FACTOID # 17: Though Rhode Island is the smallest state in total area, it has the longest official name: The State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Charge (heraldry)

In heraldry, a charge is an image occupying the field on an escutcheon (or shield). Charge can also be a verb; for example, if an escutcheon bears three lions, then it is said to be charged with three lions. It is important to distinguish between divisions of the field and charges, and to note that charges can themselves be charged with a superimposed image. Heraldry in its most general sense encompasses all matters relating to the duties and responsibilities of officers of arms. ... In heraldry the background of the shield is called the field . ... The Royal Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom displayed an inescutcheon of the arms of Hanover between 1801 and 1837 when the British monarch held the title of King of Hanover. ... The lion is a general figure in heraldry and the most beloved coat of arms animal. ... Divisions of the field: The field of a shield in heraldry can be divided into more than one tincture, as can the various charges. ...


Sometimes the significance or the allusion behind the charge(s) may be given in the blazon, but this is generally regarded as poor practice.


Thousands of objects found in nature, mythology or technology have appeared in armory, in addition to charges that are unique to heraldry. This article lists only those charges frequently seen, which contribute to the distinctive flavor of heraldic design; a more exhaustive list will be found at List of heraldic charges. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Charge (heraldry). ...


Charges can be animals (cf. totem), objects or geometric constructs. The ordinaries are sometimes called proper charges, with other charges being known as common charges. In French blazon the ordinaries are called pièces while other charges, which may be placed anywhere on the shield, are called meubles (i.e. "mobile"; the same word also means "furniture" in modern French). A totem is any natural or supernatural object, being or animal which has personal symbolic meaning to an individual and to whose phenomena and energy one feels closely associated with during ones life. ...

Contents

The Royal Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom displayed an inescutcheon of the arms of Hanover between 1801 and 1837 when the British monarch held the title of King of Hanover. ... In heraldry the background of the shield is called the field . ... In heraldry, supporters are figures placed on either side of the shield and depicted holding it up. ... In heraldry, a crest is a component of a coat of arms. ... In heraldry, the torse is a twisted roll of fabric wound around the top of the helm and crest to hold the mantle in place (See mantling). ... In heraldry, mantling is drapery depicted tied to the helmet above the shield. ... For other meanings, see Helmet (disambiguation). ... In heraldry, a compartment is a design placed under the shield, usually rocks, a grassy mount, or some sort of other landscape upon which the supporters are depicted as standing (a compartment without supporters is possible but practically unknown, with the exception of South Australia[1]). It is sometimes said... A motto (from Italian) is a phrase or a short list of words meant formally to describe the general motivation or intention of an entity, social group, or organization. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (609x731, 237 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Coat of arms Helmet Mantling Compartment Field (heraldry) Charge (heraldry) Torse Wikipedia talk:WikiProject Heraldry and vexillology Template... A modern coat of arms is derived from the medi val practice of painting designs onto the shield and outer clothing of knights to enable them to be identified in battle, and later in tournaments. ...

Proper charges

Main article: Ordinary (heraldry)

Heraldic writers traditionally distinguish, somewhat arbitrarily, between honourable ordinaries and sub-ordinaries. It is often said that only nine charges are honourable ordinaries, but exactly which nine fit into this category is a subject of disagreement. It is sometimes said that only those ordinaries each of whose widths is one-fifth or more of the total width of the escutcheon is honourable. In heraldry, an ordinary is a simple geometrical figure on the arms, wider than a line or division of the field. ...


Narrower or smaller versions of these ordinaries are called diminutives. The names of the diminutives are omitted here for brevity.


Honourable Ordinaries

Several different figures are recognised as honourable ordinaries. Each normally occupies one-fifth to one-third of the field; the precise amount depends on whether there are other charges on the ordinary or on the field.

  • The chief is the upper portion of the field.
  • The fess, a horizontal stripe in the centre of the field.
  • The bar, which is of an indeterminate width, but if borne singly supposed to be slightly thinner than a fess.
  • The pale, a vertical stripe in the centre of the field.
  • The bend runs from the upper left to the lower right, as , as seen by the viewer.
  • The bend sinister runs from the upper right to the lower left, as /.
  • The cross is a geometric construction of two perpendicular lines or bands, and is sometimes referred to as the "noblest" of the honourable ordinaries. It has hundreds of variants, most of which are common charges rather than ordinaries; some of these will be discussed below.
  • The saltire, sometimes called Saint Andrew's cross, is a diagonal cross.
  • The chevron is a construction shaped like an inverted letter V
  • The pall is shaped like the letter Y. (There is a T-shaped charge, the tau, which is not understood to be an ordinary.)
  • The pile is a triangle, whose base is along the top of the field, and whose vertex is in the centre of the bottom half of the field.
  • The quarter is a rectangle occupying the top left quarter of the field, as seen by the viewer.
  • The canton is a diminutive of the quarter.

Care must be taken in blazoning when two or more ordinaries or subordinaries, or diminutives thereof, are depicted "conjoined". We dont have an article called Chief (heraldry) Start this article Search for Chief (heraldry) in. ... A fess is a term used in heraldry to describe a charge on a coat of arms that takes the form of a band running from the left to the right side of the shield, centered from top to bottom. ... The shield above depicts a black pale placed on a gold shield, and its blazon is A pale is a term used in heraldic blazon to describe a charge on a coat of arms that takes the form of a band running vertically down the center of the shield. ... A blue-and-white striped bend (a bend barry wavy argent and azure), in the arms of Tameside Metropolitan Borough Council In heraldry, a bend is a colored band that runs from the upper left (as seen by the viewer) corner of the shield to the lower right. ... A Greek cross (all arms of equal length) above a saltire, a cross rotated by 45 degrees A famous khachkar at Goshavank (Notice the cross). ... The arms of St Albans: Azure, a saltire Or (a gold saltire on a blue field) For The Saltire (proper noun) see Flag of Scotland. ... A chevron (also spelled cheveron, especially in older documents) is a V-shaped pattern. ... In typography, a grapheme is the atomic unit in written language. ... Look up V, v in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A pall is a Y shaped heraldic charge. ... Look up Y, y in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Tau (upper case Τ, lower case τ) is the 19th letter of the Greek alphabet. ... Divisions of the field is a heraldic term referring to the pattern on a shield. ... Canton is a division of the field placed in the upper dexter corner. ...


Sub-Ordinaries

As well as those mentioned in the above section whose status as honourable ordinaries is disputed, there are several other charges recognised as sub-ordinaries.

