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Encyclopedia > Chaotropic agent

A Chaotropic agent is an agent which causes molecular structure to be disrupted; in particular, those formed by nonbonding forces such as hydrogen bonding, Van der Waals interactions, and the hydrophobic effect. Often structural features, as detected by means such as circular dichroism can be titrated in a chaotrope concentration-dependent fashion. In chemistry, a hydrogen bond is a type of attractive intermolecular force that exists between two partial electric charges of opposite polarity. ... The hydrophobic effect is the property that nonpolar molecules like to self-associate in the presence of aqueous solution. ... Circular dichroism (CD), is the differential absorption of left- and right-handed circularly polarized light. ...


The most commonly used chaotropes are 6~8M urea and 6M guanidinium chloride, with urea being an uncharged molecule and guanidinium chloride being a hydrochloride salt. Urea is an organic compound of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and hydrogen, with the formula CON2H4 or (NH2)2CO. Urea is also known as carbamide, especially in the recommended International Non-proprietary Names (rINN) in use in Europe. ... Guanidine is a crystalline compound of strong alkalinity formed by the oxidation of guanine. ...


High generic salts can have chaotropic properties, by shielding charges and preventing the stabilization of salt bridges. Hydrogen bonding is stronger in nonpolar media, so salts, which increase the dipole moment of the solvent, can also destabilize hydrogen bonding. This article is about the electromagnetic phenomenon. ... A solvent is a fluid phase (liquid, gas, or plasma) that dissolves a solid, liquid, or gaseous solute, resulting in a solution. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Methods for the recovery of nucleic acids from reaction mixtures - Patent 5422241 (10903 words)
A second reagent contains a chaotropic agent (a guanidinium salt) for inactivating said nucleases and an alcohol (ethanol or isopropanol) for the simultaneous inactivation of the nucleases and the precipitation of the nucleic acids without the need for protease digestion or organic extraction.
Chaotropic agents are used in some embodiments of the invention.
However, this is not a requirement in that the carrier agent may be suitably aliquoted into a separate container such that it may be employed by the end-user.
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