariot became obsolete during the Age of the Warring States; the main reasons were the invention of the crossbow and the adaptation of nomadic cavalry (mounted archery), which was more effective. Warring States redirects here. ... A horse archer (or horsed archer, mounted archer) is a cavalryman armed with a bow. ...


Europe

Northern Europe

The Trundholm sun chariot is dated to ca. 1400 BC (see Nordic Bronze Age). The horse drawing the solar disk runs on four wheels, and the Sun itself on two. All wheels have four spokes. The "chariot" consists solely of the solar disk, the axle, and the wheels, and it is unclear if the sun is imagined as being itself a chariot, or as riding in a chariot. The presence of a model of a horse-drawn vehicle on two spoked wheels in Northern Europe at such an early time is in any case astonishing. Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... For other uses, see Petroglyph (disambiguation). ... One of the slabs of stone showing a chariot The Kings Grave near Kivik in south-eastern SkÃ¥ne (55°41′ N 14°14′ E) is what remains of an unusually sumptuous Nordic Bronze Age burial ca 1000 BC. In spite of the fact that it has been used... Map of the Nordic Bronze Age culture, ca 1200 BC The Nordic Bronze Age (also Northern Bronze Age) is the name given by Oscar Montelius (1843-1921) to a period and a Bronze Age culture in Scandinavian pre-history, ca 1800 BC - 600 BC, with sites that reached as far... The Sun Chariot pulled by a horse is believed to be a sculpture illustrating an important part of Nordic Bronze Age mythology. ... Map of the Nordic Bronze Age culture, ca 1200 BC The Nordic Bronze Age (also Northern Bronze Age) is the name given by Oscar Montelius (1843-1921) to a period and a Bronze Age culture in Scandinavian pre-history, ca 1800 BC - 600 BC, with sites that reached as far...


In addition to the Trundholm chariot, there are a number of petroglyphs from the Nordic Bronze Age showing chariots, such as on one of the slabs of stone in a double bural from c. 1000 BC, showing a chariot with two four-spoked wheels drawn by a team of two horses. For other uses, see Petroglyph (disambiguation). ... One of the slabs of stone showing a chariot The Kings Grave near Kivik in south-eastern SkÃ¥ne (55°41′ N 14°14′ E) is what remains of an unusually sumptuous Nordic Bronze Age burial ca 1000 BC. In spite of the fact that it has been used...


Central Europe and the British Isles

The Celts were famous chariot-makers, and the English word car is believed to be derived, via Latin carrum, from Gaulish karros (English chariot itself is from 13th century French charriote, an augmentative of the same word). Some 20 Iron Age chariot burials have been excavated in Britain, dating roughly from between 500 BC and 100 BC, virtually all of them in East Yorkshire, with the exception of one find of 2001 from Newbridge, 10 km west of Edinburgh. Celts, normally pronounced //, is a modern term used to describe any of the European peoples who spoke, or speak, a Celtic language. ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... Gaulish is name given to the now-extinct Celtic language that was spoken in Gaul before the Romans, the Franks and the British Celts invaded. ... Iron Age Axe found on Gotland This article is about the archaeological period known as the Iron Age, for the mythological Iron Age see Iron Age (mythology). ... Chariot burials are tombs in which the deceased was buried together with his chariot, usually including his horses and other possessions. ... Categories: Stub | Yorkshire | East Yorkshire ... Newbridge is a suburb of Edinburgh, the capital of Scotland. ... For other uses, see Edinburgh (disambiguation). ...


The Celtic chariot may have been called carpentom, was drawn by a team of two horses, and measures approximately 2 m (6.56 ft) in width and 4 m (13 ft) in length. The one-piece iron rims for chariot wheels were probably a Celtic invention. Apart from the iron wheel rims and iron fittings of the hub, it was constructed from wood and wicker-work. In some instances, iron rings reinforced the joints. Another Celtic innovation was the free-hanging axle, suspended from the platform with rope. This resulted in a much more comfortable ride on bumpy terrain. There is evidence from French coins of a leather 'suspension' system for the central box, and a complex system of knotted cords for its attachment; this has informed recent working reconstructions by archaeologists.