  • The bordure is a border touching the edge of the field.
  • The orle may be considered the inner half of the bordure: it usually follows the shape of the shield, without touching the edges. It cannot have other charges on it. The double tressure is an orle gemel (split into two halves with an orle-shaped line drawn through the middle, and the two halves slightly separated), but never so called: seen in the arms of the kings of Scotland.
  • The fret originally consisted of three bendlets interlaced with three bendlets sinister; this would now be blazoned as a field fretty. In modern depictions the outer strips are combined to form a continuous square.
  • The gyron is a right triangle occupying the lower half of the first quarter: its edges are the midlines of an imaginary bend and fess. A gyron sinister, much rarer, is a similar figure in the sinister chief.
  • Flaunches or flanches are regions on the sides of the shield, bounded by a pair of circular arcs whose centers are to the right and left of the shield.
  • A label is a horizontal strap, with a number of pendants (usually called points, or, more rarely, drops) suspended therefrom; normally three, but any number may be specified. The label is nearly always a cadency mark, but is occasionally found as a regular charge in early armory. It is sometimes called a file, as in the canting arms of Belfile, a label with a bell hanging from each point. There are some examples in which the strap is omitted, the "drops" depending from the top of the shield.

Motto: (Latin) No one provokes me with impunity1 Anthem: Multiple unofficial anthems Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow Official language(s) English, Gaelic, Scots2 Government  - Queen Queen Elizabeth II  - UK Prime Minister Tony Blair MP  - First Minister Jack McConnell MSP Unification    - by Kenneth I 843  Area    - Total 78,772 km... For alternate meanings, such as the musical instrument, see triangle (disambiguation). ... See also Cadency (name) and cadency name Cadency is any systematic way of distinguishing similar coats of arms belonging to members of the same family. ...

Common charges

Common charges include land animals and fish and birds. The heraldic depictions need not, and usually do not, exactly resemble the actual creatures. Mythical creatures used in heraldry are sometimes called "monsters". Inanimate objects are also used; many of them resemble flowers and floral designs.


Simple charges

A number of frequent charges are sometimes listed among the subordinaries (see above), but as their form is not related to the shape of the shield – indeed they may appear independent of the shield, e.g. in crests – they are more usefully considered here. In heraldry, a crest is a component of a coat of arms. ...

  • escutcheon: a small shield. If borne singly in the centre of the main shield, it is called an inescutcheon, and is usually employed to combine multiple coats. General practice, if not strictly speaking a "rule", suggests that it be the same shape as the shield it is on, though shields of specific shapes are rarely specified.[1]
  • lozenge: a rhomb, typically resembling the diamonds of playing-cards (except that its sides are always straight). A more acute lozenge may be called a fusil. A lozenge voided, i.e. with a lozenge-shaped hole, is a mascle; a lozenge pierced, i.e. with a round hole, is a rustre (rare).
  • billet: a rectangle, usually at least twice as tall as it is wide; it may represent a block of wood or a sheet of paper. Billets appear in the shield of the house of Nassau, which was modified to become that of the kingdom of the Netherlands. A rare variant is the square delf.
  • roundel: a solid circle, often representing either a coin or a cannonball. An annulet is a roundel voided, i.e. a ring.

Several other simple charges occur often enough to be grouped with these: The Royal Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom displayed an inescutcheon of the arms of Hanover between 1801 and 1837 when the British monarch held the title of King of Hanover. ... A lozengy field, in the arms of the former urban district council of Eastwood, Nottinghamshire The lozenge in heraldry is a diamond-shaped charge (an object that can be placed on the field of the shield), usually somewhat narrower than it is tall. ... This shape is a rhombus In geometry, a rhombus (or rhomb; plural rhombi) is a quadrilateral in which all of the sides are of equal length, i. ... Diamonds () is one of the four suits found in playing cards. ... The royal House of Nassau is one of the most prominent dynasties in Europe. ... The modern proportion RAF roundel A roundel in heraldry is any circular shape; in military use it is a distinctive, mostly round insignia or identifying emblem, commonly painted today on military aircraft to indicate which nations air force or navy they belong to. ... An annulet (i. ...

  • mullet: a star of (usually) five or six straight rays, originally representing a spur.
  • crescent: a symbol of the Moon, normally with its horns upward; if its horns are to dexter it represents a waxing moon (increscent), and with horns to sinister it represents a waning moon (decrescent).
  • cross. When the cross does not reach the edges of the field, it becomes a common charge. The plain Greek cross (with equal limbs) and Latin cross (with the lower limb extended) are sometimes seen, but more often the tip of each limb is developed into some ornamental shape. Several of the most frequent variants are shown at Cross#In heraldry; another occasionally seen (and not shown in that article) is the Calvary cross, a Latin cross standing on a series of steps.
  • ermine spot: properly a component of the tincture ermine but sometimes seen as an independent charge.
  • goutte: a "drop" of some liquid, seen more often in a field semé than as a single charge; there is a perhaps unique instance of these being blazoned as "drops".[2]

In English heraldry the crescent, mullet, martlet, annulet, fleur-de-lis and rose may be added to a shield to distinguish cadet branches of a family from the senior line. It does not follow, however, that a shield containing such a charge belongs to a cadet branch. All of these charges occur frequently in basic (undifferenced) coats of arms. In heraldry the term mullet or molet refers to a charge or a difference in the conventional shape of a star - by default one with five points (compare pentagram). ... A spur is a metal instrument composed of a shank, neck, and prick, rowel (sharp-toothed wheel), or blunted end fastened to the heel of a horseman. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Apparent magnitude: up to -12. ... Fleurs-de-lys on the flag of Quebec The fleur-de-lis (also spelled fleur-de-lys; plural fleurs-de-lis or -lys) is used in heraldry, where it is particularly associated with the France monarchy (see King of France). ... A Greek cross (all arms of equal length) above a saltire, a cross rotated by 45 degrees A famous khachkar at Goshavank (Notice the cross). ... A Greek cross (all arms of equal length) above a saltire, a cross rotated by 45 degrees A famous khachkar at Goshavank (Notice the cross). ... Various seashells The hard, rigid outer covering of certain animals is called a shell. ... Genera See text. ... Pilgrim at Mecca In religion and spirituality, a pilgrimage is a long journey or search of great moral significance. ... For a list of words with definitions, see the Heraldic tincture category of words in Wiktionary, the free dictionary In heraldry, tinctures are the colours used to blazon a coat of arms. ... The coat of arms of Brittany: Ermine. In heraldry, ermine is one of the furs used in blazon, representing the skin of the stoat. ... A goutte is a droplet-shaped charge used in heraldry. ... The traditional heart shape appears on a 1910 St. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... In heraldry the term mullet or molet refers to a charge or a difference in the conventional shape of a star - by default one with five points (compare pentagram). ... A martlet is a type of heraldic bird similar to the swallow, but having no feet. ... An annulet (i. ... Fleurs-de-lys on the flag of Quebec The fleur-de-lis (also spelled fleur-de-lys; plural fleurs-de-lis or -lys) is used in heraldry, where it is particularly associated with the France monarchy (see King of France). ... Species Between 100 and 150, see list A rose is a flowering shrub of the genus Rosa, and the flower of this shrub. ... See also Cadency (name) and cadency name Cadency is any systematic way of distinguishing similar coats of arms belonging to members of the same family. ...