The use of the composite bow from chariots is not attested in northern Europe. A composite bow is a bow made from disparate materials laminated together, usually applied under tension. ...


British chariots were open in front, had a curved wall behind, often had seats and sometimes had scythes on the wheels. Julius Caesar provides the only significant eyewitness report of British chariot warfare: "XXXIII.--Their mode of fighting with their chariots is this: firstly, they drive about in all directions and throw their weapons and generally break the ranks of the enemy with the very dread of their horses and the noise of their wheels; and when they have worked themselves in between the troops of horse, leap from their chariots and engage on foot. The charioteers in the meantime withdraw some little distance from the battle, and so place themselves with the chariots that, if their masters are overpowered by the number of the enemy, they may have a ready retreat to their own troops. Thus they display in battle the speed of horse, [together with] the firmness of infantry; and by daily practice and exercise attain to such expertness that they are accustomed, even on a declining and steep place, to check their horses at full speed, and manage and turn them in an instant and run along the pole, and stand on the yoke, and thence betake themselves with the greatest celerity to their chariots again." [3] For other uses, see Julius Caesar (disambiguation). ...


Chariots play an important role in Irish mythology surrounding the hero Cu Chulainn. The Celts in the Bronze Age used an ancient four-spoked wheel design called a sun cross or wheel cross to represent the chariot of the sun.[4] The mythology of pre-Christian Ireland did not entirely survive the conversion to Christianity, but much of it was preserved, shorn of its religious meanings, in medieval Irish literature, which represents the most extensive and best preserved of all the branches of Celtic mythology. ... Young Cúchulainn, 1912 illustration by Stephen Reid. ... A Caddo solar cross, to Southeastern Native Americans a symbol of both the sun and fire. ...

Sculpture by Thomas Thornycroft of Boudica and her daughters in her chariot, addressing her troops before the battle
Sculpture by Thomas Thornycroft of Boudica and her daughters in her chariot, addressing her troops before the battle

Chariots could also be used for ceremonial purposes. According to Tacitus (Annals 14.35), Boudica, queen of the Iceni and a number of other tribes in a formidable uprising against the occupying Roman forces, addressed her troops from a chariot in 61 CE: Statue of Boudicca near Westminster Pier Taken by A. Brady on November 28, 2003. ... Statue of Boudicca near Westminster Pier Taken by A. Brady on November 28, 2003. ... Thomas Thornycroft (1815—1885) was a British engineer and sculptor. ... A sculpture depicting Boudica, the warrior queen of the Iceni who led the revolt against the Romans in AD 61, and her daughters, commissioned by Prince Albert and executed by Thomas Thornycroft, stands near Westminster Pier, London Boudica (also spelt Boudicca, formerly better known as Boadicea) (d. ... For other uses, see Tacitus (disambiguation). ... The Annals, or, in Latin, Annales, is a history book by Tacitus covering the reign of the 4 Roman Emperors succeeding to Caesar Augustus. ... A sculpture depicting Boudica, the warrior queen of the Iceni who led the revolt against the Romans in AD 61, and her daughters, commissioned by Prince Albert and executed by Thomas Thornycroft, stands near Westminster Pier, London Boudica (also spelt Boudicca, formerly better known as Boadicea) (d. ... The Iceni or Eceni were a Brythonic tribe who inhabited an area of Britain corresponding roughly to the modern-day county of Norfolk between the 1st century BC and 1st century AD. The Cenimagni, who surrendered to Julius Caesar during his second expedition to Britain in 54 BC, may have...

"Boudicca curru filias prae se vehens, ut quamque nationem accesserat, solitum quidem Britannis feminarum ductu bellare testabatur"
Boudicca, with her daughters before her in a chariot, went up to tribe after tribe, protesting that it was indeed usual for Britons to fight under the leadership of women.

The last mention of chariotry in battle seems to be at the Battle of Mons Graupius, somewhere in modern Scotland, in 84BC. From Tacitus (Agricola 1.35 -36) "The plain between resounded with the noise and with the rapid movements of chariots and cavalry." The chariots did not win even their initial engagement with the Roman auxiliaries: "Meantime the enemy's cavalry had fled, and the charioteers had mingled in the engagement of the infantry." The Battle of Mons Graupius took place in AD 83 or 84. ... For other uses, see Tacitus (disambiguation). ...


Southern Europe

The earliest records of chariots are the arsenal inventories of the Mycenaean palaces, as described in Linear B tablets from the 15th-14th centuries BC. The tablets distinguish between "assembled" and "disassembled" chariots. Mycenaean may refer to: Mycenae, coming from or belonging to this ancient town in Peloponnese in Greece Mycenaean Greece, the Greek-speaking regions of the Aegean Sea as of the Late Bronze Age, named (somewhat anachronistically) after the Mycenae of the Trojan War epics Mycenaean language, an ancient form of... This article is about the ancient syllabary. ...


Herodotus reports that chariots were widely used in the Pontic-Caspian steppe by the Sigynnae. Herodotus of Halicarnassus (Greek: Hēródotos Halikarnāsseús) was a Greek historian who lived in the 5th century BC (ca. ... For other uses, see Black Sea (disambiguation). ... The Caspian Sea is the largest enclosed body of water on Earth by area, variously classed as the worlds largest lake or a full-fledged sea. ... Sigynnae (EcyGvvat, Eiyevvoc), an obscure people of antiquity. ...


The only Etruscan chariot found intact dates to ca. 530 BC, and was uncovered as part of a chariot burial at Monteleone di Spoleto. Currently in the collection of the Metropolitan Museum of Art [2], it is decorated with bronze plates decorated with detailed low-relief scenes, commonly interpreted as depicting episodes from the life of Achilles [3]. Possibly unique to Etruscan chariots, the Monteleone chariot's wheels have nine spokes. As part of a chariot burial, the Monteleone chariot may have been intended primarily for ceremonial use and may not be representative of Etruscan chariots in general. Rogers Fund, 1903 (03. ... Chariot burials are tombs in which the deceased was buried together with his chariot, usually including his horses and other possessions. ... Monteleone di Spoleto (in Antiquity, the Roman town of Brufa), is a town and comune of Italy, in the province of Perugia in southeast Umbria, (42°39′N 12°57′E), at 978 meters (3209 ft) above sea-level overhanging the upper valley of the Corno River. ... Metropolitan Museum of Art New York Elevation The Metropolitan Museum of Art, often referred to simply as the Met, is one of the worlds largest and most important art museums. ... For other uses, see Achilles (disambiguation). ...


Greece

The Chariot of Zeus (1879 illustration from Stories from the Greek Tragedians by Alfred Church)
The Chariot of Zeus (1879 illustration from Stories from the Greek Tragedians by Alfred Church)

The classical Greeks had a (still not very effective) cavalry, and the rocky terrain of the Greek mainland was unsuited for wheeled vehicles. Consequently, in Greece (as later in Rome) the chariot was never used to any extent in war. Nevertheless, the chariot retained a high status and memories of its era were handed down in epic poetry. The vehicles were used in games and processions, notably for races at the Olympic and Panathenaic Games and other public festivals in ancient Greece, in hippodromes and in contests called agons. They were also used in ceremonial functions, as when a paranymph, or friend of a bridegroom, went with him in a chariot to fetch the bride home. The Chariot of Zeus - Project Gutenberg eText 14994. ... The Chariot of Zeus - Project Gutenberg eText 14994. ... Not to be confused with Golgotha, which was called Calvary. ... The country of Greece is located in southeastern Europe, on the southern end of the Balkanic peninsula. ... The epic is a broadly defined genre of narrative poetry, characterized by great length, multiple settings, large numbers of characters, or long span of time involved. ... Ruins of the training grounds at Olympia The Ancient Olympic Games, originally referred to as simply the Olympic Games (Greek: ; Olympiakoi Agones) were a series of athletic competitions held between various city-states of Ancient Greece. ... Vase ca. ... For other uses, see Hippodrome (disambiguation). ... Look up agon in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Chariot races were held in all pan Hellenic games. The statue of this driver was found at Delphi.
Chariot races were held in all pan Hellenic games. The statue of this driver was found at Delphi.