Human or manlike beings

Humans, deities, angels and demons occur more often as crests and supporters than on the shield. In heraldry, a crest is a component of a coat of arms. ... In heraldry, supporters are figures placed on either side of the shield and depicted holding it up. ...


The largest group of human charges consists of saints, often as the patron of a town. Knights, bishops, monks and nuns, kings and queens also occur frequently. In traditional Christian iconography, Saints are usually depicted as having halos. ... The silver Anglia knight, commissioned as a trophy in 1850, intended to represent the Black Prince. ... This article is about a title or office in religious bodies. ... Munichs city symbol celebrates its founding by Benedictine monks—and the origin of its name A monk is a person who practices religious asceticism, the conditioning of mind and body in favor of the spirit. ... Nun in cloister, 1930; photograph by Doris Ulmann A nun is a woman who has taken special vows committing her to a religious life. ... Look up monarch in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A queen regnant is a female monarch who possesses all the monarchal powers that a king would have without regard to gender. ...


The savage or wild man wears only a loincoth made of leaves, and usually carries a club.


Greco-Roman mythological figures typically appear in an allegorical or canting role. The bust of Zeus found at Otricoli (Sala Rotonda, Museo Pio-Clementino, Vatican) Greek mythology is the body of stories belonging to the ancient Greeks, concerning their gods and heroes, the nature of the world and their own cult and ritual practices. ... Roman mythology, the mythological beliefs of the people of Ancient Rome, can be considered as having two parts. ... // For the Derek Sherinian album, see Mythology (Derek Sherinian album). ... Queen Mothers funerary hatchment, showing the canting bows and lions of Bowes-Lyon Canting arms is a technique used in European heraldry whereby the name of the individual or community represented in a coat of arms is translated into a visual pun. ...


Angels very frequently appear, but angelic beings of higher rank, such as cherubim and seraphim, are extremely rare. An archangel appears in the arms of Arkhangelsk. The Devil (or a demon) is occasionally seen, being defeated by the archangel Saint Michael. The Annunciation - the Angel Gabriel announces to Mary that she will bear Jesus (El Greco, 1575) An angel is a supernatural being found in many religions. ... A cherub (Hebrew כרוב; plural cherubim, כרובים) is an angelic creature mentioned several times in the Tanakh, or Old Testament, and in the Book of Revelation. ... 六翼天使 Seraphim(六翼天使) is a Taiwanese symphonic metal band similar to Nightwish and Therion. ... Archangels are superior or higher-ranking angels. ... Arkhangelsk (Russian: ), formerly called Archangel in English, is a city in and the administrative center of Arkhangelsk Oblast, Russia. ... The Devil is a title given to the supernatural entity, who, in Christianity, Islam, and other religions, is a powerful, evil entity and the tempter of humankind. ... St. ... Archangels are superior or higher-ranking angels. ... Guido Renis archangel Michael (in the Capuchin church of Sta. ...


Though the taboo is not invariably respected, British heraldry in particular, and to a greater or lesser extent the heraldry of other countries, frowns on depictions of God or Christ, though an exception may be in the not-uncommon Continental depictions of Madonna and Child, including the Black Madonna in the arms of Marija Bistrica, Croatia.[3] This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... Christ is the English translation of the Greek word (Christós), which literally means The Anointed One. ... In Jörg Breu the Youngers painting, the Madonna and Child fix the spectator with a gaze that invites the pious to contemplation and prayer The Madonna and Child is one of the central icons of Christianity. ... The Black Madonna of Częstochowa, Poland A Black Madonna or Black Virgin is a statue or painting of Mary in which she is depicted with dark or black skin. ...


There are rare occurrences of a "child" (used to mean "boy"), both the head and entire. A famous example is the child swallowed by a reptile in the arms of Visconti dukes of Milan. Visconti was a noble family that ruled Milan during the Middle Ages and Early Renaissance period. ... Milan (Italian: ; Lombard: Milán (listen)) is the main city of northern Italy, located in the plains of Lombardy. ...


Races and nationalities of humans

Particularly in Europe, the "default" human is almost always depicted as one of European ancestry, though contrary examples can very occasionally be seen.[4]) "Humans" so blazoned are rare, though there are some examples.[5]


Generally speaking, there is only one type of woman: young, beautiful and blonde, with disheveled hair (though there are occasional instances of her hair being braided), and appearing more often as a bust than head. Diverse women. ... One of the worlds most famous blondes Marilyn Monroe, who was in fact a natural brunette Blond (feminine, blonde) is a hair colour found in certain mammals characterised by low levels of the dark pigment eumelanin and higher levels of the pale pigment phæomelanin, in common with red... A braid Step by step creation of a basic braid using three strings To braid is to interweave or twine three or more separate strands of one or more materials in a diagonally overlapping pattern. ...


The American Indian occasionally appears in heraldry though far more often as a supporter than a charge. Native Americans are the indigenous peoples from the regions of North America now encompassed by the continental United States, including parts of Alaska. ...


The Moor or "blackamoor" is inaccurately shown as being (sub-Saharan) African, although James Parker states that an "African" appears in the arms of Routell,[6] Moorish Ambassador to Queen Elizabeth I of England The Moors were the medieval Muslim inhabitants of al-Andalus (the Iberian Peninsula including present day Gibraltar, Spain and Portugal) as well as the Maghreb and western Africa, whose culture is often called Moorish. ... // Negro means black in Spanish and Portuguese (Latin: niger = black). It is an ethnic term applied to people of African origin; some people consider it either archaic or a slur (see also nigger) except for its inclusion in the names of some organizations founded when the term had currency, e. ...