Greek chariots were made to be drawn by two horses attached to a central pole. If two additional horses were added, they were attached on each side of the main pair by a single bar or trace fastened to the front or prow of the chariot, as may be seen on two prize vases in the British Museum from the Panathenaic Games at Athens, Greece, in which the driver is seated with feet resting on a board hanging down in front close to the legs of the horses. The biga itself consists of a seat resting on the axle, with a rail at each side to protect the driver from the wheels. Greek chariots appear to have lacked any other attachment for the horses, which would have made turning difficult. Download high resolution version (1307x2571, 392 KB) See also Image:Ac. ... Download high resolution version (1307x2571, 392 KB) See also Image:Ac. ... For other uses, see Delphi (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Equus caballus Linnaeus, 1758 The horse (Equus caballus, sometimes seen as a subspecies of the Wild Horse, Equus ferus caballus) is a large odd-toed ungulate mammal, one of ten modern species of the genus Equus. ... Chinese vase A vase with a sunflower pattern A modern designed vase The vase is an open container, often used to hold cut flowers. ... London museum | name = British Museum | image = British Museum from NE 2. ... Vase ca. ... For other uses, see Athens (disambiguation). ...


The body or basket of the chariot rested directly on the axle (called beam) connecting the two wheels. There was no suspension, making this an uncomfortable form of transport. At the front and sides of the basket was a semicircular guard about 3 ft (1 m) high, to give some protection from enemy attack. At the back the basket was open, making it easy to mount and dismount. There was no seat, and generally only enough room for the driver and one passenger. An axle is a central shaft for a rotating wheel or gear. ... The front suspension components of a Ford Model T. Suspension is the term given to the system of springs, shock absorbers and linkages that connects a vehicle to its wheels. ...

The chariot of Gaia depicted on a sarcophagus

The central pole was probably attached to the middle of the axle, though it appears to spring from the front of the basket. At the end of the pole was the yoke, which consisted of two small saddles fitting the necks of the horses, and fastened by broad bands round the chest. Besides this the harness of each horse consisted of a bridle and a pair of reins. For other uses, see Yoke (disambiguation). ... Tack is a term used to describe any of the various equipment and accessories worn by horses in the course of their use as domesticated animals. ... A bridle is a piece of equipment used to control a horse. ... The reins are the leather straps attached to the outer ends of a bit. ...


The reins were mostly the same as those in use in the 19th century, and were made of leather and ornamented with studs of ivory or metal. The reins were passed through rings attached to the collar bands or yoke, and were long enough to be tied round the waist of the charioteer to allow for defense. Two horse collars A horse collar is a device used to distribute load around a horses neck, for pulling a wagon or plow. ...


The wheels and basket of the chariot were usually of wood, strengthened in places with bronze or iron. They had from four to eight spokes and tires of bronze or iron.


Most other nations of this time had chariots of similar design to the Greeks, the chief differences being the mountings.


According to Greek mythology the chariot was invented by Erichthonius of Athens to conceal his feet, which were those of a dragon. [5] King Erichthonius (also called Erechtheus I) was, according to some legends, autochthonous (born of the soil), and in other accounts he was the son of Hephaestus and Gaia or Athena or Atthis. ...


The most notable appearance of the chariot in Greek mythology occurs when Phaëton, the son of Helios, in an attempt to drive the chariot of the sun, managed to set the earth on fire. This story led to the archaic meaning of a phaeton as one who drives a chariot or coach, especially at a reckless or dangerous speed. Plato, in his Chariot Allegory, depicted a chariot drawn by two horses, one well behaved and the other troublesome, representing opposite impulses of human nature; the task of the charioteer, representing reason, was to stop the horses from going different ways and to guide them towards enlightenment. The fall of Phaeton, Johann Liss, beginning of 17th century. ... For other uses, see Helios (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Plato (disambiguation). ... Plato, in Phaedrus, uses the Chariot Allegory to explain his view of the human soul. ...


Roman Empire

A winner of a Roman chariot race.

The Romans probably borrowed chariot racing from the Etruscans, who would themselves had borrowed it either from the Celts or from the Greeks, but the Romans were also influenced directly by the Greeks especially after they conquered mainland Greece in 146 BC. In the Roman Empire, chariots were not used for warfare, but for chariot racing, especially in circuses, or for triumphal processions, when they could be drawn by as many as ten horses or even by dogs, tigers, or ostriches. There were four divisions, or factions, of charioteers, distinguished by the color of their costumes: the red, blue, green and white teams. The main centre of chariot racing was the Circus Maximus[6], situated in the valley between the Palatine and Aventine Hills in Rome. The track could hold 10 chariots, and the two sides of the track were separated by a raised median termed the spina. Chariot races continued to enjoy great popularity in Byzantine times, in the Hippodrome of Constantinople, even after the Olympic Games had been disbanded, until their decline after the Nika riots in the 6th century. Large version of RomanChariot. ... Large version of RomanChariot. ... A modern recreation of chariot racing in Romano-Gaul Chariot racing was one of the most popular ancient Greek and Roman sports. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... A modern recreation of chariot racing in Romano-Gaul Chariot racing was one of the most popular ancient Greek and Roman sports. ... Found all over the Roman Empire, a circus is a building for public entertainment, including chariot racing. ... For other uses, see Circus Maximus (disambiguation). ... 17th century aviaries on the hill, built by Rainaldi for Odoardo Cardinal Farnese: once wirework cages surmounted them. ... The Aventine Hill is one of the seven hills on which ancient Rome was built. ... Byzantine redirects here. ... The Hippodrome today, with the Walled Obelisk in the foreground Obelisk of Thutmosis III The base of the Obelisk of Thutmosis III showing Theodosius the Great as he offers a laurel wreath to the victor from the Kathisma (emperors box) at the Hippodrome The Delphi Tripod known as the... The five Olympic rings were designed in 1913, adopted in 1914 and debuted at the Games at Antwerp, 1920. ... The Nika riots (Greek: Στάση του Νίκα), or Nika revolt, took place over the course of a week in Constantinople in 532. ...


An ancient Roman car or chariot drawn by four horses abreast together with the horses drawing it was called a quadriga, from the Latin quadrijugus (of a team of four). The term sometimes meant instead the four horses without the chariot or the chariot alone. A three-horse chariot, or the three-horse team drawing it, was a triga, from trijugus (of a team of three).


Russian Tachanka

Russian WWI tachanka captured by the Germans and put on display in Berlin
Russian WWI tachanka captured by the Germans and put on display in Berlin

It might be said that the chariot was briefly revived during the Russian civil war of 1918–1920, when the "tachanka", a cart or wagon with a machine-gun mounted on it, enjoyed a limited tactical success in the Red Army. Since the gun had to be pointed away from the horses, it operated by firing in a direction opposite or lateral to the direction in which the tachanka was moving. One man drove the horses, while another, or a team of two, operated the gun. Image File history File links Taczanka. ... Image File history File links Taczanka. ... Combatants Local Soviet powers led by Russian SFSR and Red Army Chinese mercenaries White Movement Central Powers (1917-1918): Austria-Hungary Ottoman Empire German Empire Allied Intervention: (1918-1922) Japan Czechoslovakia Greece  United States  Canada Serbia Romania UK  France Foreign volunteers: Polish Italian Local nationalist movements, national states, and decentralist... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... A cart is a vehicle or device, using two wheels and normally one horse, designed for transport. ... For other uses, see Wagon (disambiguation). ... For other organizations known as the Red Army, see Red Army (disambiguation). ...