Turks appear frequently in Balkan armory, as defeated enemies. ...


Parts of human bodies

Parts of human bodies occur more often than the whole, particularly heads (often of exotic nationality), hearts (always stylized), hands, and armored limbs.


A famous heraldic hand is the Red Hand of Ulster, alluding to an incident in the legendary Milesian invasion. For other uses, see Hand (disambiguation). ... Red Hand redirects here. ... Statistics Area: 24,481 km² Population (2006 estimate) 1,993,918 Ulster (Irish: Cúige Uladh, IPA: ) forms one of the four traditional provinces of Ireland. ... In Irish mythology the Milesians or Sons of Míl Espáine were the final inhabitants of Ireland, representing the Goidelic Celts. ...


Ribs occur in Iberian armory, canting for Costa.[7] The human rib cage. ...


The Lombard family of Coglione bore "per fess argent and gules, three pairs of testicles counterchanged".[8] This charge has sometimes been described and rendered as a heart inverted. Lombardy (Italian: Lombardia, Lombard: Lumbardìa) is one of the 20 Regions of Italy. ... Bartolomeo Colleoni (1400-1475), Italian condottiere (soldier of fortune), was born at Bergamo. ... The testicles, or testes (singular testis), are the male generative glands in animals. ...


Animals

Mammals

The beast most often portrayed in heraldry is the lion. When posed passant guardant (walking and facing the viewer), he is called a léopard in French blazon. Binomial name Panthera leo (Linnaeus, 1758) Distribution of Lions in Africa Synonyms Felis leo (Linnaeus, 1758) The lion (Panthera leo) is a mammal of the family Felidae and one of four big cats in the genus Panthera. ...


Other beasts frequently seen include wolf, bear, boar, horse, bull or ox, stag. Wolf Wolf Man Mount Wolf Wolf Prizes Wolf Spider Wolf 424 Wolf 359 Wolf Point Wolf-herring Frank Wolf Friedrich Wolf Friedrich August Wolf Hugo Wolf Johannes Wolf Julius Wolf Max Franz Joseph Cornelius Wolf Maximilian Wolf Rudolf Wolf Thomas Wolf As Name Wolf Breidenbach Wolf Hirshorn Other The call... Genera Ailuropoda Helarctos Melursus Ursus Tremarctos Arctodus (extinct) A bear is a small mammal in the family Ursidae of the order Carnivora. ... // Binomial name Sus scrofa Linnaeus, 1758 The Wild Boar (Sus scrofa) is the wild ancestor of the domestic pig. ... Binomial name Equus caballus Linnaeus, 1758 The horse (Equus caballus, sometimes seen as a subspecies of the Wild Horse, Equus ferus caballus) is a large odd-toed ungulate mammal, one of ten modern species of the genus Equus. ... Look up bull in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Binomial name Bos taurus Linnaeus, 1758 Cattle are domesticated ungulates, a member of the subfamily Bovinae of the family Bovidae. ... Genera About 15 in 4 subfamilies. ...


The tiger (unless blazoned as a Bengal tiger) is a fanciful beast with a wolflike body, a mane and a pointed snout. Binomial name Panthera tigris altaica (Linnaeus, 1758) Distribution of tigers in 1900 (red) and 1990 (green) Synonyms Felis tigris Linnaeus, 1758 Tigris striatus Severtzov, 1858 Tigris regalis pink, 1867 Tigers (Panthera tigris) are mammals of the Felidae family and one of four big cats in the Panthera genus. ...


Dogs (of various breeds) occur more often as crests or supporters than as charges. Trinomial name Canis lupus familiaris The dog Canis lupus is a type of canine, a mammal in the order Carnivora. ...


The unicorn resembles a horse with a single horn, but its hooves are usually cloven like those of deer. The unicorn (from Latin unus one and cornus horn) is a mythical beast. ... Fawn redirects here. ...


The griffin combines the head (but with ears), chest, wings and forelegs of the eagle with the hindquarters and legs of a lion. The male griffin lacks wings and his body is scattered with spikes. Composite of Pomeranian heraldic charges of griffins. ...


Birds

  • martlet, a stylized swallow without beak or feet
  • eagle, shown with two heads in the arms of the Holy Roman Empire and sometimes with three heads in the arms of imperial Russia
    • alerion, an eagle without beak or feet, appears in the arms of the duchy of Lorraine for which its name is an anagram
  • rooster
  • dove

A martlet is a type of heraldic bird similar to the swallow, but having no feet. ... Genera Several, see below. ... The extent of the Holy Roman Empire in c. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Lorraine (province). ... A rooster or cock is a male chicken, the female being a hen. ... Subfamilies see article text Feral Rock Pigeon beside Weiming Lake, Peking University Pigeons (which are also known as rock doves) and doves comprise the family Columbidae within the order Columbiformes, including some 300 species of near passerine birds. ...

Sea beasts

Fish of various species often appear in canting arms, e.g.: pike for Pike; luce (perch) for Lucy; dolphin (a conventional kind of fish rather than the natural mammal) for the Dauphin de Viennois. A giant grouper at the Georgia Aquarium Fish are aquatic vertebrates that are typically cold-blooded; covered with scales, and equipped with two sets of paired fins and several unpaired fins. ... Queen Mothers funerary hatchment, showing the canting bows and lions of Bowes-Lyon Canting arms is a technique used in European heraldry whereby the name of the individual or community represented in a coat of arms is translated into a visual pun. ... Species  E. americanus –       grass and redfin pickerels  E. lucius – northern pike  E. masquinongy – muskellunge  E. niger – chain pickerel   – Amur pike Esox Linnaeus, 1758, is a genus of freshwater fish, the only member of the pike family (family Esocidae) of order Esociformes. ... Species P. flavescens (Yellow perch) P. fluviatilis (European perch) P. schrenkii (Balkhash perch) For other meanings of the word perch, including fish not in the Perca genus, see Perch (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Coryphaena hippurus Linnaeus, 1758 The Mahi-mahi (Coryphaena hippurus), also known as dolphin fish or dorado, are a species of surface-dwelling fish found in tropical and subtropical waters. ... The title of Dauphin de Viennois was a hereditary title of the descendants of Guigues IV, Comte dAlbon, who was nicknamed le Dauphin from the dolphin on his coat of arms. ...


The escallop (scallop shell) became popular as a token of pilgrimage to the shrine of Santiago de Compostela. Genera See text. ... Location map of Santiago de Compostela in Galicia Santiago de Compostela (also Saint James of Compostela) is the capital of the autonomous community of Galicia. ...