This may have been done for the sake of a morale-boosting film but its practical effect when firing on the move, would be negligible[citation needed] as until its ordinary, non-artillery wheels collapsed or a horse was shot, it would be bouncing about too much to be of any use. Inspection of the photograph shows that the weapon shown in the taczanka article was designed in the same way as a horse artillery carriage. In other words it was designed to accompany or to just precede cavalry, to halt and to suppress enemy infantry fire while the cavalry approached. The artillery wheel was developed for use on gun carriages when it was found that the lateral forces involved in horse artillery manoeuvres caused normally-constructed cart wheels to collapse. ...


It is interesting to note that, in the photograph, the gun carriage has an artillery wheel but the limber has not. In 1898, Vickers, Sons and Maxim were making a four-horse limber which towed a 37 mm naval machine gun on a carriage. At the same time they had a two-horse gun carriage which carried a limited supply of its own ammunition for artillery support and a one-horse carriage similarly with some of its own ammunition. These latter guns were Vickers-Maxim .303 inch weapons. In military context, caisson is a carrier of artillery ammunition. ...


See also

Chariot burials are tombs in which the deceased was buried together with his chariot, usually including his horses and other possessions. ... A modern recreation of chariot racing in Romano-Gaul Chariot racing was one of the most popular ancient Greek and Roman sports. ... // Relief of early wagons on the Standard of Ur, ca. ... Ratha ( Sanskrit , Avestan raθa) is the Indo-Iranian term for the spoked-wheel chariot of Antiquity. ... Temple Cars are like Charriot that carries Hindu gods. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Early Iron Age Armies.Library of Xenograg the Sorcerer.
  2. ^ Raulwing 2000
  3. ^ The Project Gutenberg EBook of "De Bello Gallico" and Other Commentaries by Caius Julius Caesar, translated by W. A. MacDevitt (1915).
  4. ^ Symbols.com - Symbol 29:1.
  5. ^ Brewer, E. Cobham. Dictionary of Phrase & Fable. Char’iot. Bartleby.com: Great Books Online -- Encyclopedia, Dictionary, Thesaurus and hundreds more. Retrieved March 05, 2008.
  6. ^ The Charioteer of Delphi : Circus Maximus. The Roman Mysteries books by Caroline Lawrence.

References

  • Anthony, D. W., & Vinogradov, N. B., Birth of the Chariot, Archaeology vol.48, no.2, Mar & April 1995, 36-41
  • Anthony, David W., 1995, Horse, wagon & chariot: Indo-European languages and archaeology, Antiquity Sept/1995
  • Di Cosmo, Nicolo , The Northern Frontier in Pre-Imperial China, Cambridge History of Ancient China ch. 13 (pp. 885-966).
  • Litauer, M.A., & Grouwel, J.H., The Origin of the True Chariot', "Antiquity" vol.70, No.270, December 1996, 934-939.
  • Sparreboom, M., Chariots in the Veda, Leiden (1985).