The sea-lion and sea-horse, like the mermaid, combine the foreparts of a mammal with the tail of a fish, and a dorsal fin in place of the mane. (When the natural seahorse is meant, it is blazoned as a hippocampus.) A mermaid (from the Middle English mere in the obsolete sense sea + maid(en)) is a legendary aquatic creature with the head and torso of human female and the tail of a fish. ... Species See text for species. ...


The sea-dog and sea-wolf are quadrupeds but with scales, webbed feet, and often a flat tail resembling that of the beaver. Species C. canadensis C. fiber Beavers are semi-aquatic rodents native to North America and Europe. ...


Reptiles and invertebrates

  • salamander is shown as a generic lizard surrounded by flames.
  • The dragon is a large reptile with a forked tongue, an eagle's eyes, a bat's wings, and four legs. The wyvern is a dragon with only two legs.

Serpent is a word of Latin origin (serpens, serpentis) which is ultimately derived from the Sanskrit term serp, that is normally substituted for snake in a specifically mythic or religious context, in order to distinguish such creatures from the field of biology. ... Suborders Cryptobranchoidea Salamandroidea Sirenoidea Salamander is the common name applied to approximately 500 amphibians with slender bodies, short legs, and long tails. ... Chinese dragon, color engraving on wood, Chinese school, 19th Century The dragon is a mythical creature typically depicted as a large and powerful serpent or other reptile with magical or spiritual qualities. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Families Andrenidae Apidae Colletidae Halictidae Megachilidae Melittidae Stenotritidae Bee collecting pollen Bees are flying insects, closely related to wasps and ants. ... The term Beehive can refer to several different things: Beehive (beekeeping) is a human-provided structure in which bees are induced to live and raise their young. ... For other uses, see Napoleon (disambiguation). ...

Parts

Animals' heads are also very frequent charges, as are the paw or leg (gamb) of the lion, the wing (often paired) of the eagle, and the antler (attire) of the stag.


Heads of horned beasts (bull, stag) are typically shown caboshed: face-on, so as to display the horns, and with no neck visible. Other heads are usually shown in profile.


Sometimes only the forward half of a beast is shown; for example, the demi-lion is among the most common forms of crest. In heraldry, a crest is a component of a coat of arms. ...


Attitude of animals

The position, or attitude, of the creature's body is also described.


By default, the charge faces the left, as seen by the viewer; this would be forward on a shield worn on the left arm (leaving the right hand to hold a weapon).

  • The head of an animal guardant faces the viewer,
  • The head of an animal reguardant faces the right, as seen by the viewer.

Certain features of an animal are often of a contrasting tincture. The charge is then said to be armed (claws and horns), langued (tongue), pizzled (penis), attired (antlers), unguled (hooves), crined (horse's mane) of a specified tincture.


Quadrupeds
  • at bay (of prey): standing on four feet
  • at gaze (of prey): standing on four feet, gardant
  • couchant (of predators): lying on the ground, head raised
  • courant: running: body horizontal, all four feet raised
  • dormant: sleeping: lying on the ground, head lowered
  • gardant: head turned to face the viewer
  • lodged (of prey): lying on the ground, head raised
  • passant (of predators): walking: standing on three feet, one forefoot raised
  • rampant: standing on left hind foot, other feet raised to fight; this is the most frequent position for lions and the like, typically omitted in early blazon
  • regaardant: head turned back over its shoulder
  • salient (of predators): leaping, both hind feet planted
  • segreant: like rampant, but applied to winged quadrupeds such as griffins
  • sejant erect: sitting on hindquarters, forefeet raised
  • sejant: sitting on hindquarters, forefeet planted
  • springing (of prey): leaping, both hind feet planted
  • statant (of predators): standing on four feet
  • trippant (of prey): walking: standing on three feet, one forefoot raised
  • The bear, apparently uniquely, can walk on its hind legs.

Fish

A straight horizontal fish is naiant (swimming); an arched horizontal fish is embowed. If the fish is vertical, and its head is upward, it is hauriant; if its head is downward, the fish is urinant.


Serpents

Frequent positions for serpents are glissant (gliding) and nowed (knotted). Some knots: 1. ...


An ouroboros is a snake looped with its tail in its mouth.


The rattlesnake, uniquely, may be coiled to strike.


Birds

The terminology for birds is based on the position of the wings.

  • If a bird faces the viewer, with the head turned to one side, and the wings spread apart on either side, the bird is displayed.
  • If the bird is not shown facing the viewer, and the wings are shown spread apart, the bird is volant (flying);
  • If the wings are shown folded, the bird is trussed, close or perched.
  • (The attitude "volant" is also sometimes applied to aircraft.)
  • If the bird's head faces upward, the bird is rising or rousant (about to take flight).
  • Swans and ducks are very occasionally found naiant (= swimming).[9]
  • There are several examples of crowing cocks.

A rooster or cock is a male chicken, the female being a hen. ...

Plants

Plants are extremely common in heraldry and figure among the earliest charges. (The colonial-era arms of Tlemcen, Algeria are unusual in that they contain generic "plants".) The turnip, for instance, makes an early appearance, as does wheat. Divisions Green algae Chlorophyta Charophyta Land plants (embryophytes) Non-vascular plants (bryophytes) Marchantiophyta - liverworts Anthocerotophyta - hornworts Bryophyta - mosses Vascular plants (tracheophytes) †Rhyniophyta - rhyniophytes †Zosterophyllophyta - zosterophylls Lycopodiophyta - clubmosses †Trimerophytophyta - trimerophytes Pteridophyta - ferns and horsetails Seed plants (spermatophytes) †Pteridospermatophyta - seed ferns Pinophyta - conifers Cycadophyta - cycads Ginkgophyta - ginkgo Gnetophyta - gnetae Magnoliophyta - flowering plants... Trinomial name Brassica rapa rapa L. For other uses, see Turnip (disambiguation). ... Species T. aestivum T. boeoticum T. compactum T. dicoccoides T. dicoccon T. durum T. monococcum T. spelta T. sphaerococcum References:   ITIS 42236 2002-09-22 For the indie rock group see: Wheat (band). ...


When the fruit of a tree, branch, or the like is mentioned, as it generally will only be if it is of a different tincture, it is said to be fructed of the tincture. The arms of the French family of Fenoyer provide a perhaps unique example in which the number of "pieces" of the "fructed" is stated. For other uses, see Tree (disambiguation). ...


Grain crops

  • Wheat constantly occurs in the form of "garbs" or sheaves (and in fields in the arms of the province of Alberta and elsewhere), though less often as ears), though most often they are shown in stylised form.
    • bearded wheat ears are distinguished in the arms of the 469th Support Battalion of the United States Army
  • Ears of rye are depicted exactly as wheat, except the ears droop down.
  • "Ginny wheat" (like wheat but with a fatter ear) also exists.
  • There are very few examples of barley, maize and oats.

Motto: Fortis et liber (Latin: Strong and free) Official languages English (see below) Flower   Wild rose Tree Lodgepole Pine Bird Great Horned Owl Capital Edmonton Largest city Calgary Lieutenant-Governor Norman Kwong Premier Ed Stelmach (PC) Parliamentary representation  - House seats  - Senate seats 28 6 Area Total  - Land  - Water  (% of total... Species T. aestivum T. boeoticum T. compactum T. dicoccoides T. dicoccon T. durum T. monococcum T. spelta T. sphaerococcum References:   ITIS 42236 2002-09-22 For the indie rock group see: Wheat (band). ... Binomial name Secale cereale M.Bieb. ... Binomial name Hordeum vulgare L. Barley (Hordeum vulgare) is a major food and animal feed crop, a member of the grass family Poaceae. ... Corn redirects here. ... Binomial name Avena sativa Carolus Linnaeus (1753) The Oat (Avena sativa) is a species of cereal grain, and the seeds of this plant. ...

Flowers

The most famous heraldic flower is the fleur-de-lis, which is often stated to be a stylised lily, though despite the name there is considerable debate on this. The "natural" lily, somewhat stylised, also occurs, as (together with the fleur-de-lys) in the arms of Eton College. Fleurs-de-lys on the flag of Quebec The fleur-de-lis (also spelled fleur-de-lys; plural fleurs-de-lis or -lys) is used in heraldry, where it is particularly associated with the France monarchy (see King of France). ... lily is the best name in the whole wide world. ... The Kings College of Our Lady of Eton beside Windsor, commonly known as Eton College or just Eton, is a public school (privately funded and independent) for male students, founded in 1440 by Henry VI. It is located in Eton, Berkshire, near Windsor in England, situated north of Windsor...


The rose is perhaps even more widely seen than the fleur-de-lis. Its heraldic form is derived from the "wild" type with only five petals. It is often barbed (the hull of the bud, its points showing between the petals) and seeded in contrasting tinctures. Species Between 100 and 150, see list A rose is a flowering shrub of the genus Rosa, and the flower of this shrub. ...


The thistle frequently appears as a symbol of Scotland. Milk thistle flowerhead Thistledown a method of seed dispersal by wind. ... Motto: (Latin) No one provokes me with impunity1 Anthem: Multiple unofficial anthems Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow Official language(s) English, Gaelic, Scots2 Government  - Queen Queen Elizabeth II  - UK Prime Minister Tony Blair MP  - First Minister Jack McConnell MSP Unification    - by Kenneth I 843  Area    - Total 78,772 km...


The trefoil, quatrefoil and cinquefoil are abstract forms resembling flowers.

  • The trefoil is supposed to be always, and is default, slipped, i.e. with a stem, though there is at least one exception[10]
  • The cinquefoil is sometimes blazoned fraise (strawberry flower), especially when canting for Fraser.

The trillium flower occurs occasionally in a Canadian context, and the protea flower constantly appears in South Africa. Queen Mothers funerary hatchment, showing the canting bows and lions of Bowes-Lyon Canting arms is a technique used in European heraldry whereby the name of the individual or community represented in a coat of arms is translated into a visual pun. ... Species See text. ... species see text Protea is both the botanical name and the English common name of a genus of flowering plants. ...


Fruits

Apples and bunches of grapes occur very frequently, other fruits less so. This article is about the tree and its fruit. ... Species Vitis acerifolia Vitis aestivalis Vitis amurensis Vitis arizonica Vitis x bourquina Vitis californica Vitis x champinii Vitis cinerea Vitis x doaniana Vitis girdiana Vitis labrusca Vitis x labruscana Vitis lincecumii Vitis monticola Vitis mustangensis Vitis x novae-angliae Vitis palmata Vitis riparia Vitis rotundifolia Vitis rupestris Vitis shuttleworthii Vitis...


Trees

When the species of a tree is specified, it is drawn in a stylized form so that its fruit (if it is blazoned as "fructed," which it may well need to be to distinguish types of trees from each other) and the shape of its leaves are conspicuous.


The most frequent tree by far is the oak, followed by the pine. Species See List of Quercus species The term oak can be used as part of the common name of any of several hundred species of trees and shrubs in the genus Quercus, and some related genera, notably Cyclobalanopsis and Lithocarpus. ... Subgenera Subgenus Strobus Subgenus Ducampopinus Subgenus Pinus See Pinus classification for complete taxonomy to species level. ...


A small group of trees is blazoned as a "hurst", which is distinguished from a forest. Temperate rainforest on Northern Slopes of the Alborz mountain ranges, Iran A dense growth of softwoods (a conifer forest) in the Sierra Nevada Range of Northern California A decidous broadleaf (Beech) forest in Slovenia. ...


If a tree is "eradicated" it is shown as if it has been ripped up from the ground, the roots being exposed. "Erased" is rarely used for a similar treatment.[11]


In Portuguese heraldry but rarely in the heraldry of other countries trees are sometimes found decorticated.


Other plants

  • The maple usually occurs only in the form of leaves (and occasionally seeds)[12]
  • Nuts are sometimes blazoned simply as "nuts" (depicted like the walnut) though the most frequently occurring nut is the acorn, often cracked by a squirrel, and constantly in conjunction with the oak.
  • Grass is sometimes specified to occur on the "mounts vert" (green hillocks) on which charges on the shield, or crest, sit or are placed.
  • The broom plant, symbol of the Plantagenets, occurs occasionally.
  • The fern is usually found as part of the "fern-brake" or group of ferns. Almost invariably ferns are "generic" and mature but the arms of John Leighton Williamson give an example of fiddleheads (Matteuccia struthiopteris).
  • hemp (French chanvre): in the canting arms of Chennevières lès Louvres, in the department of Val d'Oise.