Further reading

  • Chamberlin, J. Edward. Horse: How the horse has shaped civilizations. N.Y.: United Tribes Media Inc., 2006 (ISBN 0-9742405-9-1).
  • Cotterell, Arthur. Chariot: From chariot to tank, the astounding rise and fall of the world's first war machine. Woodstock & New York: The Overlook Press, 2005 (ISBN 1-58567-667-5).
  • Crouwel, Joost H. Chariots and other means of land transport in Bronze Age Greece (Allard Pierson Series, 3). Amsterdam: [Allard Pierson Museum], 1981 (ISBN 90-71211-03-7).
  • Crouwel, Joost H. Chariots and other wheeled vehicles in Iron Age Greece (Allard Pierson Series, 9). Amsterdam:[Allard Pierson Museum]:, 1993 (ISBN 90-71211-21-5).
  • Drews, Robert. The coming of the Greeks: Indo-European conquests in the Aegean and the Near East. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1988 (hardcover, ISBN 0-691-03592-X); 1989 (paperback, ISBN 0-691-02951-2).
  • Drews, Robert. The end of the Bronze Age: Changes in warfare and the catastrophe ca. 1200 B.C. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1993 (hardcover, ISBN 0-691-04811-8); 1995 (paperback, ISBN 0-691-02591-6).
  • Drews, Robert. Early riders: The beginnings of mounted warfare in Asia and Europe. N.Y.: Routledge, 2004 (ISBN 0-415-32624-9).
  • Lee-Stecum, Parshia (October 2006). "Dangerous Reputations: Charioteers and Magic in Fourth-Century Rome". Greece & Rome 53 (2): 224–234. ISSN 0017-3835. 
  • Fields, Nic; Brian Delf (illustrator). Bronze Age War Chariots (New Vanguard). Oxford; New York: Osprey Publishing, 2006 (ISBN 978-1841769448).
  • Greenhalg, P A L. Early Greek warfare; horsemen and chariots in the Homeric and Archaic Ages. Cambridge [Eng.] University Press, 1973. (ISBN 9780521200561).
  • Kulkarni, Raghunatha Purushottama. Visvakarmiya Rathalaksanam: Study of Ancient Indian Chariots: with a historical note, references, Sanskrit text, and translation in English. Delhi: Kanishka Publishing House, 1994 (ISBN 978-8173-91004-3)
  • Littauer, Mary A.; Crouwel, Joost H. Chariots and related equipment from the tomb of Tutankhamun (Tutankhamun's Tomb Series, 8). Oxford: The Griffith Institute, 1985 (ISBN 0-900416-39-4).
  • Littauer, Mary A.; Crouwel, Joost H.; Raulwing, Peter (Editor). Selected writings on chariots and other early vehicles, riding and harness (Culture and history of the ancient Near East, 6). Leiden: Brill Academic Publishers, 2002 (ISBN 90-04-11799-7).
  • Moorey, P.R.S. "The Emergence of the Light, Horse-Drawn Chariot in the Near-East c. 2000–1500 B.C.", World Archaeology, Vol. 18, No. 2. (1986), pp. 196–215.
  • Piggot, Stuart. The earliest wheeled transport from the Atlantic Coast to the Caspian Sea. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1983 (ISBN 0-8014-1604-3).
  • Piggot, Stuart. Wagon, chariot and carriage: Symbol and status in the history of transport. London: Thames & Hudson, 1992 (ISBN 0-500-25114-2).
  • Pogrebova M. The emergence of chariots and riding in the South Caucasus in Oxford Journal of Archaeology, Volume 22, Number 4, November 2003, pp. 397–409.
  • Raulwing, Peter. Horses, Chariots and Indo-Europeans: Foundations and Methods of Chariotry Research from the Viewpoint of Comparative Indo-European Linguistics. Budapest: Archaeolingua, 2000 (ISBN 9638046260).
  • Sandor, Bela I. The rise and decline of the Tutankhamun-class chariot in Oxford Journal of Archaeology, Volume 23, Number 2, May 2004, pp. 153–175.
  • Sandor, Bela I. Tutankhamun's chariots: Secret treasures of engineering mechanics in Fatigue & Fracture of Engineering Materials & Structures, Volume 27, Number 7, July 2004, pp. 637–646.
  • Sparreboom M. Chariots in the Veda (Memoirs of the Kern Institute, Leiden, 3). Leiden: Brill Academic Publishers, 1985 (ISBN 90-04-07590-9).

ISSN, or International Standard Serial Number, is the unique eight-digit number applied to a periodical publication including electronic serials. ...

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The wheels and body of the chariot were usually of wood, strengthened in places with bronze or iron; the wheels had from four to eight spokes and tires of bronze or iron.
The chariots of the Egyptians and Assyrians, with whom the bow was the principal arm of attack, were richly mounted with quivers full of arrows, while those of the Greeks, whose characteristic weapon was the spear, were plain except as regards mere decoration.
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