Distribution Species See List of Acer species Maples are trees or shrubs in the genus Acer. ... Hazelnuts from the Common Hazel Chestnut Walnuts A nut can be both a seed and a fruit. ... Species See text The walnuts (genus Juglans) are plants in the walnut family Juglandaceae. ... This article includes a list of works cited but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Caution: Grass should never be eaten For other uses, see Grass (disambiguation). ... Genera Argyrocytisus:1 species Cytisus: about 30-35 species Genista: about 90 species Petteria: 1 species Podocytisus: 1 species Retama: 4 species Spartium: 1 species Ref: ILDIS Version 6. ... Angevin is the name applied to two distinct medieval dynasties which originated as counts (from 1360, dukes) of the western French province of Anjou (of which angevin is the adjectival form), but later came to rule far greater areas including England, Hungary and Poland (see Angevin Empire). ... Classes Psilotopsida Equisetopsida Marattiopsida Polypodiopsida A fern is any one of a group of about 20,000 species of plants classified in the phylum or division Pteridophyta, also known as Filicophyta. ... Fiddlehead is a name referring either to a young fern or to the top part of immature fronds that appear curled. ... Binomial name Matteuccia struthiopteris (L.) Todaro The Ostrich fern (Matteuccia struthiopteris) is a crown-forming, colony-forming fern, occurring in northern regions worldwide, and in northern/central North America. ... U.S. Marihuana production permit, from the film Hemp for Victory. ... Queen Mothers funerary hatchment, showing the canting bows and lions of Bowes-Lyon Canting arms is a technique used in European heraldry whereby the name of the individual or community represented in a coat of arms is translated into a visual pun. ... Val-dOise is a French département named after the Oise River, located in the Île-de-France région. ...

Inanimate charges

Astronomical

The sun is a disc with twelve or more wavy rays, or alternating wavy and straight rays. The Sun is the star at the center of the Solar System. ...


The moon is occasionally depicted "in her plenitude" (full), distinguished from a roundel argent by having a face; but crescents occur much more frequently. Apparent magnitude: up to -12. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Estoiles are stars with wavy rays; pole stars are occasionally differentiated. For other uses of the words Pole star and Polestar see Polestar (disambiguation). ...


Weather

  • Clouds often occur, though more frequently for people or animals to stand on or issue from than as isolated charges.
  • In terms of clouds' precipitation, the raindrop as such is unknown,
  • and the snowflake (blazoned as "snow crystal"[13]) is only known in more recent times,
  • though the snowball predates this by some centuries.

Cumulonimbus capillatus incus floating over Swifts Creek, Victoria in Australia A cloud is a visible mass of condensed droplets or frozen crystals suspended in the atmosphere above the surface of the Earth or another planetary body. ... Snowflakes by Wilson Bentley, 1902 A snowflake is an aggregate of ice crystals that forms while falling in and below a cloud. ... A sampling of snowballs. ...

Geology and geography

The oldest charge of this class is the mount, typically a green hilltop rising from the lower edge of the field, providing a place for a beast or a building to stand. This feature is exceedingly common in Hungarian arms.


A charge distinctive to Italian arms is a mount stylized as a 'pyramid' of three or six domed cylinders.


Natural mountains and boulders are not unknown, though ranges of mountains are diffently shown. An example is the arms of Edinburgh, portraying Edinburgh Castle atop Castle Rock. Volcanos are shown, almost without exception, as erupting, and the eruption is generally quite stylised. Edinburgh (pronounced ; Scottish Gaelic: ) is the capital of Scotland and its second-largest city. ... The castle from below (2003) Edinburgh Castle is an ancient fortress which from its position on Castle Rock, dominates views of the city of Edinburgh, and is Scotlands most famous landmark. ... Towns Several towns in the United States are named Castle Rock: Castle Rock, Colorado Castle Rock, Washington Castle Rock, Wisconsin Castle Rock Township, Minnesota There is also Castle Rock, Maine, a fictional town used by Stephen King as the setting for a number of his works. ... For other uses, see Volcano (disambiguation). ...


In the 18th century, landscapes began to appear in armory, often depicting the sites of battles. For example, Admiral Lord Nelson received a chief of augmentation containing a landscape alluding to the Battle of the Nile. Lord Nelson Horatio Nelson, 1st Viscount Nelson (September 29, 1758 – October 21, 1805) was a British admiral who won fame as a leading naval commander. ... Combatants Britain France Commanders The Baron Nelson François-Paul Brueys DAigalliers† Strength 14 ships of the line (13 x 74-gun, 1 x 50-gun), 1 sloop 13 ships of the line (1 x 120-gun, 3 x 80-gun, 9 x 74gun), 4 frigates, some smaller Casualties...


Tools

Tools include: This article is about a tool used as a piece of equipment. ...

The wheel is almost invariably a carriage wheel. Axe For other uses, see Axe (disambiguation). ... Ice axe 1 â€“ pick 2 â€“ head 3 â€“ adze 4 â€“ leash 5 â€“ leash stop 6 â€“ shaft with rubber grip 7 â€“ spike An ice axe is a multi-purpose mountaineering tool carried by practically every mountaineer. ... Pickaxe on the ground Pickhandle redirects here. ... Swedish halberds from the 16th century This article is about the weapon. ... A claw hammer For other uses, see Hammer (disambiguation). ... Look up maul in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Shovel with wide blade - especially appropriate for lifting snow or coal A shovel is a tool for lifting and moving loose material such as coal, gravel, snow, soil, or sand. ... Using a sickle A Adam is a curved, hand-held agricultural tool typically used for harvesting grain crops before the advent of modern harvesting machinery. ... A ladder A ladder is a vertical set of steps. ... A weighing scale (usually just scale in common usage) is a device for measuring the weight of an object. ... Different types of scissors - sewing, kitchen, paper Scissors are a tool used for cutting thin material which requires little force. ... It has been suggested that Wheel and Axle be merged into this article or section. ...


Ships, boats and water transport

Ships of various types often appear; the most frequent being the ancient lymphad. Also frequent are anchors and oars. Italian Full rigged ship Amerigo Vespucci in New York Harbor, 1976 A ship is a large watercraft capable of deep water navigation. ... A Birlinn comprised a class of small galleys with 12 to 18 oars, used especially in the Hebrides and West Highlands of Scotland in the Middle Ages. ... A stocked ships anchor. ... An oar is an implement used for water-borne propulsion. ...


Clothing

Buckles occur not infrequently, including the stylized boucle d'Oise. Archeological bronze buckles from southern Sweden A buckle (from Latin buccula) is a clasp used for fastening two things together, such as the ends of a belt, or for retaining the end of a strap. ...


The ecclesiastical hat and bishop's mitre are not uncommon. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... A mitre. ...


Crowns and coronets of various kinds are constantly seen. A crown is a symbolic form of headgear worn by a monarch or by a god, for whom the crown is traditionally one of the symbols of power and legitimacy (See Regalia for a broader treatment). ... Coin showing a coronet A coronet is a small crown consisting of ornaments fixed on a metal ring. ...


The maunch is a lady's sleeve, highly stylized, resembling a fancifully-written letter M; in French blazon it is called manche mal taillée, a sleeve badly cut.


Buildings

By far the most frequent building in heraldry is the tower, a tapering cylinder of masonry topped with battlements, usually having a door and a few windows. A castle is two towers joined by a wall; but the canting arms of the Kingdom of Castile are Gules, a tower triple-turreted Or, i.e. three small towers standing atop a larger one. A battlement, in defensive architecture such as that of city walls or castles, comprises a parapet (i. ... A former kingdom of Spain, Castile comprises the two regions of Old Castile in north-western Spain, and New Castile in the centre of the country. ...

  • The ordinary chess-rook would be indistinguishable from a tower; the heraldic chess rook, instead of battlements, has two outward-splayed "horns".
  • The doorway of a castle is often secured by a portcullis. This charge was used as a canting badge by the Tudors (two-doors), and has since come to represent the British Parliament.

Civic and ecclesiastical armory often shows a church or a whole town. Staunton chess pieces, left to right: pawn, rook, knight, bishop, queen, and king. ... A portcullis in Edinburgh Castle A portcullis is a grille or gate made of wood, metal or a combination of the two. ... The Tudor dynasty or House of Tudor (Welsh Twdwr) is a series of five monarchs of Welsh origin who ruled England from 1485 until 1603. ... St. ...


Sometimes a specific building is depicted; e.g. the shield of the city of Edinburgh has a representation of Edinburgh Castle atop Castle Rock. Edinburgh (pronounced ; Scottish Gaelic: ) is the capital of Scotland and its second-largest city. ... The castle from below (2003) Edinburgh Castle is an ancient fortress which from its position on Castle Rock, dominates views of the city of Edinburgh, and is Scotlands most famous landmark. ... Towns Several towns in the United States are named Castle Rock: Castle Rock, Colorado Castle Rock, Washington Castle Rock, Wisconsin Castle Rock Township, Minnesota There is also Castle Rock, Maine, a fictional town used by Stephen King as the setting for a number of his works. ...


Bridges, variously and usually more fully described, often occur. A log bridge in the French Alps near Vallorcine. ...


Industrial

  • Charges related to industry include the cogwheel.
  • Keys (taking a form similar to a "skeleton key") frequently appear, particularly in allusion to Saint Peter.

Spur gears found on a piece of farm equipment. ... --80. ... --80. ... Saint Peter, also known as Simon ben Jonah/BarJonah, Simon Peter, Cephas and Kepha — original name Simon or Simeon (Acts 15:14) — was one of the Twelve Apostles whom Jesus chose as his original disciples. ...

Music

Musical instruments commonly seen are the harp (as in the coat of arms of Ireland), bell and trumpet. The drum, almost without exception, is a field drum type. The harp is a stringed instrument which has the plane of its strings positioned perpendicular to the soundboard. ... Republic of Ireland Coat of Arms The coat of arms of Ireland is blazoned as azure a harp or, stringed argent - a gold harp with silver strings on a blue background. ... A bell is a simple sound-making device. ... The trumpet is the highest brass instrument in register, above the horn, trombone, euphonium and tuba. ... Classic-Spanish Marching Drum A drum is a musical instrument in the percussion family, technically classified as a membranophone. ...


Weapons and militaria

The sword is sometimes a symbol of authority, as in the royal arms of the Netherlands, but more often alludes to Saint Paul, as the patron of a town (e.g. London) or dedicatee of a church. Swiss longsword, 15th or 16th century Look up Sword in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Paul of Tarsus (b. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ...


Other weapons occur more often in modern than in earlier heraldry.

  • The trophy is a collection of armor and weapons.
  • Bows include the longbow and crossbow; arrows include the birdbolt.
  • The cannon (and its balls).
  • The dirk makes frequent appearances in Scottish heraldry.
  • The grenade has an appearance similar to a cannonball with flames coming out of a flattened end.
  • The mace appears as a weapon in addition to its appearance as a symbol of authority.

Flags of various kinds occasionally appear as charges. Some loving-cup trophies seen in the London Irish clubhouse at Sunbury in 2002. ... The bayonet is used as both knife and spear. ... Lemonwood, purpleheart and hickory longbow, 45 lbf draw force. ... A crossbow is a weapon consisting of a bow mounted on a stock that shoots projectiles. ... Team Orange Arrows Formula One car at the 2000 United States Grand Prix The Arrows Racing Team team was founded in 1977, by Italian financier Franco Ambrosio (A), Alan Rees (R), Jackie Oliver (O), Dave Wass (W) and Tony Southgate (S) when Rees, Oliver, Wass and Southgate left the Shadow... A small cannon on a carriage, Bucharest. ... Cannonball can refer to: The ammunition for a cannon. ... Dirk is a Scots word for a long dagger; sometimes a cut-down sword blade mounted on a dagger hilt, rather than a knife blade. ... Grenade may refer to: The well-known hand grenade commonly used by soldiers. ... Assorted maces For its symbolical derivative, see ceremonial mace. ... The Dannebrog, national flag of Denmark. ...


Writing

Books constantly occur, most frequently in the arms of colleges and universities, though the Gospel and Bible are sometimes distinguished. Books if open may be inscribed with words. Words and phrases are otherwise rare, except in Spanish and Portuguese armory. Letters of the various alphabets are also relatively rare. A chained book in the Bodleian Library at Oxford University A Chinese bamboo book, in a collection at the University of California, Riverside. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles accessible from a disambiguation page. ... Representation of a university class, 1350s. ... For other uses, see Gospel (disambiguation). ... This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library of Congress. ...


Arms of merchants in Poland and eastern Germany are often based on "house-marks", abstract symbols resembling runes, though they are almost never blazoned as runes, but as a combination of other heraldic charges. A rune can mean a single character in the Runic alphabet as well as an inscription of several runic charcters or symbols. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Charge - Cunnan (103 words)
A charge is anything that appears on the field of a device.
Charges should be distinguished from line divisions and the field.
To charge is to advance against the enemy, typically at a run.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m